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Chapter 10: Multi stage amplifier configurations

Formostsystemsasingletransistoramplifierdoesnotprovidesufficientgainorbandwidthorwillnothavethe

correctinputoroutputimpedancematching.Thesolutionistocombinemultiplestagesofamplification.Wehave

thethreebasiconetransistoramplifierconfigurationstouseasbuildingblockstocreatemorecomplexamplifier

systemswhichcanprovidebetteroptimizedspecificationsandperformance.Thesectionsinthischaptertendto

useBJTdevicestoillustratethecircuitconceptsbutthesemulti­stageamplifierscanbeconstructedfromMOS

FETdevices,oracombination,justaseasilyandthemethodsusedtoanalyzethemaremuchthesameaswell.

Figure10.1Twostagecascadeamplifier

Figure10.1Twostagecascadeamplifier

Itisnecessarytoconsiderwhathappenswhennon­idealamplifiersareputinseries.Lookingattheexamplein

figure10.1,itisclearthattheinputandoutputresistances(orimpedances)comeintoplaybyreducingtheoverall

gain.Iftheamplifierswereideal(R =0andR =8),andamplifierstages#1and#2hadgainsofA andA,the

overallgainwouldsimplybeA*A.Fortheaboveexample,letusnowcalculatethegainassumingnothingabout

theR andR ofeachstage,treatingthemasvoltagedividersbetweenthetwostagesandbetweenthelast

stageandtheoutputload.Notethatinpractice,impedances,Z ,Z ,wouldnormallybeused,notresistances,

butthesimpleresistancewillservetoillustratethepointhere.

out

2

in

1

2

1

in

out

in

out

Firstamplificationstagewithlossbetweenstage#1and#2:

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Chapter10:Multistageamplifierconfigurations[AnalogDevicesWiki]

SecondamplificationstagewithlossduetoR andR: out2 L

SecondamplificationstagewithlossduetoR andR:

out2

L

SecondamplificationstagewithlossduetoR andR: out2 L Overallgainequation:

Overallgainequation:

andR: out2 L Overallgainequation: Aswewouldexpect,theoverallequationreducestotheidealcaseofA

Aswewouldexpect,theoverallequationreducestotheidealcaseofA =A*A fortwoidealstageswhenwelet

V

1

2

theR goto0andtheR gotoinfinity.Asamatteroffact,wereallyonlyneedR togoto0tohavetheresistor

out

in

out

dividerstogoto1.Theaboveequationsassumethattheindividualamplifiergains,Adonotchangewithoutput

loading.Thateffect,ifany,ismodeledintheR .

out

FormostintegratedcircuitamplifierswhereR isintheMΩtoGΩrange,andR isinthe50to100Ωrange,the

in

out

gainsareprettyclosetobeingthesimpleproductofthegainstages.Toconfirmthisassertion,assumealow

performanceopampwithR =100ΩandR =1MΩ,whatisthegainwithtwostagesofgainA andA inseries?

(assumeR =1MΩ)

out

in

1

2

L

andA inseries? (assumeR =1MΩ) out in 1 2 L

TheanswerisprettyclosetoA*A.Infact,youwouldhavetogotoacascadeof100stageswiththese

1

2

specificationsbeforeyouevenlost1%oftheexpectedidealgain(i.e.toget0.99A ).Bythetimeyoureached thatpoint,otheradverseeffectswouldhavecausedmuchmoretrouble,forexample,thefactthatnoisefromeach

successivestageisaddedtothenoisecomingintothatstageandisfurtheramplifiedondownthecascadeof

amplifiers.

Therearepracticalreasonswhyyoujustcan'tcontinuecascadingstages“forever…”IfDC­coupled,real­world

offsetscanbeimpossibletotrimout.EvenifAC­coupled,noisefromprecedingstagesgetsamplifiedbyeach

downstreamamplifierstage,makingfornothingbutanoisesourceafterawhile.Wegenerallyreferallnoiseto

theinputofthesignalchain,takingouttheeffectsofthegainstages.

100

10.1 Cascade of two single transistor stages

Theimpactofinputandoutputloadingcanbeminimizedbycascadingtwoamplifierswithappropriateinputand

outputcharacteristics.Multistagecascadingcanbeusedtocreateamplifierswithhighinputresistance,lowoutput

resistanceandlargegains.

10.1.1 Common Emitter / Common Collector cascade

ThecascadeofaCommonEmitteramplifierstagefollowedbyaCommonCollector(emitter­follower)amplifier

stagecanprovideagoodoverallvoltageamplifier,figure10.1.1.TheCommonEmitterinputresistanceis

relativelyhighandCommonCollectoroutputresistanceisrelativelylow.Thevoltagefollowersecondstage,Q,

2

contributesnoincreaseinvoltagegainbutprovidesanearvoltage­source(lowresistance)outputsothatthegain

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Chapter10:Multistageamplifierconfigurations[AnalogDevicesWiki]

isnearlyindependentofloadresistance.ThehighinputresistanceoftheCommonEmitterstage,Q,makesthe

1

inputvoltagenearlyindependentofinput­sourceresistance.MultipleCommonEmitterstagescanbecascaded

withemitterfollowerstagesinsertedbetweenthemtoreducetheattenuationduetointer­stageloading.

Figure10.1.1CommonEmitter,CommonCollector

Figure10.1.1CommonEmitter,CommonCollector

CalculatingtheDCbiasingconditionsandtherequiredresistancevaluesforeachstageinthecascadeis

preformedjustaswehavedoneinthepreviouschapteronsinglestageamplifiers.Theeffectofinter­stage

loadingmustthenbetakeintoaccountaswejustdiscussedintheopeningsectionofthischapter.

10.1.2 DC coupled Common Emitter stages

Anothermulti­stageamplifiertoexploreistosimplycascadetwocommonemitterstages.Figure10.1.2showstwo

n­typecommonemitterstagesincascade.

n­typecommonemitterstagesincascade. Figure10.1.2DCcoupledCommonEmitterstages

Figure10.1.2DCcoupledCommonEmitterstages

Thecomplicationincalculatingthegainofcascadedstagescomesfromthenon­idealcouplingbetweenstages

duetoloading.Twocascadedcommonemitterstagesareshowninfigure10.1.2.Becausetheinputresistanceof

thesecondstage(resistorsR andR)formsavoltagedividerwiththeoutputresistance(R )ofthefirststage,

3

4

C1

thetotalgainisnotsimplytheproductofthegainfortheindividual(separated)stages.

Thetotalvoltagegaincanbecalculatedineitheroftwoways.Firstway:thegainofthefirststageiscalculated

includingtheloadingoftheR,R resistordivider.Thenthesecond­stagegainiscalculatedfromthecollectorof Q whichistheoutputofthefirststage.Becausetheloading(R,R outputdivider)wasaccountedforinthefirst­

3

4

1

3

4

stagegain,thesecond­stagegaininputquantityistheQ basevoltage,v =v .

2

B2

o1

Secondway:thefirst­stagegainisfoundbydisconnectingtheinputofthesecondstage,therebyeliminating

outputloading.ThentheTheveninequivalentoutputofthefirststageisconnectedtotheinputofthesecond

stageanditsgainiscalculated,includingtheinputdividerformedbythefirst­stageoutputresistanceandsecond­

stageinputresistance.Inthiscase,thefirst­stagegainoutputquantityistheTheveninequivalentvoltage,notthe

actualcollectorvoltageoftheamplifierwiththesecondstageconnected.Thesecondwayincludesinter­stage

loadingasaninputdividerinthegainofthesecondstagewhilethefirstwayincludesitasanoutputdividerinthe

gainofthefirststage.

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Chapter10:Multistageamplifierconfigurations[AnalogDevicesWiki]

InDCcoupledmultistagecascadedcommonemitteramplifierstheoutputbiaslevelofeachstageincreasesto maintainthecollectormorepositivethanthebase(constantcurrentoperation).Ifthisvoltage“stacking”issevere,

littleheadroomisleftinthefinalstagesofthecascade.TheR,Rresistordividerinfigure10.1.2notonly

3

4

reducesthesignalamplitudeseenatthebaseofQ,italsoreducestheDCbiaslevelfromthecollectorofQ toa moremanageableDClevelatthebaseofQ.Thishappensatthecostofoverallsignalgaininthecombined amplifier.

2

2

1

10.1.3 AC coupled Common Emitter stages

Itispossibletocreateamultistagecascadewhereeachstageisseparatelybiasedandcoupledtoadjacent stagesviaDCblockingcapacitors.InsertingcouplingcapacitorsbetweenstagesblockstheDCoperatingbias levelofonestagefromaffectingtheDCoperatingpointofthenext.Thissolvesmanyofthelimitationswesawin

section10.1.2.However,theresultingoverallamplifiercannolongerrespondtoDC,orverylowfrequency,inputs.

Figure10.1.3ACcoupledCommonEmitterstages

Figure10.1.3ACcoupledCommonEmitterstages

TheinfinitysymbolnexttocouplingcapacitorsC C andC isusedtoindicatethattheunspecifiedcapacitanceis

1

2

3

largeenoughatthespecifiedsignalfrequencytohaveanegligiblereactanceandcanbetreatedasanACshort­

circuit.Itisalsousefultonoteatthispointthatthemethodofincludingcapacitorsacrosstheemitterdegeneration

resistorsR andR toincreasethegainathigherfrequenciescanbeemployedinthecaseofthesemultistage

E1

E2

amplifiersaswellasthesinglestageamplifiersdiscussedinChapter9.

10.1.4 Complementary Pair Amplifier

NotonlycanNPNtransistorsorn­typeMOSdevicesbecombinedinmultiplestages,socanthecomplementary

PNPandp­typeMOSdevices.Havingbothpolaritiesoftransistorsallowsformoreflexibilityinhowamplifiersages

canbecombinedandcanmakebiasingeasieraswell.

Forexample,acomplementarycascadeamplifierisshowninfigure10.1.4.Thesecondcommonemitterstage

usesaPNPtransistor.Thegaincalculationprocedureisthesameastheall­NPNcascade.Theadvantageofthe complementarycascadeamplifieristhatthep­stagecollectorDCoperatingpointtendstocancelthebiaslevel

“stacking”issueweencounteredinthealln­typecommonemitteramplifiercascadeweexploredinsection10.1.2.

Byusingcomplementarydevices,activelevelshiftingcanbecombinedwithamplification.

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Chapter10:Multistageamplifierconfigurations[AnalogDevicesWiki]

Figure10.1.4complementarycascadeamplifier

Figure10.1.4complementarycascadeamplifier

Atwo­stage'ComplementaryPair'BJTamplifiercircuitdiagramisshowninfigure10.1.4.Therationalebehinda

complementarypaircascadeisaproblemthatcanarisewithacascadeofsimilarn­typestages.Toavoid

saturationthecollectorvoltageofeachstagemustbegreaterthanthebasevoltage,enoughgreatertoallowfor

thecollectorvoltagesignalswing.Howeversincethebasevoltageofthesecondstageistakenfromthecollector

ofthefirststageitisinherentlylargerthatthefirststagebasevoltage,andthesecondstagecollectorvoltageis

stillhigher.Butthisdecreasestheavailableamplitudefortheamplifiedsignal.Addingathirdstagewouldeven

furtheraggravatethissituation.

IfaPNPsecondstageisusedabasevoltageclosetothepositivepowersupplyaccommodatesadesirablehigher

firststageNPNcollectorvoltage.MoreoverathirdNPNstagecanbecascadedatthePNPstageoutputwithout

theseverevoltageoffsetproblemofacascadeofsimilarstages.

EstimatingtheDCbiasvoltagesandcurrentsissimplifiedconsiderablyundertheassumptionthatthePNPbase currentissmallcomparedtotheNPNcollectorcurrent.Ofcoursethisisnotnecessarilysobuttherearetwo reasonsgenerallyfavoringsucharelationship.ConsideringthecommonDCpowersupplyandthebias configurationonemightexpectintuitivelythatthetwotransistorswillhaveroughlycomparablecollectorcurrents,

andatypicalPNPßofabout120wouldthensupporttheapproximation.Asortofcircularreasoningbasedonan

enlightenedself­interestsuggeststhatasimplifyingapproximationrelativelyeasytoimplementinfactwillbe

implementedsoasactuallytosimplifythecircuitdesignprocess.Inanyeventtheassumptioncanbemadeand

subsequentlyjustifiedexplicitlybyverifyingtheconsistencyoftheassumptionwithvaluescalculatedusingit.And

ofcourseadjustmentscanbemadeifandwhereneededinaniterativeprocess.

Theapproximationwearerecommendingheremakesthebiascalculationsforeachstageeffectivelyindependent

ofoneanother.Theestimatesomadecanberefinedbyaseconditerationinwhichratherthanneglectingthe

PNPbasecurrentthevalueofthiscurrentestimatedfromthefirstiterationisused.Thisrefinementisrarelyifever

necessary.Theuseofmoderncircuitsimulationsoftwarecanofcoursespeedupthisiterationprocess.

10.2 Design Example

DesignaComplementaryPairamplifierstageusing2N3904and2N3906transistor's(β˜120,V ˜0.7v).Usea

BE

supplyvoltageof10volts,andasourceresistanceof15KΩ.EstimatetheDCbiasvoltagesandcurrents,and

comparethesewiththeresultsofacomputersimulation.Determinethesmallsignalgainforanominal1KHz

signal.

signal.

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Chapter10:Multistageamplifierconfigurations[AnalogDevicesWiki]

Figure10.2.1ComplementaryPairamplifierstage

Figure10.2.1ComplementaryPairamplifierstage

Thepartitioningofthestagesforthebiascalculationsuggeststhecircuitshowninfigure10.2.1performsasa

cascadeoftwocommonemitterstages,eachwithemitterdegeneration.ConsidertheresistorsR andR that

E1

E2

appearintheemitterpathsofthesmallsignalparametercircuit.Becauseofthetransistorcurrentamplification

thisresistancetransformedintothetransistorbaseislargerbyafactorofß+1,andthistypicallyisgenerally

significantlylargerthanr withwhichitisinseries.Hence,roughly,anACvoltagev atthebaseoftheNPNdevice

e

b

(forexample)appearsalmostentirelyacrosstheemitterresistor.Thesmallsignalemittercurrentisessentially

equaltothesmallsignalcollectorcurrent,andtheapproximatevoltagegainforthefirststageis­R /R .(Note

C1

E1

the180°phaseshift)SimilarlyanestimateforthePNPstagevoltagegainis­R /R .Forthetwostagecascade

C2

E2

thegainestimatethenistheproductofthesetwogains.Notehoweverthereisalsoaninputtransferlossof R /(R +15kΩ).WhereR canbeapproximatedbytheparallelcombinationofbiasresistorsR andR

B

B

B

1

2

ThefirststepistoestimatetheDCbiascurrentsandvoltagesforthedesignusingthesimplifiedlargesignalBJT

models.

NextweusethesimplifiedsmallsignalparametertransistormodeltoestimatetheACvoltagegain.Comparethis

estimateagainsttheapproximatecalculationdescribedabove,aswellasthecomputedgain.

Inthisrespectconsiderfurthertheimplicationthateachstagegaindependslargelyontheratioofthecollector

resistancetothe(unbypassed)emitterresistance.

Thissectionmaybeincompleteduetolackofinterest.

10.3 The Cascode

Thecascodeisatwo­stageamplifiercomposedofasingletransconductanceamplifier(usuallyacommon

source/emitterstage)followedbyacurrentfollower(usuallyacommongate/basestage).Comparedtoasingle

amplifierstage,thiscombinationmayhaveoneormoreofthefollowingadvantages:higherinput­outputisolation,

higherinputimpedance,higheroutputimpedance,highergainorhigherbandwidth.Inmoderncircuits,the

cascodeisoftenconstructedfromtwotransistors(BJTsorFETs),withoneoperatingasacommonemitter/source

andtheotherasacommonbase/gate.Thecascodeimprovesinput­outputisolation(orreversetransmission)as

thereislessdirectcouplingfromtheoutputtoinput.ThisgreatlyreducestheMillermultiplicationofstraycoupling

capacitancebetweeninputandoutputandthuscontributestoamuchhigherbandwidth.

Figure10.3.1showsthebasicformofthecascodeamplifierwithacommonemitter/sourceamplifierasinput

stage,Q orM ,drivenbysignalsourceV .Thisinputstagethendrivesacommonbase/gateamplifier,Q orM ,

1

1

in

2

2

astheoutputstage,withanoutputsignalatV .

out

, 1 1 in 2 2 astheoutputstage,withanoutputsignalat V . out

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Chapter10:Multistageamplifierconfigurations[AnalogDevicesWiki]

Figure10.3.1TheCascodeAmplifier

Figure10.3.1TheCascodeAmplifier

Theadvantageofthecascodeconfigurationstemsfromtheplacementofanuppertransistorastheloadofthe

inputtransistor'soutputterminal(collector/drain).Thisuppertransistorisreferredtoasthecascodedevice.

Becauseathighfrequenciesthecascodetransistor'sbase/gateiseffectivelygroundedbyDCvoltagesource

V ,thecascodedevice'semitter/sourcevoltage(andthereforethelowerinputtransistor'scollector/drain)is

Bias

heldatamoreconstantvoltageduringoperation.Inotherwords,thecascodedeviceexhibitsalowinput

resistancetothelowertransistor,makingthevoltagegainseenatthecollector/drainofthelowerdevicevery

small,whichdramaticallyreducestheMillerfeedbackcapacitancefromthelowertransistor'scollectortobaseor

draintogate.Thislossofvoltagegainisrecoveredbythecascodetransistor.Thus,thecascodetransistor

permitsthelowercommonemitter/sourcestagetooperatewithminimumnegative(Miller)feedback,improving

thebandwidthoftheoverallamplifier.

ThebaseorgateofthecascodedeviceiselectricallyACgrounded,sochargeanddischargeofstraycapacitance

C

responseisaffectedonlyforfrequenciesabovetheassociatedRCtimeconstant:InthecaseofaFETdevicet=

C

notsufferfromMillermultiplicationofC .

cb

dg

orC betweencollectorandbaseordrainandgateissimplythroughR theoutputload,andthefrequency

dg

L

R ||R ,namelyf=1/(2pt),aratherhighfrequencybecauseC issmall.Thatis,theupperFETgatedoes

D

out

dg

dg

Ifthecascodedevicestagewereoperatedaloneusingitsemitterorsourceasinputnode(i.e.commonbase/gate

configuration),itwouldhavegoodvoltagegainandwidebandwidth.However,itslowinputimpedancewouldlimit

itsusefulnesstoverylowimpedancevoltagedrivers.Addingthelowercommonemitter/sourcestageresultsinan

increasedinputimpedance,allowingthecascodestagetobedrivenbyahigherimpedancesource.

Ifoneweretoreplacetheupperdevicewithatypicalresistiveload,andtaketheoutputfromtheinputtransistor's

collectorordrainthecommonemitter/sourceconfigurationwouldofferthesameinputimpedanceasthecascode

configuration,butthecascodeconfigurationwouldofferapotentiallygreatergainandmuchgreaterbandwidth.

Asshown,thecascodecircuitusingtwostackedFET'simposessomerestrictionsonthetwoFET's­namely,the

upperFETmustbebiasedsoitssourcevoltageishighenough(thelowerFETdrainvoltagemayswingtoolow,

causingittoleavesaturation).InsuranceofthisconditionforFET'srequirescarefulselectionforthepair,or

specialbiasingoftheupperFETgate,increasingcost.

Thecascodecircuitcanbebuiltusingthesametypetransistors,orevenmixedwithoneFETandoneBJT.Inthe

lattercase,theBJTmustbetheuppertransistor;otherwise,the(lower)BJTwillalwayssaturate(unless

extraordinarystepsaretakentobiasit).

10.3.2 Cascode biasing techniques

10.3.2 Cascode biasing techniques

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Chapter10:Multistageamplifierconfigurations[AnalogDevicesWiki]

Figure10.3.2cascodebiasingtechniques

Figure10.3.2cascodebiasingtechniques

LetussupposethatIneedtobuildanamplifierthatoperatesfroma100voltpowersupply,howeverthe

transistorsthatIhaveavailablehaveacollectortoemitterbreakdownvoltage(BV )ofonly25volts.Acascode

CEO

orasseriesofcascodesmayalsobecombinedwithavoltageladdertoformahighvoltagetransistor.Theinput

transistormaybeanylow­BV type,whiletheothers,actingasstackedlinearseriesvoltageregulators,mustbe

CEO

abletowithstandasizeablefractionofthesupplyvoltage.Theamplifiershowninfigure10.3.3.

Notethat,foralargeoutputvoltageswing,theirbasevoltagesshouldnotbebypassedtogroundbycapacitors,

andtheuppermostladderresistorshouldbeabletowithstandthefullsupplyvoltage.

10.3.4 The Folded Cascode

Ratherthanstackingthetransistorsoneontopoftheother,whichcanreduceorlimittheavailablesignalswing,it

isoftenadvantageousto“fold”thecascodedeviceasshowninfigure10.3.5.

Figure10.3.5Simplefoldedcascodeamplifier 10.3.5 The Folded

Figure10.3.5Simplefoldedcascodeamplifier

10.3.5 The Folded Cascode biasing techniques

10.3.5 The Folded Cascode biasing techniques

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Figure10.3.6 10.3.6 The Shunt Feedback Cascode

Figure10.3.6

10.3.6 The Shunt Feedback Cascode

Additionally,avariationonthecascodeamplifiercombinesitwiththeshunt­feedback.Thebasicshuntfeedback

circuitisshowninfigure10.3.7(a),andwithBJTTmodel(b).

circuitisshowninfigure10.3.7(a),andwithBJTTmodel(b). Figure10.3.7Theshuntfeedbackcommonemitteramplifier

Figure10.3.7Theshuntfeedbackcommonemitteramplifier

Itisatransresistance(currentin,voltageout)amplifier,withatransresistanceof:

ifR approachesbeingacurrentsource(islargerelativetoR ).ForR

ifR approachesbeingacurrentsource(islargerelativetoR ).ForR »r andα≈1,thetransresistanceis approximatelyR.Theshuntfeedbackamplifiercanbeusedforhigh­speedapplications.Whencombinedwiththe

L

F

F

F

e

cascode,theresultingamplifier­theshuntfeedbackcascode­isshowninfigure10.3.8(a)withthesmall­signal

modelin(b).

modelin(b). Figure10.3.8Theshuntfeedbackcascode R inserieswithR

Figure10.3.8Theshuntfeedbackcascode

R inserieswithR isbasicallyR.BecausethecurrentthroughR losesbothbasecurrentsbeforebeing

1

2

F

2

returnedtotheinputnode,botha anda appearinthesecondgainterm.Unlikethesimpleshuntfeedback

Q1

Q2

stage,C ofeitherBJTdoesnotshuntR,andisdividedbetweentransistors.ThevoltageatthebaseofQ

bc

F

2

varies,asthemidpointofanR,R voltagedivider,andQ isnotapurelycommonbaseconfiguration.Thetwo feedbackresistorvaluescanbechosentoadjusttheextentoftheMillereffectacrossthebasecollectorjunctions

ofthetransistors.

Ifspeedisnotthemostimportantdesignparameter,butvoltageis,thenthisamplifierprovidestheadvantageof dividingthecollectorvoltageacrosstwoseriesBJTs.IfR =R,theneachBJTneedhaveonlyabouthalfthe breakdownvoltageofasingle­BJTamplifier.Again,thecascodepresentsanadvantageforhigh­voltage

1

2

2

1

2

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Chapter10:Multistageamplifierconfigurations[AnalogDevicesWiki]

applications.

Yetanothershuntfeedbackcascodevariationusesasinglefeedbackresistor,asshowninfigure10.3.8(a),along

withaflowgraph(forfeedbackanalysis)ofthedynamicmodelofthecircuit(b).(Z isR inparallelwithC andZ isR inparallelwithC.)C isaddedtoprovideanadditionalparameterforadjustingthedynamicamplifier response.Thetransistorgainbandwidthtimeconstant,?,isrelatedtof by:

F

F

F

L

L

L

F

T

T

ForRfCf»τ ,τ ,thenthepolesoftheamplifierresponsefollowacirculars­planelocusast isvaried.AsQ is

T1

T2

T2

2

madeaslowertransistor,theclosed­looppolesconverge,thensplitofftherealaxisandfollowacircularpathto

theorigin.Variationofτ ,CforC followsaverticallocus.Asanyoneofthemincreasesinvalue,thepolesmove

T1

L

verticallytowardtherealaxis,thensplitalongtheaxis,headingfortheoriginandnegativeinfinity.

Thedynamicinputimpedanceofthisamplifierisinteresting.ForinfiniteRfandß ,theinputresistanceshould

Q1

appeartobeinfinitebutitisnot.Thestaticinputresistanceisinfinite,butnotthedynamicresistance.Thisunusual

phenomenonwillbethesubjectofafuturearticle.(Hint:applya1­Vsteptotheinputandtracethroughthe

effects.Asthecollectornoderespondstotheinputstep(butnotasastep,becauseofcapacitance),thenwhatis

thecurrentthroughCf?Ifitisconstant,thenwhatimpedancedoesaconstantcurrentduetoaconstantinput

voltageappearasattheinputnode?)

10.3.7 Cascode Review

Thecascodeamplifier,withitsvariations,isakeyelementinthecircuitdesigner'stoolkitofusefulcircuits.Ithas

advantagesforincreasingbandwidthandforhigh­voltageamplifierapplications.

Acascodeamplifierconsistsofacommonemitterstageloadedbytheemitterofacommonbasestage.

Theheavilyloadedcommonemitterstagehasalowgainof1,overcomingtheMillereffect

Acascodeamplifierhasahighgain,moderatelyhighinputimpedance,ahighoutputimpedance,andahighbandwidth.

AdditionalnotesonLevelShiftinginmulti­stageamplifiers

Inmulti­stageamplifiersonintegratedcircuits,couplingcapacitorsbetweenstagesarealmostalwaysnotused

becausetheycannotbemadelargeenoughforreasonablelow­frequencyoperation.Thus,stagesareDC­

coupled.ThismeansthatvoltageoffsetslikeV dropsbetweenstagescanstarttoaddup…stagesreferredto

BE

aslevelshifterscanbeusedtocompensatewherenecessary.EmitterorsourcefollowersprovideaDClevelshift

ofV orV andcanbeinsertedbetweenstageswithsignallossastheirgainisverycloseto+1.ByusingPNP

BE

GS

andNPNorPMOSandNMOStransistors,thedirectionofthelevelshiftpershiftercanbeeitherupordownin voltage.Anothertypicallevelshiftermightbesimplyadegeneratedcommonemitteramplifier(itcanprovidegain orsimplyactasaninvertingbufferifR =R ).ThechoiceofR “programs”thequiescentcollectorvoltageofthe levelshifterandcanthusbeusedto“center”theoutputvoltageofanopampsothatitcanswingbothpositive andnegativefromitsquiescentpoint.

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