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Bonnie Hamilton

History 134: Ancient History


Education and Writing Artifacts of the Upper and Lower Zab River Valley
The chosen theme for this museum exhibit is education and writing. Educating members
of the civilization and the ability to write are the fundamental building blocks for litigation,
protection, entertainment (art), and religion. In order for these five concepts to flourish within a
civilization, it must be taught through the generations; thus, the education theme. These teaching
moments may continue on as tradition, which can take a cyclical path through time. Evaluating
the education and writing artifacts of a civilization, values and practices may be discovered. Its
important to note the education and writing artifacts that are found may also give insight to the
civilizations view on record keeping as well as their level of intelligence relative to the time.
Moreover, education and writing can depict the crux in which a civilization was built, which may
provide extensive knowledge to further understand the society within its entirety.

Artifact 1 is an Inheritance
Document dated 2041 BCE from
the Upper Zab River Valley. This
specific artifact traces the
inheritance within a family after
the death of the father. This
document displays a basic
understanding of literacy within
the civilization, which would
have been taught either within the

Artifact 2 is a receipt for Oxen

dated 2041 BCE found in the
Lower Zab River Valley. This
suggests a level of literacy and
education within the society in the
form of record keeping. It may also
suggest the need to keep proof of
ownership within the civilization,
which may contribute to varying
socioeconomic classes.

Artifact 3 is a legal decision of Judges

dated 1900 BCE found in the Upper
Zab River Valley. This specific
artifact accounts the decision of a
legal dispute. This suggests an
educated understanding of litigation
within the society, which also
suggests an aspect of order and law.

Artifact 5 is a tax receipt dated 1634

BCE found at the Lower Zab River
Valley. This artifact may infer an
elevated education with the concept of
book keeping. The receipt seems more
detailed which would suggest an
increase in writing capabilities.
Furthermore, it shows an understanding
of the importance of record keeping to
prove that one had made their monetary
contributions to the society.

Artifact 4 is a litigation document dated 1726

BCE found in the Upper Zab River Valley. It is a
specific court document, which further supports
order and law. As time progressed through the
society, this artifact may suggest that writing
competencies progressed over timegoing from
basic legal decisions to full litigation. Therefore,
it could be inferred that the level of education
also progressed. In order to have comprehensive
documents, there must have been some sort of
educational practice.

Artifact 6 is an Account of Archers dated 514

BCE found in the Lower Zab River Valley.
This artifact could suggest the concept of
observation for educational, historical and
military purposes. Furthermore, it is quite indepth, which further supports the level of
writing did improve through the civilization
over time.