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A PRE- EXPERIMENTAL STUDY TO ASSESS THE EFFECTIVENESS

OF STRUCTURED TEACHING PROGRAMME ON KNOWLEDGE


REGARDING PREVENTION OF CHILD ABUSE AMONG MOTHERS
IN URBAN AREA, JAIPUR.
BY
NEETU SINGH
ENROLLMENT NO. 08/6065
Synopsis submitted to the

RAJASTHAN UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES,


JAIPUR, RAJASTHAN
In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN NURSING
IN
MENTAL HEALTH NURSING
Under the guidance of
Mr. ANIL KUMAR MAVLIYA, M.Sc.NURSING
Department of Mental Health Nursing

JAIPUR HOSPITAL COLLEGE OF NURSING, JAIPUR RAJASTHAN

RAJASTHAN UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH


SCIENCES
JAIPUR
PERFORMA FOR REGISTRATION OF
SUBJECTS FOR
DISSERTATION

NEETU SINGH
NAME OF
THECANDIDATE AND JAIPUR HOSPITAL
COLLEGE OF NURSING
ADDRESS
SHIPRA PATH
MANSAROVAR, JAIPUR

NAME OF THE
INSTITUTION

JAIPUR HOSPITAL
COLLEGE OF NURSING
SHIPRA PATH
MANSAROVAR, JAIPUR

COURSE OF STUDY
AND OBJECTS

M.SC. NURSING
PREVIOUS
MENTAL HEALTH
NURSING

DATE OF ADMISSION 1/10/2015


TO COURSE

TITLE OF THE TOPIC

A PRE-EXPERIMENTAL
STUDY TO ASSESS THE
EFFECTIVENESS OF
STRUCTURED
TEACHING PROGRAMME
ON KNOWLEDGE

REGARDING
PREVENTION OF CHILD
ABUSE AMONG
MOTHERS IN URBAN
AREA, JAIPUR.

6. BRIEF RESUME OF THE INTENDED WORK


6.1 INTRODUCTION
Childhood period is a stage when the child begins speaking or taking steps
independently. At this stage children are learning through observing,
experimenting and communicating with others. Adults supervise and
support the development process of the child,which then will lead to the
childs autonomy. Also during this stage, a strong emotional bond is
created between the child and the care provider.[1]
Child abuse can be defined as causing or permitting any harmful or
offensive contact on a childs body, and any communication or transaction
of any kind which humiliates shames or frightens the child. Some child
development experts go a bit further and define child abuse as any act or
omission, which fails to nurther or in the upbringing of the children. A child
of any age, sex, race, religion and socioeconomic background can fall
victim to child abuse and neglect. There are many factors that may
contribute to the occurance of child abuse and neglect. Parents may be
more likely to maltreat their children if they abuse drugs or alcohol. Some
parents may not be able to cope with the stress resulting from the
changes and may experience difficulty in caring for their children.[2]
Child abuse, therefore, is when harm or threat of harm is made to a child
by someone acting in the role of caretaker.Child abuse is a serious
problem that has a significant long-term impact on individuals, families
and community. It is a sensitive issue that is rarely openly discussed by
the general community. Sadly, there is a significant underestimation by
the community of the extent and nature of the problem. Raising
awareness and understanding of child abuse is the first important step
towards addressing the issue. Originaly the term child abuse was
restricted to the battered baby syndrome but it has now been extended to
a deliberate act of physical, sexual, emotional maltreatment or neglect of
children by parents, guardians or others. Child abuse is a community
problem and unless the community is aware of the issue, the extent of the

problem and of their role in stopping and preventing child abuse, more
and more children, families and communities will suffer. [4]

6.2 NEED OF THE STUDY


Child abuse is a terrible misfortune for millions of children and families, for
communities and for society. The term child abuse refers to any act that
violates the rights of the child that endangers his or her optimum health,
survival or development. Definition of child abuse inevitably vary
according to the uses for which they have been devised.[3]
According to WHO estimated about 40 million children aged 0-14 around
the world suffer from abuse and neglect and require health and social
care. In 2000, nearly 2 million reports of alleged child abuse were
investigated by child protective services agencies, representing more than
2.7 million children who were alleged victims of maltreatment and who
were referred for investigation. Of these children, approximately 879,000
were found to be victims of maltreatment, meaning that sufficient
evidence were found for substantiate or indicate the report of child
maltreatment. This reflects a national rate of approximately 12.2 children
per 1000 children younger than 18 years of age in the general population
who were found to be substantiate or indicated victims of maltreatment.
[5]
In United state, every year more than 3 million reports of child abuse .[6]
In united kingdom , in 2012/2013, there were 18,915 sexual crimes
against children under 16 recorded in England and wales, according to the
National Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC).[7]
A survey by UNICEF on demographic and health was conducted in India
from 2005-2013 which reported 10% of Indian girls might have
experienced sexual abuse at the age of 10-14 years and 30% during 1519 years of age.
In 2009, estimated 7.9% of males and 19.7% of females universally face
sexual abuse before the age of 18 years.[8]
In the year 2010 in Karnataka, 107 cases of child rape, 125 cases of
kidnapping and abduction and 21 cases of procuring minor girls were
reported which steeply increased to 142,471 respectively in the year
2012.
The report stated that more than 48000 child rape were recorded from
2001 to 2011.
As per the data obtained from Kerala, between April march 2011 to march
2012, 157 cases of child sexual abuse were reported.
In 2011, national census of India found the total number of child labour,

aged 5-14, to be at 4.35 million .


In 2011,33098 of sexual abuse and 7112 cases of child rape were reported
in India.
In Rajasthan, 1800 child rape cases were reported in 2011.
Rajasthan accounts for nearly 10% of the total child labour in the country
with Jaipur alone having more than 50,000 child labourers in the age of 514 years.
Rajasthan has the second highest number (8.5%) of child labour cases in
the country as per 2011 census.
In Jaipur, 192 rape caseswere reported in 2013.
In 2014, 60,897 children reported physical abuse at the age of 10-14.[9].
With the view of above studies and the investigator self- experience
during home visiting came to know that during home visiting the
prevention of child abuse is improper because the mothers have lack of
knowledge, lack of awareness regarding prevention of child abuse. Many
studies revealed that structured teaching programme and instructionsmay
improve the knowledge about prevention of child abuse, hence the study
undertaken.

6.3 REVIEW OF LITERATURE


A study was given by Angela Kent, Glenn Waller in 1998. The study
explored the potential of the child abuse and trauma scale CATS. The
CATS was original devised to measure the extent of adverse sexual,
physical and neglectful experiences. A sample of 236 nonclinical women
completed the CATS and the hospital anxiety and depression scale. The
study found that the new childhood emotional abuse subscale played a
more central role in anxiety and depression than did the original three
subscales [10]
A study was given by Danya Glaser in 2002. The study recognized the
emotional abuse and neglect. Research, clinical experience and
theoretical considerations have lead to a conceptual framework and
operational definitions of five categories of harmful interactions between
parent and child. It is postulated that the different categories of ill
treatment respectively require different therapeutic interventions[11]
A study was given by Kristen W. Springer, Jennifer Sheridan, Molly Carnes
in May 2007. We analyzed population- based survey data from over 2000
middle-aged men and women in the winconsin longitudinal study using

self-reported measures of parential childhood physical abuse, mental


health (depression, anxiety, anger), physical health( physical symptoms
and medical diagnosis), family background and childhood adversities. We
found that childhood physical abuse predicted a graded increase in
depression, anxiety, anger, physical symptoms and medical diagnosis[12]
A study was given by B.E. Molnar, S.L. Buka and R.C. Kessler in 2001. This
study examined the child sexual abuse (CSA). A sample of 5877 of child
sexual abuse was taken. Reports were analyzed by multivariate method.
In a sample of respondents reported the child sexual abuse were higher.
Among women, knowing the perpetrator and chronicity of child sexual
abuse were associated with higher odds of some disorders [13]
A study was given by Ilyse L Spertus, Rachel Yehuda in 2003. The main
objective of this study was to examine the emotional abuse and neglect.
Two hundred and five women completed trauma questionnaire, trauma
history questionnaire. The study found that a history of emotional abuse
and neglect was associated with increased anxiety, depression and
physical symptoms [14]
The study was conducted by Dr. Dinesh Paul and Dr. Sulochana vasudevan
in 2010.The present study was undertaken to find out the incidence of
child abuse in schools. The study also reveals the probable reasons for
child abuse, and suggests ways that can help Seva Mandir in preventing
occurrence of child abuse. The study was carried out in 3 villages of
Kherwara block in Udaipur district. Data was collected using a selfdesigned questionnaire administered to the sample surveyed, unobtrusive
observation of children, and visit to schools. A mix of quota and snowball
sampling technique was used. Parents of 84% children were satisfied with
the level of their performance. The use of a stick to correct the faults of
children was considered right by 96% parents, while 20% parents said that
they would do nothing to correct the situation. Only 6% parents believed
that they should go to the teacher and converse with them. 47% students
stated that they became fearful when they thought about their teachers.
40% of the students became very uncomfortable when they thought
about their teachers. 93% students confirmed that they felt very happy
going to school. When asked which animal would best represent their
teacher, 57% of the respondents chose the picture of a black cobra, 14% a
black panther, 10% a tiger, and 20% a beautiful horse. Parents can play a
major role in determining the degree of abuse a child is subjected to. If
the parents continue to believe that physically abusing the child is a
necessary part of education, then very little can be done to prevent the
incidences of child abuse. There is need to make parents aware of the

rights of the child to a life without abuse, and parents should delay their
need for personal gratification from the child. Teachers should be aware of
alternative means of establishing discipline among students. Parents must
be made aware of the need for a healthy atmosphere at home for the
complete development of the child. There is also a need to involve the
common man in all these effort.[15]
The study was conducted by Prekshi in 2009.The study investigated the
extent and type of physical abuse and its associated factors among the
street and slum children of Kolkata. 751 children aged 4-15 years from
190 families were enlisted to collect data on age, working status, family
size, income, nature and type of physical abuse. Results revealed that
32% of children were part time workers, whereas a majority of them
worked on full time basis. Physical abuse was reported among 26.9% of
the children. Abusers used belts, cords of ropes, which was also
recognized by characteristic skin injuries such as bruising, ecchymosis,
abrasions, lacerations and hematoma. 25% cases of mild internal injury
inside the nose and abdomen was observed. In some cases hot metal
objects and burnt cigarette butts caused burns in some children. Fractures
were detected in 4.5% of the children. The study showed a lower
percentage (18.8%) of physical abuse among children 4-5 years of age,
but higher and almost equal percentages among children in the age group
6-10 years (39.6%) and 11-15 years (41.6%). The study suggested that
the extent and manifestation of physical abuse should be further
investigated and a possible follow up should be continued.

6.4 PROBLEM STATEMENT


A pre-experimental study to assess the effectiveness of Structured
Teaching Programme on knowledge regarding prevention of child abuse
among mothers in urban area, Jaipur.

6.4 OBJECTIVES Of the study


1. To assess the existing level of knowledge regarding prevention of child
abuse among mothers in urban area, Jaipur.
2. To evaluate the effectiveness of STP regarding prevention of child abuse
by compare the pre-test and post-test level of knowledge among mothers
in urban area, Jaipur.
3. To associate the pre-test knowledge regarding the prevention of child
abuse among mothers with selected socio-demographic variables.

6.5 Conceptual/ theoretical framework


General System Model of Ludwig Von Bertalanffy is suitable as conceptual
framework for this study to assess the knowledge of mothers regarding
prevention of child abuse.
This model describe four processes:
1. Input- It include the selected urban area of Jaipur. The selected
variables are education, socio economic status, religion, type of family,
occupation etc.
2. ProcessPhase 1st
Pre-test- Assessment of the knowledge regarding prevention of child
abuse among mothers.
Phase 2nd
Preparation and administration of structural teaching programme.
Post-testUsing the same knowledge questionnaire.
3. Output- The knowledge of the mothers will be below average, average,
good and excellent
4. Feedback- If the knowledge is below average or average then again STP
is given to improve the knowledge.

6.6Operational definition
Knowledge: It refers to the response of the mothers regarding prevention
of child abuse.
Child abuse: It includes physical abuse, sexual abuse and emotional abuse
among children.
Assessment: It refers to the process to identify the level of knowledge
towards prevention of child abuse among mothers.
Effectiveness: It is the difference between the pre-test and post-test
knowledge.
STP: Structured teaching program is teaching program conducted to
provide knowledge regarding child abuse among mothers.
Mother: Mothers who have children between age group of 1-14.

6.7 Hypothesis
H1 Hypothesis: There will be a significant relationship between post- test

knowledge score will be greater than pre-test knowledge score regarding


prevention of child abuse among mothers.
H2 Hypothesis: There will be significant relationship between knowledge
regarding prevention of child abuse and selected socio-demographic
variables among mothers

6.8 Assumption
mothers will have less knowledge regarding prevention of child abuse.

6.9 Delimitation of the study


The study will be limited to mothers
-who are residing in urban area at Jaipur

7 Methodology
7.1 Research design
pre experimental design
pre-test post- test one group research design

7.2 Variables
Independent variable
the structured teaching program used for providing knowledge among
mothers.
Dependent variable
knowledge of mothers regarding prevention of child abuse.
Demographic variable
education, socio economic status, religion, type of family, occupation, age
of mother, number of children.

7.3 Sources of data


The data will be collected from mothers.

7.4 Setting
The study will be conducted at urban area of jaipur city.

7.5 Population
All the mothers residing in urban area

7.6 Method of data collection


interview method

8. Sample

Mothers who have children between 1-14 year of age.

9. Inclusion criteria
the mothers
-who have children between 1-14 years of age.
- will available at the time of data collection
- willing to participate in the study.

10. Exclusion criteria


-mothers who have children less than 1 and more than 14 years of age.
- mothers will not available during data collection
-mothers will not willing to participate in the study

11. Sampling procedure


Purposive sampling

12. Sample size


60 mothers from urban area

13. Data collection technique


Interview

14. Method of data collection


Interview method

15. Plan of data analysis


Descriptive or inferential statistics

16. Does the study require any investigation/


interventions to be conducted on patients or other
humans or animals? If so, please describe briefly.
Yes

17.Has ethical clearance been obtained from your


institution in case of 16?
Will be obtained

18. References
1. Macmillan Dictionary for students Macmillan, Pan Ltd.(1981), page
number 173, retrieved 2010-7-15.
2. Florence Nightingale Nursing Times Year 2008, child abuse and neglect,
volume 4, issue 7, page number- 9-12.
3. Child Abuse, https://www.childhelp.org/child abuse.
4. Bimal Sapna, Kalia Raman and Das Karobi, child abuse- issue and
management, Nightingale Nursing Times Year- 2009,volume-4, number-12.
5. Child Abuse Child Violence In India- Child Line India Foundation,
www.childlineindia.org.in/child abuse.
6. Child Sexual Abuse, https://victimsofcrime.org/media/child abuse.
7. Radford; Lorraine; Corral; Susana; Bradley; Christine; Fisher; Helens
Bassett; Claire;Howat; Nick and Collishaw; Stephan (2011), child abuse
and neglect in the UK today (PDF), NSPCC. 5.
8. Child Sexual Abuse Statistics- Darkness to Light,www.d21.org/statistics.
9.National Childrens Alliance 2013 and 2014 National Statistics Collected
from Childrens Advocacy Center Members and Available on the NCA,
HTTPS://WWW.nationalchildrensalliance.org/cac-statistics.
10. Angela Kent, Glenn Waller,The Impact of Childhood Emotional Abuse:
An Extension of the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, May- 1998, Volume-22,
Issue-5, Page number-393-399.
11. Danya Glasser, Emotional Abuse and Neglect, June-2002, Volume26(6), page number-697-714.
12. Kristen W. Springer, Jennifer Sheriden, Molly Carnes, Long-Term
Physical and Mental Health Consequences of Childhood Physical Abuse,
May-2007,Volume-31, Issue-5, Page number-517-530.
13. B.E. Molnar, S.L. Buka and R.C. Kessler; Promoting Public Health
Research, Policy, Practice and Education, 2001 May, Volume-91(5), Page
number-753-760.
14. Ilyse L Spertus, Rachel Yehuda,Child Abuse and Neglect, November
2003, Volume-27(11), Page number- 1247-1258.
15. Dr. Dinesh Paul and Dr. Sulochana Vasudevan, year 2010, volume38(10), page number- 1129-43.

19

SIGNATURE OF THE CANDIDATE

20

REMARKS OF THE GUIDE

21
21.1

NAME OF DESIGNATION
GUIDE

21.2

SIGNATURE

21.3

CO-GUIDE

21.4

SIGNATURE

22.1

HEAD OF DEPARTMENT

22.2

SIGNATURE

23.1

REMARKS OF THE PRINCIPAL

23.2

SIGNATURE

Mr. ANIL KUMAR


MAVLIYA
HOD OF MENTAL
HEALTH NURSING

Mr. NARENDRA
SHARMA
ASSISTANT
PROFESSOR

Mr. ANIL KUMAR


MAVLIYA
HOD OF MENTAL
HEALTH NURSING