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The following two passages are both tough biology texts.

Use them for additional practice with


difficult Natural Science passages in the Reading section.

PASSAGE 1

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NATURAL SCIENCE:

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e genetic history of a species is most commonly


traced through its DNA and physical characteristics.
e more similar two species are, the more closely
related they are. One reason this research is useful is
that it provides information about approximately when a
physical trait developed. For example, venomous snakes,
lizards, and iguanas all share the same nine toxins, so the
evolution of venom must have occurred before the three
groups separated into distinct families. It was only after
the venom was part of their genetic makeup that modern
species began emerging.
e order Squamata, in particular, has been the
subject of much scienti c debate. Squamates are scaled
reptiles including all snakes and lizards. It once was
believed that iguanas were the oldest group of squamate.
DNA evidence, however, has demonstrated that geckos are
likely more ancient. Similarly, scientists once believed that
many limbless creatures were closely related. However,
continued examination of DNA evidence has revealed
that these creatures evolved independently of each other.
ere are several reasons for the confusion involving
Squamata evolution. One is that fossils of these animals
have been found in poor condition and limited quantities.
Another is that the process by which squamates change
into new species is di erent than it is for other animals.
Squamates are unlikely to evolve into new species except in
particularly harsh conditions. erefore, one geographic
area could have a huge number of bird species, but only a
few species of snakes and lizards. Tracing an evolutionary
lineage with this pattern is very challenging.
e uniqueness of the order Squamata forces
scientists to nd new ways to measure relationships
between di erent species within the order. DNA
analysis has proved exceptionally useful, but observing
physical and behavioral characteristics are can provide
insight as well. It is only with the collaboration of DNA
and behavioral studies that comprehensive analysis of
Squamata evolution is e ectively performed.
One challenge of categorizing and evaluating
behavior is the high degree of individuality. Some behaviors
are learned, while others are inherited. However, when
a certain behavior is exhibited by almost all members of
a species or subspecies, it is reasonable to conclude that
the behavior is inherited. Just as similar DNA sequences
or similar physical characteristics indicate closely related

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species, similar sets of behavioral patterns indicate


biological relationships, as well.
For example, the family Viperidae, generally known
as Vipers, is composed of several di erent types of
venomous snakes. At one point, all vipers had nearly the
same genetic and behavioral characteristics.
As they evolved, however, di erences emerged, and
subfamilies were created, including both Crotalinae (pit
vipers) and Viperinae (pitless vipers). In terms of genetic
di erences, pit vipers have a heat-sensing pit organ located
between their eyes and nose. Pitless vipers lack that organ.
Both subfamilies continued to evolve, until there are now
151 species of pit vipers and 66 species of pitless vipers
known. Behavioral di erences are apparent, too. In a
recent study of 14 species of vipers, including 10 pit vipers
and 4 pitless vipers, all vipers engaged in combat similarly.
In every instance, the viper would lift his head and body o
the ground in a threatening stance. He would also attempt
to force his opponent to the ground by pushing with his
entire body weight. Because this behavior is ubiquitous to
all vipers, it is likely that the behavior evolved before the
Viperidae family separated into subfamilies.
Other behavior likely emerged only after Viperidae
had split into di erent geneses and species. Nearly all
Crotalinae used a chin rub as part of their mating rituals.
Chin rubs were much rarer in the subfamily Viperinae.
It is probable that family Viperidae did not utilize the
chin rub before it divided into subfamilies. After the
division, Crotalinae developed the chin rub technique.
As Crotalinae developed into each of its 151 species, the
chin rub behavior was passed down. us, the chin rub
appears only in rarely outside the Crotalinae subfamily.
Some behaviors likely appeared much more recently.
e black-headed bushmaster and the central American
bushmaster are both species of pit vipers. Both exhibit
cloacal gaping prior to mating. Yet few other pit viper
species show this behavior. It is likely, therefore, that this
behavior was not learned until after the family had already
signi cantly divided and several species were already in
existence.
Combining the fossil records, DNA analysis,
and these newly observed relationships yields some
interesting conclusions about the evolution of snakes.
Continued research should focus on precise and continual
observations of behavior in a snakes lifestyle.
e ongoing challenge lies in observing behavior
that is truly natural. Snakes in captivity often behave

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di erently than snakes in the wild. A researcher also may


not be aware when a courtship or combat communication
has begun. is results in recording only the middle and
end of an interaction. e rst few steps can be completely
lost. Observers can also fail to note behaviors that seem
obvious. Without a complete and comprehensive system
of observation, the data will be incomplete. However,
the current research illustrates the potential for a deeper
understanding of the evolutionary history of snakes
through continued observation.
1.

e passage states that:


A. the evolution of snakes depends on their living
conditions.
B. observations of snake behavior are never completely accurate.
C. the majority of snake species exhibit similar
combat behaviors.
D. DNA evidence has created confusion in determining the evolution of snakes.

4.

e passage indicates that a mistaken belief scientists have held is:


F. behavioral characteristics cannot be passed
down genetically.
G. the order Squamata has several unique
characteristics.

e passage suggests that each of the following was


used to determine the relationship between species
EXCEPT:
A.
B.
C.
D.

6.

DNA.
observational studies.
species diversity.
fossil records.

e author is most likely to believe the next logical


study on the evolution of Squamates should focus
on:
F. complete observation of squamates in their
natural habitat.
G. DNA comparisons of di erent species of
Squamates.
H. male-male combat maneuvers.
J. mating rituals.

e author would be most likely to agree with which


of the following?
F. Two snake species that exhibited the similar
behavior have evolved from one another.
G. Behavioral traits should be included in determining species relationships.
H. All pit vipers exhibit cloacal gaping.
J. Snakes and lizards are more distantly related
than once thought.

3.

5.

e main purpose of this passage is to:


A. explain the di erences between species in the
order Squamata.
B. describe di erent behaviors that squamates
exhibited.
C. examine competing theories about squamate
evolution.
D. describe a way to relate behavior to evolutionary theory.

2.

H. iguanas are the oldest remaining species of the


order Squamata.
J. observational studies are of no use to scientists.

7.

to:

e purpose of the second paragraph (lines 1119) is

A. explain the importance of terrain to snakes and


lizards.
B. discuss a unique feature of snakes and lizards.
C. emphasize the importance of observational
studies.
D. establish the need for further studies of Squamata species.
8. According to the rst paragraph:
F. DNA is the most common way to trace the
genetic history of a species.
G. similar physical traits indicate a close relationship between species.
H. venom is used only in snakes, lizards, and
iguanas.
J. snakes, lizards, and iguanas share a common
ancestor.

9. What does the passage state is a di culty of behavioral observation?


A. Squamates are often di cult to nd in their
natural habitats.
B. Observational records of snakes in captivity can
be incomplete.
ere are too many subtle di erences in behavC.
ior to be recorded.
D. It is unclear what behaviors are relevant to a
study.

10.

e word ubiquitous (line 64) as used in the passage


most nearly means:
F.
G.
H.
J.

violent.
unknown.
rare.
common.

Passage 1
Write in whether you got each problem right or wrong (or left it blank). If your answer was correct, put a 1 in every
blank to the right of that problem. Sum up each column and compare your total to the total possible Out Of points in
each column.

Right/
Wrong/Blank

Main Ideas/
Authors
Approach

Problem

Correct
Answer

10

Details

Relationships

Meanings
Generalizations
of Words

Total
Out Of

10

Passage 1 Solution
1.

D.

e main purpose of this passage is to describe a way to relate behavior to evolutionary theory.

Main Idea
e passage focuses on associating squamate behavior with its evolutionary history. DNA and fossil evidence have been
used in to trace relationships among animals, but the author believes these should be supplemented by behavioral studies
as well. e author points out its relevance throughout the passage. Tracing an evolutionary lineage is very challenging
(lines 2829). Observing physical and behavioral characteristics can provide insight (lines 3334). Similar sets of behavioral
patterns indicate biological relationships (lines 4546). Combining the fossil records, DNA analysis, and these newly observed
relationships yields some interesting conclusions about the evolution of snakes (lines 8486). Answer choice (D) is correct.
Answer choices (A) and (B) can be eliminated as too narrow. Di erent behaviors and di erences between species are discussed, but are not the focus of the passage. Answer choice (C) isnt discussed in the passage. Competing theories about
squamate evolution are never described.
e author would be most likely to agree with which of the following? Behavioral traits should be included in
2. G.
determining species relationships.
Generalizations
e author talks about di erent behaviors and how they re ect relationships between species throughout the passage. He
says that similar sets of behavioral patterns indicate biological relationships (lines 4546). Answer choice (G) is correct.
3.

A.

e passage states that the evolution of snakes depends on their living conditions.

Details
e author talks about the speci c evolution of snakes in paragraph three. He says Squamates are unlikely to evolve into
new species except in particularly harsh conditions (lines 2426). Because snakes are one type of squamate, the conditions
in which they live a ect their evolution. Answer choice (A) is correct.
Answer choice (B) is too extreme. Observations of snakes may be di cult, but the author doesnt claim they are never
completely accurate. Answer choices (C) an (D) are contradicted by the passage.
e passage indicates that a mistaken belief scientists have held is iguanas are the oldest remaining species of the
4. H.
order Squamata.
Details
DNA evidence has led to scientists reconsidering several things according to the passage. e author tells us that it was
once believed that iguanas were the oldest group of squate. DNA evidence, however, has demonstrated geckos are likely more
ancient (lines 1316). Iguanas are certainly not the oldest remaining species of Squamates. Answer choice (H) is correct.

PASSAGE 2

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NATURAL SCIENCE: adapted from The Role of Iron in Prion


Disease and Other Neurodegenerative Diseases by N. Singh.

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A growing number of conditions are associated with


accumulation of iron in the brain. Some well-known
a ictions, such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease,
represent challenges to researchers. e underlying cause
of each is complex and only partially known. One focus
of current research is obtaining a better understanding of
the role iron plays in these disease pathways. In patients
a icted with either disease, iron levels within the brain are
consistently abnormal. e result of this research is likely
to help in the development of targeted treatment strategies.
Iron is essential for vital metabolic processes. However,
unshielded iron is toxic. Iron metabolism is therefore tightly
regulated by proteins to maintain cellular homeostasis.
When cellular homeostasis is achieved, iron levels are
stable. Each cell processes the amount of iron needed, no
more, no less. Lack of stability is known as dyshomeostasis.
Dyshomeostasis can have dangerous and even lethal e ects.
Distinguishing dyshomeostasis is a cause or an e ect of
brain disorders is the source of much debate.
e resulting situation involves a complex of known
and unknown factors. Toxic levels of iron are present in
several brain disorders. For many diseases, the process
of iron dyshomeostasis is clear. A particular protein or
protein pathway is disrupted and iron levels rise or fall.
It is known when this occurs, and can often be treated if
necessary. Yet many proteins, particular within the brain,
have poorly de ned function. Some proteins participate
in iron regulation to some extent, but do not work
independently. If these are the proteins involved in a brain
dysfunction, the exact cause of the disease can be hard to
determine. Even learning which proteins are involved is a
challenge. ese complex proteins are involved in several
diseases, including Alzheimers and Parkinsons. Fixing
the dyshomeostasis is more di cult, and even after it is
xed, it is unclear what e ect there will be on the patient.
Traditional studies of these disorders suggest that iron
accumulation does not cause neural toxicity but instead
occurs after cell death. is would imply that treatment
of iron levels should not be a priority.
Emerging data, however, requires a reconsideration
of this concept. ree major observations lend themselves
to the idea that iron dyshomeostasis is a critical
component of disease progression. First, the onset of these
diseases is accompanied by an increase in iron-regulating

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proteins. Because this change occurs so early in the


disease progression, iron levels are clearly impacted
throughout the disorder. Second, these proteins interact
in a way that attracts and retains iron. is increases the
total amount of iron, while decreasing the usable iron
available; neurotoxicity results. Lastly, neurons that are
not directly a ected respond with a coping mechanism
worsening the iron dyshomeostasis.
Regional accumulation of iron in the brain has
been reported in both Alzheimers and Parkinsons
disease su erers. ough each disorders increase iron,
the method of accumulation is di erent. In Alzheimers,
iron accumulates in amyloid plaques. e plaques have a
high a nity for iron, and as more iron accumulates, the
a nity increases. us, increasingly dangerous amounts
of iron are collected and retained in the plaques. Because
more iron levels creates more attraction to iron, which
increases iron even further, this cycle is di cult to disrupt.
Simultaneously, iron-regulatory proteins are malformed.
ey have limited ability to regulate the amount of iron in
the brain. e development of brain iron dyshomeostasis
in Alzheimers is therefore multifaceted and a full
understanding of the underlying mechanism is lacking.
Parkinsons disease results from multiple factors
and its cause is unknown. However, it is always associated
with loss of dopamine-producing neurons. Studies have
invariably shown that there are also signi cantly elevated
levels of iron in the brain. What causes the elevation
and where the iron accumulates is unclear. It has been
attributed to secondary causes, not linked directly to
the cause of the disease. Nonetheless, treatment of
iron accumulation results in a reduction of Parkinsons
symptoms. is suggests that accumulation of iron in
Parkinsons is an active process, not a mere symptom of
the disease, and requires further exploration.
The causes of brain iron dyshomeostasis in
Parkinsons and Alzheimers disease are speci c to
each disorder. Secondary events after onset show both
similarities and di erences in each disease. In both cases,
imbalance of iron levels could be a contributing factor
to the disease and the symptoms. Ideally, therapeutic
strategies would inhibit or block both processes. As brain
iron homeostasis is restored, reduced iron-induced toxicity
should result. is is a challenging task because these
diseases are initiated by multiple events, including aging,
and are fuelled by several pathways. Iron dyshomeostasis
is one pathway in this continuum of events that holds
therapeutic promise and requires focused investigation.

5. C.
e passage suggests that each of the following was used to determine the relationship between species
EXCEPT species diversity.
Relationships (CauseE ect)
You should nd evidence for each of the three wrong answers. e author discusses several ways to determine relationships between species. e passage starts by discussing DNA and physical characteristics (line 2). Eliminate (A). Even
though there are di culties in using fossil records for squamates, line 21 clearly indicates that it has been used in the
past. Eliminate (D). e focus of the passage is on behavioral observations, so the author clearly believes observational
studies are useful. Eliminate (B). Species diversity is not discussed in the passage, except by saying that species can be
di erent. Answer choice (C) is correct.
e author is most likely to believe the next logical study on the evolution of Squamates should focus on
6. F.
complete observation of squamates in their natural habitat.
Authors Voice and Method
e author believes observational studies should be integrated into the study of the evolution of Squamates. He emphasizes this in the nal paragraph, saying current research illustrates the potential for a deeper understanding of the evolutionary history of snakes through continued observation (lines 9799). In order to get accurate results, truly natural behavior
must be observed. Answer choice (F) is correct.
7.

e purpose of the second paragraph (lines 1119) is to establish the need for further studies of Squamata species.

D.

Main Idea
e second paragraph discusses the past research involving Squamate evolution and some mistaken conceptions that scientists held. Because of the mistakes and their corrections, the author is indicating that work on the evolutionary history
of squamates should continue. Answer choice (D) is correct.
8.

J.

According to the rst paragraph snakes, lizards, and iguanas share a common ancestor.

Generalization
e author uses snakes, lizards, and iguanas in his example about evolution. All use the same toxins in their venom, so
he concludes that the evolution of venom must have occurred before the three groups separated into distinct families (lines 79).
If there was a time before the three were distinct families, it is reasonable to conclude they once had a common ancestor.
Answer choice (J) is correct.
9. B. What does the passage state is a di culty of behavioral observation? Observational records of snakes in captivity
can be incomplete.
Details
e nal paragraph talks about the di culties associated with behavioral observations. After listing several examples,
the author states that without a complete and comprehensive system of observation, the data will be incomplete (lines 9597).
Answer choice (B) is correct.

10.

J.

e word ubiquitous (line 64) as used in the passage most nearly means common.

Meaning of Words
e sentence tells you that this behavior is ubiquitous to all vipers, so you must determine what this behavior is. Reviewing
the previous few sentences, you can see that this behavior is referring to combat methods. e paragraph tells you that all
vipers engage in combat similarly (line 60). Ubiquitous is referring to a behavior that is similar. e closest match to that is
common. Answer choice (J) is correct.

1.

e main purpose of this passage is to:


A. challenge the idea that iron levels are irrelevant
to diseases.
B. argue that further study on the role of iron in
several diseases is needed.
C. suggest that curing iron dyshomeostasis would
cure either Parkinsons or Alzheimers or both.
D. explain why iron is one of the most important
metals in use in the brain.

2.

e passage states that traditional studies of iron


dyshomeostasis in Parkinsons or Alzheimers disease
suggest:
F. iron dyshomeostasis a ects the symptoms of
the disease.
G. iron dyshomeostasis occurs after cell death.
H. treatment of iron dyshomeostasis results in an
abatement of symptoms.
J. iron accumulates in amyloid plaques in the
brain.

3. One di erence between Parkinsons and Alzheimers


disease, according to the passage, is:
A. there is an increase in iron regulating proteins
in one, but not the other.
B. one disease has a single cause, the other has
multiple causes.
C. iron dyshomeostasis a ects the progression of
one, but not the other.
D. the area of iron accumulation in is known in
one, but not the other.
4.

5. Each of the following is described as a possible source


of iron dyshomeostasis EXCEPT:
A.
B.
C.
D.

6. As used in line 16, the word stability most nearly


means:
F.
G.
H.
J.

consistency.
permanence.
strength.
immovability.

7. It can be inferred from the passage that prior to this


passage, studies had already been conducted on each
of the following EXCEPT:
A. methods of treating iron dyshomeostasis in
Alzheimers patients.
B. iron levels in the brains of Parkinsons patients.
C. when iron accumulation in Alzheimers occurs.
D. the result of treating iron accumulation in
Parkinsons patients.
8. According to the passage:
F. iron dyshomeostasis is one of the most important factors in the development of Parkinsons
disease.
G. once the causes of iron dyshomeostasis are
known, treatment of Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease will be relatively straightforward.
H. Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases are the
only diseases that involve iron dyshomeostasis.
J. the mechanism of iron dyshomeostasis in
Alzheimers is unclear.

e main point of the fourth paragraph (lines


3848) most clearly is to:
F. explain that the onset of Alzheimers and
Parkinsons disease both display an increase in
iron-regulating proteins.
G. discuss reasons why iron levels are impacted
throughout both Alzheimers and Parkinsons
disease.
H. suggest that treatment of iron levels in Alzheimers
and Parkinsons disease should be a priority.
J. describe the complex sources of iron dyshomeostasis for both Alzheimers and Parkinsons
disease.

accumulation of iron in amyloid plaques.


malformation of iron-regulatory proteins
loss of dopamine-producing neurons.
disruption of a protein pathway.

9.

e sixth paragraph (lines 6576) suggests that:


A. the accumulation of iron in Parkinsons disease
should be further studied.
B. the e ect of losing dopamine-producing neurons
is unclear.
C. the causes of brain iron dyshomeostasis
in Parkinsons and Alzheimers disease are
di erent.
D. treatment of iron dyshomeostasis in Parkinsons
patients has unknown results.

1.

e main purpose of this passage is to:


A. challenge the idea that iron levels are irrelevant
to diseases.
B. argue that further study on the role of iron in
several diseases is needed.
C. suggest that curing iron dyshomeostasis would
cure either Parkinsons or Alzheimers or both.
D. explain why iron is one of the most important
metals in use in the brain.

2.

e passage states that traditional studies of iron


dyshomeostasis in Parkinsons or Alzheimers disease
suggest:
F. iron dyshomeostasis a ects the symptoms of
the disease.
G. iron dyshomeostasis occurs after cell death.
H. treatment of iron dyshomeostasis results in an
abatement of symptoms.
J. iron accumulates in amyloid plaques in the
brain.

3. One di erence between Parkinsons and Alzheimers


disease, according to the passage, is:
A. there is an increase in iron regulating proteins
in one, but not the other.
B. one disease has a single cause, the other has
multiple causes.
C. iron dyshomeostasis a ects the progression of
one, but not the other.
D. the area of iron accumulation in is known in
one, but not the other.
4.

5. Each of the following is described as a possible source


of iron dyshomeostasis EXCEPT:
A.
B.
C.
D.

6. As used in line 16, the word stability most nearly


means:
F.
G.
H.
J.

consistency.
permanence.
strength.
immovability.

7. It can be inferred from the passage that prior to this


passage, studies had already been conducted on each
of the following EXCEPT:
A. methods of treating iron dyshomeostasis in
Alzheimers patients.
B. iron levels in the brains of Parkinsons patients.
C. when iron accumulation in Alzheimers occurs.
D. the result of treating iron accumulation in
Parkinsons patients.
8. According to the passage:
F. iron dyshomeostasis is one of the most important factors in the development of Parkinsons
disease.
G. once the causes of iron dyshomeostasis are
known, treatment of Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease will be relatively straightforward.
H. Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases are the
only diseases that involve iron dyshomeostasis.
J. the mechanism of iron dyshomeostasis in
Alzheimers is unclear.

e main point of the fourth paragraph (lines


3848) most clearly is to:
F. explain that the onset of Alzheimers and
Parkinsons disease both display an increase in
iron-regulating proteins.
G. discuss reasons why iron levels are impacted
throughout both Alzheimers and Parkinsons
disease.
H. suggest that treatment of iron levels in Alzheimers
and Parkinsons disease should be a priority.
J. describe the complex sources of iron dyshomeostasis for both Alzheimers and Parkinsons
disease.

accumulation of iron in amyloid plaques.


malformation of iron-regulatory proteins
loss of dopamine-producing neurons.
disruption of a protein pathway.

9.

e sixth paragraph (lines 6576) suggests that:


A. the accumulation of iron in Parkinsons disease
should be further studied.
B. the e ect of losing dopamine-producing neurons
is unclear.
C. the causes of brain iron dyshomeostasis
in Parkinsons and Alzheimers disease are
di erent.
D. treatment of iron dyshomeostasis in Parkinsons
patients has unknown results.

10.

e author would be most likely to agree with the


idea that:
F. iron dyshomeostasis is an area of research that
has real-world implications.
G. there have been failures on the part of researchers studying Parkinsons and Alzheimers
diseases.
H. stabilizing iron levels in Parkinsons and
Alzheimers diseases should be the sole priority
of further research into those diseases.
J. once the causes of iron dyshomeostasis are
known, treatment of Parkinsons and Alzheimers
disease will likely be straightforward.

Passage 2
Write in whether you got each problem right or wrong (or left it blank). If your answer was correct, put a 1 in every
blank to the right of that problem. Sum up each column and compare your total to the total possible Out Of points in
each column.

Right/
Wrong/Blank

Main Ideas/
Authors
Approach

Problem

Correct
Answer

10

Relationships

Meanings
Generalizations
of Words

Total
Out Of

Details

2
10

Passage 2 Solution
1.

B.

e main purpose of this passage is to argue that further study on the role of iron in several diseases is needed.

Main Idea
Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases are not fully understood, despite the fact that iron plays a signi cant role in each.
roughout the passage, the author discusses the impact iron might have and the fact that more study is needed. Answer
choice (B) is correct.
Answer choice (A) can be eliminated because the author never suggests that researchers think iron levels are irrelevant.
e author never goes so far as to say that xing the iron dyshomeostasis would cure the diseases, so eliminate (C).
e author certainly thinks iron is important, but never compares it to other metals. e point of the passage is not to
compare, but just to explain. Eliminate (D).
e passage states that traditional studies of iron dyshomeostasis in Parkinsons or Alzheimers disease suggest
2. G.
iron dyshomeostasis occurs after cell death.
Details
Lines 3437 tell you that traditional studies of these disorders suggest that iron accumulationoccurs after cell death. Answer
choice (G) is correct.
3. D. One di erence between Parkinsons and Alzheimers disease, according to the passage, is the area of iron accumulation in is known in one, but not the other.
Relationships (Comparisons)
Paragraphs ve and six are the only areas of the passage that discuss Parkinsons and Alzheimers di erences. Alzheimers
is framed in paragraph ve, while Parkinsons is six. Eliminate (A) because both disorders increase iron(line 52). Similarly,
both have multiple causes, though this is not explained until the nal paragraph; these diseases are initiated by multiple
events (lines 8586). Eliminate answer choice (B). Both are diseases are in this passage because iron dyshomeostasis is
relevant. Eliminate (C). Where the iron accumulates, however, is unknown in Parkinsons. What causes the elevation and
where the iron accumulates is unclear (lines 6970). However, in Alzheimers, it is know that iron accumulates in amyloid
plaques (lines 5355). Answer choice (D) is correct.
4. H.
e main point of the fourth paragraph (lines 3848) most clearly is to suggest that treatment of iron levels in
Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease should be a priority.
Authors Voice and Method
e fourth paragraph is primarily a list of pieces of evidence that indicate iron dyshomeostasis is a critical component of
disease progression (lines 4041). All that evidence supports a reconsideration of the idea discussed in the previous paragraph; that treatment of iron levels should NOT be a priority (lines 3637). One way to phrase the point of the fourth
paragraph is to say that treatment should be a priority. Answer choice (H) is correct.

5. C. Each of the following is described as a possible source of iron dyshomeostasis EXCEPT loss of dopamine-producing
neurons.
Details
e three wrong answers are discussed as sources of iron dyshomeostasis. In Alzheimers disease, iron accumulates in amyloid plaques (lines 5354) and iron-regulatory proteins are malformed (lines 5960), so eliminate (A) and (B). In general,
dyshomeostasis can occur when a particular protein or protein pathway is disrupted (lines 2223), so eliminate (D). Loss
of dopamine-producing neurons is associated with Parkinsons disease, but the passage never says this loss contributes to
iron dyshomeostasis. Answer choice (C) is correct.
6.

F.

As used in line 16, the word stability most nearly means consistency.

Meaning of Words
e paragraph de nes both homeostasis and dyshomeostasis. You learn that when cellular homeostasis is achieved, iron levels
are stable (lines 1415). Lack of stability (line 16) is the oppositeit is associated with dyshomeostasis. You can infer, in
this context, stability means the iron levels are constant. Answer choice (F) is correct.
7. A. It can be inferred from the passage that prior to this passage, studies had already been conducted on each of
the following EXCEPT methods of treating iron dyshomeostasis in Alzheimers patients.
Generalization
Each of the three wrong answers can be reasonably inferred from the passage. Youll have to nd each one. Answer choice
(B) comes from lines 6769; studies have invariably shown that there are also signi cantly elevated levels of iron in the brain
[in Parkinsons patients]. You also know that for both diseases, iron levels are clearly impacted throughout the disorder
(lines 4445). Eliminate (C). Finally, treatment of iron dyshomeostasis is discussed, but only for Parkinsons disease.
Treatment of iron accumulation results in a reduction of Parkinsons symptoms (lines 7273). Answer choice (A) is correct.
8.

J.

According to the passage the mechanism of iron dyshomeostasis in Alzheimers is unclear.

Details
ough much is known about the iron levels in Alzheimers disease, lines 6364 explain that a full understanding of the
underlying mechanism is lacking. Answer choice (J) is correct.
9. A.
studied.

e sixth paragraph (lines 6576) suggests that the accumulation of iron in Parkinsons disease should be further

Generalization
Because iron dyshomeostasis treatment has been shown to reduce Parkinsons symptoms, the author suggests that accumulation of iron in Parkinsons is an active process and requires further exploration (lines 7476). Answer choice (A) is
correct.

10. F.
e author would be most likely to agree with the idea that iron dyshomeostasis is an area of research that has
real-world implications.
Generalizations
e author believes that iron dyshomeostasis plays a vital role in several diseases. At the end of the passage, he summarizes this belief by saying iron dyshomeostasis is one pathway in the continuum of events that holds therapeutic promise and
requires focused investigation (lines 8789). Answer choice (F) is correct.