Sunteți pe pagina 1din 17

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

DESIGN PROBLEMS
334.

A round steel rod made of structural steel, AISI C1020, as rolled, is to be used as a
column, centrally loaded with 10 kips; N 3 . Determine the diameter for (a)
L 25 in. , (b) L 50 in. (c) The same as (a) and (b) except that the material is
AISI 8640, OQT 1000 F. Is there any advantage in using this material rather than
structural steel?

Solution:
For AISI C1020,as rolled
s y 48 ksi

F 10 kips

N 3

(a) Le L 25 in.
Consider first J.B. Johnson

Fc NF s y A 1

D
4
D
k
4
A

Le

k
2
4 E

sy

E 30 103 ksi

25

D
4
30 103

30 12D 2 1 2 2
D

D 1.096 in

say D 1

48

1
in 1.0625 in
16

Le
25

94 120
k 1.0625
o.k.

50
in.
(b) e
Consider Eulers Equation

Page 1 of 17

48

310 48 D 1
4
4

30 12D 2

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

2 EA
Fc NF
2
Le

310

D 2
4

2 30 103

50

D
4

30 0.1875 3 D 4
D 1.507 in

1
2

say D 1 in 1.5 in
Le
50

133 120
k 1.5
o.k.

4
(c) For AISI 8640, OQT 1000 F
s y 150 ksi

2 2 E
Le

k
sy

1
2

Le 2 2 30 103

k
150

1
2

62.83

For (a) Le L 25 in.


Consider first J.B. Johnson

Fc NF s y A 1

Le

k
2
4 E

150 25
D
4
1
4 2 30 103

12.5

30 37.5D 2 1 2 2
D

Page 2 of 17

D 1.23 in
say D 1.25 in

310 150 D
4

30 37.5D 2

sy

468.75

SECTION 5 COLUMNS
Le
25

80 62.83
k 1.25
use Eulers equation

2 EA
Fc NF
2
Le

310

D 2
4

2 30 103

25

D
4

30 0.75 3 D 4
D 1.0657 in

say D 1

1
in 1.0625 in
16

Le
25

94 62.83
k 1.0625
ok

L
50 in.
For (b) e
Consider Eulers Equation
2 EA
Fc NF
2
Le

310

D 2
4

2 30 103

50

D
4

30 0.1875 3 D 4
D 1.507 in

1
2

say D 1 in 1.5 in
Le
50

133 62.83
k 1.5
o.k.

4
There is no advantage.
335.

A hollow circular column, made of AISI C1020, structural steel, as rolled, is to


support a load of 10,000 lb. Let L 40 in , Di 0.75Do , and N 3 .
Determine Do by (a) using either Eulers or the parabolic equation; (b) using the

Page 3 of 17

SECTION 5 COLUMNS
straight-line equation. (c) What factor of safety is given by the secant formula for
the dimensions found in (a)?
Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
s y 48 ksi

Le L 40 in
F 10,000 lb 10 kips

N 3

Di 0.75 Do
k

I
A

Do4 Di4
4
I
Do4 0.75 Do 0.033556 Do4
64
2
Do2 Di2 Do2 0.75Do
A

0.343612 Do2
4
4
4
0.033556 Do
k
0.3125 Do
0.343612 Do2

(a) Consider parabolic equation

Fc NF s y A 1

Le

k
4 2 E

sy

25
48 0.3125
Do

4
1
4 2 30 103

310

48 0.343612 Do

30 16.493376 D 10.9519
2
o

Do 1.576 in
9
say Do 1 in 1.5625 in
16

Le
40

82 120 o.k.
k
0.31251.5625

(b) Straight-line equation


F
L
16,000 70
A
k

Page 4 of 17

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

10,000
40
16,000 70
2
0.343612 Do
0.3125 Do

10,000 5498 D 3078 Do


Do 1.6574 in
5
say Do 1 in 1.625 in
8
2
o

Le
40

78.8 120 o.k.


k
0.31251.625

(c) Secant formula


L
NF
ec
NF
1 2 sec e
A
k
2k EA
Do 1.5625 in
k 0.3125 Do 0.4883 in
sy

A 0.343612 Do2 0.8389 in 2


ec
0.25 , (i7.8)
k2

48

N 10
40
1 0.25 sec
0.8389
2 0.4883

48 11.92 N 1 0.25 sec 0.81645


N 2.289

336.

s y 48 ksi

b 4 b 1
b 4 b 1

12
12
12
4

A b 2 b 1

A column is to be built up of -in., AISI C1020, rolled-steel plates, into a square


box-section. It is 6 ft long and centrally loaded to 80,000 lb. (a) Determine the
size of section for N 2.74 . (b) Compute N from the secant formula for the
size found and compare with 2.74.

Solution:
For AISI C1020, rolled-steel plate

10 N

3
30 10 0.8389

I
b 4 b 1

2
A
12 b 2 b 1

Le L 6 ft 72 in
F 80,000 lb 80 kips

(a) N 2.74
Page 5 of 17

SECTION 5 COLUMNS
Consider J.B. Johnson

NF s y A 1

Le

k
2
4 E

sy

72

2.74 80 48 A 1
2
3

4 30 10

219.2 48 A

48

10.085 A
k2

try b 3.23 in
k

3.23 4 3.23 1 4
2
2
12 3.23 3.23 1

1.1331 in

A b 2 b 1 3.23 3.23 1 5.46 in 2


2

219.2 48 5.46

10.085 5.46
219.2 ok
1.1331 2

Therefore use b 3.23 in


Le
72

63.54 120 o.k.


k 1.1331
b 3.23 in

(b) s y

or b 3

1
in
4

L
NF
ec
1 2 sec e
A
k
2k

NF
EA

ec
0.25 , (i7.8)
k2

48

N 80
72
1 0.25 sec
5.46
21.1331

80 N

3
30 10 5.46

48 14.652 N 1 0.25 sec 0.70214 N


N 2.2 2.74

337.

A column is to be made of -in structural steel plates (AISI 1020, as rolled),


welded into an I-section as shown in Table AT 1 with G H . The column, 15 ft
long, is to support a load of 125 kips. (a) Determine the cross-sectional
dimensions from the straight-line equation. (Using either Johnsons or Eulers
equation, compute the equivalent stress and the factor of safety. (c) Compute N
from the secant formula.

Page 6 of 17

SECTION 5 COLUMNS
Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
s y 48 ksi

Le L 15 ft 180 in
F 125 kips

Table AT 1.

GH
A GH gh H 2 H 0.5 H 1 H 2 H 2 1.5 H 0.5 1.5 H 0.5 0.5 3H 1
k

3
1 GH 3 gh3
1 H 4 H 0.5 H 1


12 GH gh
12
0.5 3H 1

(a) Straight-line equation


L

F 16,000 A 1 0.0044
k

180

125,000 16,000 A 1 0.0044


k

0.792

7.8125 A 1

use H 7.37 in

7.37 4 7.37 0.5 7.37 1 3


6 3 7.37 1
A 0.5 3 7.37 1 10.555 in

3.04527 in

0.792

7.8125 10.555 1
7.81
3.04527

Therefore use H 7.37 in


3
8

Or H 7 in 7.375 in
(b) Consider J.B. Johnson,

Page 7 of 17

Le
180

59 120
k 3.04527

H 4 H 0.5 H 1
6 3H 1

SECTION 5 COLUMNS
se
se

sy
N
F

L
sy e

k
A 1 2

4 E

sy
se

125

48 180

3.04527
10.555 1

4 2 30 103

13.8 ksi

48
3.48
13.8

(c) From secant formula


sy

L
NF
ec
1 2 sec e
A
k
2k

NF
EA

ec
0.25 , (i7.8)
k2

48

N 125
180
1 0.25 sec
10.555
2 3.04527

48 11 .843 N 1 0.25 sec 0.5872 N


N 2.8

338.

125 N

30 103 10.555

The link shown is to be designed for N 2.5 to support an axial compressive


load that varies from 0 to 15 kips; L 20 in ; Material AISI 1030, as rolled. (a)
Determine the diameter considering buckling only. (b) Determine the diameter
considering varying stresses and using the Soderberg line (perhaps too
conservative). Estimate an appropriate strength-reduction factor (see Fig. AF 6).
(c) Keeping in mind that the stress is always compressive, do you think that the
answer from (a) will do? Discuss.

Problem 338.
Solution:
For AISI C1030, as rolled
s y 51 ksi

su 80 ksi
Le 2 2 E

k
s y

L 20 in

Page 8 of 17

1
2

2 2 30 103

51

1
2

108

SECTION 5 COLUMNS
N 2.5

(a) F 15 kips
Consider J.B. Johnson

NF s y A 1

Le

k
2
4 E

sy

D
4
D 2
A
4
Le L 20 in

2.515 51 D


1
4 2

2.72

37.5 12.75 D 2 1 2 2
D

37.5 12.75 D 2
D 1.101 in

say D 1

34.68

3
in 1.1875 in
16

Le
20

68 108
o.k.
k 1.1875
4
(b) Variable stresses

sn 0.5su 0.5 80 40 ksi

Size factor = 0.85

sn 0.85 40 34 ksi
K f 2.8 (Figure AF 6)

1 sm K f sa

N sy
sn

F = 0 to 15 kips

Fm Fa 7.5 kips

sem sea

2.8 sem
1
s
em
2.5 51
34

sem 3.923 ksi

Page 9 of 17

20
D

4
30 103

51

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

Fm sem A 1

Le

k
4 2 E

sem

7.5 3.923

20

D
2
D
4

1
4
4 2 30 103

51

2.72

7.5 0.98 D 2 1 2 2
D

7.5 0.98 D 2
D 1.65 in

2.67

5
8

say D 1 in 1.625 in

Le
20

49 108
1
.
625
o.k.
k
4
(c) The answer in (a) will not do because it is lower than (b)
339.

The connecting link for a machine (see figure) is subjected to a load that varies
fro + 450 (tension) to 250 lb. The cross section is to have the proportions
G 0.4 H , t 0.1H , fillet radius r 0.05 H ; L 10 in ; material, AISI
C1020, as rolled. (a) Considering buckling only, determine the dimensions for a
design factor of 2.5. (b) For the dimension found compute the factor of safety
from the Soderberg criterion.

Problems 339, 340


Solution:
For AISI C1030, as rolled
s y 48 ksi

su 65 ksi

Table AT 1

Page 10 of 17

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

G 0.4 H
t 0.1H
r 0.05 H
A GH gh
g G t 0.4 H 0.1H 0.3H

h H 2 0.1H 0.8 H

A 0.4 H H 0.3H 0.8 H 0.16 H 2

3
3
1 GH 3 gh3
1 0.4 H H 0.3H 0.8 H

0.35824 H
12 GH gh
12
0.16 H 2

(a) Consider J.B. Johnson

NF s y A 1

Le

k
4 2 E

sy

F 350 lb 0.35 kip

Le 10 in

2.5 0.35

48 0.16 H 2

10
48
2

0
.
35824
H
1

2
3

4 30 10

0.875 7.68 H 0.2425


2

H 0.3815 in

Le
10

73 120 ok
0.35824 0.3815
k
15
in 0.46875 in
32
3
G 0.4 H 0.1875 in
in
16
3
t 0.1H 0.046875 in
in
64

say H

(b) with H 0.46875 in

A 0.16 0.46875 0.0352 in 2


k 0.35824 0.46875 0.1679 in
2

Page 11 of 17

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

smin s e

smax

350
Fmin
0.0352
A

11,600 psi 11.6 ksi


2
2

L
10
e

sy
48

k
1 0.1679
1 2

4 2 30 103
4 E

Fmax
450

12,800 psi 12.8 psi


A
0.0352

1
12.8 11.6 0.6 ksi
2
1
sa 12.8 11.6 12.1 ksi
2
su 0.5sn 0.5 65 32.5 ksi
sm

Size factor = 0.85

su 0.85 32.5 ksi 27.62 ksi

Figure AF 9, r 0.05 H 0.05 0.46875 0.023


h 1.5 H 15. 0.46875 0.7031 in

d H 0.4688 in

r
0.05 H

0.05
d
H
h 1.5 H

1.5
d
H
K t 2.65
1
1
q

0.70
0.01
0.01
1
1
r
0.023
K f 0.70 2.65 1 1 2.2
1 sm K f sq

N sy
sn

1
0.6 2.2 12.1

N
48
27.62
N 1.024

CHECK PROBLEMS
341.

The link shown is subjected to an axial compressive load of 15 kips. Made of


AISI C1030, as rolled, it has sectional length of 20 in. Assume a loose fit with the
pins. What is (a) the critical load for this column, (b) the design factor, (c) the
equivalent stress under a load of 15 kips? What material does the secant formula
indicate as satisfactory for the foregoing load, when (e) ec k 2 0.25 , (f)
L
e e .
400

Page 12 of 17

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

Problem 341, 342


Solution:
For AISI C1030, as rolled
s y 51 ksi

b 0.75 in
h 1.75 in

A bh 0.751.75 1.3125 in 2

For loose fit


bh 3
12

I
bh 3
h
1.75

0.5052 in
A
12bh
12
12

Le
20

39.6 108 for AISI C1030, as rolled


k 0.5052
use J.B. Johnson equation

(a)

Fc s y A 1

Le

k
2
4 E

sy

(b) Fc NF
F
62.42
N c
4.16
F
15
sy

51
12.26 ksi
N 4.16
F
15
11.43 ksi
(d) Actual s
A 1.3125

(c) se

Secant Formula
sy

(e)

L
NF
ec
1 2 sec e
A
k
2k

ec
0.25
k2

Page 13 of 17

20

51

0
.
5052

511.3125 1
2

4 30,000

NF
EA

62.42 kips

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

sy

62.42
20
1 0.25 sec
1.3125
2 0.5052

62.42

3
30 10 1.3125

64.4 ksi

use AISI C1020, cold drawn, s y 66 ksi


(f) e

Le
20

0.05 in
400 400

h 1.75

0.875 in
2
2

ec 0.05 0.875

0.1714
k2
0.5052 2

sy

62.42
20
1 0.1714 sec
1.3125
2 0.5052

62.42

3
30 10 1.3125

59.12 ksi

use AISI C1045, cold drawn, s y 59 ksi


343.

A schedule-40, 4-in. pipe is used as a column. Some of its properties are:


Do 4.5 in , Di 4.026 in , I 3.174 sq.in. , L 15 ft ; material equivalent
to AISI C1015, as rolled. The total load to be carried is 200 kips. (a) What
minimum number of these columns should be used if a design factor of 2.5 is
desired and the load evenly distributed among them? For the approximately fixed
ends, use Le 0.65 L as recommended by AISC. (b) What is the equivalent
stress in the column?

Solution:
For AISI C1015, as rolled
s y 45.5 ksi

Le 2 2 E 2 2 2 30 103

k
s y
45.5

L 15 ft 180 in

1
2

114

Le 0.65 L 0.65180 117 in

Le
117

77.5 114
k 1.509
Use J.B. Johnson equation

(a)

Le
sy

s y A
k
F
1
2
N
4 E

45.5 3.174

2 .5

No. of columns

200
4.5 say 5 columns
44.4

Page 14 of 17

45.5 77.5
44.4 kips
4 2 30,000
2

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

se

F
A
2
L
sy e
k
1 2
4 E

(b)

200
40 kips
5

se

344.

40
3.174
16.4 ksi
2
77.5
45.5

k

1
4 2 30,000

A generally loaded column is a 10-in. x 49 lb., wide-flange I-beam whose


properties are (see figure); k x 4.35 in , k y 2.54 in , area A 14.4 sq.in. ,
I x 272.9 in 4 , I y 93.0 in 4 ; length L 30 ft , material AISI 1022, as rolled.
Let the ends be a little fixed with Le 0.8L and determine the critical load (a)
according to the Johndon or the Euler equation; (b) according to the secant
formula if ec k 2 is assumed to be 0.25.

Solution:
For AISI C1022, as rolled
s y 52 ksi

Le 2 2 E

k
s y

1
2

(a) k 2.54 in
I 93.0 in 4

Le 0.8 30 12 288 in

Le 288

113 .4 107
k
2.54
Use Eulers Equation

Page 15 of 17

2 2 30 10 3

52

1
2

107

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

2 EA 2 30,00014.4
Fc

332 kips
2
113.4 2
Le

k
(b) Secant formula
sy

L
NF
ec
1 2 sec e
A
k
2k

52

113 .4
Fc
1 0.25 sec
14.4
2

52

Fc
1 0.25 sec 0.0863 Fc
14.4

NF
EA

Fc

3
30 10 14.4

Fc 273 kips

348.

A 4 x 3 x -in. angle is used as a flat-ended column, 5 ft. long, with the resultant
load passing through the centroid G (see figure); k x 1.25 in , k y 0.86 in ,
k u 1.37 in , k v 0.64 in , A 3.25 sq.in. Find the safe load if N 2.8 and
the material is (a) structural steel, (b) magnesium alloy AZ 91C ( i7.12.\, Text), (c)
magnesium alloy AZ 80A, (d) magnesium alloy AZ 80A as before, but use the
Johnson formula and compare.

Solution:
L 512
Le
30 in
2
2
k k min 0.64 in

Le
30

46.875
k
0.64
(a) Structural steel, s y 48 ksi
Le
46.875 120
k
use J.B. Johnson

Le
sy

s y A
k
F
1 2
N
4 E

48 3.25 1 48 46.875 50.75 kips


2

2.8
4 30,000

(b) magnesium alloy AZ 91C

Page 16 of 17

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

NF

C
2

L
C e
k
1
64.4 106

C 57,000

2.8 F
3.25

57,000
psi
2
57,000 46.875
1
64.4 10 6

F 22,467 lb 22.467 kips

(c) magnesium alloy AZ 80A


C 82,900

2.8 F
3.25

82,900
psi
2
82,900 46.875
1
64.4 106

F 25,134 lb 25.134 kips

(d) By J.B. Johnson


For magnesium alloy AZ 80A, s y 36 ksi

Le
sy

s y A
k
F
1 2
N
4 E

36 3.25

2.8

36 46.875
39 kips 25.134 kips
4 2 30,000
2

- end -

Page 17 of 17