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Asian Architecture [ARC 2213/2234]

PROJECT 1: CASE STUDY

A Comparitive analysis of thermal heat gain using ventilation


as a strategy between Sekeping Serendah and Traditional
Malay House

NAME:

FIRASAT MAMUN MOHAMMAD

STUDENT ID:

0306623

LECTURER:

PUAN NOR HAYATI RAMLEE

SUBMISSION DATE:

24/11/2015

A Comparitive analysis of thermal heat gain using ventilation as a strategy


between Sekeping Serendah and Traditional Malay House

A Comparitive analysis of thermal heat gain using


ventilation as a strategy between Sekeping Serendah
and Traditional Malay House

Table of Contents

Page

Abstract ........................................................................................................................ 2

1.0

Introduction ..................................................................................................... 2

2.0

Ventilation strategies and temperature control in retreat ..... Error! Bookmark not

defined.

3.0

Roof Structure and Heat gain ........................................................................ 7

4.0

Vegetation and Heat gain ............................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

5.0

Conclusion................................................................................................... 10

6.0

References .................................................................................................. 11

ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture

A Comparitive analysis of thermal heat gain using ventilation as a strategy


between Sekeping Serendah and Traditional Malay House

Abstract
The purpose of choosing to do a comparative analysis of thermal heat gain using
ventilation as a strategy is to verify if the new age buildings feature with similar design
approach show a lower thermal energy than the Traditional Malay Houses. The use of
modern materials and technology can adhere the poetics of a space, but does it
improve the quality of the space in terms of ventilation and structures is a whole
different thing. Using literature reviews to truly understand the importance of Malay
Traditional houses and applying this knowledge to incorporate the strategies used in a
tropical house design, therefore improving thermal comfort and better indoor air
qualities.
To provide a better understanding and validating this research it is required to
deliberate on contexts that show the new take on Traditional Malay architecture. The
Sekeping Serendah, located in Serendah is a great place that portray a many
architectural elements of Traditional Malay Architecture. Where a Malay house is
specifically built to sustain a family, Sekeping Serendah boasts various things that can
boost up a persons comfort levels. The cluster of houses in Sekeping Serendah has
different approaches on material usage and theme split in four different categories. The
major elements like raising the lowest floor level on stilts and huge openings
everywhere; other elements include the usage of sustainable materials and utilize them
in a way that it always creates a pathway for ventilation. Hence, the study of ventilation
strategies through observations and literature reviews play a very important role in
thermal control in Malay Vernacular Architecture.

ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture

A Comparitive analysis of thermal heat gain using ventilation as a strategy


between Sekeping Serendah and Traditional Malay House

1.0

INTRODUCTION

Vernacular architecture in Malaysia has had a very important role in giving shelters to
humans for centuries. The conventional Malay house is one of the wealthiest parts of
Malaysia's social legacy. Planned and built by the villagers themselves, it shows the
innovative and tasteful abilities of the Malays. This is a close great house form which is
proper to neighbouring climatic conditions and communicates the lifestyle of its tenants.
The house is amazingly all around intended to suit the warm and humid Malaysian
atmosphere and for the multifunctional utilization of space. Its configuration is moreover
adaptable as it takes into account the generally diverse needs of the users and it has
an expansion framework which permits the house to be stretched out to meet the
developing requirements of every individual.

The research will look into the matter of how Sekeping Serendah, a retreat away from
the bustling city life incorporates such vernacular designs and strategies. Some of
which is in a hybrid manner emphasizing a further enhancing the traditional methods of
ventilation with the help modern materials and design. The complexities and
incorporation of stills and an abundance of openings to the surroundings catches the
attention of the research. This paper will also show a deeper understanding of how the
vernacular architecture in Malaysia is evolving and yet maintaining the traditional
design strategies to preserve the vernacular standards.

The findings and analysis will show a thorough understanding as to how the retreat
enhances thermal comfort along the lines of sustainability and efficacy. Hence the
study for ventilation strategies play an important role in thermal control in Malay
vernacular architecture.

This paper will investigate using the following research questions:


1) How does the ventilation strategies affect the temperature control in the retreat?
2) What design strategy is taken for the roof structure to control heat gain?
3) How does the vegetation in the retreat co-relate with ventilation strategies in
thermal heat gain?

ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture

A Comparitive analysis of thermal heat gain using ventilation as a strategy


between Sekeping Serendah and Traditional Malay House

2.0

VENTILATION STRATEGIES AND TEMPEARTURE

CONTROL IN RETREAT

Figure 1: Map of Sekeping Serendah

Sekeping Serendah allocates a few different types of dwellings for the retreat that
encompasses various types of design elements helping in the context of the research.
Usual forest temperatures in Malaysia stay within a temperature range of 22C - 34C
due to its geographical location.

ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture

A Comparitive analysis of thermal heat gain using ventilation as a strategy


between Sekeping Serendah and Traditional Malay House

To reduce the overall temperature inside a house, major design elements has been put
into this place. Hence, there is no air-con installation just like a Traditional Malay House.

The first major design strategy seen in Sekeping Serendah, is the idea of raising the
floor above the floor level using columns similar to the way of Orang Asli houses built
on stilts.

Diagram 1 shows the ventilation flow of the air

Image 1 shows the usage of stilts in Sekeping Serendah

This type of stilt design is seen in the whole of South East Asia as most traditional
villages were located and erected near the river banks and on wet lands. Therefore the
climate affected the design of the houses and incorporated the use of stilts giving the
house a space for water to run under in case of rain, floods, etc. Not only does this help
with preventing water coming into the house but also allows ventilation to occur below
the house. According to (Lechner, 2009), houses are raised on stilts not only to avoid
the water but also to get above the humidity level and catch higher rate of wind.

ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture

A Comparitive analysis of thermal heat gain using ventilation as a strategy


between Sekeping Serendah and Traditional Malay House

The Traditional Malay Houses will use timber as the main construction element, but the
houses in Sekeping makes use of metal and concrete as well.

The second type of strategy is the use large open windows on all sides of the house.
This actually allows the freedom of wind to cross ventilate easily and improve the
indoor air quality. The warmer air is flushed out easily and replaced with new cooler air
making the space nice and cool at human thermal comfort levels.

Diagram 2 shows the cross ventilation of air within the space

Image 2 shows a general view from a room in the retreat with large windows

ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture

A Comparitive analysis of thermal heat gain using ventilation as a strategy


between Sekeping Serendah and Traditional Malay House

Most Traditional Malay Houses would incorporate the use of many windows as well but
the Sekeping Serendah infuses the roaring windows that open so large, that people
can actually walk through them. This increases the cross ventilations to the maximum
and thus no additional mechanical ventilation is required.

3.0 ROOF STRUCTURE AND HEAT GAIN


Ventilation strategies not only applies to cross ventilations within the space but the
structure of the roof also plays a very important role as to how the internal heat gain of
the place is affected. For example the use of conventional steel roof compared to a roof
made of mud will create different internal temperatures. The Glass Box in Sekeping
Serendah uses metal roofing systems. The floor to roof height of the structure is higher
than usual buildings. This helps the warm air in the space to rise up and the cooler air
filling the lower parts of the room at human level.

Diagram 3 The convection cycle of air and the cross ventilation together to minimize the
air temperature inside the space.

Image 3 shows the use of high cielings in Sekeping Serendah

ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture

A Comparitive analysis of thermal heat gain using ventilation as a strategy


between Sekeping Serendah and Traditional Malay House

The Traditional Malay House would usually have a two tiered roof design that helps to
cross ventilate the warm air rising up and not having a place to exit.

Diagram 4 shows the difference in Traditional Malay architecture and Sekeping Serendah
in ventilation

Sekeping on the other hand has a different take on the two tiered roof; instead of
having the two tiered traditional system, it comprises of a single mono pitch roof with
the side frames being open. This helps the cross ventilation on the roof level and works
the same way as the two tiered roof. The extra-long eaves of the roof helps with the
shading in the building without compromising natural light in the interior space.

Image 4 shows the long eaves of the roof to allow more shading

ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture

A Comparitive analysis of thermal heat gain using ventilation as a strategy


between Sekeping Serendah and Traditional Malay House

3.0

VEGETATION AND HEAT GAIN

The more amount of oxygen level leads to better moisture control in the room and that
leads to fresher amount of air around the surrounding area. Trees act as wind barriers
and stop the erosion of the structure as well. Vegetation also provides shade for the
surrounding area keeping the temperature comfortable for the user. If the outside
vegetation was not available it would be very uncomfortable as the trees also act as an
absorbent of heat and release oxygen at night which leads to fresher and clear air
inside the give space. Due to the vegetation there it is usually more moisture content in
the air which keeps the space warm and comfortable for the user. If the vegetation was
not of the following as you find in this area then temperatures would be high during the
day and very low during the night hence the general range of temperatures would vary
according to the time. Vegetation also effects the soil temperature as it depends on the
type of trees that are present around the space which ultimately results in cooling
which makes a significant impact on the overall temperature of the space around the
surrounding area.
According to the amount of vegetation present in Sekeping Serendah, the tall canopy
trees help in shading out most of the hot sun but still allow natural diffused light into the
place.

Diagram 5 shows how trees help in reducing air temperature inside the space

ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture

A Comparitive analysis of thermal heat gain using ventilation as a strategy


between Sekeping Serendah and Traditional Malay House

5.0 Conclusion
The Traditional Malay houses therefore have a lot in common to the Sekeping
Serendah architectural styles. The Sekeping Serendah incorporates the usage of
modern materials and newer construction systems allowing a more sustainable solution
to the architecture. The use of recycled materials in the Sekeping Serendah and
manipulating it to give a sense of traditional Malay architecture. Through the research
we can deduce that the traditional architecture system works well and helps with
reducing the thermal heat gain. Therefore the use of ventilation strategies is at its best
in the Sekeping Serendah and works well with all the design strategies used in its
architecture.

ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture

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A Comparitive analysis of thermal heat gain using ventilation as a strategy


between Sekeping Serendah and Traditional Malay House

6.0 References
1) Nasir, A. H., & Teh, H. H. W. (2011). The Traditional Malay House. ITBM.
Understood and learned the basic typologies of a Malay vernacular house.
2) Sahabuddin, M. F. M., & Gonzalez-Longo, C. (2012). Traditional Values and Their
Adaptation in Social Housing Design: Towards A New Typology and Establishment of
Air HouseStandard in Malaysia. The University of Edinburgh, UK.
Understood the spatial layouts of a traditional Malay vernacular house.
3) Kubota, T., & Toe, D. (2015). Application of Passive Cooling Techniques in Vernacular
Houses to Modern Urban Houses: A Case Study of Malaysia. Procedia - Social And
Behavioral Sciences, 179, 29-39.
Helped with statistics of temperature differences in comparison of standard terraced
houses to traditional Malay house.
4) Lechner, N. (2009). Heating, cooling, lighting. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley &
Sons.

5) Sim, S. (2010). Redefining the Vernacular in the Hybrid Architecture of Malaysia.


Picked up few points on the evolution of Malay vernacular designs overtime due to
sociocultural, etc.
6) Slideshare.net,. 'Tropical Architecture'. N.p., 2014. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
Usage of sectional diagram representing the main elements of Malay vernacular
architecture.

7) Toe, D. H. C., & Kubota, T. (2015). Comparative assessment of vernacular passive


cooling techniques for improving indoor thermal comfort of modern terraced houses in
hothumid climate of Malaysia. Solar Energy, 114, 229-258.
Information on quantitative data in to improve indoor thermal comfort in hot humid
weather of Malaysia.
8) Williams, Austin. 'THE DISTANCE AT WHICH TREES CAN AFFECT A
BUILDING IS QUITE SIGNIFICANT'. Architectsjournal.co.uk. N.p., 2008. Web.
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A Comparitive analysis of thermal heat gain using ventilation as a strategy


between Sekeping Serendah and Traditional Malay House

9) Yuan, L. J. (2001). The traditional Malay house. United Nations Development


Programme, Special Unit for Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries,
Sharing Innovative Experiences, 2.
Got important definitions and basic details of Malay traditional houses and its form.

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