Sunteți pe pagina 1din 42

Cells

Think about this:


What are cells?
What do cells do?
Where do you find cells?
Why do we need cells?

A whole new world (3.1 Pgs 34-37)


The discovery & history of cells
Cells: The smallest structural and functional unit of an
organism, that contains a nucleus and cytoplasm
1665 - Robert Hooke first
used the term 'cells' from the
Latin term cella which means
'small room. He was looking
at a piece of cork at the time.
1670 - Single celled micro-organisms were first observed
1800's
- The 'nucleus' is observed in plant cells
- Schwann proposed that cells are the basic units of all living things

A whole new world (3.1 Pgs 34-37)


Microscope history
Microscopes: An optical instrument
used for viewing very small objects
1590 - Invention of the first microscope
magnification 3x - 9x
1609 Galileo made improvements to the microscope
1665 Robert Hooke made
improvements to the microscope

A whole new world (3.1 Pgs 34-37)


Microscope history
1900's
Huge advancements in microscopes, allowing us to see smaller and
smaller things...............

A whole new world (3.1 Pgs 34-37)

A whole new world (3.1 Pgs 34-37)

Quick Questions
How were cells first discovered?
What were microscopes first used for?

A whole new world (3.1 Pgs 34-37)


Activities
Handouts
Activity 2- History of the light microscope
Textbook Pg 36-37
Remember Q 1- 4
Think and Calculate Q 5 & 6

Focusing on a small world (3.2 Pgs 38-43)

Focusing on a small world (3.2 Pgs 38-43)


Microscopes: An optical instrument used for viewing
very small objects

There are 2 main types of microscopes:


Light microscopes and
Electron microscopes
Light microscopes

Electron microscopes

Microscopes: Use light rays

Focusing on a small world (3.2 Pgs 38-43)

Focusing on a small world (3.2 Pgs 38-43)

Focusing on a small world (3.2 Pgs 38-43)


Electron Microscopes
Transmission electron
microscopes: show the internal
structure of cells
(Image: bacterium from the gut of a termite)

Scanning electron
microscopes:
show the surface features
of the specimen
(Image: mosquito head close up x 1000)

Focusing on a small world (3.2 Pgs 38-43)


Light Microscopes

The specimen/
sample must be
thin enough to
allow the light to
shine through

Focusing on a small world (3.2 Pgs 38-43)


Light Microscopes
Monocular
microscopes:
1 Eye

Binocular
microscopes:
2 Eyes

Stereo microscopes:
Allow you to see the detail
of much larger specimens

Focusing on a small world (3.2 Pgs 38-43)

Focusing on a small world (3.2 Pgs 38-43)


Magnification

Why might we want to


magnify different samples
different amounts?

Focusing on a small world (3.2 Pgs 38-43)


Magnification

The 2 lenses that determine the


magnification are:

Eye piece lens

Objective lens

Focusing on a small world (3.2 Pgs 38-43)

Focusing on a small world (3.2 Pgs 38-43)

Focusing on a small world (3.2 Pgs 38-43)


Quick Questions
How can you make small things look bigger?
How do you use a microscope?
What is the difference between a light
microscope and an electron microscope?
How does magnification work?

Focusing on a small world (3.2 Pgs 38-43)


Activities
Handouts
Activity 1- Labelling parts of the
microscope
Textbook Pg 42-43
Remember Q 1-5
Think & Discuss Q 6-12
Investigate, think & Discuss Q15

Focusing on a small world (3.2 Pgs 38-43)

Practical activities
Practical 2: Getting into focus with an 'e'

Form & Function: Cell make- up

(3.3 Pgs 44-47)

The cell theory

Ted Talk
The wacky history of cell theory
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4OpBylwH9DU
Duration: 6:11

Form & Function: Cell make- up


The cell theory

What were the 3 main


aspects of the cell
theory?

(3.3 Pgs 44-47)

Form & Function: Cell make- up

(3.3 Pgs 44-47)

1. All organisms are


composed of one or
more cells
2. The cell is the basic
unit of structure and
organisation in organisms
3. All cells come from
preexisting cells

Form & Function: Cell make- up

(3.3 Pgs 44-47)

Types of cells

Youtube:
Unicellular and multicellular
https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=9iqeAdJ01UQ
Duration: 2:15

Form & Function: Cell make- up


Unicellular
Unicellular organisms
are made up of 1 cell.

(3.3 Pgs 44-47)

Including:
Protozoa

Bacteria
Unicellular Fungi
Unicellular Algae

Amoeba

Unicellular Yeasts

Form & Function: Cell make- up


Multicellular
Multicellular
organisms are made
up of more then one
cell.

(3.3 Pgs 44-47)

Form & Function: Cell make- up


Types of cells
Eukaryotic
Have a Nucleus
Prokaryotic
DO NOT have
a Nucleus

(3.3 Pgs 44-47)

Form & Function: Cell make- up


Types of cells

(3.3 Pgs 44-47)

Form & Function: Cell make- up


Types of cells

(3.3 Pgs 44-47)

Form & Function: Cell make- up

(3.3 Pgs 44-47)

Form & Function: Cell make- up

(3.3 Pgs 44-47)

Form & Function: Cell make- up


The 5 kingdoms
The 5 kingdoms is
the current system
for classifying
organisms, with
new technologies
arising and
discoveries being
made it is likely a
new system of
classification will be
made in the future

(3.3 Pgs 44-47)

Form & Function: Cell make- up


Plant v Animal cells

(3.3 Pgs 44-47)

Form & Function: Cell make- up


Plant v Animal cells

(3.3 Pgs 44-47)

Form & Function: Cell make- up

(3.3 Pgs 44-47)

Present in both Plant and Animal cells:

Nucleus
Contains
DNA and
controls
the cell

Cytosol
A jelly like substance
inside cells that
contains many
important substances

Cell Membrane
Wrapped around the
cytosol, the membrane
gives the cell shape and
allows some substances
to pass through.

Form & Function: Cell make- up

(3.3 Pgs 44-47)

Present in Plant cells only:

Chloroplasts
Used in
photosynthesis to
convert sunlight
into food for the
plants

Vacuole
Stores water and
dissolved
substances in the
plant cell

Cell Wall
The cell wall is
made of cellulose,
it holds the cell in
place and gives it
strength

Form & Function: Cell make- up


Binary Fission

(3.3 Pgs 44-47)

Form & Function: Cell make- up

(3.3 Pgs 44-47)

Quick Questions
What is cell theory?
What does the terms uni- cellular and multicellular mean?
What are the differences between plant and
animal cells?
What are the 5 kingdoms?

Form & Function: Cell make- up

Activities
Textbook Pg 47
Remember Q 1-7
Think & Reason Q 8-12

(3.3 Pgs 44-47)