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# 1] Intake Air Temperature (IAT) Sensor:

- The IAT sensor converts the engine intake air temperature into a voltage and inputs it to the ECU, which then corrects
the fuel injection rate, etc., based on the input signal.
- The +5V power in the ECU is supplied via a resistor in the unit to the IAT sensor. Via the sensor which is a kind of
resistor (termistor), it's then earthed in the ECU. The IAT sensor resistor has such characteristic that its resistance
decreases as the air temperature rises.
- The IAT sensor terminal voltage increases or decreases as the sensor resistance increases or decreases. Therefore the
IAT sensor terminal voltage changes with the intake air temperature, decreasing as the temperature rises.
+5V --- resistor in ECU (pin 80, Y)---*----IAT sensor ----- internal ground (pin 79, Bk)
Voltage is measured between * and internal ground
T increase - R decrease - V decrease
T = 273K, V = 3.2 - 3.8V
T = 293K, V = 2.3 - 2.9V
T = 313K, V = 1.5 - 2.1V
T = 353K, V = 0.1 - 1.0V
The IAT sensor senses the intake air temperature in the air intake hose so that it may indicate a temperature different
from outside temperature depending on the engine operation state.

## 2] Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor

- The MAP sensor converts the air intake plenum pressure to a voltage value and inputs it to the ECU. The ECU uses this
signal and engine RPM to calculate the basic fuel injetcion timing. +5V of power (Vp = 4.8 - 5.2V) is supplied to the
sensor from the ECU, and the sensor circuit earth is located in the ECU. The MAP sensor signal voltage (Vs) is
proportioned (linear equation) to the intake plenum pressure.
+5V (pin 81, G) --- MAP sensor power --- internal ground (pin 105, Bk)
MAP sensor signal out --- + variable V (pin 108, G-R)*
Voltage is measured between * and internal ground
P increase - V increase
(also known as Barometric Absolute Pressure, BAP reading)
H = 0m, V = 3.7 - 4.3V
H = 1200m, V = 3.2 - 3.8V
engine idle reading: 0.9 - 1.5V
Together with the signal from the IAT sensor, engine RPM and several others, the MAP signal is used by the ECU to select
the suitable fuel mapping for accurate fueling. This is called a "speed-density" system.
In addition to that, the ECU always measures the BAP (KOEO) from the MAP sensor before the engine is started. When
the engine is started, the ECU calculate the manifold vacuum by:
BAP - MAP = manifold vacuum.
Manifold vacuum indicates the LOAD of the engine, which the ECU is based on to determine the ignition timing advance.

## 3] Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor:

- The ECT sensor converts the engine coolant temperature into a voltage and inputs it to the ECU, which then control the
fuel injection rate and fast idle speed when the engine is cold, based on the input signal.
- The +5V power (Vp = 4.5 - 4.9V) in the ECU is supplied via a resistor in the unit to the ECT sensor. Via the sensor
which is a kind of resistor (termistor), it's then earthed in the ECU. The ECT sensor has such characteristic that its
resistance decreases as the coolant temperature rises.
- The ECT sensor terminal voltage increases or decreases as the sensor resistance increases or decreases. Therefore the
ECT sensor terminal voltage changes with the intake air temperature, decreasing as the temperature rises.
+5V --- resistor in ECU (pin 80, Y-G)---*----ECT sensor ----- internal ground (pin 79, Bk)
Voltage is measured between * and internal ground
T increase - R decrease - V decrease
T = 273K, V = 3.2 - 3.8V
T = 293K, V = 2.3 - 2.9V
T = 313K, V = 1.3 - 1.9V
T = 353K, V = 0.3 - 0.9V
If the fast idle speed is inadequate or the engine emits dark smoke during engine warm up operation, the ECT sensor is
often faulty.

## 4] Throttle Position Sensor (TPS):

- The TPS converts the throttle position opening into a voltage and inputs it to the ECU, which then control the fuel
injetcion, based on the input signal.
- The +5V power (Vp = 4.8 - 5.2V) in the ECU is supplied to the TPS. It flows through the resistor in the sensor and is
earthed in the ECU.
- As the throttle shaft rotates from the idle position to wide open position, the resistance between the variable resistor
terminal of the TPS and the earth terminal increases. As a result, the voltage at the TPS variable resistance terminal also
increases.
idle: 5%
WOT: 100%
The TPS signal is more important in the control of automatic transmission than in the engine control (i.e. fueling &
ignition timing). Shifting lock and other troubles will be caused if this sensor is faulty.\

## 5] Idle Speed Control (ISC):

- The ISC servo has a built-in idle position switch, which senses whether the accelerator pedal is depressed or not,
converts the changes into a high/low voltage and inputs the voltage to the ISC servo.
- A voltage is applied to the idle position switch from the ECU. When the accelerator pedal is released, the idle position
switch is turned ON to complete the earth. This causes the idle position switch terminal voltage to go from low to high,
and energizes the ISC servo, which opens the throttle valve.
- The idle throttle valve opening regulate the amount of air entering the intake manifold to sustain an idle engine speed.
- Conditions that changes the idle throttle valve opening are air conditioning activation, cold start and automatic
accelerator pedal released: 0 - 1V
accelerator pedal depressed: 4V or more
When the ignition switch is turn to ON. The ISC servo is self-calibrated to the previously-learned idle throttle opening.
The value is stored in the ECU and is continuously updated when a stable and suitable idle speed (800 +/- 100 rpm) is
achieved during the operation of the engine. Do not depress the accelerator pedal when you turn the ignition switch from
OFF to ON.

## 6] Crankshaft Angle Sensor (CAS):

- The CAS detects the crank angle (piston position) of each cylinder, convert it to a pulse signal and inputs it into the
ECU. The ECU computes the engine speed and the intake air amount of each stroke and outputs the injector drive signal
and injection command signal based on this signal.
- The +5V power (Vp = 4.8 - 5.2V) in the ECU is supplied to the CAS. It flows through the electromagnetic coil in the
sensor and is earthed in the ECU.
- The sensor is placed near to a toothed target wheel or timing rotor made of ferrous metal, mounted on the crank pulley.
When the "teeth" of the wheel pass the sensor, a distortion of the electromagnetic field occurs and this generates a pulse
in the current.
+5V (pin 100, W) ---- CAS ---- internal ground (pin 99, B.)
The engine can not be started without a signal from the CAS and the failure is usually caused by a defective harness.