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FROM THE EDITOR'S DESK

EXAM TACTICS:

Tackling JEE
Made Easy
The present structure of JEE includes a two tier examination
system i.e. JEE Mains and JEE Advanced. Let us explore them
one by one

JEE MAINS PAPER


In Physics, most of the problems are numerical based along
with some graphs and other figure based questions.
Although, the pattern or frame of the paper is not fixed, but
the analysis of past three examinations suggest following
weightage (approximately) of topics in the
Mechanics

6-12 questions

Fluid Mechanics

1-2 questions

Heat and Thermodynamics

3-5 questions

Waves and Oscillations

2-4 questions

Electrostat and Electric Current

2-11 questions

Magnetism and Magnetic Effects of Current

2-5 questions

Optics

3-6 questions

EMI and AC

2-4 questions

Modern Physics

2-5 questions

Miscellaneous

2-5 questions

The class coverage wise analysis of 2015 JEE Mains suggests


44% questions from class 11th syllabus and 56% questions
from class 12th syllabus.
The difficulty level wise analysis of 2015 JEE Mains paper
suggests the presence of 26% easy questions, 16% tough
questions and 58% medium level questions.

MANTRAS TO CRACK JEE MAINS


The two tier examination pattern was introduced in 2013.
The weightage of board percentage in final merit was one of
the features of this system. The JEE Mains paper of this
examination system is comparable with the IIT JEE
screening examination of late nineties and early twenties.
For successfully facing this kind of examination try to focus on
following points:
One must prepare for final exam (JEE Advanced) only,
i.e. do not target Mains examinations first. In my
opinion, Chote exams target karne se kabhi bhi
bade results nahin milte, i.e. targeting smaller
exams never gives big results. If you consider JEE
Advanced as your target then Mains will be cleared
automatically.

In my opinion, Mains is only a screening to differentiate between


serious and non-serious aspirants. Thus, if you are among the
serious lot than Mains will be of no problem to you.
The analysis of 2013, 2014 and 2015 JEE Mains paper clearly
suggests the importance of class 11th syllabus for this paper, i.e.
46% in Physics, 33% in Chemistry and 57% in Mathematics. So, a
real grip over class 11th syllabus is required to succeed in JEE
Mains paper.
Nobody can deny the importance of NCERT Textbooks for this
examination. Thus, a good command over NCERT textbooks is
required for a great performance in this examination.
For capturing NCERT line by line very recently, I saw Master the
NCERT. A book, in which objective type questions are framed on
each and every line of NCERT. This book can be very helpful to get
success in this examination.
Choose offline or online paper in accordance of your comfort zone
and fine preparation. Both the examinations have the own
advantages or disadvantages. The difficulty levels are also more or
less same in both the formats of JEE Mains but on analysis it is
quite visible that the online paper is framed on a slightly tougher
side.
Although, the questions paper contains all the three subjects and
merit formation includes total marks obtained in the paper but
remember subject wise cut off also exists in JEE. So, a balance in
preparation is required subject wise to save you from such a
subject wise cut off.
As all the questions are single answer type MCQs hence, use
elimination technique in those questions where you dont have
clue about the correct option, but you have clue about incorrect
options. Eliminate 3 incorrect options to get the most probable
correct option.
As negative marking is there, hence be cautious in answering the
questions. Do not take so much of risks.

JEE ADVANCED PAPER


The JEE Advanced paper is based upon old IIT JEE paper till 2013. It has
2 papers in total, i.e. first in the morning session (9 am to 12 pm) and
second in the afternoon session (2 pm-5pm). Both the papers contain 20
questions per subject, i.e. total 60 questions per paper. The question
paper pattern is not at all fixed.

In 2015 Advanced paper following pattern was followed:

PAPER 1
Section 1 with 8 Integer Type Questions
Section 2 with 10 MCQs having One or More than One
Correct Option
Section 3 with 2 Matrix Match Questions.
PAPER 2
Section 1 with 8 Integer Type Questions
Section 2 with 8 MCQs having One or More than One
Correct Option
Section 3 with 2 Paragraphs having 2 questions each.
In both the papers, section 2 and 3 had a negative marking of
50%.
However, in 2014 JEE Advanced questions paper following
pattern was followed :

PAPER 1
10 Multiple Choice Questions which are one or more than
one answer correct.
10 Integer Type Questions. All the 20 questions with 3
marks each with no negative marking.
PAPER 2
10 Multiple Choice Questions with only one answer
correct.
3 Paragraphs with 2 question each having only One
Answer Correct.
A Matching Type MCQs with one answer correct.
All the questions with 3 marks each and there is the
negative marking of 1/3, i.e. +3 for correct answer and 1
for wrong answer.
Thus, the uniqueness of JEE Advanced paper lies in 2 facts i.e.
Its surprising element Every year JEE Advanced paper
incorporates one or more surprise elements e.g. in 2014,
negative marking in paper 2 was the surprised element.
Similarly, the frame of question paper was changed in 2013 as
compared to the one seen in 2012 IIT-JEE paper.
Its variety of questions In both 2015 and 2014 JEE Advanced
paper following type of questions were asked
Single answer correct (MCQs)
More than one answer correct (MCQs)
Integer type question
Linked comprehension type
Matching type
The matrix match type which was the usual component of IIT
JEE papers before 2013, become reintroduced in 2015. Likewise
comprehension linked questions were 2 per passage in 2015
and 2014, while it was 3 per passage in IIT JEE before 2013.

So, we can say the nature of JEE Advanced paper is very dynamic.
No pattern is fixed for the paper. The syllabus wise distribution of
marks is more or less same as that seen in JEE Mains paper.

MANTRAS TO CRACK JEE ADVANCED


I personally feel that JEE Advanced is one of the toughest exam,
among those of same nature we have worldwide. I also believe in the
fact that more organised examinations are always easier to crack. So,
although it is toughest pattern or frame wise, but if we planned
scientifically than we can hit the bulls eye.
For scientific planning following points must be kept in mind :
Dedicate your 2 years study to this particular exam only with
keeping in mind that the board weightage is one of the
considerations in this examination for final merit hence a dual
target planning has to be executed as given in chapter 5.
Phase wise learning and practice is a must to crack these kinds
of examinations. After having the analysis of previous year
exams some conclusions can be drawn easily like, those about
(i) the weightage of class 11th syllabus.
(ii) the difficulty level distribution among the questions of
previous year papers.
(iii) the topic wise, question wise distribution of questions
(iv) the topic wise, marks wise distribution
Such conclusions will help in strategy development according to
your strength and weaknesses.
If you will be approaching phase wise towards this
examination, then it is very clear that till Mains you would be
having very less opportunities to practice different question
types which are the features of JEE Advanced only. Utilise the
period between JEE Mains and JEE Advanced for this purpose.
A mass of students waste their some of this precious time in the
wait of Mains result. Dont ever commit this kind of mistake.
Be optimistic, if you have JEE advanced as the target from day 1
in your mind than you would clear JEE Mains with surety.
The surprise attack is one of the most lethal weapon of this
examination, hence, those aspirants who dont have any kind
of premature frame about the pattern of question paper in
their mind, has better chances of hitting the target. So, never
create the premature frame of question paper in your mind.
The large time span (9am to 5pm) is a very crucial factor in this
examination. Such a large time span creates tiredness of all
kind (i.e. physical as well as mental) in any person. So during
the gap of 2 hrs between Paper 1 and 2 try to relax as much as
you can. Remember! The more you relax, better you perform.
Last but not the least, a balance between the approaches towards
Subjective and Objective formats is required to succeed in IIT as a
whole as in present format the final merit also includes the
weightage of your Board examinations.
Always keep in mind the words of Sir Winston Churchill

The pessimist sees difficulty in every opportunity.


The optimist sees opportunity in every difficulty.

Formulae at a Glance
Gravitation

where, h is height of a satellite.


2
Time period of a satellite, T =
R

Mechanical Properties of Fluids

( R + h )3
g
1/ 3

T 2 R2 g
Height of satellite above the earths surface, h =
R
2
4
GMm
Total energy of satellite, E = PE + KE =
2( R + h )
where, M is mass of the earth and m is the mass of the satellite.
GMm
Binding energy of satellite, E =
( R + h)
2 GM
Escape speed, ve =
= 2 gR
R

Mechanical Properties of Solids

1
1
F L = Load Extension
2
2
Relation between Y , B,G and
(i) y = 3 B (1 2 )
(ii) y = 2 G (1 + )
3B 2G
9 1 3
(iii) =
(iv) = +
2G + 6B
y B G
Thermal stress = y Thermal strain = y
where, is the coefficient of linear expansion of the solid rod.
=

G m1 m 2
Newtons law of gravitation, F =
, where G is the universal
r2
gravitational constant, m1 and m 2 are point mass bodies.
GM
Acceleration due to gravity, g = 2 , where M and R are the mass
R
and radius of the earth.
gR 2
2h
and g = g 1
Effect of altitude, g =
, where h is height
R
( R + h )2

of an object.
d
Effect of depth, g = g 1 , where d is depth of the earth.
R

Effect of rotation of earth, g = g R 2 cos 2


GM
Intensity of gravitational field, I = 2 , where distance r from the
r
centre of the body of mass M.
Work done (W ) GM
Gravitational potential, V =
=
Test mass ( M 0 )
r
Gravitational potential energy, U = Gravitational potential Mass of
GM
the body =
m
r
g
Orbital speed of a satellite, vO = R
R+h

Normal stress
F / A Mg l
=
=
Longitudinal strain l / l r 2 l
Normal stress
p
pV
Bulk modulus, B =
=
=
Volumetric strain V / V
V
1
V
Compressibility =
=
Bulk modulus
pV
Tangential stress
F/ A
FL
F
Modulus of rigidity, G =
=
=
=
Shearing strain
L/L AL A
If a spring or a wire follows Hookes law, then spring constant or
F YA
force constant is given by K =
= , where l is the length of wire
l
l
and A is the area of cross-section of the wire.
The number of atoms having interatomic distance r0 , in length l of a
wire is N = l / r0
Lateral strain
R / R Rl
Poissons ratio =
=
=
Longitudinal strain
l / l
R l
Elastic potential energy stored per unit volume of a strained body,
1
(Stress )2 Y (Strain )2
u = Stress Strain =
=
2
2Y
2
where, Y is the Youngs modulus of elasticity of a solid body.
Work done in a stretched wire,
1
W = Stress Strain Volume
2

Youngs modulus, Y =

1 bar = 10 6 dyne/cm 2
1 torr = 1 mm of mercury
1 pascal = N/m 2
Thrust = Pressure Area = hg A
Density of substance
Relative density of the substance =
Density of water at 4 C
Apparent weight of the body of density when immersed in a liquid
of density = Actual weight Upward thrust
1
Bernoullis equation is given by p + v 2 + gh = constant
2
1
where, p = pressure, v 2 = kinetic energy per unit volume and
2
gh = potential energy per unit volume.
The velocity of efflux is given by v = 2 gh
where, h = depth of the hole below the free surface.
dv
Viscous force is given by F = A
dy
where, = coefficient of viscosity, A = area of layer of fluid in contact
dv
and
= velocity gradient between the layers.
dy
pR 4
Poiseuilles formula V =
8 L
where, V = volume of liquid coming out of tube per second
L = length of the capillary tube
R = radius of the capillary tube
p = pressure difference across the tube
2 r 2 ( )g
Terminal velocity, vT =
9
where, r = radius of the body, = density of material, = density of
fluid, = coefficient of viscosity.
Surface tension, T = F / l
where, F = force acting on one side of imaginary line of length l.
2 S cos
Ascent formula, h =
rg
where, S = surface tension of liquid, = angle of contact, r = radius of
capillary tube, = density of liquid, g = acceleration due to gravity.
2T
Excess pressure in a liquid drop of radius r, p =
r
where, T = surface tension of the liquid drop.
4T
Excess pressure in a soap bubble of radius r, p =
r
Excess pressure in a soap bubble of radius r, when it is inside a
2T
liquid, p =
r
If two droplets of radii r1 , and r2 in vacuum coalesce under isothermal
conditions, then the radius of the big drop is given by r = 3 r13 + r23

The viscous force ( F ) acting on a spherical body of radius r moving


with velocity v through a medium of coefficient of viscosity is given
by Stokes law as F = 6 r v
R
Critical velocity of a liquid ( vc ) is given by vc = e
D
where, = coefficient of viscosity of liquid,
= density of liquid
and D = diameter of tube and Re = Reynolds number.

29

General Instructions
1. This test consists of 30 questions.
2. Each question is allotted 4 marks for correct response.
3. 1/4 marks will be deducted for indicating incorrect response of each question. No deduction from the total score will
be made if no response is indicated in each question.
4. There is only one correct response for each question. Filling up more than one response in any question will be treated
as wrong response and marks for wrong response will be deducted according as per instructions.

1. The speed of ripples (v) on the surface of water depends

on the surface tension (), density ( ) and wavelength


(). The square of speed (v) is proportional to

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2. Two bodies of masses m1 and m2 are initially at rest at


infinite distance apart. They are then allowed to move
towards each other under mutual gravitational
attraction. Their relative velocity of approaching at a
separation distance r is
(a) 2G

1/ 2

( m1 m2 )

r
1/ 2

1/ 2

2G
(b)
( m1 + m2 )
r

1/ 2

r
(c)

2G ( m1m2 )

2G
(d)
m1 m2
r

3. A long horizontal rod has a bead which can slide along


its length and initially placed at a distance L from one
end A of the rod. The rod is set in angular motion about
A with constant angular acceleration . If the
coefficient of friction between the rod and the bead is ,
and gravity is neglected, then the time after which the
beads starts slipping is
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

4. A block of mass m is placed on a smooth wedge of


inclination . The whole system is accelerated
horizontally so that the block does not slip on the

30

wedge. The force exerted by the wedge on the block


(g is acceleration due to gravity) will be
(a) mg cos

(b) mg sin

(c) mg

(d)

mg
cos

5. A light inextensible string that goes over


a smooth fixed pulley as shown in the
figure connects two blocks of masses
T
(m1 = 0.32 kg) and (m2 = 0.72 kg). Taking
T
2
g = 10 m/s , find the work done (in a m1
m2 a
joules) by the string on the block of mass
0.36 kg during the first second after the
system is released from rest
(a) 6 J

(b) 5 J

(c) 8 J

(d) 4 J

6. A body is moved along a straight line by a machine


delivering constant power. The distance moved by the
body in time t is proportional to
(a) t 1 / 2
(c) t

(b) t 3 / 4

3/ 2

(d) t 2

7. The potential energy function for the force between


two atoms in a diatomic molecule is approximately
a
b
given by U (x) = 12 6 , where a and b are constants
x
x
and x is the distance between the atoms. If the
dissociation energy of the molecule is
D = [U (x = ) Uat equilibrium ], where D is
(a)

b2
6a

(b)

b2
2a

(c)

b2
12 a

(d)

b2
4a

8. Three rods of identical area of cross-section and made

14. Let there be a spherically symmetric charge

from the same metal from the sides of an isosceles


triangle ABC, right-angled at B. The points A and B are
maintained at temperatures T and 2 T, respectively.
In the steady state, the temperature of the point C is TC .
T
Assuming that only heat conduction takes place, C is
T
equal to

distribution with charge density varying as


5 r
(r)0 upto r = R, and (r) = 0 for r > R, where r is
4 R
the distance from the origin. The electric field at a
distance r (r < R) from the origin is given by

(a)

(b)

( 2 + 1)

3
( 2 + 1)

(c)

1
2 ( 2 1)

(d)

1
3 ( 2 + 1)

9. The change in the entropy of a 1 mole of an ideal gas


which went through an isothermal process from an
initial state (p1 , V1 , T) to the final state (p2 , V2 , T) is equal
to
(a) zero

(b) R ln T

(c) R ln

V1
V2

(d) R ln

V2
V1

10. Two identical containers A and B with frictionless


pistons contain the same ideal gas at the same
temperature and the same volume V . The mass of the
gas in A is mA and that in B is mB . The gas in each
cylinder is now allowed to expand isothermally to the
same final volume 2V. The changes in the pressure in A
and B are found to be p and 1.5 p, respectively. Then,

(a) 4 mA = 9 mB
(c) 3 mA = 2 mB

(b) 2 mA = 3 mB
(d) 9 mA = 3 mB

11. For the circuit shown below E1 = 4.0 V, R1 = 2 ,


E2 = 6.0 V, R2 = 4 and R3 = 2 . The current I1 is
(a) 1.6 A

(b) 1.8 A
E1=4 V

(c) 1.25 A

(d) 1.0 A

R1=2

0r
4 0
r
(c) 0
4 0
(a)

between two other fixed similar charges each of


magnitude Q placed at a distance 2d apart. The system
is collinear as shown in the figure. The particle is now
displaced by a small amount x (x < < d) along the line
joining the two charges and is left to itself. It will now
oscillate about the mean position with a time period
(0 = permittivity of free space)
d
Q

E2=6 V

R2=4

12. A wire of resistance 10 is bent


to form a circle. P and Q are
P
points on the circumference of
3V
the circle dividing it into a
Q
1
quadrant and are connected to a
battery of 3 V and internal
resistance 1 as shown in the figure. The currents in
the two parts of the circle are
6
18
A and
A
23
23
4
12
(c)
A and
A
25
25

5
15
A and
A
26
26
3
9
(d)
A and
A
25
25

(b)

13. Two equal negative charge q are fixed at the fixed

points (0, a) and (0, a) on the Y-axis. A positive charge q


is released from the point (2 a, 0) on the X-axis. The
charge q will
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

M 0d
M 0d
(b) 2
Qq
Qq
3

(a) 2

(c) 2

3 M 0d 3
3 M 0
(d) 2
Qq
Qq d 3

16. The field normal to the plane of a wire of n turns and


radius r which carries a current i is measured on the
axis of the coil at a small distance h from the centre of
the coil. This is smaller than the field at the centre by
the fraction
3 h2
2 r2

(b)

2 h2
3 r2

(c)

3 r2
2 h2

(d)

2 r2
3 h2

17. A solenoid has a core of material with relative


R3=2

I2

(a)

(b)

15. A particle of mass M and charge q is at the mid-point

(a)
I1

4 0r 5
r

3 0 3 R
4 r 5
r
(d) 0
3 0 4 R

5 r

4 R
5 r

3 R

execute simple harmonic motion about the origin


move to the origin and remains at rest
move to infinity
execute oscillatory but not of simple harmonic motion

permeability 500 and its windings carry a current of1 A.


The number of turns of the solenoid is 500 per metre.
The magnetisation of the material is nearly
(a) 2.5 10 3 Am1
(c) 2.0 10 3 Am1

(b) 2.5 10 5 Am1


(d) 2.0 10 5 Am1

18. A magnet is suspended in the magnetic meridian with


an untwisted wire. The upper end of wire is rotated
through 180 to deflect the magnet by 30 from
magnetic meridian. When this magnet is replaced by
another magnet, the upper end of wire is rotated
through 270 to deflect the magnet 30 from
magnetic meridian. The ratio of magnetic moments of
magnets is
(a) 1 : 5
(c) 5 : 8

(b) 1 : 8
(d) 8 : 5

19. Each atom of an iron bar ( 5 cm 1 cm 1 cm) has a

magnetic moment 18
. 10 23 Am 2 . Knowing that the
density of iron is 7.78 103 kg- m3 , atomic weight is 56
and Avogadros number is 6.02 1023 , the magnetic
moment of bar in the state of magnetic saturation
will be
(a) 4.75 Am2
(c) 7.54 Am2

(b) 5.74 Am2


(d) 75.4 Am2

31

20. An inductor of inductance L = 400 mH and resistors of

resistances R1 = 2 and R2 = 2 are connected to a


battery of emf 12V as shown in the figure. The internal
resistance of the battery is negligible. The switch S is
closed at t = 0. The potential drop across L as a function
of time is

25. Figure shows a circuit in which three identical


diodes are used. Each diode has forward resistance of
20 and infinite backward resistance. Resistors
R1 = R2 = R3 = 50 . Battery voltage is 6 V. The current
through R3 is
D1

E
R1

D2

(a) 50 mA
(c) 60 mA

12 3 t
V
e
t

(b)

(c) 6 1 e 0. 2 V

(d) 12 e 5 t V

on the capacitor is q. The charge on the capacitor when


the energy is stored equally between the electric and
magnetic field is
q

(c)

(d)

q
3

22. A simple pendulum with bob of mass m and conducting


wire of length L swings under gravity through an angle
2. The earths magnetic field component in the
direction perpendicular to swing is B. Maximum
potential difference induced across the pendulum is

A2 with half-lives of 20 s and 10 s, respectively. Initially,


the mixture has 40 g of A1 and 160 g of A2 . The amount
of the two in the mixture will become equal after
(a) 60 s
(c) 20 s

27. Hydrogen atom from excited state comes to the ground

state by emitting a photon of wavelength . If R is the


Rydbergs constant, the principal quantum number n of
the excited state is
(a)

R
R 1

(b)

R 1

(c)

R 2
R 1

(d)

R
1

at the centre is 3 mm. If the speed of light in the


material of the lens is 2 108 m/s, find the focal length
of the lens.
(a) 15 cm
(c) 30 cm

(b) BL sin ( gL )
2

(d) BL sin ( gL )2
2

23. An -particle of 5 MeV energy strikes with a nucleus of


uranium at stationary at an scattering angle of 180.
The nearest distance upto which -particle reaches the
nucleus will be of the order of
(a) 1

(b) 10 10 cm

(c) 10 12 cm

(d) 10 15 cm

24. When a certain metal surface is illuminated with light

of frequency , the stopping potential for photoelectric


current is V0 . When the same surface is illuminated by

V
light of frequency , the stopping potential is 0 . The
2
4
threshold frequency for photoelectric emission is

(a)
6

32

(b)
3

(b) 80 s
(d) 40 s

28. Diameter of a plano-convex lens is 6 cm and thickness

(a) 2 BL sin ( gL )1/ 2


2

(c) BL sin ( gL )3/ 2


2

(b) 100 mA
(d) 25 mA

26. A mixture consists of two radioactive materials A1 and

21. For an oscillation of L-C circuit, the maximum charge

(b)

R3

6V

(a) 6 e 5 t V

q
2

R2

D3

R2

(a)

R1

2
(c)
3

4
(d)
3

(b) 20 cm
(d) 10 cm

29. A car is fitted with a convex side-view mirror of focal


length 20 cm. A second car 2.8 m behind the first car is
overtaking the first car at a relative speed of 15 m/s.
The speed of the image of the second car as seen in the
mirror of the first one is
1
m/s
10
(c) 10 m/s
(a)

1
m/s
15
(d) 15 m/s
(b)

30. In Youngs double slit experiment, the two slits acts as


coherent sources of equal amplitude A and wavelength
. In another experiment with the same set up; the two
slits are of equal amplitude A but are incoherent. The
ratio of the intensity of light at the mid-point of the
screen in the first case to that in the second case is
(a) 1 : 2
(c) 4 : 1

(b) 2 : 1
(d) 1 : 1

Answers with Explanation


1. (a) As speed of ripples ( v ) ab c
Equating dimensions on both sides, we get
[M0 L1T 1 ] [MT 2 ]a [ML3 ]b [L ]c
[M0 L1T 1 ] [M]a + b [L ] 3b + c [T] 2a
Equating the powers of M, L and T on both sides, we get
a + b = 0, 3b + c = 1, 2 a = 1
Solving above equations, we get
a = 1 / 2, b = 1 / 2, c = 1 / 2

v 1/ 2 1/ 2 1/ 2

v2

2. (b) Let velocities of their masses at distance r from each other


be v1 and v 2, respectively.
By conservation of momentum, m1v1 m2v 2 = 0
...(i)

m1v1 = m2v 2
By conservation of energy, Change in potential energy =
Change in kinetic energy
G m1m2 1
1
= m1v12 + m2v 22
2
2
r
2 Gm1m2
(ii)

m1v12 + m2v 22 =
r
On solving Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get
v1 =

2 Gm22
and v 2 =
r ( m1 + m2 )

2 Gm12
r ( m1 + m2 )

Relative velocity of approach


2G
vapp = | v1| + | v 2| =
( m1 + m2 )
r

For the condition of equilibrium,


g sin
mg sin = ma cos a =
cos
Force exerted by the wedge on the block
R = mg cos + ma sin
g sin
or
R = mg cos + m
sin
cos
mg (cos 2 + sin2 )
cos
mg

R =
cos
=

5. (c) In the given condition, tension in the string


T =

and acceleration of each block


m m1
072
. 0.36
10
a= 2
m/s 2
g =
10 =
3
. + 0.36
m1 + m2
072
Let s is the distance covered by block of mass 0.36 kg in first
second.
1
1 10
10
m
s = ut + at 2 0 + 12 =
2
2 3
6
10
= 8J
Work done by the string (W ) = Ts = 4.8
6

6. (c) As, we know power

For critical condition, Frictional force provides the centripetal


force, i.e.

P
P
v2
dt = vdv
t =
2
m
m
2P
v =

Now, s =
L

m 2L = R = m at = Lm

m (t )2 L = mL
Time taken by bead to start slipping,

t =

mg sin

mg

mg cos
+
ma sin

v dt =

2P
s =

s t 3/ 2

1/ 2

2P

1/ 2

t 1/ 2 dt

2 t 3/ 2
3

a
b
6
x12
x
dU 12 a 6b
F =
= 13 7
dx
x
x

[As, = t]

ma cos

ma

(t )1/ 2

U ( x) =

pseudo force (ma) works on a block towards right.

1/ 2

7. (d) As, potential energy function

4. (d) When the whole system is accelerated towards left, then

2 m1m2
.
2 0.36 072
g =
10 = 4.8 N
.
108
( m1 + m2 )

dv
P = Fv = mav = m
dt

3. (a) Let the bead starts slipping after time t .

[Q sin2 + cos 2 = 1]

2a
x =
b

1/ 6

U( x = ) = 0
b2
b
a
=

Uequilibrium =
2
4a
2a
2a


b
b
b2 b2
.
U ( x = ) Uequilibrium = 0
=
4a 4a

33

8. (b) Q TB > TA Heat will flow B to A via two paths (i) B to A (ii)
and along BCA as shown
Rate of flow of heat in path BCA
will be same, i.e.
Q
Q
=

t BC t CA

TC
3
=
T
( 2 + 1)

10
= 2.5 and
4
3
Resistance of part PMQ, R 2 = 10 = 7.5
4
Resistance of part PNQ, R1 =

(T) A

K ( 2T TC ) A K (TC T ) A
=
a
2a

12. (a) In the following figure,

i2

a2

B
2 TB

9. (d) The change in entropy of an

Q
(i)
T
In isothermal process, temperature does not change, i.e.
internal energy which is a function of temperature will remains
same, i.e. U = 0.
First law of thermodynamics gives
U = Q W or 0 = Q W or Q = W
i.e., Q = Work done by gas in isothermal process which
went through from ( p1, V1,T ) to ( p2, V2, T )
V
(ii)
Q = RT loge 2

V1

For 1 mole of an ideal gas, = 1, so from Eq. (i) and Eq. (ii),
we get
V
V
S = R loge 2 = R ln 2
V1
V1

10. (c) As, process is isothermal. Therefore, T

is constant,
p 1 volume is increasing, therefore, pressure will

decreases.
In chamber A

Req =

R1 R 2
2.5 7.5
15
=
=

R1 + R 2 (2.5 + 7.5)
8

Main current, i =

A RT A RT A RT

=
V
2V
2V

B RT B RT B RT

=
V
2V
2V
A
1
2
From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get
=
=
.
3
B 15
mA / M 2
=

3 mA = 2 mB
mB / M
3

13. (d) By symmetry of problem, the components of force on Q


due to charges at A and B along Y-axis will cancel each other
along X-axis will add up and will be along CO.
Under the action of this force change q will move towards O.
If at any time, charge q is at a distance x from O. Net force on
charge q.
qq
1
x
Fnet = 2 F cos = 2 .

4 0 ( a 2 + x 2 ) ( a 2 + x 2 )1 / 2
2qqx
1

4 o ( a 2 + x 2 )3 / 2

...(i)

A q
a

...(ii)

E1=4 V
I1

R1=2

i1

Therefore, the restoring force Fnet is not linear, motion will be


oscillatory (with amplitude 2 a) but not Simple Harmonic
Motion.
r
r
5
r
14. (c) Total charge, q = dv = 0 4 r 2dr
0

I2

2
E2=6 V

i2

= 4 0
E=
(i)
...(ii)

5r 2

R2=4

For Loop (1), 2 i 1 2 ( i 1 i 2 ) + 4 = 0

2 i1 i 2 = 2
For Loop (2), 2 ( i 1 i 2 ) + 4i 2 6 = 0

i 1 + 3i 2 = 3
On solving Eq (i) and Eq (ii), we get i 1 = 18
. A

34

2a

(i1i2)
R3=2

11. (b) Applying Kirchhoffs law for the loops (1) and (2) as shown
in the figure.

24 18
6
A

=
23 23 23

and i 2 = ( i i 1 ) =

In chamber B

1.5 p = pi pf =

24
3
A
=
15 + 1 23

R 2 24 7.5 18
So, i 1 = i
A

=
=
R1 + R 2 23 2.5 + 7.5 23

i.e. Fnet =

p = pi pf =

3 V, 1

C (TC)

ideal gas S =

P
i1
N

5r 3
r3
r4

dr = 4 0
4R
R
12

5r 3
Kq
1
r4
=

. 4 0
2
2
4R
r
4 0 r
12
0r 5
r

4 0 3 R

15. (c) Restoring force on displacement of x

19. (c) The number of atoms per unit volume in a specimen is

Qq

1
1
Qq
F =K

= KQq

2
2
2
2
(d + x )
(d + x )
(d x )
(d x )
4 dx
4 dx
= K Qq 2
= K Qq 4 if (d > > x )
2 2

d
(d x )
4x
= K Qq 3
d
Acceleration, a =

4KQq
F
4KQq
=
x 2 =
M
Md 3
Md 3

Time Period, T =

2
= 2

Md 3
3Md 30
=2
Qq
4KQq

0 2 in 0 n1

4
2 r
r
Field at a distance h from the centre
2 nir 2

B2 = 0 . 2
4 ( r + h2 )3/ 2

16. (a) Field at the centre B1 =

= 0
2

nir 2

h2
r 1 + 2
r

3 h2
= B1 1 . 2
2 r

3/ 2

h2
= B1 1 + 2
r

NA
A
For iron = 7.8 10 3 kgm3
NA = 6.02 10 26 /kg mol
A = 56
7.8 10 3 6.02 10 26
n=
= 8.38 10 28 m3

56
Total number of atoms in the bar is
N0 = nV = 8.38 10 28 ( 5 10 2 1 10 2 1 10 2 )
N0 = 419
. 10 23
The saturated magnetic moment of bar
= 419
. 10 23 18
. 10 23
2
= 7.54 Am
n=

20. (d) Electric field across BC, E


LdI1
+ R 2 I2
dt
12 V
I2 = I0 (1 e t /t 0 )
E
12
I0 =
=
= 6A
R2
2
=

3 / 2

400 10 3
L
=
R
2
= 02
. s

I2 = 6 (1 e t / 0. 2 )
Potential drop across L = E R 2 I2
= 12 2 6 (1 e t / 0. 2 )
= 12 e t / 0. 2 = 12 e 5 t V
= t0 =

[By Binomial theorem]

Hence, B2 is less than B1 by a fraction =

3h 2
.
2r2

17. (b) Here, n = 500 turns/m


I = 1 A , r = 500
As r = 1 + , where is the magnetic susceptibility of the
material or = ( r 1)
Magnetisation (M) = H = ( r 1) H = ( 500 1) 500 Am 1
= 499 500 Am 1
= 2.495 105 Am 1
~
2.5 105 Am 1

18. (c) Let M1 and M 2 be the magnetic moments of magnets and


H is the horizontal component of earths field.
We have = MHsin. If is the twist of wire, then = c , c
being restoring couple per unit twist of wire.

c = MH sin

rad
Here, 1 = (180 30 ) = 150 = 150
180

rad
2 = (270 30 ) = 240 = 240
180
So,
c 1 = M1H sin [For deflection = 30 of I magnet]
c 2 = M 2H sin [For deflection = 30 of II magnet]

M
Dividing 1 = 1
2 M 2

150
M1

180 = 15 = 5
= 1 =
M 2 2 240
24 8
180
M1 : M 2 = 5 : 8

B
I2

I1

L
R1
R2

S
D

21. (b) Maximum energy stored in the capacitor


q2
2C
The energy is stored equally in electric and magnetic fields.
1 q2
So, energy in electric field, E =

2 2C
Umax =

q
1 q2
=
2C 2 2C
Net charge inside a capacitor,
q

q =
2

Now,

22. (a) From the given figure,

h = L (1 cos )
Maximum velocity at equilibrium is
given by
v 2 = 2 gh = 2 gL (1 cos )

= 2 gL 2 sin2

2
Thus, maximum potential difference

(i)

v = 2 gL sin

Vmax = B L = B 2 gL sin L
2

= 2 BL sin ( gL )1/ 2
2

35

23. (c) At closest distance of approach

28. (c) According to lens formula,

i.e. Kinetic energy = Potential energy


1
( Ze )( Ze )
5 1016 16
. 10 19 =

4 0
r

1
1
1
= ( 1)

f
R1 R 2
The lens is plano-convex, i.e. R1 = R and R 2 =
1 ( 1)
R
Hence, =
f =
( 1)
f
R

For uranium, Z = 92, so r = 5.3 10 12 cm

24. (b) According to Einsteins photoelectric emission


Kmax = h 0
where, is the incident frequency and 0 is the work done of
the metal.
As, Kmax = eV0, where V0 is the stopping potential.
(i)
Therefore,
eV0 = h 0

V0
(ii)
and
= h 0
e
4
2
From Eqs. (i) and (i), we get
h 0 h
0 h h
or 0 =

=
=

4
4
2
4
2
4
h
3
h
or 0 =
0 =

3
4
4
Therefore, threshold frequency ( 0)
h 1

= .
0 = 0 =
h
3
h 3

25. (a) As diode is conducting in forward bias condition and now


conducting in reverse bias condition.
Diode D1 is in forward bias, and diode D2 is in forward bias but
diode D3 is reverse bias.
So, the figure can be drawn as
Here, 20 , R1 and R 3 are in series.
Equivalent resistance
= 50 + 50 + 20 = 120
R1
20
V
6
I=
=

R 120
1
A
=
+
20
R3
6V

I = 50 mA

Speed of light in medium of lens, v = 2 10 8 m/s


c 3 10 8 3
.
= =
= = 15
v 2 108 2
A
R
r
O

If r is the radius and Y is the thickness of lens (at the centre), the
radius of curvature R of its curved surface in accordance with
the figure is given by
R 2 = r 2 + ( R y)2 r 2 + y 2 2 Ry = 0
( 6 / 2 )2
r2
Neglecting y 2, we get R =
=
= 15 cm
2 y 2 0.3
Hence, focal length of the lens,
15
f =
= 30 cm
15
. 1

29. (b) According to mirror formula,


1
1
1
+
=
v
280 20
1
1
1
1 14 + 1
=
+
=
v 20 280
v
280
280
v =
15
2.8

we have

27.

40
160
=
2 t / 20 = 2 10
(2 ) t / 20 (2 )t /10
t
t
t
t
t
=
2

= 2 or
= 2 t = 40 s
20 10
20 10
20

1
1
1
(a) According to Rydbergs formula, = R 2 2

ni
nf
Here, nf = 1, ni = n
1 1
1
= R 2 2

1 n

1
1
= R 1 2

Multiplying Eq. (i) by on both sides, we get


1
1
1
1
1
1 = R 1 2
= 1 2 2 = 1

R
R
n
n
n

36

15

N01
N02
, i.e. N1 = N2
, N2 =
(2 ) t / 20
(2 ) t /10
t

R 1
1
=
n =
R
n2

R
R 1

(Ry) y

26. (d) According to radioactive decay of half-life of an element,


N1 =

20

cm

v
v I = v 0
u
Speed of the image
2

280
1
15
m/s
m/s =
vI =
15 =
15
15 15
15 280

30. (b) Resultant intensity, I = I1 + I2 + 2 I1 I2 cos


(i)

At central position with coherent source (and I1 = I2 = I0 )


(i)
Icoh = 4I0
In case of incoherent at a given point, varies randomly with
time so (cos )av = 0
...(ii)

Iincoh = I1 + I2 = 2 I0
Icoh
2
Hence,
=
Iincoh
1

More than 10,000 Practice


Questions as a whole

24

arihantbooks.com

2
Questions to Measure Your Problem Solving Skills
General Instructions
1. This test consists of 30 questions.
2. Each question is allotted 4 marks for correct response.
3. 1/4 marks will be deducted for indicating incorrect response of each question. No deduction from the total score will
be made if no response is indicated in each question.
4. There is only one correct response for each question. Filling up more than one response in any question will be treated
as wrong response and marks for wrong response will be deducted according as per instructions.

1. The SI unit of energy is J = kgm2 s - 2 , that of speed v is

ms - 1 and of acceleration a is ms - 2 . Which one of the


formula for kinetic energy given below is correct on
the basis of dimensional arguments?
[Given, m stands for mass of the body]
(b) K = ma
1
(d) K = mv 2
2

(a) K = m v
1
mv 2 + ma
2
2 2

(c) K =

2. A body of mass 5 10 -3 kg is launched upon a rough


inclined plane making an angle of 30 with the
horizontal. Find the coefficient of friction between
the body and the plane if the time of ascent is half of
the time of descent.
(a) 0.346

(b) 0.436

(c) 0.463

(d) 0.364

3. A uniform chain of length L and mass M over hangs a


horizontal table with its two-third part on the table.
The friction coefficient between the table and the
chain is m. The work done by the friction during the
period, the chain slips off the table is
(a) -

1
2
4
6
m MgL (b) - m MgL (c) - m MgL (d) - m MgL
4
9
9
7

4. A neutron travelling with velocity u and kinetic


energy K collides head on elastically with the
nucleus of an atom of mass number A at rest. The
fraction of its kinetic energy retained by the neutron
even after the collision is
1 - A
(a)

A + 1

38

A + 1
(b)

A - 1

A - 1
(c)

A + 1
(d)

5. One end of a uniform rod of mass m 1 , uniform area of


cross-section A is suspended from the roof and the
mass m2 is suspended from the other end. What is the
stress at the mid-point of the rod?

( m1 + m2 ) . g
A
( m1 / 2 ) + m2 )

(c)
.g

(a)

( m1 - m2 ) . g
A
m1 + ( m2 / 2 )

(d)
.g

A
(b)

6. Two moles of an ideal monoatomic gas at 27C


occupies a volume of V. If the gas is expanded
adiabatically to the volume 2V, then the work done by
5
the gas will be Y = , R = 8.31 J / mol-K

3
(a) + 2767.23 J

(b) 2627.23 J

(c) 2500 J

(d) - 2500 J

7. Use Moseleys law with b = 1 to find the frequency of

the Ka X-rays of La (Z = 57) if the frequency of


. 1018 Hz
Ka X-rays of Cu(Z = 29) is known to be 188

(a) 7.52 1018 Hz


(c) 8.51 1019 Hz

(b) 3.25 1016 Hz


(d) 9.1 1015 Hz

8. A small particle of mass m is

projected at an angle q with the


X-axis with an initial velocity
v0 in the X-Y plane as shown in
v sin q
,
the figure. At a time t < 0
g
the angular momentum of the
particle is

Y
v0

1
mg v 0 t 2 cos q $i
2
(c) mg v t cos q k$
(a)

(b) - mg v 0 t 2 cos q $j
(d) -

3
1
-1 2
-1 1
(a) sin- 1 (b) sin- 1
(c) sin
(d) sin

2
3
3
2

1
mgv 0 t 2 cos q k$
2

16. When two tunning forks (fork 1 and fork 2) are

9. A ball falls on an inclined plane of inclination q from a


height h above the point of impact and makes a
perfectly elastic collision where will it hit the
inclined plane again
(a)

8h
sin q

(b) 4h sin q

(c) 8h sin q

(d)

4h
sin q

(a) 200 Hz
(c) 196 Hz

10. A thin uniform annular disc


of mass M has outer radius
4R and inner radius 2R. The
work required to take a unit
mass from point P on its axis
to infinity is

the origin under the action of an electric field,


E = E0 $i and B = B0 $i with a velocity, v = v0 $j. The
speed of the particle will becomes 5 / 2 v0 after a
time

4R

- 2GM
( 4 2 - 5)
7R
2GM
(d)
( 2 - 1)
5R

2GM
( 4 2 - 5)
7R
GM
(c)
4R

(a)

(a)

(b)

from the same metal form the sides of square. The


temperature of two diagonally opposite points are T
and 2 T respectively, in the steady state. Assuming
that only heat conduction takes place, what will be
the temperature difference between other two
points?
( 2 + 1) T
2

(b)

2
. T (c) 0
( 2 + 1)

(d) None of these

12. An object 2.4 m in front of a lens forms a sharp image


on a film 12 cm behind the lens. A glass plate 1 cm
thick of refractive index 1.50 is interposed between
lens and film with its plane faces parallel to film. At
what distance (from lens) should object shifted to be
in sharp focus on film?
(a) 7.2

(b) 2.4

(c) 3.2

(d) 5.6

13. A sphere and a cube of same material and same


volume. One heated upto the same temperature and
allowed to cool in the same surroundings. The ratio
of the amounts of radiation emitted will be
(a) 1 : 1

(b)

4p
:1
3

1/ 3

p
(c)
6

:1

(d)

1 4p

2 3

2/ 3

:1

14. In Youngs double slit experiment, when violet light


of a wavelength 4358 is used, then 84 fringes are
seen in the field of view, but when sodium light of
certain wavelength is used, then 62 fringes are seen in
the field of view, the wavelength of a sodium light is
(a) 6893

15. A

(b) 5904

(c) 5523

mv 0
qE

(b)

mv 0
2qE

(c)

3mv 0
2qE

(d)

5mv 0
2qE

18. The current in the primary circuit of a potentiometer

11. Four rods of identical cross-sectional area and made

(a)

(b) 202 Hz
(d) 204 Hz

17. A particle of charge q and mass m starts moving from

4R
2R

sounded simultaneously, 4 beat s - 1 are heard. Now,


some tape is attached on the prong of the fork 2.
When the tunning forks are sounded again, 6 beats
s -1 are heard. If the frequency of fork 1 is 200 Hz, then
what was the original frequency of fork 2?

(d) 6429

transparent
solid
cylinderical rod has a

refractive index of 2 / 3 . It
is surrounded by air. A light ray is incident at the
mid-point of one end of the rod as shown in the
figure. The incident angle q for which the
light ray grazes along the wall of the rod is

is 0.2 A. The specific resistance and cross-section of


the potentiometer wire are 4 10 - 7 W m and
8 10 - 7 m2 , respectively. The potential gradient will
be equal to
(a) 0.2 V/m
(c) 0.3 V/m

(b) 1 V/m
(d) 0.1 V/m

19. Two straight long conductors AOB and COD are


perpendicular to each other and carry currents i1 and
i2 . The magnitude of the magnetic induction at a
point P at a distance a from the point O in a direction
perpendicular to the plane ABCD, is

m0
( i1 + i 2 )
2 pa
m
(c) 0 ( i 12 + i 22 )1/ 2
2 pa

(a)

m0
( i1 - i 2 )
2 pa
i1 . i 2
m
(d) 0
2 pa ( i 1 + i 2 )

(b)

20. Two conductors have the same resistance of 0C, but


their temperature coefficients of resistance are a1
and a2 . The respective temperature, coefficients of
their series and parallel combinations are nearly

( a1 + a2 )
, ( a1 + a2 )
2
a . a2
(c) ( a1 + a2 ), 1
( a1 + a2 )
(a)

( a1 + a2 )
2
( a1 + a2 ) ( a1 + a2 )
,
(d)
2
2
(b) ( a1 + a2 ),

21. A

parallel
plate
capacitor C with plates
C
of unit area and the d
R
d/3
separation d is filled
with a liquid of
dielectric
constant
K = 2, the level of liquid is d/3, initially. Suppose, the
liquid level decreases at a constant speed v, the time
constant as a function of time t is

6 e 0R
5 d + 3 vt
6 e 0R
(c)
5 d - 3vt

(a)

(b)
(d)

(15 d + 9vt ) e0R


2d 2 - 3dvt - 9v 2t 2
(15 d - 9vt ) e0R
2d 2 + 3 dvt - 9v 2t 2

39

22. A 10 mF capacitor and a 20 mF capacitor are


connected in series across 200 V supply line. The
charged capacitors are then disconnected from the
line and reconnected with their positive plates
together and negative plates together and no
external voltage is applied. What is the potential
difference across each capacitor?
(a)

800
V
9

(b) 400 V

(c)

800
V
3

27. Two inductors L1 and L2 are connected in parallel and


a time varying current flows as shown in the figure.
i
The ratio of current, 1 at any time is
i2

(a)

Blv
Blv
,l=
R
R
Blv
(d) l1 = l2 = l =
R

(c) 6

1 2qq
(a)
4pe0 a
1 2qq
(c)
4pe0 a

1
5
1

1 +

t
I

(c)

(d)
t

29. The graph given below represents the I-V


characteristics of a Zener diode. Which part of the
characteristic curve is most relevant for its operation
as a voltage regulator?
I (mA)

a Forward bias

Reverse bias
VZ

d
e
Current

(d) 8

1 2qq
4pe0 a

L22
( L1 + L2 )2

I (A)

(a) ab
(c) cd

(b) bc
(d) de

30. A fully charged capacitor C with initial charge q0 is


connected to a coil of self-inductance L at t = 0. The
time at which the equation is stored equally between
the electric and magnetic field is

(b) zero
(d)

(d)

(b)

26. Two positive charges of magnitude q are placed at


the end of a side 1 of a square of side 2a. Two negative
charges of the same magnitude are kept at the other
corners. Starting from rest, if a charge q moves from
the middle of side 1 to the centre of square, its kinetic
energy at the centre of square is

L12
( L1 + L2 )2

in its volume with a charge density r = kr a , where k


and a are constants and r is the distance from its
R 1
centre. If the electric field at r = is times that are
2 8
r = R, then the value of a is
(b) 4

(c)

(a)

25. A solid sphere of radius R has a charge q distributed

(a) 2

L1
L2

I
has
a
sliding
connector PQ of
v
R
R
R
length l and a
resistance R W and it
I
I2
is moving with the
Q
I1
speed v as shown.
The set up is placed in the uniform magnetic field
going into the plane of the paper. The three currents
I1 , I2 and I are

(b) l1 = - l2 =

(b)

in the figure can act as a


rectifier. An alternating
current source (V ) is
connected in the circuit.
The current (I) in the
resistor (R) can be shown by

24. A rectangular loop

L2
L1

28. A p-n junction (D) shown

(a) equal to 5 W
(b) greater than 5 W
(c) less than 5 W
(d) greater or less than 5 W depending upon its material

Blv
3R
2 Blv
3R

L2

i2

moving coil voltmeter


V and a moving coil
R
ammeter A and resistor
A
C
D
R as shown in the
figure. If the voltmeter reads 10 V and the ammeter
reads 2 A, then R is

Blv
,l=
6R
Blv
,l=
(c) l1 = l2 =
3R

(d) 200 V

23. A candidate connects a

(a) l1 = l2 =

L1

i1

1
5

(a)

p
4

LC

(b) p

LC

(c) 2 p LC

(d) LC

Answers
1. (d)
11. (c)
21. (a)

40

2. (a)
12. (d)
22. (a)

3. (b)
13. (c)
23. (c)

4. (a)
14. (b)
24. (c)

5. (c)
15. (d)
25. (a)

6. (a)
16. (c)
26. (a)

7. (a)
17. (b)
27. (a)

8. (a)
18. (d)
28. (b)

9. (c)
19. (c)
29. (d)

10. (a)
20. (d)
30. (a)

Paper 1
One or More Than One Option Correct Type
1. A solid sphere of radius R and density r is attached to
one end of a massless spring of force constant k. The
other end of the spring is connected to another solid
sphere of radius R and density 3r. The complete
arrangement is placed in liquid of density 2r and is
allowed to reach equilibrium. Choose the correct
statement (s).
4pR 3rg
3k
8pR 3rg
(b) The net elongation of spring is
3k
(c) The light sphere is partially submerged

(a) The net elongation of spring is

4
pR 3rg
(d) The elongation of spring due to small sphere is 3
k

2. In a modified Youngs double slit experiment, a


monochromatic uniform and parallel beam of light of
wavelength 6000 and intensity (10/p) W/m2 is
incident normally on two circular apertures A and B of
radii 0.001 m and 0.002 m, respectively. A perfectly
transparent film of thickness 2000 and refractive
index 1.5 for wavelength 6000 is placed in front of
aperture A . Calculate the power (in watts) received at
the focal spot F of the lens. The lens is symmetrically
placed with respect to the
L
A
aperture. Assume that 10% of
F
the power received by each
aperture goes in the original
B
direction and is brought to
the focal point. Also, find the phase difference.

(a) The power received at the focal spot F of the lens is 7 10 -6 W


(b) The value of phase difference is p/3
(c) The power received at the focal spot F of the lens is
9.6 10 -7 W
(d) None of the above

3. Calculate the angular frequency of the system shown


in the figure. Friction is absent everywhere and the
threads, spring and pulleys are massless. Given that
mA = mB = m

A
k
B

(a) w = 3k / 4m
(c) w = 2 k / 3m

(b) w =
(d) w =

4k / 5m
6k / 5m

4. A wooden rod weighing 25 N is mounted on a hinge


below the free surface of water as shown. The rod is 3 m
long and uniform in cross-section and the support is
1.6 m below the free surface. The cross-section of rod is
9.5 10 -4 m2 in area. The density of water is 1000 kg/m
3
. Assume buoyancy to act at centre of immersion
g = 9.8 m/s2 . Also, find the reaction on the hinge in this
position.
3m
1.6 m

(a) 1.5 N

(b) 1.1 N

(c) 2.6 N

(d) 1.6 N

41

5. Determine

the
maximum
M
horizontal force F that may be
R
applied to the plank of mass m for
m
F
which the solid sphere does not
slip as it begins to roll on the
plank. The sphere has a mass M
and radius R. The coefficient of static and kinetic
friction between the sphere and the plank are m s and
m k , respectively.
(a) The linear acceleration for sphere will be m s g / M
7
(b) The maximum horizontal force is F = m s g M + m

2
3

(c) The maximum horizontal force, F = m s g M + m

2
(d) None of the above

6. A plano-convex lens of focal length 20 cm has its place


side silvered.
(a) The radius of curvature of its curved surface of
plano-convex lens is equal to half of radius of curvature of a
surface of equi-convex lens of focal length 20 cm
(b) An object placed at 15 cm on the axis on the convex side of
silvered plano-convex lens gives rise to an image at a
distance of 30 cm from it
(c) An object placed at a distance of 20 cm on the axis on the
convex side of silvered plano-convex lens gives rise to an
image at 40 cm from it
(d) Silvered plano-convex lens acts as a concave mirror of focal
length of 10 cm

7. A particle of mass m and

charge -q has been


projected from the ground
as shown in the figure.
Which of the following
statement(s) is/are correct?

E (Uniform
electric field).

(a) current through r is zero


2 Bw a2
(b) current through r is
5r
(c) direction of current in external resistance r is from centre to
circumference
(d) direction of current in external resistance r is from
circumference to centre

10. Two circular plates A and B of a parallel plate air

capacitor have a diameter of 0.1 m and are 2 10 -3 m


apart. The plates C and D of similar capacitor have a
diameter of 0.12 m and are 3 10 -3 m apart. Plate A is
earthed. Plates B and D are connected together. Plate C
is connected to the positive pole of a 120 V battery
whose negative pole is earthed. Calculate the potential
energy stored in it.
(a) 0241
.
mJ

(b) 01224
.
mJ

(c) 2.43 J

(d) 4.34 mJ

Integer Answer Type


11. What is the velocity (in cm/s) of image in situation as

shown below. (O = object, f = focal length). Object


moves with velocity 10 cm/s and mirror moves with
velocity 2 cm/s as shown.
20 cm/s

8. Two small balls A and B of mass

10 cm/s

H
B(3M)

Principal axis

10 cm

F =10 cm

12. A galvanometer has internal resistance of 50 W and


current required for full scale deflection is 1mA. The
resultant series resistance required is n 104 W as a
voltmeter with different ranges. The value of n is
G

(a) If collision is perfectly elastic, ball B will rise to a height H/4


(b) If the collision is perfectly elastic, ball A will rise upto height
H/4
(c) If the collision is perfectly inelastic, the combined mass will
rise to a height H/16
(d) If the collision is perfectly inelastic, the combined mass will
rise to a height H/4

42

conducting ring of negligible


B
resistance and radius a. PQ is a
uniform rod of resistance r. It is P
Q
hinged at the centre of the ring
r
and rotated about this point in
R
clockwise direction with a
uniform angular velocity w .
There is a uniform magnetic field of strength B pointing
inwards and r is a stationary resistance. Then,

(a) The path of the motion of particle is parabolic


(b) The path of the motion of particle is a straight line
2u sin q
(c) Time of flight of particle is
g
(d) Range of motion of the particle can be less than, greater than
u 2 sin 2 q
or equal to
g

M and 3M hang from the ceiling


by string of equal length. The M
ball A is drawn a side so that it is
A
raised to a height H. It is then
released and collides with ball B.
Select the correct option(s).

9. For the given figure, R is a fixed

R1

R2

1V

R3

10 V

100 V

13. Two separate air bubbles (radii 0.004 m and 0.002 m)


formed of the same liquid (surface tension 0.07 N/m)
come together to form a double
r2
bubble. The radius of air bubble is
-3
m and the sense of
n 10
P2
P
curvature of the internal film
r1 P1
surface common to both the
bubbles. Find the value of n.

14. In a transition from state n to a state of excitation


energy 10.19 eV, a hydrogen atom emits a 4890
photon. After calculating the binding energy of the
initial state. Determine the value of n.

15. A sphere of radius 0.1 m and mass 8 p kg is attached to


the lower end of a steel wire of length 5 m and diameter
10 -3 m. The wire is suspended from 5.22 m high ceiling
of a room. When the sphere is made to swing as a
simple pendulum, it just grazes the floor at its lowest
point. Calculate the velocity of the sphere at the lowest
position (in m/s). Youngs modulus of steel is
1.994 1011 N/m2 .

16. A small quantity of solution containing

24

Na radio
nuclide (half-life 15 h) of activity/micro curie is injected
into the blood of a person. A sample of the blood of
volume/cm3 taken after 5 h shows an activity of 296
disintegration min-1 . Determine the total volume of
blood (in L) in the body of the person. Assume that the
radioactivity solution mixes uniformly in the blood of
the person. [1 curie = 3.7 1010 disintegration s -1 ]

17. A series L-C-R circuit containing a resistance of 120 W


has angular resonance frequency 4 105 rads -1 . At
resonance, the voltage across the resistance and
inductance are 60 V and 40 V, respectively. So, the
frequency is n 105 rad/s at which the current in the
circuit lags the voltage by 45. The value of n is

18. A silver ball of radius 4.8 cm is suspended by a thread


in a vacuum chamber. A ray of ultraviolet light of
wavelength 200 nm is incident on the ball for sometime
during which a total light energy of 1 10 -7 J falls on the
surface. Assuming that on the average, one photon out
of 10000 photons is able to eject a photoelectron, find
the value of n, as electric potential is n 10 -1 V at the
surface of the ball, assuming zero potential at infinity.

19. Water level is maintained in a cylindrical vessel placed


on horizontal floor upto a fixed height H. A tiny hole of
area A is punched in the side wall at a height from the
bottom of the vessel equal to y. The emerging stream
strikes the ground at a horizontal distance (y 0) from
cylinder. To maintain the level in the vessel at H, the
2 gH
rate (volume/sec) of addition of water is A
. Find
n
the value of n.

20. A long container has air enclosed inside at room


temperature and atmospheric pressure (105 Pa). It has a
volume of 20000 cc. The area of cross-section is
and
force
constant
of
spring
is
100 cm2
k spring = 1000 N/ m. We push the right piston
isothermally and slowly till it reaches the original
position of the left piston which is movable. Final
length of air column is found to be 25h cm. Assume that
spring is initially relaxed. Find the value of h.

Paper 2
Only One Option Correct Type
1. A person is pulling a mass m from the ground on a
rough hemispherical surface upto the top of the
hemisphere with the
help
of
a
light
R
inextensible string as

m
shown in the figure
given alongside. The radius of the hemisphere is R.
Find out the work done by the tension in the string.
1

(a) mgR 1 +

(b) mgR (1 - m )

(c) mgR (1 + m )

1
(d) mgR - 1
m

2. AB is a cylinder of length 1m fitted with a thin flexible


diaphragm C at the middle and the two others thin
flexible diaphragms A and B at the ends. The portions
AC and BC contain hydrogen and oxygen gases,
respectively. The diaphragms A and B are set into
vibrations of same frequency. What is the minimum
C
B
frequency of these vibrations A
for which the diaphragm C is a
H2
O2
node? Under the condition of
the experiment, the velocity of
sound in hydrogen is 1100 m/s
and in oxygen is 300 m/s.
(a) 1750 Hz

(b) 1600 Hz

(c) 1800 Hz

(d) 1650 Hz

3. An earth satellite is revolving in a circular orbit of


radius a with velocity v0 . A gun is in the satellite and is
aimed directly towards the earth. A bullet is fired from
v
the gun with muzzle velocity 0 . Neglecting resistance
2
offered by cosmic dust and recoiling of gun. Calculate
the maximum and minimum distance of bullet from the
centre of the earth during its subsequent motion.
(a) 2 a ,

2a
3

(b) 2 a, a

(c) a,

a
3

(d) a,

a
2

4. A uniform disc of radius r0 lies on a smooth horizontal


plane. A similar disc spinning with the angular velocity
w0 is carefully lowered on to the first disc. How soon do
both discs spin with same angular velocity, if the
friction coefficient between them is equal to m?
8 mg
3r0 w 0
3r w
(c) 0 0
8 mg
(a)

4r0 w 0
3 mg
2 mg
(d)
5r0 w 0
(b)

5. A thin biconvex lens of refractive index 3/2 is placed on


a horizontal plane mirror as shown in the given figure.
The space between the lens and the mirror is then filled
with water of refractive index 4/3. It is found that when
a point object is placed 15 cm above the lens on its
principal axis, the object coincides with its own image.

43

On representing with another liquid, the object and the


image again coincide at a distance 25 cm from the lens.
Calculate the refractive index of the liquid.

(a) 1.5

(b) 1.24

(c) 1.6

(d) 1.33

6. A neutron with an energy of 4.6 MeV collides

slowly by 0.1 m. Calculate the final temperature of the


gas and the heat supplied by the heater. The force
constant of the spring is 8000 N/m, atmospheric
pressure 1 105 N / m2 . The cylinder and piston are
thermally insulated. The piston is massless and there is
no friction between the piston and the cylinder.
Neglect heat loss through the lead wires of the heater.
The heat capacity of the heater coil is negligible.
Assume the spring to be massless.

elastically with protons and is retarded. Assuming that


upon each collision the neutron is deflected by 45,
find the number of collisions which will reduce its
energy to 0.23 eV.
(b) 25

(c) 23

Heater

(a) 26

Open
atmosphere

(d) 24

Rigid
support
Piston

7. A mass M is uniformly distributed over the rod of


length L as shown in the figure. The linear mass
density of rod is l, then
R

M
P

(a) 800 K, 718.6J


(c) 400 K, 618.6 J

(b) 553 K, 666.6 J


(d) 478 K, 753.8 J

10. Consider a body at rest in the L-frame which explodes

in two fragments of masses m1 and m2 . Calculate


energies of the fragments of the body.

(a) if a = b, then Iy = 0 (Iy is gravitational field in y-direction)


2Gl
if length of rod is infinite
(b) Ix =
R
(c) gravitational potential is not defined at P if length of rod is
infinite
(d) if a = b, then Ix = 0 and Iy = 0

8. Two blocks A and B each of mass m, are connected by a


massless spring of natural length L and spring
constant k. The blocks are initially resting on the
smooth horizontal floor with the spring at its natural
length as shown in figure. A third identical block C,
also of mass m moves on the floor with a speed v along
the line joining A and B and collides elastically with A.
Then,
v

L
A

(a) the kinetic energy of AB system at maximum compression


of the spring is zero
(b) the kinetic energy of AB system at maximum compression
mv 2
of the spring is
4
m
(c) the maximum compression of the spring is v
k
(d) the maximum compression of the spring is v

m
2k

9. An ideal monoatomic gas is confined in a cylinder by a

spring loaded piston of cross-section 8 10 -3 m2 .


Initially, the gas is at 300 K and occupies a volume of
2.4 10 -3 m3 and the spring is in its relaxed
(unstretched, uncompressed) state. The gas is heated
by a small electric heater until the piston moves out

44

m1 p1

m2
O p2=0

p1
m1

p2=0

m2
p2
(Before collision)

(After collision)

( m1 - m2 )Q ( m2 - m1 )Q
m1 Q
m2Q
,
(b)
,
( m1 + m2 ) ( m1 + m2 )
m1 + m2 m1 + m2
m2 Q
m1 Q
m1Q
m2Q
(c)
,
(d)
,
( m1 - m2 ) ( m1 + m2 )
( m1 - m2 ) ( m1 - m2 )
(a)

Comprehension Type
This section consists of 3 paragraphs, each describing
theory, experiments, data etc. Six questions related to the
three paragraphs with two questions on each paragraph.
Each question has only one correct answer among the
four given options (a), (b), (c) and (d).
Paragraph I
A thin, 50 cm long metal bar with
mass 750 g rests on, but is not
attached to two metallic supports in
a uniform 0.450 T magnetic field as
shown in the given figure. A battery
and a 25 W resistor in series are
connected to the supports.

11. What is the largest voltage, the battery can have


without breaking the circuit at the supports?
(a) 817 V
(c) 325 V

(b) 412 V
(d) 160 V

12. The battery voltage has the maximum value calculated


in above question. If the resistor suddenly gets
partially short-circuited, then its resistance decreasing
to 2.0 W. Find the initial acceleration of the bar.

(a) 113 ms -2
(b) 55 ms -2
(c) 180 ms -2
(d) 12.4 ms -2

Paragraph III
Two closed identical conducting containers are found in
the laboratory of an old scientist. For the verification of the
gas, some experiments are performed on the two boxes
and the results are noted.

Gas A

Paragraph II
An unmanned satellite A and a spacecraft
B are orbiting around the earth in the same
circular orbit as shown in figure.

A
B

The spacecraft is ahead of the satellite by


sometime. Let us consider that some
technical problem has arisen in the
satellite and the astronaut from B has made it correct. For
this to be done docking of two (A and B) is required
(in Layman terms connecting A and B). To achieve this,
the rockets of A have been fired in forward direction and
docking takes place as shown in the figure below.
Rocket fired
A

A B

A
A

B
Rocket retrofired

Mono
(molar mass)

He
4g

Ne
20 g

Ar
40 g

Kr
84 g

Xe
131 g

Di
(molar mass)

H2
2g

F2
19 g

N2
28 g

O2
32 g

Cl 2
71 g

(b) Dia, Dia


(d) Dia, Mono

16. Identify the name of gas filled in the containers A and


Docking over

Take mass of the earth = 5.98 1024 kg


Radius of the earth = 6400 km
Orbital radius = 9600 km
Mass of satellite A = 320 kg
Mass of spacecraft = 3200 kg
Assume that initially, spacecraft B leads satellite A by
100 s, i.e. A arrives at any particular position after 100 s of
Bs arrival.

B, respectively
(a) N 2, Ne

(b) He, H 2

(c) O 2, Ar

(d) Ar, O 2

Matching Type
17. Three travelling sinusoidal waves are on identical
strings having same tension. The mathematical form of
waves are y1 = Asin(3 x - 6t ), y2 = Asin(4 x - 8t ) and
y3 = Asin(6 x - 12t ).
Column I
A. Speed of each wave is

13. The initial total energy and time period of satellite are

Column II
p. y
x

respectively,
(a) -6.65 1010 J, 9358 s
(b) -6.65 10 9 J, 9358 s
(c) -6.65 1010 J, 9140 s
(d) -6.65 10 9 J, 9140 s

14. From a base station, rocket system of A has been


operated, so that its rocket has been fired in forward
direction, thus reducing the speed of A by 0.5%, then
which of the following will happen?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Rd
222 g

15. Identify the type of gas filled in containers A and B,


(a) Mono, Mono
(c) Mono, Dia

New orbit of A

Experiment I When the two containers are weighed


wA = 225 g, wB = 160 g and mass of evacuated
container wC = 100 g.
Experiment II When the two containers are given same
amount of heat, same temperature rise is recorded. The
pressure changes found to be DpA = 2.5 atm,
DpB = 1.5 atm.
Required data for unknown gas

respectively.

Gas B

Its orbit becomes elliptical with semi-major axis 9505.3 km


Its total energy becomes - 6714
10 9 J
.
Its new time period becomes 9219.67 s
All of the above

B. y1 is best represented by

q. y
x

C. y2 is best represented by r.

y
x

D. y3 is best represented by s. 2 m/s


Codes
A
B
C
D
(a) (s) (p) (q) (r)
(c) (q) (r, s) (p) (r, p)

A
B
C
(b) (p,q) (r) (s)
(d) (p, q, r)(r, s) (p)

D
(p)
(q)

45

18. In a photoelectric experimental arrangement, light of

Column I

frequency f is incident on the metal target whose work


hf
as shown. In Column I, KE of
function is f =
3
photoelectron is mentioned at various locations/
instants and in Column II, the corresponding values.

R and L

p.

B.

2 R and L

q.

II

C.

R and 2 L

r.

III

D.

2 R and 2 L

s.

IV

Codes
A
B
C
D
(a) (p, q) (q,s) (p, q) (s)
(b) (r) (p)
(s)
(q)
(c) (p, q, r) (r)
(p) (q, r, s)
(d) (r, s) (p)
(q)
(s)

Collector
Vacuum
P

Column II

A.

Target

Column I
A. Maximum KE of photoelectrons just after
emission from the target
B. KE of photoelectrons just after emission
from target
C. KE of photoelectrons when they are
half-way between the target and collector
D. KE of photoelectrons as they reach the
collector

20. In Column I, some statements are given while in

Column II
p. Zero

Column II some neutral objects are mentioned. Now, a


point charge q is placed in front of the objects in
Column II and statements in Column I are related to
the effects on objects in Column II.

q. hf
3
r. hf
2
s. 2 hf
3

Column I
A.

Codes
A
B
C
D
(a) (p, q)
(r, s)
(q, r, s) (s)
(b) (s) (p, q, r, s) (q, r, s) (p, r, s)
(c) (p, q, r) (r, s)
(p)
(q, r)
(d) (r, s)
(p, q)
(p, s) (r, s)

19. The switch S in the circuit is connected with point a for


a very long time, then it is shifted to position b. The
resulting current through the inductor is shown by
curves in the graph for four sets of values for the
resistance R and inductance L (given in Column I).
Which set correspond with which curve?

Column II

Nature of distribution of p.
charge is same on

B. Charge distribution on
object is non-uniform

q.

C. The object remains


neutral

r.

D. The interior of the


object remains charge
free

s.

+
E

Solidconducting
cubeofsidea

Ahollow/solid
conductingsphere

t.

i
a

Hollow conducting
cube of side a

Infinitethickplane
conductingsheet
Hollowconducting
cylinder

IV
L

III

II
I

Codes
A
B
C
D
(a) (p)
(q)
(s, r, t)
(p, q, r, s, t)
(b) (q, r)
(r, s, t)
(p, q)
(p, q, r, s)
(c) (p, q) (p, q, r, s, t) (p, q, r, s, t) (p, q, r, s, t)
(d) (q)
(r)
(p, q)
(r, s, t)

Answers
Paper 1
1. (a,d)
11. (0)

2. (a,b)
12. (9)

3. (b)

4. (d)

13. (4)

14. (4)

15. (9)

5. (a,b)

16. (6)

6. (a,c,d)

7. (b,c)
17. (8)

8. (a,b,c)
18. (3)

9. (b,d)
19. (5)

10. (b)
20. (4)

Paper 2
1. (c)

2. (d)

3. (a)

4. (c)

5. (c)

6. (d)

11. (a)

12. (a)

13. (b)

14. (d)

15. (c)

16. (d)

46

7. (a,b,c)
17. (a)

8. (d)

9. (a)

10. (b)

18. (b)

19. (b)

20. (c)

Arjun Sharma

A photon can take 40000 years to travel from the core of


the Sun to its surface, but only 8 min to travel the rest of
the way to Earth. Do you know?
A photon travels on an average a particular distance (d)
before being briefly absorbed and released by an atom, which
scatters it in a new random direction. From the core to the
Sun's surface (696000 kms) where it can escape into space, a
photon needs to make a huge number of drunken jumps. The
calculation is a little tricky, but the conclusion is that a photon
takes between many thousands and many millions of years to
drunkenly wander to the surface of the Sun.
In a way, the light that reaches us today is energy produced
may be millions of years ago.

Do you know the fact that an individual blood cell takes


about 60 s to make a complete circuit of the body?
Explain.

when its container is spun. No longer a mere liquid, the helium has become a
super fluid-a liquid that flows without friction atoms in the liquid will collide
with one another and slow down. But if we did that with helium at low
temperature and came back a million years later, it would still be moving.

The human genome, the genetic code in each human cell, contains 23 DNA
molecules each containing from 500 thousands to 2.5 millions nucleotide
pairs. DNA molecules of this size are 1.7 cm to 8.5 cm long when uncoiled or
about 5 cm on average. There are about 37 trillion cells in the human body
and if you'd uncoil all of the DNA encased in each cell and put them end to
end, then these would sum to a total length of 21014 m or enough for 17
Pluto round trips (1.21013 m/Pluto round trip).

We have about 5 L of blood in your body and the average


heart pumps about 70 mL of blood out with each beat. Also, a
healthy heart beats around 70 times a minute. So, if we
multiply the amount of blood that the heart can pump by the
number of beats in a minute, we actually get about 4.9 L of
blood, which is almost our whole bodys worth of blood. In just
a minute, the hearts pumps the entire blood volume around
our body.

Do you know the fact that faster you move, heavier you
get? Explain.
If we run really fast, we gain weight. Not permanently or it
would make a mockery of diet and exercise plans, but
momentarily and only a tiny amount. Light speed is the speed
limit of the Universe. So if something is travelling close to the
speed of light, and we give it a push, it can't go very much
faster. But we have given it extra energy, and that energy has
to go somewhere. Where it goes is mass.
According to relativity, mass and energy are equivalent. So,
the more energy you put in, greater the mass becomes. This is
negligible at human speeds-Usain Bolt is not noticeably
heavier when running than when still - but once we reach an
appreciable fraction of the speed of light, our mass start to
increase rapidly.

When helium is cooled to almost absolute zero (460F


or 273C), the lowest temperature possible, it
becomes a liquid with surprising properties: It flows
against gravity and will start running up , why?
When helium is just a few degrees below its boiling point of
452 F ( 269C), it will suddenly be able to do things that
other fluids can't like dribble through molecule-thin cracks,
climb up and over the sides of a dish, and remain motionless

Do you know, on an average a human body carries ten times more


bacterial cells than human cells?
For one thing, bacteria produces chemicals that help us harness energy and
nutrients from our food. Germ-free rodents have to consume nearly a third
more calories than normal rodents to maintain their body weight and when
the same animals were later given a dose of bacteria, their body fat levels
spiked, even if they didn't eat any more than they had before. The gut
bacteria is also very important to maintaining immunity.

Do you know, there is enough DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) in an


average person's body to stretch from the Sun to Pluto and back
17 times?

Do you know, anti-matter is a composition of antiparticles that have


same mass but with opposite charge and spin?
All matter in the Universe is built up from a relatively small number of
elementary particles, which include quarks (the constituents of protons and
neutrons) and electrons (which together with protons and neutrons, make up
atoms). Associated with each elementary particle is an anti-particle which
also occurs in nature. The anti-particle has the same mass as the particle,
but with opposite charge. A particle and an anti-particle can combine (or
annihilate) to produce a photon or a particle of light. Conversely, a
particle-anti-particle pair can be produced from a photon. So, there is a type
of symmetry between particles and anti-particles in these processes. More
specifically, the sub-atomic particles of anti-matter have properties opposite
those of normal matter. The electrical charge of those particles is reversed.

Do you know, the fact behind the cause of electromagnetic pollution?


Explain.
Electromagnetic pollution is a buzzword describing the excessive exposure
to electromagnetic radiation or electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by
electronic devices like cell phones, cordless phones, Wi-Fi routers or
Bluetooth-enabled equipment. The energy emitted by electronics is
non-ionizing radiation, meaning it does not have the capability to break
chemical bonds. In other words, it doesn't damage your DNA, which is a
potential cause of cancer. While electromagnetic radiation cannot cause
immediate damage, it does interact with our bodies, which can potentially
lead to indirect damage, especially following long term exposure.

MARCH 2016

47

NUCLEUS

A tiny, positively charged object which lies at the


centre of atom, its size is much smaller than the size of
atom but constitutes most of its total mass.
Nucleons Protons and neutrons which are present
in the nuclei of the atoms are collectively known as
nucleons.
Atomic Number Total number of protons present
inside a nucleus is called atomic number. It is
denoted by Z.
Mass Number Total number of protons and
neutrons in a nucleus is called mass number. It is
denoted by A.
Number of protons = Number of electrons = Z
Number of nucleons = A, Number of neutrons,
N = A Z.

NUCLEAR MASS
Total mass of proton and neutron in a nucleus.
Nuclide A specific nucleus of an atom
characterised by its atomic number Z and mass
number A, i.e. AZ X,
where, X = symbol of the element, Z = atomic
number, A = mass number.
Isotopes Nuclei having same number of protons
but different number of neutrons, e.g. isotopes of
carbon 126 C, 137 C, 146 C.
Isotones Nuclei having with the same neutrons
number but different atomic numbers, e.g. 146 C,
15
16
17
7 N, 8 O, 9 F.
Isobars Nuclei having same mass number but
different atomic numbers, e.g. 166 C, 716 N, 816 O.

SIZE OF NUCLEUS

Nuclear density Mass per unit volume of a nucleus


is called nuclear density.
Mass of nucleus
i.e. Nuclear density ( ) =
Volume of nucleus

ATOMIC MASS UNIT(AMU)


It is defined as 1/12 of the mass of 6 C 12 atoms. Its value
is given by 1 amu = 1.66 10 27 kg = 931.5 MeV
Electron volt The energy required by an electron
when it is accelerated through a potential difference
of 1 volt.
19
It is denoted by eV. (1eV = 1. 602 10
J).

NUCLEAR FORCES
The strong attractive forces in a nucleus which holds
the protons and neutrons together are called nuclear
forces.
(i) Nuclear forces are short range forces and only
exist within the range of 10 15 m.
(ii) Nuclear forces are strongest forces in nature.
(iii) Nuclear forces are always attractive and stabilise
the nucleus.
(iv) Nuclear forces are charge independent.
(v) Nuclear forces are non-central forces.
(vi) Nuclear forces are exchange forces.
Yokawa proposed that the nuclear force between the
two nucleons is a result of the exchange of particles
mesons which are of 3 types. Positive meson ( + ),
negative meson ( ) and neutral meson ( 0 ).

NUCLEAR STABILITY
Out of known 1500 nuclides only 260 are stable and rest
of them are unstable which used to decay to form other
nuclides by emitting , and -rays which is called
radioactivity.
Stability of the nucleus is determined by few factors.
(i) Neutron-proton ratio ( N / Z )
For lighter nuclei to be stable, N / Z =1.
For heavy nuclei to be stable,
N / Z >1.

Nuclear radius The radius of nucleus is given by


R A 1 / 3 R = R0 A 1 / 3 , where A is mass number of
nucleus, R0 = 1. 2 10 15 m.
Nuclear volume The volume of nucleus is given by
4
4
V = R 3 = R03 A V A
3
3
Difference between , and -particles
1.

Feature

-particle

-particle

-rays

Identity

Helium nucleus or
doubly ionised
helium atom ( 2He 4 )

Fast moving electron

Photons
(EM waves)

( 0 or )

2.

Charge

+ 2e

Zero

3.

Mass

4 mp (mp = mass of
proton = 187
. 1027)

me

Massless

4.

Speed

= 107 m/s

1% to 99% of speed of
light

Speed of light

5.

Range of kinetic
energy

4 MeV to 9 MeV

All possible values


between a minimum
certain value to 1.2 MeV

Between a minimum value to


2.23 MeV

6.

Penetration power
( ,, )

1 (Stopped by a
paper)

100 (100 times of )

10000 (100 times of upto 30


cm of iron (or Pb) sheet)

7.

Ionisation power
( > > )

10000

100

8.

Effect of electric or
magnetic field

Deflected

Deflected

Not deflected

9.

Energy spectrum

Line and discrete

Continuous

Line and discrete

10. Mutual interaction


with matter

Produces heat

Produces heat

Produces photoelectric effect,


compton effect, pair production.

11. Effect on
photographic plate
and ZnS phosphor.

Strong

Less

Least

(ii) Even or Odd number of Z or N .


It is found that even-even nucleus (even Z and even N)
is more stable.
odd-odd nucleus (odd Z and odd N) is less stable.
Even-odd nucleus (even Z and odd N) or odd-even
nucleus (odd Z and even N) is found to be least stable.
(iii) Binding energy per nucleon
The stability of a nucleus is also determined by the value
of its binding energy per nucleon. Greater the binding
energy per nucleon, then greater will be stability.

MASS DEFECT
The difference in the mass of the nucleus and sum of the
masses of nucleons is known as mass defect, i.e.
m = [Zm p + ( A Z )m n m], where Z = atomic
number, A = atomic mass, m p = mass of proton, m n =
mass of neutron, m = mass of the nucleus.

2
BE [Zm p + ( A Z ) m n m] c
=
A
A
Few nuclei with mass number, A < 20 have large
binding energy per nucleon than their neighbour.
e.g. 2 He4 , 4 Be8 , 6 C12 and 10 Ne20 .

BE per nucleon is maximum of 26 Fe56 , i.e. 8. 8 MeV.

i.e.

B=

PACKING FRACTION
Mass defect per nucleon is called packing fraction.
m M A
i.e. f =
=

A
where, M = mass of nucleus and A = mass number.

Note Smaller the value of packing fraction, larger


is the stability of nucleus.

RADIOACTIVITY
The spontaneous transformation of an element into
another with emission of radiation such as , and
-rays is called radioactivity.
Radioactivity of a sample cannot be controlled by any
physical (pressure, temperature, electric or magnetic
field.)
All the elements with atomic numbers Z > 82 are
naturally radioactive.
The conversion of lighter elements into radioactive
elements by the bombardment of fast moving
particles is called artificial or induced radioactivity.
When a nucleus decays, all the conservation laws are
observed like.
Conservation of mass energy Conservation of
linear momentum.
Conservation
of
angular
momentum
Conservation of charge.

Nuclear fusion When two or more nuclei combine to


form a single nucleus which leads to the release of
tremendous amount of energy due to mass defect is
known
as
nuclear
fusion
2
2
4
1 H + 1 H 2 He + 24 MeV
Chain reaction Three neutrons are produced in
nuclear fission, under favourable condition these
neutrons can be utilised for further fission of other
nuclei later producing large number of neutrons until
the whole of the uranium is consumed.
Multiplication Factor The chain reaction will be
steady accelerating or retarding and depends on the
factor called critical factor (k).
Rate of production of neutrons
k=
Rate of loss of neutrons
If k =1, the chain reaction will be steady.
If k >1, the chain reaction will be accelerating, i.e.
grows.
If k <1, the chain reaction is decelerating, i.e. dies out.
Critical size and critical mass The size of the
fissionable material for which multiplication factor is
unity is called critical size and its mass is called
critical mass of the material. The chain reaction in
this case remains steady or sustained.
Half-life decay radioactive sample

Time (t )

t =0

1 (100%)

t = T1/ 2

1
(50%)
2

1
( 50%)
2

t = 2(T1/ 2 )

1
( 25%)
4

3
(75%)
4

t = 3 (T1/ 2 )

1
( 12.5%)
8

7
( 87.5%)
8

t = 10 (T1/ 2 )

1
= 0.1%
2

t = n( N 1 / 2 )

1

2

Q-VALUE
The energy absorbed or released during nuclear
reaction is known as Q-value of nuclear reaction, i.e.
Q-value = (Mass of reactantsmass of products) c 2
joules = (Mass of reactants mass of products) amu.
If Q > 0, then reaction is exothermic or exoergic and
this reaction is energetically possible even if the
particles were at rest.
If Q < 0, then reaction is endothermic or endoergic
and this reaction cannot take place until we provide a
minimum amount of energy to nucleus X.

LAWS OF RADIOACTIVE DISINTEGRATION

BINDING ENERGY
Energy required to break up a nucleus into its constituent
proton and neutron is called binding energy.
(i) Binding energy of a nucleus AZ X is given by
E b = mc 2 = [Zm p + ( A Z )m n m]c 2 .
Nuclear binding energies are striking very high.
The quantity in bracket in above equation is
termed as mass defect.
If we supply energy less than E b to a nucleus then
nucleus stays together when the supplied energy
is more than E b , the extra energy appears as
kinetic energy of neutrons and protons as they fly
apart.
(ii) Binding energy per nucleon The average energy
required to extract one nucleon from nucleus is known
as binding energy per nucleon.

At any instant the rate of decay of radioactive atom is


directly proportional to the number of atoms present at
dN
dN
that instant
N
= N , i.e. N = N o e t
dt
dt
where, N = Number of atoms remains undecayed after
time t, N 0 = Number of atoms initially present and =
Decay constant.
Decay constant It is defined as the ratio of the
amount of the substance disintegrated in unit time to
the amount of the substance present.
N
N
1
i.e. N = N 0 e t t = N = 0 = 0 = 0. 368 N 0

e 2.718
The reciprocal of time after which the number of atoms
of a radioactive substance decreases to 0.368 of their
number initially present.
Nuclear fission The process of splitting of a heavy
nucleus into two daughter nuclei of comparable
masses is called nuclear fission.
238
+ 0 n 1 92 U 236 56 Ba 141 + 36 Kr 92 + 0n 1 + Q
92 U
unstable

Fraction of atoms
Remaining
fraction of active decayed (N0 N )
N0
atoms (N / N0 )
probability of
probability of
survival
decay

10

= 99.9%

1 n
1
2

Activity The number of atoms decaying per second is


known as activity of a material.
A = dN / dt A = A0 e t
where, A0 = activity at t = 0 , A = activity after time t.
units It has three units, becquerel ( B q ), curie (Ci) and
rutherford ( Rd ). 1 becquerel = 1 disintegration/s 1
rutherford =10 6 disintegration/s 1 curie
= 3.7 10 10 disintegration/s.
half-life The time interval during which half of the
radioactive substance will disintegrate is known as
half-life.
log 2 0.693
i.e.
T1 / 2 = e =

Probability that a particular nucleus decay in n


1
half-lives is 1 n .
2
Average or mean life time It may be defined as the
ratio of the combined age of all the atoms of the total
number of atoms present in the given sample.
1 T
i.e.
= = 1 / 2 = 1.44 T1 / 2
0. 693

@CLASS XII SYLLABUS

Final Touch
Electromagnetic Waves

CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES


A changing electric field produces a changing magnetic
field and vice-versa
y
which gives rise to
transverse wave known
x
as
electromagnetic z
y
E
waves.
The
time
varying electric and
magnetic fields are
z B
mutually perpendicular
c
to each other and also
x
perpendicular to the
direction
of
Electromagnetic waves
propagation of wave.

Characteristics of
Electromagnetic Waves

The electromagnetic waves are transverse in nature


whose speed is same as that speed of light.
The two fields E and B have the same frequency of
oscillation and they are in same phase with each other.
The electric vector E is responsible for the optical
effects of an electromagnetic wave and is called the
light vector.
E and B are such that E B [is always in the direction
of propagation of wave]
z

Maxwells Equations
Maxwell gave the basic laws of electricity and magnetism in the
form of four fundamental equations, which are known as
Maxwells equations. It is based on experimental observations
followed by all electromagnetic phenomena, may be stated in the
integral form as given below:

Gausss Law in Electrostatics


G

y
G

Wave propagation

50

The electromagnetic wave propagating in the positive


x-direction may be represented by
E = Ey = E0 sin (kx t ), B = Bz = B0 sin (kx t )
where, E(Ey ), B(Bz) are the instantaneous values of the fields.
E0 , B0 are amplitude of the fields and k is angular wave
number.
Electromagnetic waves obey the superposition principle
because the differential equations involving E and B are linear
equations, e.g. we can add two waves with the same frequency
simply by adding the magnitudes of the two electric field
algebraically.
Electromagnetic waves show the properties of reflection,
refraction, interference, diffraction and polarisation.
The velocity of electromagnetic waves in dielectric is less than c
( = 3 108 m/s).
The EM waves carry energy which is divided equally between
electric field and magnetic field vectors.

This law gives total electric flux in terms of charged enclosed by


the closed surface.
This law states that electric lines of force start from positive
charge and end at negative charge, i.e. the electric lines of force
do not form a continuous closed path.
q
i.e.
s E dS = 0

Gausss Law in Magnetism


G

This law shows that number of magnetic lines of force


entering a closed surface is equal to the number of
magnetic lines of force leaving that closed surface.

It tells that the magnetic lines of force form a continuous


closed path.

It also predicts that the isolated magnetic monopoles does


not exist.

S B dS = 0

i.e.

Faradays Laws of Electromagnetic


Induction
G

This law gives a relation between electric field and a


changing magnetic flux.
It states that changing magnetic field is the source of
electric field.
dB
E dl = dt

Displacement Current
It is that current which comes into existence (in addition of
conduction current) whenever the electric field and hence the
electric flux changes with time. It is equal to 0 times the rate of
change of electric flux through a given surface.
ID = 0

Modified Amperes Circuital Law


It states that the line integral of the magnetic field B over a
closed path is equal to 0 times the sum of conduction current
I C and the displacement current I D threading between the
capacitor plates during charging process. Hence, modified law
is as below:
dE

B dl = 0 (IC + ID) or B dl = 0 IC + 0 dt

Importance of Maxwells Equations


Maxwell predicted the following conclusions :
(i) An accelerated charge is the source of electromagnetic waves.
(ii) The electromagnetic waves can propagate through the space
with the speed of light (3 10 8 m/s) .
(iii) The electromagnetic wave is of transverse nature.
(iv) Light itself is an electromagnetic wave as it is transverse in
nature and it moves in space with a speed (3 10 8 m/s) .

Amperes Circuital Law


According to this law, the line integral of magnetic field
along any closed path or circuit is 0 times the total current
flowing through a surface enclosed in that loop.

B dl = 0 I

i.e.

Inconsistency of Amperes Law


Maxwell explained that Amperes law is valid only for
steady current or when the electric field does not change
with time. To see this inconsistency, consider a parallel
plate capacitor being charged by a battery. During the
charging
time
varying
current
flows
through
connecting wires.
+q

I1

I2

dE
dt

Hertzs Experiment
Hertz was the first scientist to experimentally demonstrate
production of electromagnetic waves employing a crude form
of an oscillatory L - C circuit.
EM waves are produced by accelerated charge (or
oscillating charge).
The frequency of the EM waves is same as the frequency of
oscillation of the charge in electric field E or oscillation of
1
charge in magnetic field B, i.e. =
, where L is
2 LC
G

inductance and C is capacitance of a circuit.


K

Applying Amperes law for loop I1 and loop I2 , we get

I B dl = 0 I

But, B dl = 0 (since no current flows through the region


I2

between the plates). But practically it is observed that there


is a magnetic field between the plates. Hence, Amperes
law fails.
i.e.

B dl 0 I

The EM waves are transverse in nature. They do not require


any material medium for their propagation.
He discovered that if one of the spark gap terminal is
connected to an antenna and the other terminal is earthed,
the electromagnetic waves radiated could go upto several
kilometers.
Later on Jagdish Chandra Bose produced EM waves of
wavelength ranging from 5 mm to 25 mm. Marconi
succeeded in transmitting EM waves over distances upto
few kilometres.

51

1. Consider the two following statements regarding a


linearly polarised plane electromagnetic waves.
I. Electric field and the magnetic field have equal
average values.
II. Electric energy and the magnetic energy have
equal average values.
(a) I is true
(c) Both are true

(b) II is true
(d) Both are false

2. An EM wave radiates outwards from a dipole antenna,


with E0 as the amplitude of its electric field vector. The
electric field E0 which transports significant energy
from the source falls off as
1
r3

(b)

1
r2

(c)

1
r

(d) remains constant

3. Instantaneous displacement current of 10


. A in the
space between the parallel plate of 1 F capacitor can
be established by changing the potential difference of
(a) 10

Vs

Hint As,

(b) 10 Vs

q CV
or i D = C
=
t
t

(c) 1 Vs

(d) 01
. Vs

V
where, i D = displacement current
t

monoxide molecule into carbon and oxygen atoms.


The minimum frequency of the appropriate electromagnetic radiation to achieve the dissociation lies in
(b) infrared region
(d) microwave region

5. An electric field E and magnetic field B exist in a


region. If these fields are not perpendicular to each
other, then the electromagnetic waves
(a) will not pass through the region
(b) will pass through the region
(c) may pass through the region
(d) nothing is definite
Hint The electromagnetic wave being packets of energy moving
with speed of light may pass through the region.

6. A cube of edge a has its edges parallel to X , Y and


Z-axis of rectangular coordinate system. A uniform
electric field E is parallel to Y-axis and a uniform
magnetic field is parallel to X-axis. The rate at which
flows through each face of the cube is
(a)

a 2 EB
parallel to XY-plane and zero in other
2 0

(b)

a 2 EB
parallel to XY-plane and zero in other
0
2

52

(c)

a EB
from all faces
2 0

(d)

a 2 EB
parallel to YZ-plane and zero in other
2 0

It will be in negative Z-direction. It shows that the energy will be


flowing in faces parallel to XY-plane and is zero in all other faces.
Total energy flowing per second from a face in XY-plane
1
EBa 2
.
=
( EB sin 90 ) a 2 =
0
0

point between the capacitor plates expressed in terms


of the rate of change of the electric field strength, i.e.
dE
between the plates is
dt
(a)

0i
2 r

(b)

0 0r dE
.
2
dt

(c) zero

(d)

0i dE
2 dt

8. The magnetic field between the plates of a capacitor

where r >R is given by (where, r is the distance from the


axis of plates and R is the radius of each plate of
capacitor)
(a)

4. One requires 11eV of energy to dissociate a carbon

(a) visible
(c) ultra violet region

1
[ E B ].
0

7. An expression for the magnetic field strength B at a

Hint Electric and magnetic fields and energies have equal


average values.

(a)

Hint Energy flowing per second unit area from a face is

0i D
2 R 2

(b)

0. i D
2 R

(c)

0. i D
2 r

(d) zero

9. An electromagnetic wave travels along Z-axis. Which


of the following pairs of space and time varying fields
would generate such a wave?
(a) E x , By

(b) E y , Bz

(c) E z , Bx

(d) E y , Bx

Hint E x and By would generate a plane electromagnetic wave


travelling in Z-direction. E, B and k from a right handed system k$ is
along Z-axis. (As, $i $j = k$ ) E $i + B $j = c k$ .
x

i.e. E is along X-axis and B is along Y-axis.

10. The charge of a parallel plate capacitor is varying as

q = q0 sin 2 ft . The plates are very large and close


together (area = A, separation = d). Neglecting edge
effects, the displacement current through the
capacitor is
(a)

d
A 0

d
sin 2 ft
0
2 fq 0
(d)
cos 2 ft
0
(b)

(c) 2 fq 0 cos 2 ft

11. The magnetic field between the plates of radius 12 cm


separated by distance of 4 mm of a parallel plate
capacitor of capacitance 100 pF along the axis of plates
having conduction current of 015
. A is
(a) zero

(b) 15
. T

(c) 15 T

(d) 015
. T

Hint As, B r, since the point is on the axis, where r = 0, so B = 0.

12. A circular ring of radius r is placed in a homogeneous


magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the ring.
The field B changes with time according to the
equation, B = kt , where k is a constant and t is the time.
The electric field in the ring is
(a)

kr
4

(b)

kr
3

(c)

kr
2

(d)

k
2r

PROPERTIES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES


Speed
G

In

a free space, its speed


is
E
1
c=
= 0 = 3 108 m/s, where 0
B0
0 0

given

by

is absolute

permeability and 0 is absolute permittivity in a free space


or vacuum.
1
, where and are absolute
In medium, v =

permeability and absolute permittivity of that medium.

Energy
G

The energy in electromagnetic waves is divided equally


between the electric and magnetic fields.
1
Energy density of electric field, UE = 0 E 2
2
The electric vector is responsible for the optical effects of
an electromagnetic wave and is called as Light vector.
1 B2
Energy density of magnetic field, Um =
2 0
1 B2
Total energy per unit volume, U = UE + Um =
2 0

Also, average density (electric or magnetic field)


B2
1
Uav = 0 E 20 = 0
2
2 0

Intensity
The energy crossing per unit area per unit time
perpendicular to the direction of propagation of
electromagnetic waves.
Total EM energy
Total energy density Volume
i.e. I =
=
Surface area Time
Surface area Time

Radiation Pressure
It is the momentum imparted per second per unit area on
which the light falls.
For a perfectly reflecting surface, pr = 2 S/ c, where S is
Poynting vector and c is speed of light.
For a perfectly absorbing surface, p = S/ c
G

Note For the case of oblique incidence, where change in momentum


at the perfectly reflecting surface is 2 p cos and the
2S
corresponding radiation pressure is p =
cos, where is the
c
angle of incidence.

Refractive Index ( n)
The refractive index n of a material medium is given by


1
c

n= =
=
Q = r , = r
1
v
0 0
0 0

0
0
So,
n = r r
where, r = relative permeability of the medium
r = relative permittivity of the medium.

Wave Impedance (Z )
G

The direction of poynting vector S of an electromagnetic


wave at any point gives the waves direction of travel and
the direction of energy transport at that point.

Momentum
G

Electromagnetic waves also carry momentum. If a portion


of electromagnetic wave of energy U propagating with
Energy (U)
speed c, then linear momentum, i.e. p =
Speed (c)

The medium offers hindrance to the propagation of wave.


Such hindrance is called wave impedance. It is given by
Z=

Poyntings Vector
In electromagnetic waves, the rate of flow of energy crossing
a unit area is described by a vector S, called as Poynting
vector.
Its unit is watt/m2 or Js 1 m2 and it can be expressed as
1
S=
(E B)
0

If the surface is a perfect reflector and incidence is normal,


then the momentum is transported to the surface is twice,
2U
then momentum becomes, p =
c
The average force exerted by electromagnetic waves on the
p 2U
surface will be F = =
t
tc

r
=

0
0

For vacuum or free space, Z =

0
= 376.6
0

Electromagnetic Spectrum
The orderly distribution of the electromagnetic waves in
accordance with their wavelength or frequency into distinct
groups having widely different properties is called
electromagnetic spectrum as shown in the figure.
Wavelength (m)
103 102 101

101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 1010 1011 1012

X-rays

Infrared
Radio waves
(AM, FM, TV)

Ultraviolet

Microwaves
(radar, etc.)

-rays

Visible Light
7107
Red

6107
Yelloworange

5107
Bluegreen

4107
Violet

53

Radio waves are generated when charges are


accelerating through conducting wires. Their
wavelengths lie in the range of 104 m to about 0.1 m. It
is used in radio and television communication system.
Microwaves have wavelengths ranging from approximately 0.3 m to 10 4 m and are also generated by
electronic devices. They are used in radar systems and
for studying the atomic and molecular properties of
matter.
Infrared waves have wavelengths ranging from 10 3 m
to the longest wavelength of visible light, 7 10 7 m.
These waves are produced by molecules and room
temperature objects. It is used in physiotherapy,
infrared photography and vibrational spectroscopy.
Visible light is that component of the electromagnetic
spectrum that can be detected by human eye. These
extend from a wavelength of 7.8 10 7 m to
3.8 10 7 m and frequencies from 4 1014 Hz to 8 1014
Hz.

Radiation
-rays

Uses
Gives information on nuclear structure,
medical treatment etc

X-rays

Medical diagnosis and treatment study of


crystal structure, industrial radiograph

UV-rays

Preserve food, sterilising the surgical


instruments, detecting the invisible writings,
finger prints etc

Visible light

To see objects

Infrared rays

To treat muscular strain for taking


photography during the fog, haze, etc

Microwave and
radio waves

In radar and telecommunication

Ultraviolet waves cover wavelengths ranging from


approximately 4 10 7 m to 6 10 10 m. These are
produced by the sun, special lamps like mercury lamp,
hydrogen tube, etc., and very hot bodies. It has various
uses such as in LASIK eye surgery, to kill germs in
water purifiers as disinfectant in hospitals etc.
As an UV light from the sun is absorbed by ozone (O3 )
molecules in the earths upper atmosphere in a layer
called the stratosphere. This ozone shield converts
(central) high energy UV radiations to infrared
radiations. As a result absorption of UV radiation
results in warming the stratosphere.
X-rays have wavelengths in the range from
approximately 10 8 m to 10 12 m. It is obtained by the
deceleration of high energy electrons bombarding a
metal target. It is used in the study of crystal structure
and treatment of cancer.

54

The frequency of electromagnetic waves is its inherent characteristic.


When an electromagnetic wave travels from one medium to another, its
wavelength changes but frequency remains unchanged.
All the types of electromagnetic waves travel with the same speed in
free space.
The amplitude of electric field in an electromagnetic waves of intensity I
2I
is given by E 0 =
0c
The current in L-C circuit during oscillatory discharge is given by
dq
d
I = = (q 0 cost ) = q 0 sin t
dt
dt
During the discharge of a capacitor, the current in the circuit increases.
The ratio of the amplitudes of electric and magnetic fields is constant
and it is equal to velocity of the electromagnetic waves in free space
E
i.e. 0 = c
B0
The magnitudes and the amplitudes of the electric and magnetic
components of the electromagnetic wave obey a wave equation :
2
2 E y (x , t )
2 0 0 2
=0
t B z (x , t )
x
A standing electromagnetic waves do not propagate, but instead the
electric and magnetic fields execute simple harmonic motion perpendicular
to the direction of propagation,
i.e. E y ( x , t ) = 2E 0 sin kx sint , B z ( x , t ) = 2B 0 cos kx cost .

PHYSICS
Superfast Light Pulses :
A Measure of Response Time of
Electrons to Light
A team of researchers has found a way to measure the
time. It takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a
pulse of light. The team describes their use of a light
field synthesizer to create pulses of light so fast that
they were able to reveal the time, it took for electrons in
an atom to respond when struck.
As scientists have begun preparing for the day when
photons will replace electrons in high speed
computers, work is being done to better understand
the link between the two. One important aspect of this
is learning what happens when photons strike
electrons that remain in their atom (rather than being
knocked out of them), specifically, how long does it
take them to respond.

13. The oscillating electric and magnetic field vectors of

20. The shortest wavelength of X-rays emitted from an

electromagnetic wave are oriented along

X-rays tube depends upon

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

(a) nature of the gas in the tube


(b) voltage applied to tube
(c) current in the tube
(d) nature of target of the tube

the same direction and in phase


the same direction but have a phase difference of 90
mutually perpendicular directions and are in phase
mutually perpendicular directions but has a phase
difference of 90

Hint In electric and magnetic waves are mutually perpendicular


directions and they are in same phase.

14. The sun delivers 10 Wm


3

of electromagnetic flux to
the earths surface. The radiation force on the roof of
dimensions 10 m 20 m is

(a) 6.67
(b) 6.67
(c) 6.67
(d) 2.35

10 6
10 4
10 3
10 4

N
N
N
N

Hint Radiation force =

1
0 0
1
/

(b)

(d)

(b) v s < v x < v m


(d) v s = v x = v m

17. Electromagnetic waves travel in a medium at a speed

of 2.0 108 ms 1 . The relative permeability of the


medium is 1.0. The relative permittivity is
(b) 4. 25

(c) 8.62

(d) 0

23. If the wavelength of light is 4000 , then the number of


wavelength in 1 mm length will be
(d) 0

the given radiation sources is

microwaves respectively in vacuum, then


(a) v s > v x > v m
(c) v s > v x > v m

(b) 31
. 10 5 k$ T

24. The correct sequence of the increasing wavelength of

16. If v s , v x and v m are the speeds of -rays, X-rays and

(d) 2.25

18. An earth orbiting satellite has solar energy collecting

panel with total area 5 m2 . If solar radiations are


perpendicular and completely absorbed, the average
force associated with the radiation pressure is
(Solar constant = 1.4 k Wm2 )

(a) 2.33 10 3 N
(c) 2.33 10 5 N

22. A plane electromagnetic wave of frequency 25 MHz

(a) 2.5 10 5 (b) 0.25 10 4 (c) 2.5 10 4

Hint Velocity of light in a medium,


1
1
c=
=

0 0 r r

(a) 9.25

(a) light and can easily deflect electrons


(b) light and can absorb electrons
(c) a heavy element with a high melting point
(d) an element having high thermal conductivity

(a) 2.1 10 8 k$ T
(c) 5.0 10 6 k$ T

Total power
Velocity of light

in any medium is expressed as

(c)

production of X-rays because it is

travels in a free space along the X-direction. At the


particular point in space and time, E = 63 $j V/ m . What
is B at the point?

15. According to Maxwells equation, the velocity of light


(a)

21. Molybdenum is used as a target element for the

(b) 2.33 10 4 N
(d) 2.33 10 6 N

19. X-rays are produced by jumping of


(a) electrons from lower to higher energy orbit of atom
(b) electrons from higher to lower energy orbit of atom
(c) protons from lower to higher energy orbit of nucleus
(d) protons from higher to lower energy orbit of nucleus
Hint X-rays are produced when there is vacancy for the electron
on inner complete orbits of an atom and jump of electrons takes
place from higher orbit to lower orbit of atom.

(a) radioactive sources, X-ray tube, crystal oscillator, sodium


vapour lamp
(b) radioactive sources, X-ray tube, sodium vapour lamp,
crystal oscillator
(c) X-ray tube, radioactive sources, crystal oscillator, sodium
vapour lamp
(d) X-ray tube, crystal oscillator, radioactive sourcess, sodium
vapour lamp
Hint Radioactive sources, X-ray tube, sodium vapour lamp, crystal
oscillator.

25. A plane electromagnetic wave travels in vacuum along


Z-direction. What can you say about the directions of
its electric and magnetic field vectors ? If the frequency
of the wave is 30 MHz, what is its wavelength?
(a) 20 m

(b) 15 m

(c) 10 m

(d) 5 m

Hint Here, electromagnetic wave is travelling in Z-direction, then


electric and magnetic fields are in XY-direction and are
perpendicular to each other.

26. A TV tower has a height of 100 m. How much


population is covered by the TV broadcast if the
average population density around the tower is
1000 km2 ? (Radius of the earth = 6.37 106 m)
(a) 4 lakh
(c) 40000

(b) 4 billion
(d) 40 lakh

27. Ozone layer blocks the radiations of wavelength


(a) less than 3 10 7 m
(c) more than 3 10 7m

(b) equal to 3 10 7m
(d) All of these

Hint Ozone layer blocks the high energy radiations like ultraviolet
(UV) (3 10 7m).

55

28. The radio wave (wavelength 21 cm) is emitted by


hydrogen in interstellar space is due to the interaction
called the hyperfine interaction in atomic hydrogen,
the energy of the emitted wave is nearly

(a) 10 17J

(c) 7 10 8 J

(b) 1 J

(d) 10 24 J

29. The electric field intensity produced by the radiations


coming from 100 W bulb at a distance 3 m is E0 . The
electric field intensity produced by the radiations
coming from 50 W bulb at the same distance is

(a)

E
2

(b) 2 E

(c)

E
2

(d) 2 E

Hint The electric field intensity produced by the radiations coming


from 50 W bulb at the same distance is 2 E.

30. Television signals reach us only through the ground


waves. The range R related with the transmitter height
h is in proportion to
(c) h1/ 2

(b) h1/ 2

(a) h

(d) h1

Hint Range ( R ) = 2 hr , where r is the radius of the earth.


So, R h1 / 2 .

Answers
1. (c)
11. (a)
21. (c)

2. (c)
12. (c)
22. (a)

3. (b)
13. (c)
23. (b)

4. (c)
14. (b)
24. (b)

5. (c)
15. (b)
25. (c)

MASTER

1. A radiation of 200 W is incident on a surface which is


60% reflecting and 40% absorbing. The total force on
the surface is
(b) 13
. 10 6 N
(d) 103
. 10 7 N

(a) 107
. 10 6 N
(c) 107
. 10 7 N

2. If c is the speed of electromagnetic waves in a vacuum,


its speed in a medium of dielectric constant K and
relative permeability is
c
c

(b) v =

1
K

(c) v =

K
c

(d) v = c K

3. A plane electromagnetic wave of intensity 10 Wm2


2

strikes a small mirror of area 20 cm , held


perpendicular to the approaching wave. The radiation
force on the mirror will
11

11

N
N
(b) 133
(a) 6.6 10
. 10
(c) 133
(d) 6.6 10 11 N
. 10 10 N
Hint Radiation force = momentum transferred per second by
electromagnetic wave to the mirror.

4. If an electromagnetic wave is propagating in a medium

with permittivity and permeability , then


is

(a) intrinsic impedance of the medium


(b) square of the refractive index of the medium
(c) refractive index of the medium
(d) energy density of the medium

has the dimensions of resistance, hence it is called

the intrinsic impedance of the medium.

Hint As,

5. The electromagnetic waves travel in a medium which


has relative permeability by 1.3 and relative
permittivity 2.14. Then, the speed of the
electromagnetic wave in the medium will be

56

7. (b)
17. (d)
27. (b)

8. (c)
18. (c)
28. (d)

9. (a)
19. (b)
29. (d)

(a) 1.8 10 7 ms 1

(b) 1.8 10 8 ms 1

(d) 5.7 10 9 ms 1

(c) 2.5 10 ms
6

Hint As, v =

Hint Here, Ftotal = Fre + Fab .

(a) v =

6. (b)
16. (d)
26. (d)

c
0

3 10 8
1.3 2 .14

10. (c)
20. (b)
30. (b)

1.8 10 8 ms 1

6. The electric field (in Nms 1 ) in an electromagnetic

wave is given by E = 50 sin (t x / c). The energy


stored in a cylinder of cross-section 10 cm2 and the
length 100 cm along the x-axis will be

(a) 5.5 10 12 J
(c) 2.2 10 11 J

(b) 1.1 10 11 J
(d) 1.65 10 11 J

7. The speed of electromagnetic wave in the medium of


dielectric constant 2.25 and relative permittivity is

(a) 1 10 8 ms 1
(c) 4 10 ms
8

(b) 2.5 10 8 ms 1

(d) 3 10 8 ms 1

Hint The speed of electromagnetic waves in a medium is


1
1
c
v=
=
=
0 0

0 r 0 r

8. For an electromagnetic wave, the amplitude of electric

field is 10 V/ m. The frequency of wave is 5 1014 Hz.


The wave is propagating along the Z-axis, then the
average density of electric field is
(a) 2.21 10 10 Jm3
(c) 81
. 10 12 Jm3

(b) 3.25 10 9 Jm3


(d) 6.25 10 3 Jm3

9. A plane electromagnetic wave is incident on a material


surface. The wave delivers momentum p and energy
E is
(a) p 0, E 0

(b) p = 0, E = 0

(c) p = 0, E 0

(d) p 0, E = 0

Hint When plane electromagnetic wave is incident on the material


surface, the wave delivers some momentum and energy to the
surface and hence, p 0, E 0.

10. In which one of the following regions of the


electromagnetic spectrum will the vibrational motion
of the molecules give rise to absorption?
(a) Ultraviolet

(b) Microwaves

(c) Infrared

(d) Radio waves

Hint Molecular spectra due to vibrational motion lie in the


microwave region of electromagnetic spectrum due to Kirchhoffs
law in spectroscopy the same will be absorbed.

11. The amplitude of an electromagnetic wave in vacuum


is doubled with no other changes made to the wave. As
a result of this doubling of the amplitude, which of the
following statement is true?
(a) The speed of wave propagation changes only
(b) The frequency of the wave changes only
(c) The wavelength of the wave changes only
(d) None of the above
Hint Velocity of an electromagnetic wave,
1
c=
= 3 10 8 m / s is independent of amplitude, frequency
0 0
and wavelength of an electromagnetic wave.

12. The mean electric energy density between the plates of

a charged capacitor is (here, q = charge on the


capacitor and A = area of the capacitor plate)
(a)

q2
2 0 A 2

(b)

q
2 0 A 2

(c)

q2
2 0 A

(d) zero

Hint Electric energy stored in a charge capacitor


U=

1 q2 1 q2
1 q
=
=
Ad
2 c 2 0 A / d 2 0 A2

13. If 0 , 0 are the absolute permeability and permittivity

respectively of space r , r are the relative permeability


and permittivity respectively of the media and , are
the absolute permeability and permittivity of medium
respectively, then the refractive index of the medium is
(a)

0 0

(b)

r r
00

(c) r r

(d)


0r

14. For a plane of electromagnetic wave, the electric field

oscillates sinusoidally at a frequency of 2 1010 Hz and


the amplitude 48 Vm1 . The amplitude of oscillating
magnetic field will be
(a) 16 10 8 Wbm2
(c) 18 10

Wbm

(b) 12 10 8 Wbm2

(d) 2.0 10 6 Wbm2

15. Radio waves received by a radio telescope from distant


aparts may have a wavelength of about 0.20 m. If the
speed of the wave is 3 108 ms 1 , then frequency of the
wave will be
(a) 1.5 10 9 Hz
(c) 1.5 10 3 Hz

(b) 15
. 10 8 Hz
(d) 135 Hz

Answers
1. (a)
6. (b)
11. (d)

2. (a)
7. (a)
12. (a)

3. (c)
8. (a)
13. (c)

4. (a)
9. (a)
14. (a)

5. (b)
10. (b)
15. (b)

57

Formulae at a Glance
Electromagnetic Waves
G

df E
The displacement current is given by the relation, ID = e 0
dt
df E
where, e 0 = absolute permittivity of space,
= rate of change of
dt
electric flux
e df

Amperes Maxwells law B dl = m 0 ( I + ID ) = m 0 1 + 0 E


dt

Maxwell's equations are as follows

E dS =

(ii)

E dS = 0 (Gausss law in magnetostatics)

-d
(iii) E dl =
S
dt
induction)
(iv)
G

q
(Gausss law in electrostatics)
e0

(i)

B dS
S

E dl m 0 I + m 0 e0

d
dt

(Faradays law of electromagnetic

Ray Optics
G

E dS (Ampere-Maxwells law)

Velocity of electromagnetic waves in free space is given by


1
c=
= 3 10 8 m/s
m 0 e0
The amplitudes of electric and magnetic fields in free space in
electromagnetic waves are related by, E 0 = cB0

Alternating Current
G

Alternating current vary as sine function of time is given by I = I0 sin wt


and alternating voltage, V = V0 sin wt .
where, I0 and V0 are the maximum or peak values of current and
voltage, wis the angular frequency, n is the frequency and T is the time
period of given AC.
T
Average or mean value of an AC over a half cycle, i.e. t = 0 to .
2
2I
Iav = 0 = 0.637 I0 Similarly, Vav = 0.637 V0
\
p
I
V
The rms value of an AC is defined as, ( Irms ) = 0 and Vrms = 0
2
2
1
Reciprocal of reactance is known as susceptance, i.e S =
X
1
Reciprocal of impedance is known as admittance. Thus, Y = . Its unit
Z
is Siemen (S).
V
V
In pure resistive circuit, V = V0 sin wt , where current, I = or Irms = rms
R
R
and current, voltage are in same phase, i.e. current is given by
p
I = I0 sin wt , average power, Pav = Vrms Irms cos = 0.
2
V
In inductive reactance, X L: = 2p nL = wL, current, I = , current lags
XL
p
behind the voltage by , i.e. I = I0 sin( wt - p / 2 ) for V = V0 sin wt .
2
1
As pure capacitive circuit, capacitive reactance, XC =
, current
wC
V
p
and current leads the voltage by
flowing, I =
, i.e.
XC
2
I = I0 sin ( wt + p / 2 ) for V = V0 sin wt .

Power factor, cos f =

Average power over a full cycle of AC, Pav = Vrms Irms cos f =

1
V0 I0 cos f
2

1 1 1 2
= + =
f u v R
where, f is focal length, u is distance of the object, R is radius of
curvature and v is distance of the image from the pole of mirror.
h
+v
Linear magnification, m = 2 =
h1 - u
where, h2 is size of image and h1 is size of the object.
sin i
(As light goes from rarer to denser medium) and
Snells law, m =
sin r
sin r
(When light goes from denser to rarer medium)
m=
sin i
Mirror formula,

Lens makers formula, for both convex and concave lenses is


1
1
1
= (u - 1)

f
R
R
1
2
where, R1 and R2 are radii of curvature of the two surfaces of the lens
and m is refractive index of material of lens.
1
Power of lens, i.e. P = when f = 1m, P = 1 dioptre
f
If m is refractive index of material prism, then from Snells law,
sin i sin( A + dm ) / 2
=
sin r
sin A / 2

m=

R
True power
=
Z Apparent power

1
, i.e. the natural
LC
frequency of the circuit is equal to applied frequency, then the circuit is
said to be in resonance.
At resonance, current in the circuit is maximum and impedance is
minimum and Zmin = R.
E
At resonance, I0 = 0 and VL = I0 X L
R
wL
1
VC = I0 XC , i.e. VL =
E0 =
E 0 = QE 0
R
wRC
wL
1
or
is termed as quality factor circuit.
where, Q =
R
wRC
It determines the sharpness of resonance. Higher the value of Q,
sharper is the resonance.
In series L-C-R circuit, if X L = XC = w 0 =

This formula is called prism formula, where A is angle of prism and dm


is net deviation angle.
Angular dispersion
Dispersive power of prism, w =
Mean deviation
d
Magnifying power of a simple microscope, m = 1 + , where d is
f

least distance of distinct vision from the eye and f is focal length of
an eye.
In normal adjustment, when final image is at infinity, m = d / f .
v d
Magnifying power of a compound microscope, m = 0 1 +
-u 0
fe
where, v 0 and u 0 are distance of image and object from optical centre
of objective lens, fe is focal length of eyelens.
The magnifying power of astronomical telescope is given by
f
f
m= 0 = 0
- fe |fe |
When final image is at the least distance of distinct vision from the eye,
-f
f
the magnifying power is given by m = 0 1 + e
fe d
where, f0 is focal length of objective lens.
f
(R / 2 )
Magnifying power of a reflecting type telescope is m = 0 =
fe
fe

77

1. In a vernier callipers, N divisions of vernier scale


coincide with (N 1) divisions of main scale (in which
length of one division is 1mm. The least count of the
instrument should be
(a) N

(b) N 1

(c)

1
10N

(d)

1
N1

2. The dimensional formula of self-inductance is


(a) [MLT 2A 2 ]

(b) [ML2T 1A 2 ]

(c) [ML2T 2A 2 ]

(d) [ML2T 2A 1 ]

3. What will be the ratio of the distance moved by a freely


falling body from rest in 4th and 5th seconds of
journey?
(a) 4 : 5

(b) 7 : 9

(c) 16 : 25

(d) 1 : 1

4. A person swims in a river aiming to reach exactly


opposite point on the bank of a river. His speed of
swimming is 0.5 m/s at an angle 120 with the direction
of flow of water. The speed of water in stream is
(a) 1.0 m/s
(c) 0.25 m/s

(b) 0.5 m/s


(d) 0.43 m/s

5. The maximum range of a gun of horizontal terrain is 16 km.


If g = 10 m/s2 , then muzzle velocity of a shell must be
(a) 160 m/s

(b) 200 2 m/s (c) 400 m/s

(d) 800 m/s

6. An electric fan has blades of length 30 cm measured


from the axis of rotation. If the fan is rotating at
120 rev/min, the acceleration of a point on the tip of the
blade is

78

(a) 1600 m/s 2

(b) 47.4 m/s 2

(c) 23.7 m/s 2

(d) 50.50 m/s 2

7. A 600 kg rocket is set for a vertical firing. If the exhaust


speed is 1000 m/s, the mass of the gas ejected per
second to supply the thrust needed to overcome the
weight of rocket is

(a) 117.6 kgs 1

(b) 58.6 kgs 1 (c) 6 kgs 1

(d) 76.4 kgs 1

8. Consider a car moving along a straight horizontal road


with a speed of 72 km/h. If the coefficient of static
friction between the tyres and the road is 0.5, the
shortest distance in which the car can be stopped is
(Take g = 10 m/s2 )
(a) 30 m

(b) 40 m

(c) 72 m

(d) 20 m

9. Two identical balls A and B moving with velocities


+ 0.5 m/s and 0.3 m/s respectively collide head on
elastically. The velocity of the balls A and B after
collision will be respectively,
(a) + 0.5 m/s and + 0.3 m/s
(c) + 0.3 m/s and + 0.5 m/s

(b) 0.3 m/s and + 0.5 m/s


(d) 0.5 m/s and + 0.3 m/s

10. A metal ball of mass 2 kg moving with a velocity of


36 km/h has a head on collision with a stationary ball of
mass 3 kg. If after the collision, the two balls move
together, the loss in kinetic energy due to collision is
(a) 140 J

(b) 100 J

(c) 60 J

(d) 40 J

11. A circular disc is to be made using iron and aluminium.


To keep its moment of inertia maximum about a
geometrical axis, it should be prepared that
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

aluminium is at the interior and iron surrounds it


iron is at the interior and aluminium surrounds it
aluminium and iron layers are in alternate order
sheet of iron is used at both external surfaces and
aluminium sheet as inner material

AIPMT PREP UP
12. The moment of inertia of a body about a given axis is
1.2 kg- m2 . Initially, the body is at rest. In order to
produce a rotational kinetic energy of 1500 J, an
angular acceleration of 25 rad / s2 must be applied
about the axis for a duration of
(a) 4 s

(b) 2 s

(c) 8 s

(d) 10 s

13. Two satellites of earth, S1 and S2 , are moving in the

21. A bullet of mass 2 g is having a charge of 2 C. Through,


what potential difference must it be accelerated,
starting from rest to acquire a speed of 10 m/s?
(a) 5 kV

(b) 50 kV

(c) 5 V

(d) 50 V

22. An electric dipole of moment p is lying along a uniform


electric field E. The work done in rotating the dipole by
90 is

same orbit. The mass of S1 is four times that of mass of


S2 . Which one of the following statements is true?

(a) 2 pE

(a) The time period of S1 is four times that of S 2


(b) The potential energies of earth and satellite in the two cases
are equal
(c) S1 and S 2 are moving with the same speed
(d) The kinetic energies of the two satellites are equal

(c) 2 pE

pE
2
(d) pE
(b)

23. A student measures the terminal potential difference

14. A roller coaster is designed such that riders experience

(V ) of a cell (of emf and internal resistance r) as a


function of the current (I) flowing through it. The slope
and intercept of the graph between V and I, then
respectively equal to

weightlessness, as they go round the top of the hill


whose radius of curvature is 20 m. The speed of the car
at the top of the hill is in between

24. The mean free path of electrons in a metal is 4 10 8 m.

(a) 14 m/s and 15 m/s


(c) 16 m/s and 17 m/s

(b) 15 m/s and 16 m/s


(d) 13 m/s and 14 m/s

15. If m denotes the wavelength at which the radiative


emission from a black body at a temperature T K is
maximum, then
(a) m T 4

(b) m is independent of T

(c) m T

(d) m T 1
2 1

7 cal - cm s . At a temperature of 727 C, the rate of


heat radiated in the same units will be
(b) 50

(c) 112

(d) 80

17. Two springs of spring constants k1 and k2 are joined in


series. The effective spring constant of the combination
is given by
(a) k1k 2

(b)

( k1 + k 2 )
2

(c) k1 + k 2

(d)

k1k 2
( k1 + k 2 )

18. The potential energy of a long spring when stretched


by 2 cm is U. If the spring is stretched by 8 cm, the
potential energy stored in it, is
(a) 4 U

(b) 8 U

(c) 16 U

(d) U / 4

19. Two vibrating tunning forks produce progressive

waves given by the y1 = 4 sin500 t and y2 = 2 sin506 t .


Number of beats produced per minute are
(a) 360
(c) 30

(b) 180
(d) 60

20. A transverse wave propagating along x-axis is


represented by

y(x,t ) = 8.0 sin 0.5 x 4 t

4
where, x is in metre and t is in second. The speed of the
wave is
(a) 4 m/s

(c) m/s
4

(b) 0.5 m/s


(d) 8 m/s

(b) r and
(d) and r

The electric field which can give an average 2 eV


energy to an electron in the metal will be
(in unit of Vm1 )
(a) 8 10 7
(c) 8 10 11

(b) 5 10 11
(d) 5 10 7

25. Two bulbs 25 W, 220 V and 100 W, 220 V are given.


Which has higher resistance?

16. A black body at 227 C radiates heat at the rate of


(a) 60

(a) and r
(c) r and

(a) 25 W bulb
(b) 100 W bulb
(c) Both bulbs will have equal resistance
(d) Resistance of bulbs cannot be compared

26. Two 220 V, 100 W bulbs are connected first in series


and then in parallel. Each time the combination is
connected to a 220 V AC supply line. The power drawn
by the combination in each case respectively will be
(a) 200 W, 150 W
(c) 50 W, 100 W

(b) 180 W, 200 W


(d) 50 W, 200 W

27. To convert a galvanometer into a voltmeter, one should


connect
(a) high resistance in series with galvanometer
(b) low resistance in series with galvanometer
(c) high resistance in parallel with galvanometer
(d) low resistance in parallel with galvanometer

28. A galvanometer of resistance 50 is connected to a


battery of 3V alongwith a resistance of 2950 in series.
A full scale deflection of 30 divisions is obtained in the
galvanometer. In order to reduce this deflection to
20 divisions, the resistance in series should be
(a) 5050
(c) 6050

(b) 5550
(d) 4450

29. Above Curie temperature,


(a) a ferromagnetic substance becomes paramagnetic
(b) a paramagnetic substance becomes diamagnetic
(c) a diamagnetic substance becomes paramagnetic
(d) a paramagnetic substance becomes ferromagnetic

79

AIPMT PREP UP
30. A bar magnet having a magnetic moment of

2 104 JT 1 is free to rotate in a horizontal plane.


A horizontal magnetic field B = 6 10 4 T exists in the
space. The work done in taking the magnet slowly from
a direction parallel to the field to a direction 60 from
the field is
(a) 0.6 J

(b) 12 J

(c) 6 J

(d) 2 J

31. In an inductor of self-inductance L = 2 mH, current


changes with time according to relation i = t 2 e t . At
what time emf is zero?
(a) 4 s

(b) 3 s

(c) 2 s

(d) 1 s

32. The total charge induced in a conducting loop when it


is moved in magnetic field depends on

flowing through the circuit is

D1

30

(b) 5.6 10 10 m

(a) 2.5 m
(c) 4 10

10

(d) 4.6 10 10 m

38. Monochromatic light of frequency 6.0 1014 Hz is

produced by a laser. The power emitted is 2 10 3 W.


The number of photons emitted on the average by the
source per second is
(a) 5 1015

(b) 5 1016

(c) 5 1017

(d) 5 1014

39. The energy of ground electronic state of hydrogen atom


is 13.6 eV. The energy of first excited state will be
(b) 27.2 eV

(c) 6.8 eV

(d) 3.4 eV

40. The ionization energy of the electron in the hydrogen

33. If internal resistance of cell is negligible, then current


D2

lattice planes of diffraction grating is 2.8 10 10 m,


then the maximum wavelength of X-rays (in metre) is

(a) 54.4 eV

(a) the rate of change of magnetic flux


(b) initial magnetic flux only
(c) the total change in magnetic flux
(d) final magnetic flux only

30

37. In X-rays diffraction experiment, distance between atomic

atom in its ground state is 13.6 eV. The atoms are


excited to higher energy levels to emit radiations of
6 wavelengths. Maximum wavelength of emitted
radiation corresponds to transition between
(a) n = 3 to n = 2 states
(c) n = 2 to n = 1 states

(b) n = 3 to n = 1 states
(d) n = 4 to n = 3 states

41. The relationship between disintegration constant ()


and the half-time (T) will be
(a) =

5
(b)
A
50

4
(c)
A
50

2
(d)
A
50

34. A coil of inductance 8.4 mH and resistance 6 are


connected to a 12 V battery. The current in the coil is
1.0 A at approximately time
(a) 500 s

(b) 25 s

(c) 35 s

(d) 1 ms

is situated at a distance of 1 km from two objects. The


minimum distance between these two objects, which
can be resolved by the telescope, when the mean
wavelength of light is 5000 is of the order of
(b) 5 m

(c) 5 mm

constants 5 and , respectively. If initially they have


the same number of nuclei, then the ratio of the
1
number of nuclei of N1 to that of N2 will be after a time
e
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d) 5 cm

(a) OR gate

(b) XOR gate

(c) AND gate (d) NAND gate

junction diode, which of the


following is correct?

(a)

80

5
d
4

3L/4

(b)

4
d
5

Diode

(a) In forward biasing, the voltage


across R is V
V
(b) In reverse biasing, the voltage
across R is V
(c) In forward biasing, the voltage across R is 2 V
(d) In reverse biasing, the voltage across R is 2 V

A
B

(c) d

45. Following diagram performs the logic function of

2d

H/2

44. For a given circuit of ideal p- n

(d)

Cross-sectional area A/5 is immersed such that it floats


with its axis vertical at the liquid-liquid interface with
length L/4 in the denser liquid as shown in the figure.
The lower density liquid is open to atmosphere having
pressure p0 . Then, density of solid is given by

1
4

36. A homogeneous solid cylinder of length L (L<H/2).

H/2

T
log 2 e
(d) =
loge 2
T

43. The following circuit represents

35. A telescope has an objective lens of 10 cm diameter and

(a) 0.5 m

(c) =

42. Two radioactive materials N1 and N2 have decay

20

3
(a)
A
50

log10 2
loge 2
(b) =
T
T

(d)

d
5

(a) OR gate
(c) XOR gate

(b) AND gate


(d) NAND gate

Answers with Explanation


1. (c) Given,

N VSD = ( N 1) MSD,

N 1
1 VSD =
MSD
N

LC = Least count = 1 MSD 1 VSD


1
0.1
1
N 1
MSD = MSD =
cm =
cm
N
N
10 N
N

a = g

3. (b) As, distance moved by a freely falling body from rest,


1
a (2 n 1)
2
u = 0, a = 9.8 m/s 2

sn = u +

1
1
9.8 (2 4 1) and s 5 = 9.8 (2 5 1)
2
2
s
7
Therefore, 4 =
s5 9
B

and v the speed of person started


from A. He wants to reach at point B
directed opposite to A.
As given, v makes an angle 120
with direction of flow u, the resultant
of v and u is along AB as shown in
figure.
v
u = v sin = v sin 30 = , u = 0.25m/s
2

120
A

2
5. (c) Range of projectile is given by R = u sin 2

g
For range to be maximum, angle should be of 45
u 2 sin 2 45 u 2 sin 90
u2
or Rmax =
Rmax =
=

g
g
g
Here,

Rmax =

u2
= 16 km = 16000 m
g

u = 16000 10 = 400 m/s

6. (b) Centripetal acceleration of rotating body is given by

2 r 2 2
[ as = r ]
= r2
=
r
r
= angular frequency, but = 2
where, = frequency of rotation

ac = r(2 )2 = r 4 2 2.
ac =

r = 30 cm = 0.30 m
120
rev/s = 2 rev/s
and
= 120 rev/min =
60
Acceleration of a point on the tip of the blade,

ac = ( 0.30 4 3.14 3.14 2 2 ) = 47.4 m/s 2


Here,

7. (c) Thrust on the rocket at time t is given by


F = u

w.r.t. rocket,

dm
, where u = relative velocity of exhaust gases
dt

dm
= rate of combustion of fuel at that instant
dt

dm
dm mg
.
=
= mg
dt
dt
u
Here, m = 600 kg, u = 1000 m/s

F = u

9. (b) When two bodies of equal masses undergo head on elastic


collision in one dimension, their velocities are just interchanged.

s4 =

4. (c) Let u be the speed of stream

5
= 20 m/s and v = 0
18

a = g = 0.5 10 = 5m/s 2
Now, from third law of motion, i.e.
v 2 u 2 0 (20 )2
v 2 = u 2 + 2 as or s =
=
= 40 m
2a
2 ( 5)
u = 72 km/h = 72

Here,

di
(c) As, emf induced across a coil, e = L
dt
edt W dt [ML2T 2 ][T]
or L =
= [ML2T 2A 2 ]
= =
[AT][A]
di
q di

Here,

dm 600 10
=
= 6 kgs 1.
dt
1000

8. (b) When static friction is present, then acceleration of body is

LC = 1

2.

10. (c) Q Initial momentum = Final momentum


m1v1 + m 2v 2 = ( m1 + m 2 )v

v1 = 36 km/h = 36

Given,

5
= 10 m/s and v 2 = 0
18

m1 = 2 kg, m 2 = 3 kg
m v + m 2v 2 (2 10 + 3 0 ) 20
=
= 4 m/s
Final velocity, v = 1 1
=
2 +3
5
m1 + m 2
1
1
1
Loss in kinetic energy = m1v12 + m 2v 22 ( m1 + m 2 )v 2
2
2
2
1
1
= 2 (10 )2 + 0 (2 + 3 )( 4 )2 = 100 J 40 J = 60 J
2
2

11. (a) Moment of inertia depends on distribution of mass about axis


of rotation. Density of iron is more than that of aluminium,
therefore for moment of inertia to be maximum, the iron should be
far away from the axis.

Thus, aluminium should be at interior and iron surrounds it.

12. (b) Given, I = 1.2 kg -m 2, K r = 1500 J, = 25rad /s 2, 0 = 0, t = ?


1 2
I
2
2 Kr
2 1500

=
=
= 50 rad /s
I
1.2
According to equation of rotational motion, we get
0 50 0
=
= 0 + t or t =
=2 s
25
Kinetic energy of rotation, K r =

13. (c) When two satellites of earth are moving in same orbit, then
time period of both are equal. From Keplers third law, T 2 r 3

Time period is independent of mass, hence their time


periods will be equal. The PE and KE are mass dependent,
hence PE and KE of satellites are not equal.
But, if they are orbiting in a same orbit, then they have equal
orbital speed.

14. (a) The appearance of weightlessness

N=0
mv2/r

occurs in space when the gravitational


attraction of the Earth on a body in
mg
space is equal to centripetal force.
mv 2
= mg or v = rg = 20 10 = 14.14 m/s

15. (d) According to Wiens displacement law, the wavelength ( m ) of


maximum intensity of emission of black body radiation is inversely
proportional to absolute temperature (T ) of black body.

Therefore, Wiens law is m.T = constant.


or

m =

constant
T

or m

1
T

or m T 1

81

If the dipole is rotated from an angle 1 to 2, then work done by


external force is given by W = pE(cos 1 cos 2 )
(i)
Putting 1 = 0 , 2 = 90 in Eq. (i), we get
W = pE(cos 0 cos 90 ) = pE(1 0 ) = pE

16. (c) Rate of heat radiated by black body,


E = T 4

E1 T1
273 + 727 1000
=
7
E 2 = 7
=

E 2 T2
273 + 227 500
2 1
= 112 cal -cm s

23. (b) According to Ohms law,

dV
= r and V = , if I = 0 [As, V + Ir = ]
dI
Slope of the graph = r and intercept =

17. (d) Consider two springs of


spring constants k1 and k 2
k1
joined in series as shown in
figure.
Under a force F, they will
stretch by Y1 and Y2.
F F
F
So,
Y = Y1 + Y2 or = 1 + 2
k k1 k 2

k2
F

eV0 = 2 eV V0 = 2
2
= 0.5 10 8 = 5 10 7 Vm 1
4 10 8

mg

Now, electric field ( E ) =

25. (a) Power of electric bulb ( P ) = V

But as springs are massless, So force on them,


i.e.
F1 = F2 = F
1 1
1
k k
So,
or k = 1 2
=
+
k k1 k 2
k1 + k 2

V2
P
Given, P1 = 25 W, P2 = 100 W, V1 = V2 = 220 volt
1
For same potential difference ( V ), R
P
Thus, we observe that for minimum power, resistance will be
maximum and vice-versa.
Hence, resistance of 25 W will be maximum.
So, resistance of electric bulb ( R ) =

In stretched condition, spring will have potential energy


1
k x2
2
where, k = spring constant or force constant.
U1 x12
=

U 2 x 22
U=

(i)

Given, U1 = U, x1 = 2 cm, x 2 = 8 cm
Putting these values in Eq. (i), we get
U (2 )2
4
1
or U 2 = 16 U
=
=
=
U 2 ( 8 )2 64 16
(i)

y 2 = 2 sin 506 t
Comparing Eqs. (i) and (ii) with
y = a sin t
We have, 1 = 500 and 2 = 506
500
506
= 250 beats/s f2 =
= 253 beats/s
f1 =
2
2
Number of beats = f2 f1 = 3 = 3 60 = 180 beats/min

20. (d) Given equation is y ( x, t ) = 8.0 sin 0.5x 4 t


4

Standard wave equation is y = a sin( kx t + )


where, a = amplitude, k = propagation constant
and = angular frequency.
Comparing Eqs. (i) and (ii), we have k = 0.5, = 4
Therefore, speed of transverse wave,

4
v= =
= 8 m/s
k 0.5

(ii)
(iii)

Given,

1
mv 2 = qV
2

V=

m = 2 g = 2 10

Current for 30 divisions = 10 3A

(ii)

Current for 20 divisions =

kg,

Substituting the values in relation for V, we obtain


2 2 10 6

= 50 10 3 V = 50 kV

22. (d) When an electric dipole is placed in an electric field E, a torque

= p E acts on it. This torque tries to rotate the dipole through an


angle.

82

Galvanometer

High resistance
Voltmeter

V
3
=
= 10 3A
Rseries 50 + 2950

(i)

mv 2
2q

2 10 3 (10 )2

galvanometer.
Since, resistance of a coil of
galvanometer of its own is low its
resistance is to be increased as is
a necessary condition for a
voltmeter. For this, an appropriate
high resistance should be
connected
in
series
with
galvanometer.
i=

v = 10 m/s, q = 2 C = 2 10 6 C
V=

200
P1 + P2
For Parallel Peq = ( P1 + P2 ) = (100 + 100 ) = 200 W

28. (d) Current through galvanometer,

21. (b) Kinetic energy of bullet = qV


i.e.

26. (d) For Series Peq = P1P2 = 100 100 = 50 W


27. (a) A voltmeter indeed is a modified form of a pivoted-coil

y1 = 4 sin 500 t

18. (c) Let, extension produced in a spring be x initially.

19. (b) As,

24. (d) Average energy of electrons = 2 eV

2
10 3
3

10 3
2
20 = 10 3 A
30
3
3
=
R = 4450
( 50 + R )

29. (a) Ferromagnetism decreases with rise in temperature. If we heat


a ferromagnetic substance, then at a definite temperature, the
ferromagnetic property suddenly disappears and the substance
becomes paramagnetic.

30. (c) When magnetic dipole is rotated from initial position = 1 to


final position = 2, then work done is
= MB (cos 1 cos 2 )
1 2 10 4 6 10 4

= MB 1 =
=6J
2
2

31. (c) It is given that emf is zero, i.e.


e = L

di
di
=0 L =0
dt
dt

d 2 t
(t e ) = 0 2 t e t + t 2 ( 1) e t = 0
dt
te t (2 t ) = 0 t = 2 s
(Qte t 0 )

32. (c) Total charge induced in a conducting loop is q = idt


e
e
1
, q = dt = e dt
R
R
R
d
Induced emf e is given by e =
dt
1 d
1
q =

dt = d
R dt
R
As,

i=

Hence, total charge induced in the conducting loop depends


upon resistance of loop and change in magnetic flux.

33. (b) In the circuit, diode D1 is forward biased and diode D2 is


reversed biased. Therefore, no current flows in the arm containing
D2 and all of the current flows through arm containing D1.
5
5
A
Thus, current flowing through the circuit,
=
20 + 30 50

34. (d) The current-time relation for an L-R circuit is


t /

i = i 0 (1 e
)
V 12
Here,
i0 = =
=2 A
R 6
L 8.4 10 3
So, relaxation time ( ) = =
= 1.4 10 3 s
R
6
i = 1 A, i = 2 (1 e

t /1. 4 10 3

i = 2 (1 e t /1. 4 10 )

35.

= 0.97 10

0.97 ms 1 ms

x
(c) Resolving limit of telescope is = .
D d
D
x=

40. (d) Number of spectral lines,


N=

or
or
or

= 5000 = 5000 10 m,
d = 10 cm, D = 1 km = 1000 m
Hence, Minimum distance between objects,
5000 10 10 1000
= 5 10 3 m = 5 mm
x=
0.1

36. (a) Weight of cylinder = Upthrust due to both liquids.

A 3
A L
v D g = L d g + 2 d g
5 4
5 4
A L d g
A

L D g =
5

4
D d
5
=

D= d

5 4
4
2d sin
(b) Wavelength of X-rays =
n
2d (sin )max 2 d 1
[Q (sin )max = 1]
max =
=
n
1
10
= 2d = 2 2 .8 10 m

= 5.6 10 10 m

38. (a) Power emitted ( P ) = 2 10 3 W


Energy of photon ( E ) = h = 6.6 10 34 6 1014 J
where, h = Plancks constant.
Number of photons emitted per second,
P
2 10 3
n= =
= 5 1015
E 6.6 10 34 6 1014

39. (d) Energy of hydrogen atom in its nth excited state is given by

n( n 1)
2

n( n 1)
=6
2
2
n n 12 = 0
( n 4 )( n + 3 ) = 0
n=4

Now, as the first line of the series has maximum wavelength,


therefore electron jumps from the 4th orbit to the 3rd orbit.

41. (b) The time required for the number of parent nuclei to fall to 50%
is called half-time (T ) and may be related to disintegration
constant ( ) as follows.
Since,
0.5N 0 = N 0. e T
We have,

T = loge T
loge T
=
2

42. (c) According to law of radioactivity decay,

10

Given,

37.

13.6
eV
En =
n 2
For ground state ( n = 1),
13.6
E1 =
eV = 13.6 eV
(1)2
For first excited state ( n = 2 ),
13.6
E2 =
= 3.4 eV
(2 )2

N1 = N 0. e 5T

(i)

N 2 = N 0. e T

(ii)

Dividing Eq. (i) By Eq. (ii), we get


N1 1 e 5t
4 t
= = t = e
N2 e e

or

1 = 4 t
1
t=
4

43. (b) Output of upper AND gate = AB.


Output of lower AND gate = AB
Thus, output of OR gate = ( AB + A B )
This is Boolean expression for XOR gate

44. (a) In forward biasing, the diode conducts.


For ideal-junction diode, the forward resistance is zero.
Therefore, entire applied voltage occurs across resistance R,
i.e. there is no voltage drop.
In reverse biasing, the diode does not conduct, so it has
infinite resistance. Thus, voltage across R is zero.

45. (b) Output of first NAND gate, X = A B


Using De-Morgans theorem A B = A + B
So, X = A + B.
Output of second NAND gate Y = X = A + B
Again, A + B = A B = A B

[Q A = A ]

Hence,
Y = A B
This is the logic function of AND gate.

83

Hints of Board Exam Corner (February Issue)

3.

22. (a) The capacitance of the capacitor

contains a smaller number of majority


charge carriers. This reduces the
recombination rate of electrons and holes
at the base-emitter junction.

increases K times,
i.e. C = KCo
(b) Now, new charge is Q = CV = KCo V
(c) The field between the plate becomes
V V
E = = 0 = E 0 (no change)
d d

4. The power factor will be 1


5. VD < VC = VB < VA
6.
I
VOC (Open circuit voltage)
V
ISC

7.

8. (i) The number density of electrons and

9.

(ii) the average relaxation time.


The colour code of the carbon
resistor is blue, red, orange and gold.
The graph is shown below

mA

+
+
V1 V
B

K1

15.

16.
17.
18.

semiconductor, i.e. holes. So,


semiconductor obtained is p-type
2
n
(ii) ne = i = 10 6 m 3
nh
(iii) Energy gap decreases on doping.
1
(i) r =
= 50 rad/s
LC
(ii) Current of resonance,
V
240
Irms = rms =
=6A
R
40
(iii) Vrms across capacitor,
Vrms = Irms XC = 1500 V
(i) Infrared waves are produced by hot
bodies
(ii) (a) Visible light (b) Microwaves
The distance of the nth minima from the
nD
centre of the screen is given by x n =
a

(i)

(ii)

Photo current

10.

11.

The kinetic energy of photoelectrons


depends upon the frequency of incident
radiation. Since 1 > 2 , therefore
stopping potential will be more for the
radiation of frequency 1 .
The properties of nuclear forces are
(a) exchange forces
(b) spin dependent
(c) charge independent
(d) do not obey inverse square law
As we know, V = E Ir
E V
r=
= 5
I

12. (i) In figure I, both diodes are forward


bias
V 2
=
= 0.1 A
R 20
(ii) No current flows in the circuit.
So,

I=

Intensity
10

II

J
or
We know from radioactive equation
N = N 0 e t . The activity of a radioactive
substance can also be expressed in terms
of its half-life
0.693 N
I = N =
T1 / 2

Saturation
current

20. (i) As short radiowaves are reflected

21.

24.

(b) We know that P = I V cos , where


cos is the power factor, to supply
given power at a given voltage
(c) Saurabh Social awareness,
adaptation etc.
Uncle Knowledge, adaptation,
concern of others etc.
(i) A field in which work done does not
depend on the path followed.
(ii) Capacitance
of
a
spherical
capacitance depends on

(a) radius
(b) medium between the plates
(iii) E =

V
12
=
= 4 10 3 V/m
d 3 10 3

(iv)
Q

or
+q

Fq = qE
V

19. E = mc = 1.5 10

O Collector plate potential


Retarding potential

VCE

K2

IC

V01 V02

IE

Vo

1 > 2

23. (a) To minimise power loss due to heat.

Rh2 +

n-p-n +
VC V2

14. (i) As majority charge carriers in doped

(Short circuit current)

The significance of the graph is that a


solar cell does not draw current but
supplies same to the load.
Using formula,

30
+ 1,
= A( 1), = + 1 =
A
60
= 1.5
or
If the intensity of light remains same in
all the orientations of the polariser, then
the light is unpolarised. But if the
intensity of light varies from maximum to
minimum then the light is a polarised
light beam.

IB

VCC Rh1
+

Photo current

Y
Y=A+B

IC
mA +

2.

13. A thin and lightly doped base region

2 i = A + m
Space wave or Line of Sight (LOS)
propagation.
It is an OR gate and symbol is

Photo current

1. The relationship between i, A and m is

back by ionosphere.
(ii) These are not reflected by the
ionosphere therefore to reflect back
the TV signals to desire location on
Earth, then satellites are used.
It is based on the Wheatstone bridge
principle for the present situation.
R 40 2
2X
or
=
=
R=
X 60 3
3
When the resistors are doubled and
interchanged, we have
2X
L
2X3
L
or
=
=
2 R 100 L
2 2 X 100 L
3
L

=
2 100 L
Solving, L = 60 cm. There will be no
change in the balance
point on
interchanging the battery and the
galvanometer.

F+q = qE

d sin

(i) Fnet = zero


|F+q | = |Fq | and opposite direction
(ii) Torque,
=p E
(iii) Work done, W = d = 2 pE 2 pE

25. (i) -particle possess minimum kinetic

energy.
(ii) Electron has maximum kinetic energy.
or
NIR 2
(iii) For coil 1, B1 = 0 2 3 / 2
2 (2 R )
For coil 2, B2 =

0 NIR 2
2 (2 R 2 )3 / 2

Both are in same direction, so resultant


magnetic field is
NIR 2
B = 0 2 3/ 2
(2 R )

26. (i) Total power,

P = 4 + 2 = 2D
1
P=
f
1
1
f= =
100 = 50 cm
P 2
(ii) Focal length increases, i.e. fr > fv
(iii) Using lens maker formula,
1
1
1
= ( n 1)

f
R1 R2

Just Solve & Send

Quizzer (No.16)
1. An astronaut marooned on the surface of an
asteroid of radius r and mean density equal to the
earth, find that he can escape by jumping. What is
the minimum value of r?
(a) r 2 > Rh
(c) r 2 < Rh

(b) r > Rh
(d) None of these

2. Free neutrons have a decay constant of


-3

-1

1.10 10 s . If the de-Broglie wavelength of the


neutrons in a parallel beam is 1 nm, determine the
distance from the source where the beam intensity
has dropped to half its starting value.
(a) 2.5 10 5 m
(c) 2.5 10 4 m

(b) 3.5 10 4 m
(d) 15
. 10 6 m

3. A telescope is used to observe at a distance of


10 km, two objects which are 0.12 m apart and
illuminated by light of wavelength 600 nm.
Estimate the diameter of the objective lens of the
telescope, if it can just resolve the two objects.
(a) 5 cm

(b) 4 cm

(c) 6 cm

(d) 8 cm

4. Consider a gas at temperature of 2500 K whose


atoms can occupy only two energy levels separated
by 1.5 eV energy gap. Ratio of number of atoms in
the higher energy level to the lowest energy level is
(a) 1

(b) 8.2 10 -4 (c) 9.64 10 -4 (d) 0

5. A singly charged ions He are accelerated in a


+

cyclotron, so that their maximum orbital radius


r = 60 cm. The frequency of a cyclotron oscillator is
equal to n = 10 MHz, the effective accelerating
voltage across the dee is V = 50 kV. Neglecting the
gap between the dees. Find the total time of
acceleration of the ion and approximate distance
covered by the ion in the process of its acceleration.
(a) 15 ms, 0.74 km
(c) 16 ms, 0.74 km

(b) 20 ms, 1.25 km


(d) 22 ms, 3.24 km

6. A 2.24 m high cylinder whose base area is 1 dm

contains 4 g of helium gas at a temperature of 0C


and pressure of 10 N /cm2 . An 80 kg piston is then
dropped into the cylinder. Find the maximum

speed of the piston, if it moves without


friction. There is no heat transfer
between the gas, the cylinder and
the piston, because of the rapidity
of the process. (Take g = 10 m/s2 )
C V = 3150 Jkg -1K -1 , C p = 5250 Jkg -1K -1
(a) 2.7 m/s
(c) 4.5 m/s

(b) 3.4 m/s


(d) 5.9 m/s

80 kg

2.24 m

1 dm2

7. A metallic ring of cross-section 2.5 m , mean radius


2

40 cm and relative permeability 1500 is wound


uniformly with 3000 turns of wire. If a current of
1.6 A passes through the wire, find the magnetic
field B and magnetisation in the ring.
(a) 2.9 10 6 Am-1
(c) 3.2 10 6 Am-1

(b) 4.2 10 4 Am-1


(d) 9.2 10 6 Am-1

8. A superconductor used at room temperature for an


energy storage device. What is the maximum energy
stored in a solenoid with the dimensions of a torch
battery of length 0.05 m and diameter 0.03 m, if the
maximum magnetic field sustainable by the
superconductor is 15 T?
(a) 3.2 kJ

(b) 4.89 kJ

(c) 9.2 kJ

(d) 10.1 kJ

9. The particle of rest mass m moving along the X-axis

m
2
moving along the axis with velocity -v. If the two
particles coalesce, find the rest mass of the resulting
particle.

with velocity v collides with a particle of rest mass

m
2
7m
(c)
2

(a)

3m
2
9m
(d)
2
(b)

10. The spherical nucleus has a total charge q (uniformly


distributed) and radius R. Find the electric field at
any point inside the nucleus at a distance r from the
centre. Hence, find the potential difference between
the centre of the nucleus and its surface.
(a) 4 MV
(c) 1 MV

(b) 2 MV
(d) 0.1 MV

95

MAGAZINE QUIZ

KNOWLEDGE
Coefficient
Quizzer (No. 16)

Winner of Knowledge Coefficient


Quizzer (No. 15) (February Issue)
Ashish Singh (Haridwar)

Physics Spectrum
Arihant Media Promoters
c/o Arihant Prakashan
Kalindi, T.P. Nagar, Meerut (UP) - 250002

fjohtu cum dSz 'k dkslZ

JEE Main 2016

96

MARCH 2016