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# ES 1: ENGINEERING DRAWING

Geometric Construction
Lines
Angles

LINES

Lines
- The shortest distance
between two points
A

- A set of points
organized that have
length and direction,
but no thickness

B
D
F

of a Line
Given: Line AB

Given: Line AB

## Bisecting a Given Line

1. Using point A as center and radius R
greater than one-half of the length of line
AB, draw an arc extending to both sides of
line AB.

## Bisecting a Given Line

2. Using point B as center and the same
radius R, draw a second arc intersecting the
first arc. Label the intersections as point C
and D.

## Bisecting a Given Line

3. Draw a line connecting points C and D. Line
CD bisects line AB.
Line AB is called:
PERPENDICULAR BISECTOR

PERPENDICULAR LINES

LINE PERPENDICULAR TO A
POINT ON THE GIVEN LINE
Given: Line AB

LINE PERPENDICULAR TO A
POINT ON THE GIVEN LINE
1. Extend line AB beyond point B. Using point
B as center and any radius R, draw an arc
intersecting line AB at point C and the
extension line at point D.

LINE PERPENDICULAR TO A
POINT ON THE GIVEN LINE
2. Using point C as center and any radius R
greater than one-half of segment CD, draw
an arc extending to both sides of segment
CD.

LINE PERPENDICULAR TO A
POINT ON THE GIVEN LINE
3. Repeat the process, this time using D as
center. Label the points of intersection as
points E and F.

LINE PERPENDICULAR TO A
POINT ON THE GIVEN LINE
4. Connect points E and F. Line EF is
perpendicular to line AB at point B.

## LINE PERPENDICULAR TO A GIVEN

LINE AND PASSING THROUGH A
GIVEN POINT
Given: Line AB and Point O.

## LINE PERPENDICULAR TO A GIVEN

LINE AND PASSING THROUGH A
GIVEN POINT
1. Using point O as center and any radius R
greater than the distance between point O
and line AB, draw an arc intersecting at
points C and D.

## LINE PERPENDICULAR TO A GIVEN

LINE AND PASSING THROUGH A
GIVEN POINT
2. Using point C as center and any radius R1
greater than one-half of segment CD, draw
an arc on the opposite side of line AB.

## LINE PERPENDICULAR TO A GIVEN

LINE AND PASSING THROUGH A
GIVEN POINT
3. Repeat step 2, this time using point D as
center. Label the point of intersection of
the two arcs as F.

## LINE PERPENDICULAR TO A GIVEN

LINE AND PASSING THROUGH A
GIVEN POINT
4. Connect points O and F. Line OF is
perpendicular to line AB.

PARALLEL LINES

## LINE PASSING THROUGH A POINT

AND PARALLEL TO A GIVEN LINE
Given: Line AB and Point O

## LINE PASSING THROUGH A POINT

AND PARALLEL TO A GIVEN LINE
1. Using point O as center and any radius R
greater than the distance from point O to
line AB, draw an arc cutting line AB at point
C.

## LINE PASSING THROUGH A POINT

AND PARALLEL TO A GIVEN LINE
2. Using point C as center and the same
radius R, draw another arc passing through
point O and cutting line AB at point D.

## LINE PASSING THROUGH A POINT

AND PARALLEL TO A GIVEN LINE
3. Using point C again as center and distance
OD as radius, draw a third arc intersecting
the first arc. Label the intersection as F.

## LINE PASSING THROUGH A POINT

AND PARALLEL TO A GIVEN LINE
4. Connect points O and F. Line OF is parallel
to Line AB

## LINE PARALLEL TO AND AT A

GIVEN DISTANCE FROM LINE AB
Given: Line AB and Distance L
S

## LINE PARALLEL TO AND AT A

GIVEN DISTANCE FROM LINE AB
1. Using point A as center and the given
distance S as radius, draw an arc on one
side of line AB. Label the first arc as 1.

## LINE PARALLEL TO AND AT A

GIVEN DISTANCE FROM LINE AB
2. Using point B as center and the same
radius, draw a second arc. Label this arc as
2.

## LINE PARALLEL TO AND AT A

GIVEN DISTANCE FROM LINE AB
3. Extend line AB beyond points A and B.
Using point A as center and any radius R,
draw an arc cutting line AB at point C and
the extension line at point D.

## LINE PARALLEL TO AND AT A

GIVEN DISTANCE FROM LINE AB
4. Using point C (first) and point D (second) as
centers and any radius R1 in both
operations, draw two arcs on both sides of
line AB. Connect the two intersections.
Note that the line intersects arc 1. Label the
point of intersection as point E.

## LINE PARALLEL TO AND AT A

GIVEN DISTANCE FROM LINE AB
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4. This time using B as
center. Label the point of intersection of
the line and arc 2 as point H.

## LINE PARALLEL TO AND AT A

GIVEN DISTANCE FROM LINE AB
6. Connect points E and H. Line EH is parallel
to line AB at a distance S.

N-equal Segments

## DIVIDING A LINE INTO

N-EQUAL SEGMENTS
Given: Line AB and the number of
segments.
N= 3

## DIVIDING A LINE INTO

N-EQUAL SEGMENTS
1. Using point A as origin, draw another line
CD making an angle of 30-45 with line AB.

## DIVIDING A LINE INTO

N-EQUAL SEGMENTS
2. Starting from point A and using any
convenient length, lay out points n points
on line CD at equal distances.

## DIVIDING A LINE INTO

N-EQUAL SEGMENTS
3. Draw a line connecting point B and point
n1.

## DIVIDING A LINE INTO

N-EQUAL SEGMENTS
4. Draw a fourth line parallel to line n1 B
passing point n2. (Recall steps in making
line parallel to a given line passing through
a given point). Label the point of
intersection on line AB as E.

## DIVIDING A LINE INTO

N-EQUAL SEGMENTS
5. Repeat step 4.

## DIVIDING A LINE INTO

N-EQUAL SEGMENTS
6. Line AB is now divided into n equal parts.

Alternative Solution

ANGLES

TRANSFERRING AN ANGLE
Given: Angle ABC
A

TRANSFERRING AN ANGLE
1. Lay out line BC in the new
position/location. Label it line BC.

TRANSFERRING AN ANGLE
2. Using point B as center and any radius R,
draw an arc intersecting rays BA and BC at
points D and E respectively.

TRANSFERRING AN ANGLE
3. Without changing the opening of you
compass and using B as center, draw an arc
intersecting ray BC at point D.

TRANSFERRING AN ANGLE
4. Using point D as center and the distance
from points D and E as radius, draw an arc
intersecting the first arc at point A.

TRANSFERRING AN ANGLE
5. The line connecting point B to A forms the
given angle ABC in the new position as
angle ABC.

BISECTING AN ANGLE
Given: Angle ABC
A

BISECTING AN ANGLE
1. Using point B as center and any radius R,
draw an arc intersecting ray AB and ray BC
at points D and E respectively.

BISECTING AN ANGLE
2. Using point D as center and any radius R1,
draw a second arc away from point B and
between sides BA and BC.

BISECTING AN ANGLE
3. Using the same radius R1 and E as center,
draw a third arc that intersects the second
arc at point F.

BISECTING AN ANGLE
4. Connect points B and F. Line BF bisects
angle ABC at two equal parts.

Line BF is called:
Angle Bisector

N-equal Parts

## DIVIDING AN ANGLE INTO

N-EQUAL PARTS
Given: Angle ABC and N.
N=3
A

## DIVIDING AN ANGLE INTO

N-EQUAL PARTS
1. Using point B as center and any radius R,
draw an arc intersecting rays BA and BC at
points C and D respectively.

## DIVIDING AN ANGLE INTO

N-EQUAL PARTS
2. Connecting point D to E, divide the
resulting chordline into n equal segments.

## DIVIDING AN ANGLE INTO

N-EQUAL PARTS
3. Label the n-1 new points on the chord DE.
Connect the designated points to point B.

## DIVIDING AN ANGLE INTO

N-EQUAL PARTS
4. The lines divide angle ABC into n-equal
parts.