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EXAM TACTICS:

Tackling JEE

Made Easy

The present structure of JEE includes a two tier examination

system i.e. JEE Mains and JEE Advanced. Let us explore them

one by one

In Physics, most of the problems are numerical based along

with some graphs and other figure based questions.

Although, the pattern or frame of the paper is not fixed, but

the analysis of past three examinations suggest following

weightage (approximately) of topics in the

Mechanics

6-12 questions

Fluid Mechanics

1-2 questions

3-5 questions

2-4 questions

2-11 questions

2-5 questions

Optics

3-6 questions

EMI and AC

2-4 questions

Modern Physics

2-5 questions

Miscellaneous

2-5 questions

44% questions from class 11th syllabus and 56% questions

from class 12th syllabus.

The difficulty level wise analysis of 2015 JEE Mains paper

suggests the presence of 26% easy questions, 16% tough

questions and 58% medium level questions.

The two tier examination pattern was introduced in 2013.

The weightage of board percentage in final merit was one of

the features of this system. The JEE Mains paper of this

examination system is comparable with the IIT JEE

screening examination of late nineties and early twenties.

For successfully facing this kind of examination try to focus on

following points:

One must prepare for final exam (JEE Advanced) only,

i.e. do not target Mains examinations first. In my

opinion, Chote exams target karne se kabhi bhi

bade results nahin milte, i.e. targeting smaller

exams never gives big results. If you consider JEE

Advanced as your target then Mains will be cleared

automatically.

serious and non-serious aspirants. Thus, if you are among the

serious lot than Mains will be of no problem to you.

The analysis of 2013, 2014 and 2015 JEE Mains paper clearly

suggests the importance of class 11th syllabus for this paper, i.e.

46% in Physics, 33% in Chemistry and 57% in Mathematics. So, a

real grip over class 11th syllabus is required to succeed in JEE

Mains paper.

Nobody can deny the importance of NCERT Textbooks for this

examination. Thus, a good command over NCERT textbooks is

required for a great performance in this examination.

For capturing NCERT line by line very recently, I saw Master the

NCERT. A book, in which objective type questions are framed on

each and every line of NCERT. This book can be very helpful to get

success in this examination.

Choose offline or online paper in accordance of your comfort zone

and fine preparation. Both the examinations have the own

advantages or disadvantages. The difficulty levels are also more or

less same in both the formats of JEE Mains but on analysis it is

quite visible that the online paper is framed on a slightly tougher

side.

Although, the questions paper contains all the three subjects and

merit formation includes total marks obtained in the paper but

remember subject wise cut off also exists in JEE. So, a balance in

preparation is required subject wise to save you from such a

subject wise cut off.

As all the questions are single answer type MCQs hence, use

elimination technique in those questions where you dont have

clue about the correct option, but you have clue about incorrect

options. Eliminate 3 incorrect options to get the most probable

correct option.

As negative marking is there, hence be cautious in answering the

questions. Do not take so much of risks.

The JEE Advanced paper is based upon old IIT JEE paper till 2013. It has

2 papers in total, i.e. first in the morning session (9 am to 12 pm) and

second in the afternoon session (2 pm-5pm). Both the papers contain 20

questions per subject, i.e. total 60 questions per paper. The question

paper pattern is not at all fixed.

PAPER 1

Section 1 with 8 Integer Type Questions

Section 2 with 10 MCQs having One or More than One

Correct Option

Section 3 with 2 Matrix Match Questions.

PAPER 2

Section 1 with 8 Integer Type Questions

Section 2 with 8 MCQs having One or More than One

Correct Option

Section 3 with 2 Paragraphs having 2 questions each.

In both the papers, section 2 and 3 had a negative marking of

50%.

However, in 2014 JEE Advanced questions paper following

pattern was followed :

PAPER 1

10 Multiple Choice Questions which are one or more than

one answer correct.

10 Integer Type Questions. All the 20 questions with 3

marks each with no negative marking.

PAPER 2

10 Multiple Choice Questions with only one answer

correct.

3 Paragraphs with 2 question each having only One

Answer Correct.

A Matching Type MCQs with one answer correct.

All the questions with 3 marks each and there is the

negative marking of 1/3, i.e. +3 for correct answer and 1

for wrong answer.

Thus, the uniqueness of JEE Advanced paper lies in 2 facts i.e.

Its surprising element Every year JEE Advanced paper

incorporates one or more surprise elements e.g. in 2014,

negative marking in paper 2 was the surprised element.

Similarly, the frame of question paper was changed in 2013 as

compared to the one seen in 2012 IIT-JEE paper.

Its variety of questions In both 2015 and 2014 JEE Advanced

paper following type of questions were asked

Single answer correct (MCQs)

More than one answer correct (MCQs)

Integer type question

Linked comprehension type

Matching type

The matrix match type which was the usual component of IIT

JEE papers before 2013, become reintroduced in 2015. Likewise

comprehension linked questions were 2 per passage in 2015

and 2014, while it was 3 per passage in IIT JEE before 2013.

So, we can say the nature of JEE Advanced paper is very dynamic.

No pattern is fixed for the paper. The syllabus wise distribution of

marks is more or less same as that seen in JEE Mains paper.

I personally feel that JEE Advanced is one of the toughest exam,

among those of same nature we have worldwide. I also believe in the

fact that more organised examinations are always easier to crack. So,

although it is toughest pattern or frame wise, but if we planned

scientifically than we can hit the bulls eye.

For scientific planning following points must be kept in mind :

Dedicate your 2 years study to this particular exam only with

keeping in mind that the board weightage is one of the

considerations in this examination for final merit hence a dual

target planning has to be executed as given in chapter 5.

Phase wise learning and practice is a must to crack these kinds

of examinations. After having the analysis of previous year

exams some conclusions can be drawn easily like, those about

(i) the weightage of class 11th syllabus.

(ii) the difficulty level distribution among the questions of

previous year papers.

(iii) the topic wise, question wise distribution of questions

(iv) the topic wise, marks wise distribution

Such conclusions will help in strategy development according to

your strength and weaknesses.

If you will be approaching phase wise towards this

examination, then it is very clear that till Mains you would be

having very less opportunities to practice different question

types which are the features of JEE Advanced only. Utilise the

period between JEE Mains and JEE Advanced for this purpose.

A mass of students waste their some of this precious time in the

wait of Mains result. Dont ever commit this kind of mistake.

Be optimistic, if you have JEE advanced as the target from day 1

in your mind than you would clear JEE Mains with surety.

The surprise attack is one of the most lethal weapon of this

examination, hence, those aspirants who dont have any kind

of premature frame about the pattern of question paper in

their mind, has better chances of hitting the target. So, never

create the premature frame of question paper in your mind.

The large time span (9am to 5pm) is a very crucial factor in this

examination. Such a large time span creates tiredness of all

kind (i.e. physical as well as mental) in any person. So during

the gap of 2 hrs between Paper 1 and 2 try to relax as much as

you can. Remember! The more you relax, better you perform.

Last but not the least, a balance between the approaches towards

Subjective and Objective formats is required to succeed in IIT as a

whole as in present format the final merit also includes the

weightage of your Board examinations.

Always keep in mind the words of Sir Winston Churchill

The optimist sees opportunity in every difficulty.

Formulae at a Glance

Gravitation

2

Time period of a satellite, T =

R

( R + h )3

g

1/ 3

T 2 R2 g

Height of satellite above the earths surface, h =

R

2

4

GMm

Total energy of satellite, E = PE + KE =

2( R + h )

where, M is mass of the earth and m is the mass of the satellite.

GMm

Binding energy of satellite, E =

( R + h)

2 GM

Escape speed, ve =

= 2 gR

R

1

1

F L = Load Extension

2

2

Relation between Y , B,G and

(i) y = 3 B (1 2 )

(ii) y = 2 G (1 + )

3B 2G

9 1 3

(iii) =

(iv) = +

2G + 6B

y B G

Thermal stress = y Thermal strain = y

where, is the coefficient of linear expansion of the solid rod.

=

G m1 m 2

Newtons law of gravitation, F =

, where G is the universal

r2

gravitational constant, m1 and m 2 are point mass bodies.

GM

Acceleration due to gravity, g = 2 , where M and R are the mass

R

and radius of the earth.

gR 2

2h

and g = g 1

Effect of altitude, g =

, where h is height

R

( R + h )2

of an object.

d

Effect of depth, g = g 1 , where d is depth of the earth.

R

GM

Intensity of gravitational field, I = 2 , where distance r from the

r

centre of the body of mass M.

Work done (W ) GM

Gravitational potential, V =

=

Test mass ( M 0 )

r

Gravitational potential energy, U = Gravitational potential Mass of

GM

the body =

m

r

g

Orbital speed of a satellite, vO = R

R+h

Normal stress

F / A Mg l

=

=

Longitudinal strain l / l r 2 l

Normal stress

p

pV

Bulk modulus, B =

=

=

Volumetric strain V / V

V

1

V

Compressibility =

=

Bulk modulus

pV

Tangential stress

F/ A

FL

F

Modulus of rigidity, G =

=

=

=

Shearing strain

L/L AL A

If a spring or a wire follows Hookes law, then spring constant or

F YA

force constant is given by K =

= , where l is the length of wire

l

l

and A is the area of cross-section of the wire.

The number of atoms having interatomic distance r0 , in length l of a

wire is N = l / r0

Lateral strain

R / R Rl

Poissons ratio =

=

=

Longitudinal strain

l / l

R l

Elastic potential energy stored per unit volume of a strained body,

1

(Stress )2 Y (Strain )2

u = Stress Strain =

=

2

2Y

2

where, Y is the Youngs modulus of elasticity of a solid body.

Work done in a stretched wire,

1

W = Stress Strain Volume

2

Youngs modulus, Y =

1 bar = 10 6 dyne/cm 2

1 torr = 1 mm of mercury

1 pascal = N/m 2

Thrust = Pressure Area = hg A

Density of substance

Relative density of the substance =

Density of water at 4 C

Apparent weight of the body of density when immersed in a liquid

of density = Actual weight Upward thrust

1

Bernoullis equation is given by p + v 2 + gh = constant

2

1

where, p = pressure, v 2 = kinetic energy per unit volume and

2

gh = potential energy per unit volume.

The velocity of efflux is given by v = 2 gh

where, h = depth of the hole below the free surface.

dv

Viscous force is given by F = A

dy

where, = coefficient of viscosity, A = area of layer of fluid in contact

dv

and

= velocity gradient between the layers.

dy

pR 4

Poiseuilles formula V =

8 L

where, V = volume of liquid coming out of tube per second

L = length of the capillary tube

R = radius of the capillary tube

p = pressure difference across the tube

2 r 2 ( )g

Terminal velocity, vT =

9

where, r = radius of the body, = density of material, = density of

fluid, = coefficient of viscosity.

Surface tension, T = F / l

where, F = force acting on one side of imaginary line of length l.

2 S cos

Ascent formula, h =

rg

where, S = surface tension of liquid, = angle of contact, r = radius of

capillary tube, = density of liquid, g = acceleration due to gravity.

2T

Excess pressure in a liquid drop of radius r, p =

r

where, T = surface tension of the liquid drop.

4T

Excess pressure in a soap bubble of radius r, p =

r

Excess pressure in a soap bubble of radius r, when it is inside a

2T

liquid, p =

r

If two droplets of radii r1 , and r2 in vacuum coalesce under isothermal

conditions, then the radius of the big drop is given by r = 3 r13 + r23

with velocity v through a medium of coefficient of viscosity is given

by Stokes law as F = 6 r v

R

Critical velocity of a liquid ( vc ) is given by vc = e

D

where, = coefficient of viscosity of liquid,

= density of liquid

and D = diameter of tube and Re = Reynolds number.

29

General Instructions

1. This test consists of 30 questions.

2. Each question is allotted 4 marks for correct response.

3. 1/4 marks will be deducted for indicating incorrect response of each question. No deduction from the total score will

be made if no response is indicated in each question.

4. There is only one correct response for each question. Filling up more than one response in any question will be treated

as wrong response and marks for wrong response will be deducted according as per instructions.

(). The square of speed (v) is proportional to

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

infinite distance apart. They are then allowed to move

towards each other under mutual gravitational

attraction. Their relative velocity of approaching at a

separation distance r is

(a) 2G

1/ 2

( m1 m2 )

r

1/ 2

1/ 2

2G

(b)

( m1 + m2 )

r

1/ 2

r

(c)

2G ( m1m2 )

2G

(d)

m1 m2

r

its length and initially placed at a distance L from one

end A of the rod. The rod is set in angular motion about

A with constant angular acceleration . If the

coefficient of friction between the rod and the bead is ,

and gravity is neglected, then the time after which the

beads starts slipping is

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

inclination . The whole system is accelerated

horizontally so that the block does not slip on the

30

(g is acceleration due to gravity) will be

(a) mg cos

(b) mg sin

(c) mg

(d)

mg

cos

a smooth fixed pulley as shown in the

figure connects two blocks of masses

T

(m1 = 0.32 kg) and (m2 = 0.72 kg). Taking

T

2

g = 10 m/s , find the work done (in a m1

m2 a

joules) by the string on the block of mass

0.36 kg during the first second after the

system is released from rest

(a) 6 J

(b) 5 J

(c) 8 J

(d) 4 J

delivering constant power. The distance moved by the

body in time t is proportional to

(a) t 1 / 2

(c) t

(b) t 3 / 4

3/ 2

(d) t 2

two atoms in a diatomic molecule is approximately

a

b

given by U (x) = 12 6 , where a and b are constants

x

x

and x is the distance between the atoms. If the

dissociation energy of the molecule is

D = [U (x = ) Uat equilibrium ], where D is

(a)

b2

6a

(b)

b2

2a

(c)

b2

12 a

(d)

b2

4a

triangle ABC, right-angled at B. The points A and B are

maintained at temperatures T and 2 T, respectively.

In the steady state, the temperature of the point C is TC .

T

Assuming that only heat conduction takes place, C is

T

equal to

5 r

(r)0 upto r = R, and (r) = 0 for r > R, where r is

4 R

the distance from the origin. The electric field at a

distance r (r < R) from the origin is given by

(a)

(b)

( 2 + 1)

3

( 2 + 1)

(c)

1

2 ( 2 1)

(d)

1

3 ( 2 + 1)

which went through an isothermal process from an

initial state (p1 , V1 , T) to the final state (p2 , V2 , T) is equal

to

(a) zero

(b) R ln T

(c) R ln

V1

V2

(d) R ln

V2

V1

pistons contain the same ideal gas at the same

temperature and the same volume V . The mass of the

gas in A is mA and that in B is mB . The gas in each

cylinder is now allowed to expand isothermally to the

same final volume 2V. The changes in the pressure in A

and B are found to be p and 1.5 p, respectively. Then,

(a) 4 mA = 9 mB

(c) 3 mA = 2 mB

(b) 2 mA = 3 mB

(d) 9 mA = 3 mB

E2 = 6.0 V, R2 = 4 and R3 = 2 . The current I1 is

(a) 1.6 A

(b) 1.8 A

E1=4 V

(c) 1.25 A

(d) 1.0 A

R1=2

0r

4 0

r

(c) 0

4 0

(a)

magnitude Q placed at a distance 2d apart. The system

is collinear as shown in the figure. The particle is now

displaced by a small amount x (x < < d) along the line

joining the two charges and is left to itself. It will now

oscillate about the mean position with a time period

(0 = permittivity of free space)

d

Q

E2=6 V

R2=4

to form a circle. P and Q are

P

points on the circumference of

3V

the circle dividing it into a

Q

1

quadrant and are connected to a

battery of 3 V and internal

resistance 1 as shown in the figure. The currents in

the two parts of the circle are

6

18

A and

A

23

23

4

12

(c)

A and

A

25

25

5

15

A and

A

26

26

3

9

(d)

A and

A

25

25

(b)

is released from the point (2 a, 0) on the X-axis. The

charge q will

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

M 0d

M 0d

(b) 2

Qq

Qq

3

(a) 2

(c) 2

3 M 0d 3

3 M 0

(d) 2

Qq

Qq d 3

radius r which carries a current i is measured on the

axis of the coil at a small distance h from the centre of

the coil. This is smaller than the field at the centre by

the fraction

3 h2

2 r2

(b)

2 h2

3 r2

(c)

3 r2

2 h2

(d)

2 r2

3 h2

R3=2

I2

(a)

(b)

(a)

I1

4 0r 5

r

3 0 3 R

4 r 5

r

(d) 0

3 0 4 R

5 r

4 R

5 r

3 R

move to the origin and remains at rest

move to infinity

execute oscillatory but not of simple harmonic motion

The number of turns of the solenoid is 500 per metre.

The magnetisation of the material is nearly

(a) 2.5 10 3 Am1

(c) 2.0 10 3 Am1

(d) 2.0 10 5 Am1

an untwisted wire. The upper end of wire is rotated

through 180 to deflect the magnet by 30 from

magnetic meridian. When this magnet is replaced by

another magnet, the upper end of wire is rotated

through 270 to deflect the magnet 30 from

magnetic meridian. The ratio of magnetic moments of

magnets is

(a) 1 : 5

(c) 5 : 8

(b) 1 : 8

(d) 8 : 5

magnetic moment 18

. 10 23 Am 2 . Knowing that the

density of iron is 7.78 103 kg- m3 , atomic weight is 56

and Avogadros number is 6.02 1023 , the magnetic

moment of bar in the state of magnetic saturation

will be

(a) 4.75 Am2

(c) 7.54 Am2

(d) 75.4 Am2

31

battery of emf 12V as shown in the figure. The internal

resistance of the battery is negligible. The switch S is

closed at t = 0. The potential drop across L as a function

of time is

diodes are used. Each diode has forward resistance of

20 and infinite backward resistance. Resistors

R1 = R2 = R3 = 50 . Battery voltage is 6 V. The current

through R3 is

D1

E

R1

D2

(a) 50 mA

(c) 60 mA

12 3 t

V

e

t

(b)

(c) 6 1 e 0. 2 V

(d) 12 e 5 t V

the energy is stored equally between the electric and

magnetic field is

q

(c)

(d)

q

3

wire of length L swings under gravity through an angle

2. The earths magnetic field component in the

direction perpendicular to swing is B. Maximum

potential difference induced across the pendulum is

the mixture has 40 g of A1 and 160 g of A2 . The amount

of the two in the mixture will become equal after

(a) 60 s

(c) 20 s

Rydbergs constant, the principal quantum number n of

the excited state is

(a)

R

R 1

(b)

R 1

(c)

R 2

R 1

(d)

R

1

material of the lens is 2 108 m/s, find the focal length

of the lens.

(a) 15 cm

(c) 30 cm

(b) BL sin ( gL )

2

(d) BL sin ( gL )2

2

uranium at stationary at an scattering angle of 180.

The nearest distance upto which -particle reaches the

nucleus will be of the order of

(a) 1

(b) 10 10 cm

(c) 10 12 cm

(d) 10 15 cm

current is V0 . When the same surface is illuminated by

V

light of frequency , the stopping potential is 0 . The

2

4

threshold frequency for photoelectric emission is

(a)

6

32

(b)

3

(b) 80 s

(d) 40 s

2

2

(b) 100 mA

(d) 25 mA

(b)

R3

6V

(a) 6 e 5 t V

q

2

R2

D3

R2

(a)

R1

2

(c)

3

4

(d)

3

(b) 20 cm

(d) 10 cm

length 20 cm. A second car 2.8 m behind the first car is

overtaking the first car at a relative speed of 15 m/s.

The speed of the image of the second car as seen in the

mirror of the first one is

1

m/s

10

(c) 10 m/s

(a)

1

m/s

15

(d) 15 m/s

(b)

coherent sources of equal amplitude A and wavelength

. In another experiment with the same set up; the two

slits are of equal amplitude A but are incoherent. The

ratio of the intensity of light at the mid-point of the

screen in the first case to that in the second case is

(a) 1 : 2

(c) 4 : 1

(b) 2 : 1

(d) 1 : 1

1. (a) As speed of ripples ( v ) ab c

Equating dimensions on both sides, we get

[M0 L1T 1 ] [MT 2 ]a [ML3 ]b [L ]c

[M0 L1T 1 ] [M]a + b [L ] 3b + c [T] 2a

Equating the powers of M, L and T on both sides, we get

a + b = 0, 3b + c = 1, 2 a = 1

Solving above equations, we get

a = 1 / 2, b = 1 / 2, c = 1 / 2

v 1/ 2 1/ 2 1/ 2

v2

be v1 and v 2, respectively.

By conservation of momentum, m1v1 m2v 2 = 0

...(i)

m1v1 = m2v 2

By conservation of energy, Change in potential energy =

Change in kinetic energy

G m1m2 1

1

= m1v12 + m2v 22

2

2

r

2 Gm1m2

(ii)

m1v12 + m2v 22 =

r

On solving Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get

v1 =

2 Gm22

and v 2 =

r ( m1 + m2 )

2 Gm12

r ( m1 + m2 )

2G

vapp = | v1| + | v 2| =

( m1 + m2 )

r

g sin

mg sin = ma cos a =

cos

Force exerted by the wedge on the block

R = mg cos + ma sin

g sin

or

R = mg cos + m

sin

cos

mg (cos 2 + sin2 )

cos

mg

R =

cos

=

T =

m m1

072

. 0.36

10

a= 2

m/s 2

g =

10 =

3

. + 0.36

m1 + m2

072

Let s is the distance covered by block of mass 0.36 kg in first

second.

1

1 10

10

m

s = ut + at 2 0 + 12 =

2

2 3

6

10

= 8J

Work done by the string (W ) = Ts = 4.8

6

force, i.e.

P

P

v2

dt = vdv

t =

2

m

m

2P

v =

Now, s =

L

m 2L = R = m at = Lm

m (t )2 L = mL

Time taken by bead to start slipping,

t =

mg sin

mg

mg cos

+

ma sin

v dt =

2P

s =

s t 3/ 2

1/ 2

2P

1/ 2

t 1/ 2 dt

2 t 3/ 2

3

a

b

6

x12

x

dU 12 a 6b

F =

= 13 7

dx

x

x

[As, = t]

ma cos

ma

(t )1/ 2

U ( x) =

1/ 2

2 m1m2

.

2 0.36 072

g =

10 = 4.8 N

.

108

( m1 + m2 )

dv

P = Fv = mav = m

dt

[Q sin2 + cos 2 = 1]

2a

x =

b

1/ 6

U( x = ) = 0

b2

b

a

=

Uequilibrium =

2

4a

2a

2a

b

b

b2 b2

.

U ( x = ) Uequilibrium = 0

=

4a 4a

33

8. (b) Q TB > TA Heat will flow B to A via two paths (i) B to A (ii)

and along BCA as shown

Rate of flow of heat in path BCA

will be same, i.e.

Q

Q

=

t BC t CA

TC

3

=

T

( 2 + 1)

10

= 2.5 and

4

3

Resistance of part PMQ, R 2 = 10 = 7.5

4

Resistance of part PNQ, R1 =

(T) A

K ( 2T TC ) A K (TC T ) A

=

a

2a

i2

a2

B

2 TB

Q

(i)

T

In isothermal process, temperature does not change, i.e.

internal energy which is a function of temperature will remains

same, i.e. U = 0.

First law of thermodynamics gives

U = Q W or 0 = Q W or Q = W

i.e., Q = Work done by gas in isothermal process which

went through from ( p1, V1,T ) to ( p2, V2, T )

V

(ii)

Q = RT loge 2

V1

For 1 mole of an ideal gas, = 1, so from Eq. (i) and Eq. (ii),

we get

V

V

S = R loge 2 = R ln 2

V1

V1

is constant,

p 1 volume is increasing, therefore, pressure will

decreases.

In chamber A

Req =

R1 R 2

2.5 7.5

15

=

=

R1 + R 2 (2.5 + 7.5)

8

Main current, i =

A RT A RT A RT

=

V

2V

2V

B RT B RT B RT

=

V

2V

2V

A

1

2

From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get

=

=

.

3

B 15

mA / M 2

=

3 mA = 2 mB

mB / M

3

due to charges at A and B along Y-axis will cancel each other

along X-axis will add up and will be along CO.

Under the action of this force change q will move towards O.

If at any time, charge q is at a distance x from O. Net force on

charge q.

1

x

Fnet = 2 F cos = 2 .

4 0 ( a 2 + x 2 ) ( a 2 + x 2 )1 / 2

2qqx

1

4 o ( a 2 + x 2 )3 / 2

...(i)

A q

a

...(ii)

E1=4 V

I1

R1=2

i1

oscillatory (with amplitude 2 a) but not Simple Harmonic

Motion.

r

r

5

r

14. (c) Total charge, q = dv = 0 4 r 2dr

0

I2

2

E2=6 V

i2

= 4 0

E=

(i)

...(ii)

5r 2

R2=4

2 i1 i 2 = 2

For Loop (2), 2 ( i 1 i 2 ) + 4i 2 6 = 0

i 1 + 3i 2 = 3

On solving Eq (i) and Eq (ii), we get i 1 = 18

. A

34

2a

(i1i2)

R3=2

11. (b) Applying Kirchhoffs law for the loops (1) and (2) as shown

in the figure.

24 18

6

A

=

23 23 23

and i 2 = ( i i 1 ) =

In chamber B

1.5 p = pi pf =

24

3

A

=

15 + 1 23

R 2 24 7.5 18

So, i 1 = i

A

=

=

R1 + R 2 23 2.5 + 7.5 23

i.e. Fnet =

p = pi pf =

3 V, 1

C (TC)

ideal gas S =

P

i1

N

5r 3

r3

r4

dr = 4 0

4R

R

12

5r 3

Kq

1

r4

=

. 4 0

2

2

4R

r

4 0 r

12

0r 5

r

4 0 3 R

1

1

Qq

F =K

= KQq

2

2

2

2

(d + x )

(d + x )

(d x )

(d x )

4 dx

4 dx

= K Qq 2

= K Qq 4 if (d > > x )

2 2

d

(d x )

4x

= K Qq 3

d

Acceleration, a =

4KQq

F

4KQq

=

x 2 =

M

Md 3

Md 3

Time Period, T =

2

= 2

Md 3

3Md 30

=2

Qq

4KQq

0 2 in 0 n1

4

2 r

r

Field at a distance h from the centre

2 nir 2

B2 = 0 . 2

4 ( r + h2 )3/ 2

= 0

2

nir 2

h2

r 1 + 2

r

3 h2

= B1 1 . 2

2 r

3/ 2

h2

= B1 1 + 2

r

NA

A

For iron = 7.8 10 3 kgm3

NA = 6.02 10 26 /kg mol

A = 56

7.8 10 3 6.02 10 26

n=

= 8.38 10 28 m3

56

Total number of atoms in the bar is

N0 = nV = 8.38 10 28 ( 5 10 2 1 10 2 1 10 2 )

N0 = 419

. 10 23

The saturated magnetic moment of bar

= 419

. 10 23 18

. 10 23

2

= 7.54 Am

n=

LdI1

+ R 2 I2

dt

12 V

I2 = I0 (1 e t /t 0 )

E

12

I0 =

=

= 6A

R2

2

=

3 / 2

400 10 3

L

=

R

2

= 02

. s

I2 = 6 (1 e t / 0. 2 )

Potential drop across L = E R 2 I2

= 12 2 6 (1 e t / 0. 2 )

= 12 e t / 0. 2 = 12 e 5 t V

= t0 =

3h 2

.

2r2

I = 1 A , r = 500

As r = 1 + , where is the magnetic susceptibility of the

material or = ( r 1)

Magnetisation (M) = H = ( r 1) H = ( 500 1) 500 Am 1

= 499 500 Am 1

= 2.495 105 Am 1

~

2.5 105 Am 1

H is the horizontal component of earths field.

We have = MHsin. If is the twist of wire, then = c , c

being restoring couple per unit twist of wire.

c = MH sin

rad

Here, 1 = (180 30 ) = 150 = 150

180

rad

2 = (270 30 ) = 240 = 240

180

So,

c 1 = M1H sin [For deflection = 30 of I magnet]

c 2 = M 2H sin [For deflection = 30 of II magnet]

M

Dividing 1 = 1

2 M 2

150

M1

180 = 15 = 5

= 1 =

M 2 2 240

24 8

180

M1 : M 2 = 5 : 8

B

I2

I1

L

R1

R2

S

D

q2

2C

The energy is stored equally in electric and magnetic fields.

1 q2

So, energy in electric field, E =

2 2C

Umax =

q

1 q2

=

2C 2 2C

Net charge inside a capacitor,

q

q =

2

Now,

h = L (1 cos )

Maximum velocity at equilibrium is

given by

v 2 = 2 gh = 2 gL (1 cos )

= 2 gL 2 sin2

2

Thus, maximum potential difference

(i)

v = 2 gL sin

Vmax = B L = B 2 gL sin L

2

= 2 BL sin ( gL )1/ 2

2

35

1

( Ze )( Ze )

5 1016 16

. 10 19 =

4 0

r

1

1

1

= ( 1)

f

R1 R 2

The lens is plano-convex, i.e. R1 = R and R 2 =

1 ( 1)

R

Hence, =

f =

( 1)

f

R

Kmax = h 0

where, is the incident frequency and 0 is the work done of

the metal.

As, Kmax = eV0, where V0 is the stopping potential.

(i)

Therefore,

eV0 = h 0

V0

(ii)

and

= h 0

e

4

2

From Eqs. (i) and (i), we get

h 0 h

0 h h

or 0 =

=

=

4

4

2

4

2

4

h

3

h

or 0 =

0 =

3

4

4

Therefore, threshold frequency ( 0)

h 1

= .

0 = 0 =

h

3

h 3

conducting in reverse bias condition.

Diode D1 is in forward bias, and diode D2 is in forward bias but

diode D3 is reverse bias.

So, the figure can be drawn as

Here, 20 , R1 and R 3 are in series.

Equivalent resistance

= 50 + 50 + 20 = 120

R1

20

V

6

I=

=

R 120

1

A

=

+

20

R3

6V

I = 50 mA

c 3 10 8 3

.

= =

= = 15

v 2 108 2

A

R

r

O

If r is the radius and Y is the thickness of lens (at the centre), the

radius of curvature R of its curved surface in accordance with

the figure is given by

R 2 = r 2 + ( R y)2 r 2 + y 2 2 Ry = 0

( 6 / 2 )2

r2

Neglecting y 2, we get R =

=

= 15 cm

2 y 2 0.3

Hence, focal length of the lens,

15

f =

= 30 cm

15

. 1

1

1

1

+

=

v

280 20

1

1

1

1 14 + 1

=

+

=

v 20 280

v

280

280

v =

15

2.8

we have

27.

40

160

=

2 t / 20 = 2 10

(2 ) t / 20 (2 )t /10

t

t

t

t

t

=

2

= 2 or

= 2 t = 40 s

20 10

20 10

20

1

1

1

(a) According to Rydbergs formula, = R 2 2

ni

nf

Here, nf = 1, ni = n

1 1

1

= R 2 2

1 n

1

1

= R 1 2

1

1

1

1

1

1 = R 1 2

= 1 2 2 = 1

R

R

n

n

n

36

15

N01

N02

, i.e. N1 = N2

, N2 =

(2 ) t / 20

(2 ) t /10

t

R 1

1

=

n =

R

n2

R

R 1

(Ry) y

N1 =

20

cm

v

v I = v 0

u

Speed of the image

2

280

1

15

m/s

m/s =

vI =

15 =

15

15 15

15 280

(i)

(i)

Icoh = 4I0

In case of incoherent at a given point, varies randomly with

time so (cos )av = 0

...(ii)

Iincoh = I1 + I2 = 2 I0

Icoh

2

Hence,

=

Iincoh

1

Questions as a whole

24

arihantbooks.com

2

Questions to Measure Your Problem Solving Skills

General Instructions

1. This test consists of 30 questions.

2. Each question is allotted 4 marks for correct response.

3. 1/4 marks will be deducted for indicating incorrect response of each question. No deduction from the total score will

be made if no response is indicated in each question.

4. There is only one correct response for each question. Filling up more than one response in any question will be treated

as wrong response and marks for wrong response will be deducted according as per instructions.

formula for kinetic energy given below is correct on

the basis of dimensional arguments?

[Given, m stands for mass of the body]

(b) K = ma

1

(d) K = mv 2

2

(a) K = m v

1

mv 2 + ma

2

2 2

(c) K =

inclined plane making an angle of 30 with the

horizontal. Find the coefficient of friction between

the body and the plane if the time of ascent is half of

the time of descent.

(a) 0.346

(b) 0.436

(c) 0.463

(d) 0.364

horizontal table with its two-third part on the table.

The friction coefficient between the table and the

chain is m. The work done by the friction during the

period, the chain slips off the table is

(a) -

1

2

4

6

m MgL (b) - m MgL (c) - m MgL (d) - m MgL

4

9

9

7

energy K collides head on elastically with the

nucleus of an atom of mass number A at rest. The

fraction of its kinetic energy retained by the neutron

even after the collision is

1 - A

(a)

A + 1

38

A + 1

(b)

A - 1

A - 1

(c)

A + 1

(d)

cross-section A is suspended from the roof and the

mass m2 is suspended from the other end. What is the

stress at the mid-point of the rod?

( m1 + m2 ) . g

A

( m1 / 2 ) + m2 )

(c)

.g

(a)

( m1 - m2 ) . g

A

m1 + ( m2 / 2 )

(d)

.g

A

(b)

occupies a volume of V. If the gas is expanded

adiabatically to the volume 2V, then the work done by

5

the gas will be Y = , R = 8.31 J / mol-K

3

(a) + 2767.23 J

(b) 2627.23 J

(c) 2500 J

(d) - 2500 J

. 1018 Hz

Ka X-rays of Cu(Z = 29) is known to be 188

(c) 8.51 1019 Hz

(d) 9.1 1015 Hz

X-axis with an initial velocity

v0 in the X-Y plane as shown in

v sin q

,

the figure. At a time t < 0

g

the angular momentum of the

particle is

Y

v0

1

mg v 0 t 2 cos q $i

2

(c) mg v t cos q k$

(a)

(b) - mg v 0 t 2 cos q $j

(d) -

3

1

-1 2

-1 1

(a) sin- 1 (b) sin- 1

(c) sin

(d) sin

2

3

3

2

1

mgv 0 t 2 cos q k$

2

height h above the point of impact and makes a

perfectly elastic collision where will it hit the

inclined plane again

(a)

8h

sin q

(b) 4h sin q

(c) 8h sin q

(d)

4h

sin q

(a) 200 Hz

(c) 196 Hz

of mass M has outer radius

4R and inner radius 2R. The

work required to take a unit

mass from point P on its axis

to infinity is

E = E0 $i and B = B0 $i with a velocity, v = v0 $j. The

speed of the particle will becomes 5 / 2 v0 after a

time

4R

- 2GM

( 4 2 - 5)

7R

2GM

(d)

( 2 - 1)

5R

2GM

( 4 2 - 5)

7R

GM

(c)

4R

(a)

(a)

(b)

temperature of two diagonally opposite points are T

and 2 T respectively, in the steady state. Assuming

that only heat conduction takes place, what will be

the temperature difference between other two

points?

( 2 + 1) T

2

(b)

2

. T (c) 0

( 2 + 1)

on a film 12 cm behind the lens. A glass plate 1 cm

thick of refractive index 1.50 is interposed between

lens and film with its plane faces parallel to film. At

what distance (from lens) should object shifted to be

in sharp focus on film?

(a) 7.2

(b) 2.4

(c) 3.2

(d) 5.6

volume. One heated upto the same temperature and

allowed to cool in the same surroundings. The ratio

of the amounts of radiation emitted will be

(a) 1 : 1

(b)

4p

:1

3

1/ 3

p

(c)

6

:1

(d)

1 4p

2 3

2/ 3

:1

of a wavelength 4358 is used, then 84 fringes are

seen in the field of view, but when sodium light of

certain wavelength is used, then 62 fringes are seen in

the field of view, the wavelength of a sodium light is

(a) 6893

15. A

(b) 5904

(c) 5523

mv 0

qE

(b)

mv 0

2qE

(c)

3mv 0

2qE

(d)

5mv 0

2qE

(a)

(b) 202 Hz

(d) 204 Hz

4R

2R

some tape is attached on the prong of the fork 2.

When the tunning forks are sounded again, 6 beats

s -1 are heard. If the frequency of fork 1 is 200 Hz, then

what was the original frequency of fork 2?

(d) 6429

transparent

solid

cylinderical rod has a

refractive index of 2 / 3 . It

is surrounded by air. A light ray is incident at the

mid-point of one end of the rod as shown in the

figure. The incident angle q for which the

light ray grazes along the wall of the rod is

the potentiometer wire are 4 10 - 7 W m and

8 10 - 7 m2 , respectively. The potential gradient will

be equal to

(a) 0.2 V/m

(c) 0.3 V/m

(b) 1 V/m

(d) 0.1 V/m

perpendicular to each other and carry currents i1 and

i2 . The magnitude of the magnetic induction at a

point P at a distance a from the point O in a direction

perpendicular to the plane ABCD, is

m0

( i1 + i 2 )

2 pa

m

(c) 0 ( i 12 + i 22 )1/ 2

2 pa

(a)

m0

( i1 - i 2 )

2 pa

i1 . i 2

m

(d) 0

2 pa ( i 1 + i 2 )

(b)

their temperature coefficients of resistance are a1

and a2 . The respective temperature, coefficients of

their series and parallel combinations are nearly

( a1 + a2 )

, ( a1 + a2 )

2

a . a2

(c) ( a1 + a2 ), 1

( a1 + a2 )

(a)

( a1 + a2 )

2

( a1 + a2 ) ( a1 + a2 )

,

(d)

2

2

(b) ( a1 + a2 ),

21. A

parallel

plate

capacitor C with plates

C

of unit area and the d

R

d/3

separation d is filled

with a liquid of

dielectric

constant

K = 2, the level of liquid is d/3, initially. Suppose, the

liquid level decreases at a constant speed v, the time

constant as a function of time t is

6 e 0R

5 d + 3 vt

6 e 0R

(c)

5 d - 3vt

(a)

(b)

(d)

2d 2 - 3dvt - 9v 2t 2

(15 d - 9vt ) e0R

2d 2 + 3 dvt - 9v 2t 2

39

connected in series across 200 V supply line. The

charged capacitors are then disconnected from the

line and reconnected with their positive plates

together and negative plates together and no

external voltage is applied. What is the potential

difference across each capacitor?

(a)

800

V

9

(b) 400 V

(c)

800

V

3

a time varying current flows as shown in the figure.

i

The ratio of current, 1 at any time is

i2

(a)

Blv

Blv

,l=

R

R

Blv

(d) l1 = l2 = l =

R

(c) 6

1 2qq

(a)

4pe0 a

1 2qq

(c)

4pe0 a

1

5

1

1 +

t

I

(c)

(d)

t

characteristics of a Zener diode. Which part of the

characteristic curve is most relevant for its operation

as a voltage regulator?

I (mA)

a Forward bias

Reverse bias

VZ

d

e

Current

(d) 8

1 2qq

4pe0 a

L22

( L1 + L2 )2

I (A)

(a) ab

(c) cd

(b) bc

(d) de

connected to a coil of self-inductance L at t = 0. The

time at which the equation is stored equally between

the electric and magnetic field is

(b) zero

(d)

(d)

(b)

the end of a side 1 of a square of side 2a. Two negative

charges of the same magnitude are kept at the other

corners. Starting from rest, if a charge q moves from

the middle of side 1 to the centre of square, its kinetic

energy at the centre of square is

L12

( L1 + L2 )2

and a are constants and r is the distance from its

R 1

centre. If the electric field at r = is times that are

2 8

r = R, then the value of a is

(b) 4

(c)

(a)

(a) 2

L1

L2

I

has

a

sliding

connector PQ of

v

R

R

R

length l and a

resistance R W and it

I

I2

is moving with the

Q

I1

speed v as shown.

The set up is placed in the uniform magnetic field

going into the plane of the paper. The three currents

I1 , I2 and I are

(b) l1 = - l2 =

(b)

rectifier. An alternating

current source (V ) is

connected in the circuit.

The current (I) in the

resistor (R) can be shown by

L2

L1

(a) equal to 5 W

(b) greater than 5 W

(c) less than 5 W

(d) greater or less than 5 W depending upon its material

Blv

3R

2 Blv

3R

L2

i2

V and a moving coil

R

ammeter A and resistor

A

C

D

R as shown in the

figure. If the voltmeter reads 10 V and the ammeter

reads 2 A, then R is

Blv

,l=

6R

Blv

,l=

(c) l1 = l2 =

3R

(d) 200 V

(a) l1 = l2 =

L1

i1

1

5

(a)

p

4

LC

(b) p

LC

(c) 2 p LC

(d) LC

Answers

1. (d)

11. (c)

21. (a)

40

2. (a)

12. (d)

22. (a)

3. (b)

13. (c)

23. (c)

4. (a)

14. (b)

24. (c)

5. (c)

15. (d)

25. (a)

6. (a)

16. (c)

26. (a)

7. (a)

17. (b)

27. (a)

8. (a)

18. (d)

28. (b)

9. (c)

19. (c)

29. (d)

10. (a)

20. (d)

30. (a)

Paper 1

One or More Than One Option Correct Type

1. A solid sphere of radius R and density r is attached to

one end of a massless spring of force constant k. The

other end of the spring is connected to another solid

sphere of radius R and density 3r. The complete

arrangement is placed in liquid of density 2r and is

allowed to reach equilibrium. Choose the correct

statement (s).

4pR 3rg

3k

8pR 3rg

(b) The net elongation of spring is

3k

(c) The light sphere is partially submerged

4

pR 3rg

(d) The elongation of spring due to small sphere is 3

k

monochromatic uniform and parallel beam of light of

wavelength 6000 and intensity (10/p) W/m2 is

incident normally on two circular apertures A and B of

radii 0.001 m and 0.002 m, respectively. A perfectly

transparent film of thickness 2000 and refractive

index 1.5 for wavelength 6000 is placed in front of

aperture A . Calculate the power (in watts) received at

the focal spot F of the lens. The lens is symmetrically

placed with respect to the

L

A

aperture. Assume that 10% of

F

the power received by each

aperture goes in the original

B

direction and is brought to

the focal point. Also, find the phase difference.

(b) The value of phase difference is p/3

(c) The power received at the focal spot F of the lens is

9.6 10 -7 W

(d) None of the above

in the figure. Friction is absent everywhere and the

threads, spring and pulleys are massless. Given that

mA = mB = m

A

k

B

(a) w = 3k / 4m

(c) w = 2 k / 3m

(b) w =

(d) w =

4k / 5m

6k / 5m

below the free surface of water as shown. The rod is 3 m

long and uniform in cross-section and the support is

1.6 m below the free surface. The cross-section of rod is

9.5 10 -4 m2 in area. The density of water is 1000 kg/m

3

. Assume buoyancy to act at centre of immersion

g = 9.8 m/s2 . Also, find the reaction on the hinge in this

position.

3m

1.6 m

(a) 1.5 N

(b) 1.1 N

(c) 2.6 N

(d) 1.6 N

41

5. Determine

the

maximum

M

horizontal force F that may be

R

applied to the plank of mass m for

m

F

which the solid sphere does not

slip as it begins to roll on the

plank. The sphere has a mass M

and radius R. The coefficient of static and kinetic

friction between the sphere and the plank are m s and

m k , respectively.

(a) The linear acceleration for sphere will be m s g / M

7

(b) The maximum horizontal force is F = m s g M + m

2

3

2

(d) None of the above

side silvered.

(a) The radius of curvature of its curved surface of

plano-convex lens is equal to half of radius of curvature of a

surface of equi-convex lens of focal length 20 cm

(b) An object placed at 15 cm on the axis on the convex side of

silvered plano-convex lens gives rise to an image at a

distance of 30 cm from it

(c) An object placed at a distance of 20 cm on the axis on the

convex side of silvered plano-convex lens gives rise to an

image at 40 cm from it

(d) Silvered plano-convex lens acts as a concave mirror of focal

length of 10 cm

projected from the ground

as shown in the figure.

Which of the following

statement(s) is/are correct?

E (Uniform

electric field).

2 Bw a2

(b) current through r is

5r

(c) direction of current in external resistance r is from centre to

circumference

(d) direction of current in external resistance r is from

circumference to centre

apart. The plates C and D of similar capacitor have a

diameter of 0.12 m and are 3 10 -3 m apart. Plate A is

earthed. Plates B and D are connected together. Plate C

is connected to the positive pole of a 120 V battery

whose negative pole is earthed. Calculate the potential

energy stored in it.

(a) 0241

.

mJ

(b) 01224

.

mJ

(c) 2.43 J

(d) 4.34 mJ

11. What is the velocity (in cm/s) of image in situation as

moves with velocity 10 cm/s and mirror moves with

velocity 2 cm/s as shown.

20 cm/s

10 cm/s

H

B(3M)

Principal axis

10 cm

F =10 cm

current required for full scale deflection is 1mA. The

resultant series resistance required is n 104 W as a

voltmeter with different ranges. The value of n is

G

(b) If the collision is perfectly elastic, ball A will rise upto height

H/4

(c) If the collision is perfectly inelastic, the combined mass will

rise to a height H/16

(d) If the collision is perfectly inelastic, the combined mass will

rise to a height H/4

42

B

resistance and radius a. PQ is a

uniform rod of resistance r. It is P

Q

hinged at the centre of the ring

r

and rotated about this point in

R

clockwise direction with a

uniform angular velocity w .

There is a uniform magnetic field of strength B pointing

inwards and r is a stationary resistance. Then,

(b) The path of the motion of particle is a straight line

2u sin q

(c) Time of flight of particle is

g

(d) Range of motion of the particle can be less than, greater than

u 2 sin 2 q

or equal to

g

by string of equal length. The M

ball A is drawn a side so that it is

A

raised to a height H. It is then

released and collides with ball B.

Select the correct option(s).

R1

R2

1V

R3

10 V

100 V

formed of the same liquid (surface tension 0.07 N/m)

come together to form a double

r2

bubble. The radius of air bubble is

-3

m and the sense of

n 10

P2

P

curvature of the internal film

r1 P1

surface common to both the

bubbles. Find the value of n.

energy 10.19 eV, a hydrogen atom emits a 4890

photon. After calculating the binding energy of the

initial state. Determine the value of n.

the lower end of a steel wire of length 5 m and diameter

10 -3 m. The wire is suspended from 5.22 m high ceiling

of a room. When the sphere is made to swing as a

simple pendulum, it just grazes the floor at its lowest

point. Calculate the velocity of the sphere at the lowest

position (in m/s). Youngs modulus of steel is

1.994 1011 N/m2 .

24

Na radio

nuclide (half-life 15 h) of activity/micro curie is injected

into the blood of a person. A sample of the blood of

volume/cm3 taken after 5 h shows an activity of 296

disintegration min-1 . Determine the total volume of

blood (in L) in the body of the person. Assume that the

radioactivity solution mixes uniformly in the blood of

the person. [1 curie = 3.7 1010 disintegration s -1 ]

has angular resonance frequency 4 105 rads -1 . At

resonance, the voltage across the resistance and

inductance are 60 V and 40 V, respectively. So, the

frequency is n 105 rad/s at which the current in the

circuit lags the voltage by 45. The value of n is

in a vacuum chamber. A ray of ultraviolet light of

wavelength 200 nm is incident on the ball for sometime

during which a total light energy of 1 10 -7 J falls on the

surface. Assuming that on the average, one photon out

of 10000 photons is able to eject a photoelectron, find

the value of n, as electric potential is n 10 -1 V at the

surface of the ball, assuming zero potential at infinity.

on horizontal floor upto a fixed height H. A tiny hole of

area A is punched in the side wall at a height from the

bottom of the vessel equal to y. The emerging stream

strikes the ground at a horizontal distance (y 0) from

cylinder. To maintain the level in the vessel at H, the

2 gH

rate (volume/sec) of addition of water is A

. Find

n

the value of n.

temperature and atmospheric pressure (105 Pa). It has a

volume of 20000 cc. The area of cross-section is

and

force

constant

of

spring

is

100 cm2

k spring = 1000 N/ m. We push the right piston

isothermally and slowly till it reaches the original

position of the left piston which is movable. Final

length of air column is found to be 25h cm. Assume that

spring is initially relaxed. Find the value of h.

Paper 2

Only One Option Correct Type

1. A person is pulling a mass m from the ground on a

rough hemispherical surface upto the top of the

hemisphere with the

help

of

a

light

R

inextensible string as

m

shown in the figure

given alongside. The radius of the hemisphere is R.

Find out the work done by the tension in the string.

1

(a) mgR 1 +

(b) mgR (1 - m )

(c) mgR (1 + m )

1

(d) mgR - 1

m

diaphragm C at the middle and the two others thin

flexible diaphragms A and B at the ends. The portions

AC and BC contain hydrogen and oxygen gases,

respectively. The diaphragms A and B are set into

vibrations of same frequency. What is the minimum

C

B

frequency of these vibrations A

for which the diaphragm C is a

H2

O2

node? Under the condition of

the experiment, the velocity of

sound in hydrogen is 1100 m/s

and in oxygen is 300 m/s.

(a) 1750 Hz

(b) 1600 Hz

(c) 1800 Hz

(d) 1650 Hz

radius a with velocity v0 . A gun is in the satellite and is

aimed directly towards the earth. A bullet is fired from

v

the gun with muzzle velocity 0 . Neglecting resistance

2

offered by cosmic dust and recoiling of gun. Calculate

the maximum and minimum distance of bullet from the

centre of the earth during its subsequent motion.

(a) 2 a ,

2a

3

(b) 2 a, a

(c) a,

a

3

(d) a,

a

2

plane. A similar disc spinning with the angular velocity

w0 is carefully lowered on to the first disc. How soon do

both discs spin with same angular velocity, if the

friction coefficient between them is equal to m?

8 mg

3r0 w 0

3r w

(c) 0 0

8 mg

(a)

4r0 w 0

3 mg

2 mg

(d)

5r0 w 0

(b)

a horizontal plane mirror as shown in the given figure.

The space between the lens and the mirror is then filled

with water of refractive index 4/3. It is found that when

a point object is placed 15 cm above the lens on its

principal axis, the object coincides with its own image.

43

image again coincide at a distance 25 cm from the lens.

Calculate the refractive index of the liquid.

(a) 1.5

(b) 1.24

(c) 1.6

(d) 1.33

gas and the heat supplied by the heater. The force

constant of the spring is 8000 N/m, atmospheric

pressure 1 105 N / m2 . The cylinder and piston are

thermally insulated. The piston is massless and there is

no friction between the piston and the cylinder.

Neglect heat loss through the lead wires of the heater.

The heat capacity of the heater coil is negligible.

Assume the spring to be massless.

upon each collision the neutron is deflected by 45,

find the number of collisions which will reduce its

energy to 0.23 eV.

(b) 25

(c) 23

Heater

(a) 26

Open

atmosphere

(d) 24

Rigid

support

Piston

length L as shown in the figure. The linear mass

density of rod is l, then

R

M

P

(c) 400 K, 618.6 J

(d) 478 K, 753.8 J

energies of the fragments of the body.

2Gl

if length of rod is infinite

(b) Ix =

R

(c) gravitational potential is not defined at P if length of rod is

infinite

(d) if a = b, then Ix = 0 and Iy = 0

massless spring of natural length L and spring

constant k. The blocks are initially resting on the

smooth horizontal floor with the spring at its natural

length as shown in figure. A third identical block C,

also of mass m moves on the floor with a speed v along

the line joining A and B and collides elastically with A.

Then,

v

L

A

of the spring is zero

(b) the kinetic energy of AB system at maximum compression

mv 2

of the spring is

4

m

(c) the maximum compression of the spring is v

k

(d) the maximum compression of the spring is v

m

2k

Initially, the gas is at 300 K and occupies a volume of

2.4 10 -3 m3 and the spring is in its relaxed

(unstretched, uncompressed) state. The gas is heated

by a small electric heater until the piston moves out

44

m1 p1

m2

O p2=0

p1

m1

p2=0

m2

p2

(Before collision)

(After collision)

( m1 - m2 )Q ( m2 - m1 )Q

m1 Q

m2Q

,

(b)

,

( m1 + m2 ) ( m1 + m2 )

m1 + m2 m1 + m2

m2 Q

m1 Q

m1Q

m2Q

(c)

,

(d)

,

( m1 - m2 ) ( m1 + m2 )

( m1 - m2 ) ( m1 - m2 )

(a)

Comprehension Type

This section consists of 3 paragraphs, each describing

theory, experiments, data etc. Six questions related to the

three paragraphs with two questions on each paragraph.

Each question has only one correct answer among the

four given options (a), (b), (c) and (d).

Paragraph I

A thin, 50 cm long metal bar with

mass 750 g rests on, but is not

attached to two metallic supports in

a uniform 0.450 T magnetic field as

shown in the given figure. A battery

and a 25 W resistor in series are

connected to the supports.

without breaking the circuit at the supports?

(a) 817 V

(c) 325 V

(b) 412 V

(d) 160 V

in above question. If the resistor suddenly gets

partially short-circuited, then its resistance decreasing

to 2.0 W. Find the initial acceleration of the bar.

(a) 113 ms -2

(b) 55 ms -2

(c) 180 ms -2

(d) 12.4 ms -2

Paragraph III

Two closed identical conducting containers are found in

the laboratory of an old scientist. For the verification of the

gas, some experiments are performed on the two boxes

and the results are noted.

Gas A

Paragraph II

An unmanned satellite A and a spacecraft

B are orbiting around the earth in the same

circular orbit as shown in figure.

A

B

sometime. Let us consider that some

technical problem has arisen in the

satellite and the astronaut from B has made it correct. For

this to be done docking of two (A and B) is required

(in Layman terms connecting A and B). To achieve this,

the rockets of A have been fired in forward direction and

docking takes place as shown in the figure below.

Rocket fired

A

A B

A

A

B

Rocket retrofired

Mono

(molar mass)

He

4g

Ne

20 g

Ar

40 g

Kr

84 g

Xe

131 g

Di

(molar mass)

H2

2g

F2

19 g

N2

28 g

O2

32 g

Cl 2

71 g

(d) Dia, Mono

Docking over

Radius of the earth = 6400 km

Orbital radius = 9600 km

Mass of satellite A = 320 kg

Mass of spacecraft = 3200 kg

Assume that initially, spacecraft B leads satellite A by

100 s, i.e. A arrives at any particular position after 100 s of

Bs arrival.

B, respectively

(a) N 2, Ne

(b) He, H 2

(c) O 2, Ar

(d) Ar, O 2

Matching Type

17. Three travelling sinusoidal waves are on identical

strings having same tension. The mathematical form of

waves are y1 = Asin(3 x - 6t ), y2 = Asin(4 x - 8t ) and

y3 = Asin(6 x - 12t ).

Column I

A. Speed of each wave is

13. The initial total energy and time period of satellite are

Column II

p. y

x

respectively,

(a) -6.65 1010 J, 9358 s

(b) -6.65 10 9 J, 9358 s

(c) -6.65 1010 J, 9140 s

(d) -6.65 10 9 J, 9140 s

operated, so that its rocket has been fired in forward

direction, thus reducing the speed of A by 0.5%, then

which of the following will happen?

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Rd

222 g

(a) Mono, Mono

(c) Mono, Dia

New orbit of A

wA = 225 g, wB = 160 g and mass of evacuated

container wC = 100 g.

Experiment II When the two containers are given same

amount of heat, same temperature rise is recorded. The

pressure changes found to be DpA = 2.5 atm,

DpB = 1.5 atm.

Required data for unknown gas

respectively.

Gas B

Its total energy becomes - 6714

10 9 J

.

Its new time period becomes 9219.67 s

All of the above

B. y1 is best represented by

q. y

x

C. y2 is best represented by r.

y

x

Codes

A

B

C

D

(a) (s) (p) (q) (r)

(c) (q) (r, s) (p) (r, p)

A

B

C

(b) (p,q) (r) (s)

(d) (p, q, r)(r, s) (p)

D

(p)

(q)

45

Column I

hf

as shown. In Column I, KE of

function is f =

3

photoelectron is mentioned at various locations/

instants and in Column II, the corresponding values.

R and L

p.

B.

2 R and L

q.

II

C.

R and 2 L

r.

III

D.

2 R and 2 L

s.

IV

Codes

A

B

C

D

(a) (p, q) (q,s) (p, q) (s)

(b) (r) (p)

(s)

(q)

(c) (p, q, r) (r)

(p) (q, r, s)

(d) (r, s) (p)

(q)

(s)

Collector

Vacuum

P

Column II

A.

Target

Column I

A. Maximum KE of photoelectrons just after

emission from the target

B. KE of photoelectrons just after emission

from target

C. KE of photoelectrons when they are

half-way between the target and collector

D. KE of photoelectrons as they reach the

collector

Column II

p. Zero

point charge q is placed in front of the objects in

Column II and statements in Column I are related to

the effects on objects in Column II.

q. hf

3

r. hf

2

s. 2 hf

3

Column I

A.

Codes

A

B

C

D

(a) (p, q)

(r, s)

(q, r, s) (s)

(b) (s) (p, q, r, s) (q, r, s) (p, r, s)

(c) (p, q, r) (r, s)

(p)

(q, r)

(d) (r, s)

(p, q)

(p, s) (r, s)

a very long time, then it is shifted to position b. The

resulting current through the inductor is shown by

curves in the graph for four sets of values for the

resistance R and inductance L (given in Column I).

Which set correspond with which curve?

Column II

Nature of distribution of p.

charge is same on

B. Charge distribution on

object is non-uniform

q.

neutral

r.

object remains charge

free

s.

+

E

Solidconducting

cubeofsidea

Ahollow/solid

conductingsphere

t.

i

a

Hollow conducting

cube of side a

Infinitethickplane

conductingsheet

Hollowconducting

cylinder

IV

L

III

II

I

Codes

A

B

C

D

(a) (p)

(q)

(s, r, t)

(p, q, r, s, t)

(b) (q, r)

(r, s, t)

(p, q)

(p, q, r, s)

(c) (p, q) (p, q, r, s, t) (p, q, r, s, t) (p, q, r, s, t)

(d) (q)

(r)

(p, q)

(r, s, t)

Answers

Paper 1

1. (a,d)

11. (0)

2. (a,b)

12. (9)

3. (b)

4. (d)

13. (4)

14. (4)

15. (9)

5. (a,b)

16. (6)

6. (a,c,d)

7. (b,c)

17. (8)

8. (a,b,c)

18. (3)

9. (b,d)

19. (5)

10. (b)

20. (4)

Paper 2

1. (c)

2. (d)

3. (a)

4. (c)

5. (c)

6. (d)

11. (a)

12. (a)

13. (b)

14. (d)

15. (c)

16. (d)

46

7. (a,b,c)

17. (a)

8. (d)

9. (a)

10. (b)

18. (b)

19. (b)

20. (c)

Arjun Sharma

the Sun to its surface, but only 8 min to travel the rest of

the way to Earth. Do you know?

A photon travels on an average a particular distance (d)

before being briefly absorbed and released by an atom, which

scatters it in a new random direction. From the core to the

Sun's surface (696000 kms) where it can escape into space, a

photon needs to make a huge number of drunken jumps. The

calculation is a little tricky, but the conclusion is that a photon

takes between many thousands and many millions of years to

drunkenly wander to the surface of the Sun.

In a way, the light that reaches us today is energy produced

may be millions of years ago.

about 60 s to make a complete circuit of the body?

Explain.

when its container is spun. No longer a mere liquid, the helium has become a

super fluid-a liquid that flows without friction atoms in the liquid will collide

with one another and slow down. But if we did that with helium at low

temperature and came back a million years later, it would still be moving.

The human genome, the genetic code in each human cell, contains 23 DNA

molecules each containing from 500 thousands to 2.5 millions nucleotide

pairs. DNA molecules of this size are 1.7 cm to 8.5 cm long when uncoiled or

about 5 cm on average. There are about 37 trillion cells in the human body

and if you'd uncoil all of the DNA encased in each cell and put them end to

end, then these would sum to a total length of 21014 m or enough for 17

Pluto round trips (1.21013 m/Pluto round trip).

heart pumps about 70 mL of blood out with each beat. Also, a

healthy heart beats around 70 times a minute. So, if we

multiply the amount of blood that the heart can pump by the

number of beats in a minute, we actually get about 4.9 L of

blood, which is almost our whole bodys worth of blood. In just

a minute, the hearts pumps the entire blood volume around

our body.

Do you know the fact that faster you move, heavier you

get? Explain.

If we run really fast, we gain weight. Not permanently or it

would make a mockery of diet and exercise plans, but

momentarily and only a tiny amount. Light speed is the speed

limit of the Universe. So if something is travelling close to the

speed of light, and we give it a push, it can't go very much

faster. But we have given it extra energy, and that energy has

to go somewhere. Where it goes is mass.

According to relativity, mass and energy are equivalent. So,

the more energy you put in, greater the mass becomes. This is

negligible at human speeds-Usain Bolt is not noticeably

heavier when running than when still - but once we reach an

appreciable fraction of the speed of light, our mass start to

increase rapidly.

or 273C), the lowest temperature possible, it

becomes a liquid with surprising properties: It flows

against gravity and will start running up , why?

When helium is just a few degrees below its boiling point of

452 F ( 269C), it will suddenly be able to do things that

other fluids can't like dribble through molecule-thin cracks,

climb up and over the sides of a dish, and remain motionless

bacterial cells than human cells?

For one thing, bacteria produces chemicals that help us harness energy and

nutrients from our food. Germ-free rodents have to consume nearly a third

more calories than normal rodents to maintain their body weight and when

the same animals were later given a dose of bacteria, their body fat levels

spiked, even if they didn't eat any more than they had before. The gut

bacteria is also very important to maintaining immunity.

average person's body to stretch from the Sun to Pluto and back

17 times?

same mass but with opposite charge and spin?

All matter in the Universe is built up from a relatively small number of

elementary particles, which include quarks (the constituents of protons and

neutrons) and electrons (which together with protons and neutrons, make up

atoms). Associated with each elementary particle is an anti-particle which

also occurs in nature. The anti-particle has the same mass as the particle,

but with opposite charge. A particle and an anti-particle can combine (or

annihilate) to produce a photon or a particle of light. Conversely, a

particle-anti-particle pair can be produced from a photon. So, there is a type

of symmetry between particles and anti-particles in these processes. More

specifically, the sub-atomic particles of anti-matter have properties opposite

those of normal matter. The electrical charge of those particles is reversed.

Explain.

Electromagnetic pollution is a buzzword describing the excessive exposure

to electromagnetic radiation or electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by

electronic devices like cell phones, cordless phones, Wi-Fi routers or

Bluetooth-enabled equipment. The energy emitted by electronics is

non-ionizing radiation, meaning it does not have the capability to break

chemical bonds. In other words, it doesn't damage your DNA, which is a

potential cause of cancer. While electromagnetic radiation cannot cause

immediate damage, it does interact with our bodies, which can potentially

lead to indirect damage, especially following long term exposure.

MARCH 2016

47

NUCLEUS

centre of atom, its size is much smaller than the size of

atom but constitutes most of its total mass.

Nucleons Protons and neutrons which are present

in the nuclei of the atoms are collectively known as

nucleons.

Atomic Number Total number of protons present

inside a nucleus is called atomic number. It is

denoted by Z.

Mass Number Total number of protons and

neutrons in a nucleus is called mass number. It is

denoted by A.

Number of protons = Number of electrons = Z

Number of nucleons = A, Number of neutrons,

N = A Z.

NUCLEAR MASS

Total mass of proton and neutron in a nucleus.

Nuclide A specific nucleus of an atom

characterised by its atomic number Z and mass

number A, i.e. AZ X,

where, X = symbol of the element, Z = atomic

number, A = mass number.

Isotopes Nuclei having same number of protons

but different number of neutrons, e.g. isotopes of

carbon 126 C, 137 C, 146 C.

Isotones Nuclei having with the same neutrons

number but different atomic numbers, e.g. 146 C,

15

16

17

7 N, 8 O, 9 F.

Isobars Nuclei having same mass number but

different atomic numbers, e.g. 166 C, 716 N, 816 O.

SIZE OF NUCLEUS

is called nuclear density.

Mass of nucleus

i.e. Nuclear density ( ) =

Volume of nucleus

It is defined as 1/12 of the mass of 6 C 12 atoms. Its value

is given by 1 amu = 1.66 10 27 kg = 931.5 MeV

Electron volt The energy required by an electron

when it is accelerated through a potential difference

of 1 volt.

19

It is denoted by eV. (1eV = 1. 602 10

J).

NUCLEAR FORCES

The strong attractive forces in a nucleus which holds

the protons and neutrons together are called nuclear

forces.

(i) Nuclear forces are short range forces and only

exist within the range of 10 15 m.

(ii) Nuclear forces are strongest forces in nature.

(iii) Nuclear forces are always attractive and stabilise

the nucleus.

(iv) Nuclear forces are charge independent.

(v) Nuclear forces are non-central forces.

(vi) Nuclear forces are exchange forces.

Yokawa proposed that the nuclear force between the

two nucleons is a result of the exchange of particles

mesons which are of 3 types. Positive meson ( + ),

negative meson ( ) and neutral meson ( 0 ).

NUCLEAR STABILITY

Out of known 1500 nuclides only 260 are stable and rest

of them are unstable which used to decay to form other

nuclides by emitting , and -rays which is called

radioactivity.

Stability of the nucleus is determined by few factors.

(i) Neutron-proton ratio ( N / Z )

For lighter nuclei to be stable, N / Z =1.

For heavy nuclei to be stable,

N / Z >1.

R A 1 / 3 R = R0 A 1 / 3 , where A is mass number of

nucleus, R0 = 1. 2 10 15 m.

Nuclear volume The volume of nucleus is given by

4

4

V = R 3 = R03 A V A

3

3

Difference between , and -particles

1.

Feature

-particle

-particle

-rays

Identity

Helium nucleus or

doubly ionised

helium atom ( 2He 4 )

Photons

(EM waves)

( 0 or )

2.

Charge

+ 2e

Zero

3.

Mass

4 mp (mp = mass of

proton = 187

. 1027)

me

Massless

4.

Speed

= 107 m/s

1% to 99% of speed of

light

Speed of light

5.

Range of kinetic

energy

4 MeV to 9 MeV

between a minimum

certain value to 1.2 MeV

2.23 MeV

6.

Penetration power

( ,, )

1 (Stopped by a

paper)

cm of iron (or Pb) sheet)

7.

Ionisation power

( > > )

10000

100

8.

Effect of electric or

magnetic field

Deflected

Deflected

Not deflected

9.

Energy spectrum

Continuous

with matter

Produces heat

Produces heat

compton effect, pair production.

11. Effect on

photographic plate

and ZnS phosphor.

Strong

Less

Least

It is found that even-even nucleus (even Z and even N)

is more stable.

odd-odd nucleus (odd Z and odd N) is less stable.

Even-odd nucleus (even Z and odd N) or odd-even

nucleus (odd Z and even N) is found to be least stable.

(iii) Binding energy per nucleon

The stability of a nucleus is also determined by the value

of its binding energy per nucleon. Greater the binding

energy per nucleon, then greater will be stability.

MASS DEFECT

The difference in the mass of the nucleus and sum of the

masses of nucleons is known as mass defect, i.e.

m = [Zm p + ( A Z )m n m], where Z = atomic

number, A = atomic mass, m p = mass of proton, m n =

mass of neutron, m = mass of the nucleus.

2

BE [Zm p + ( A Z ) m n m] c

=

A

A

Few nuclei with mass number, A < 20 have large

binding energy per nucleon than their neighbour.

e.g. 2 He4 , 4 Be8 , 6 C12 and 10 Ne20 .

i.e.

B=

PACKING FRACTION

Mass defect per nucleon is called packing fraction.

m M A

i.e. f =

=

A

where, M = mass of nucleus and A = mass number.

is the stability of nucleus.

RADIOACTIVITY

The spontaneous transformation of an element into

another with emission of radiation such as , and

-rays is called radioactivity.

Radioactivity of a sample cannot be controlled by any

physical (pressure, temperature, electric or magnetic

field.)

All the elements with atomic numbers Z > 82 are

naturally radioactive.

The conversion of lighter elements into radioactive

elements by the bombardment of fast moving

particles is called artificial or induced radioactivity.

When a nucleus decays, all the conservation laws are

observed like.

Conservation of mass energy Conservation of

linear momentum.

Conservation

of

angular

momentum

Conservation of charge.

form a single nucleus which leads to the release of

tremendous amount of energy due to mass defect is

known

as

nuclear

fusion

2

2

4

1 H + 1 H 2 He + 24 MeV

Chain reaction Three neutrons are produced in

nuclear fission, under favourable condition these

neutrons can be utilised for further fission of other

nuclei later producing large number of neutrons until

the whole of the uranium is consumed.

Multiplication Factor The chain reaction will be

steady accelerating or retarding and depends on the

factor called critical factor (k).

Rate of production of neutrons

k=

Rate of loss of neutrons

If k =1, the chain reaction will be steady.

If k >1, the chain reaction will be accelerating, i.e.

grows.

If k <1, the chain reaction is decelerating, i.e. dies out.

Critical size and critical mass The size of the

fissionable material for which multiplication factor is

unity is called critical size and its mass is called

critical mass of the material. The chain reaction in

this case remains steady or sustained.

Half-life decay radioactive sample

Time (t )

t =0

1 (100%)

t = T1/ 2

1

(50%)

2

1

( 50%)

2

t = 2(T1/ 2 )

1

( 25%)

4

3

(75%)

4

t = 3 (T1/ 2 )

1

( 12.5%)

8

7

( 87.5%)

8

t = 10 (T1/ 2 )

1

= 0.1%

2

t = n( N 1 / 2 )

1

2

Q-VALUE

The energy absorbed or released during nuclear

reaction is known as Q-value of nuclear reaction, i.e.

Q-value = (Mass of reactantsmass of products) c 2

joules = (Mass of reactants mass of products) amu.

If Q > 0, then reaction is exothermic or exoergic and

this reaction is energetically possible even if the

particles were at rest.

If Q < 0, then reaction is endothermic or endoergic

and this reaction cannot take place until we provide a

minimum amount of energy to nucleus X.

BINDING ENERGY

Energy required to break up a nucleus into its constituent

proton and neutron is called binding energy.

(i) Binding energy of a nucleus AZ X is given by

E b = mc 2 = [Zm p + ( A Z )m n m]c 2 .

Nuclear binding energies are striking very high.

The quantity in bracket in above equation is

termed as mass defect.

If we supply energy less than E b to a nucleus then

nucleus stays together when the supplied energy

is more than E b , the extra energy appears as

kinetic energy of neutrons and protons as they fly

apart.

(ii) Binding energy per nucleon The average energy

required to extract one nucleon from nucleus is known

as binding energy per nucleon.

directly proportional to the number of atoms present at

dN

dN

that instant

N

= N , i.e. N = N o e t

dt

dt

where, N = Number of atoms remains undecayed after

time t, N 0 = Number of atoms initially present and =

Decay constant.

Decay constant It is defined as the ratio of the

amount of the substance disintegrated in unit time to

the amount of the substance present.

N

N

1

i.e. N = N 0 e t t = N = 0 = 0 = 0. 368 N 0

e 2.718

The reciprocal of time after which the number of atoms

of a radioactive substance decreases to 0.368 of their

number initially present.

Nuclear fission The process of splitting of a heavy

nucleus into two daughter nuclei of comparable

masses is called nuclear fission.

238

+ 0 n 1 92 U 236 56 Ba 141 + 36 Kr 92 + 0n 1 + Q

92 U

unstable

Fraction of atoms

Remaining

fraction of active decayed (N0 N )

N0

atoms (N / N0 )

probability of

probability of

survival

decay

10

= 99.9%

1 n

1

2

known as activity of a material.

A = dN / dt A = A0 e t

where, A0 = activity at t = 0 , A = activity after time t.

units It has three units, becquerel ( B q ), curie (Ci) and

rutherford ( Rd ). 1 becquerel = 1 disintegration/s 1

rutherford =10 6 disintegration/s 1 curie

= 3.7 10 10 disintegration/s.

half-life The time interval during which half of the

radioactive substance will disintegrate is known as

half-life.

log 2 0.693

i.e.

T1 / 2 = e =

1

half-lives is 1 n .

2

Average or mean life time It may be defined as the

ratio of the combined age of all the atoms of the total

number of atoms present in the given sample.

1 T

i.e.

= = 1 / 2 = 1.44 T1 / 2

0. 693

Final Touch

Electromagnetic Waves

A changing electric field produces a changing magnetic

field and vice-versa

y

which gives rise to

transverse wave known

x

as

electromagnetic z

y

E

waves.

The

time

varying electric and

magnetic fields are

z B

mutually perpendicular

c

to each other and also

x

perpendicular to the

direction

of

Electromagnetic waves

propagation of wave.

Characteristics of

Electromagnetic Waves

whose speed is same as that speed of light.

The two fields E and B have the same frequency of

oscillation and they are in same phase with each other.

The electric vector E is responsible for the optical

effects of an electromagnetic wave and is called the

light vector.

E and B are such that E B [is always in the direction

of propagation of wave]

z

Maxwells Equations

Maxwell gave the basic laws of electricity and magnetism in the

form of four fundamental equations, which are known as

Maxwells equations. It is based on experimental observations

followed by all electromagnetic phenomena, may be stated in the

integral form as given below:

G

y

G

Wave propagation

50

x-direction may be represented by

E = Ey = E0 sin (kx t ), B = Bz = B0 sin (kx t )

where, E(Ey ), B(Bz) are the instantaneous values of the fields.

E0 , B0 are amplitude of the fields and k is angular wave

number.

Electromagnetic waves obey the superposition principle

because the differential equations involving E and B are linear

equations, e.g. we can add two waves with the same frequency

simply by adding the magnitudes of the two electric field

algebraically.

Electromagnetic waves show the properties of reflection,

refraction, interference, diffraction and polarisation.

The velocity of electromagnetic waves in dielectric is less than c

( = 3 108 m/s).

The EM waves carry energy which is divided equally between

electric field and magnetic field vectors.

the closed surface.

This law states that electric lines of force start from positive

charge and end at negative charge, i.e. the electric lines of force

do not form a continuous closed path.

q

i.e.

s E dS = 0

G

entering a closed surface is equal to the number of

magnetic lines of force leaving that closed surface.

closed path.

not exist.

S B dS = 0

i.e.

Induction

G

changing magnetic flux.

It states that changing magnetic field is the source of

electric field.

dB

E dl = dt

Displacement Current

It is that current which comes into existence (in addition of

conduction current) whenever the electric field and hence the

electric flux changes with time. It is equal to 0 times the rate of

change of electric flux through a given surface.

ID = 0

It states that the line integral of the magnetic field B over a

closed path is equal to 0 times the sum of conduction current

I C and the displacement current I D threading between the

capacitor plates during charging process. Hence, modified law

is as below:

dE

B dl = 0 (IC + ID) or B dl = 0 IC + 0 dt

Maxwell predicted the following conclusions :

(i) An accelerated charge is the source of electromagnetic waves.

(ii) The electromagnetic waves can propagate through the space

with the speed of light (3 10 8 m/s) .

(iii) The electromagnetic wave is of transverse nature.

(iv) Light itself is an electromagnetic wave as it is transverse in

nature and it moves in space with a speed (3 10 8 m/s) .

According to this law, the line integral of magnetic field

along any closed path or circuit is 0 times the total current

flowing through a surface enclosed in that loop.

B dl = 0 I

i.e.

Maxwell explained that Amperes law is valid only for

steady current or when the electric field does not change

with time. To see this inconsistency, consider a parallel

plate capacitor being charged by a battery. During the

charging

time

varying

current

flows

through

connecting wires.

+q

I1

I2

dE

dt

Hertzs Experiment

Hertz was the first scientist to experimentally demonstrate

production of electromagnetic waves employing a crude form

of an oscillatory L - C circuit.

EM waves are produced by accelerated charge (or

oscillating charge).

The frequency of the EM waves is same as the frequency of

oscillation of the charge in electric field E or oscillation of

1

charge in magnetic field B, i.e. =

, where L is

2 LC

G

K

I B dl = 0 I

I2

is a magnetic field between the plates. Hence, Amperes

law fails.

i.e.

B dl 0 I

any material medium for their propagation.

He discovered that if one of the spark gap terminal is

connected to an antenna and the other terminal is earthed,

the electromagnetic waves radiated could go upto several

kilometers.

Later on Jagdish Chandra Bose produced EM waves of

wavelength ranging from 5 mm to 25 mm. Marconi

succeeded in transmitting EM waves over distances upto

few kilometres.

51

linearly polarised plane electromagnetic waves.

I. Electric field and the magnetic field have equal

average values.

II. Electric energy and the magnetic energy have

equal average values.

(a) I is true

(c) Both are true

(b) II is true

(d) Both are false

with E0 as the amplitude of its electric field vector. The

electric field E0 which transports significant energy

from the source falls off as

1

r3

(b)

1

r2

(c)

1

r

. A in the

space between the parallel plate of 1 F capacitor can

be established by changing the potential difference of

(a) 10

Vs

Hint As,

(b) 10 Vs

q CV

or i D = C

=

t

t

(c) 1 Vs

(d) 01

. Vs

V

where, i D = displacement current

t

The minimum frequency of the appropriate electromagnetic radiation to achieve the dissociation lies in

(b) infrared region

(d) microwave region

region. If these fields are not perpendicular to each

other, then the electromagnetic waves

(a) will not pass through the region

(b) will pass through the region

(c) may pass through the region

(d) nothing is definite

Hint The electromagnetic wave being packets of energy moving

with speed of light may pass through the region.

Z-axis of rectangular coordinate system. A uniform

electric field E is parallel to Y-axis and a uniform

magnetic field is parallel to X-axis. The rate at which

flows through each face of the cube is

(a)

a 2 EB

parallel to XY-plane and zero in other

2 0

(b)

a 2 EB

parallel to XY-plane and zero in other

0

2

52

(c)

a EB

from all faces

2 0

(d)

a 2 EB

parallel to YZ-plane and zero in other

2 0

flowing in faces parallel to XY-plane and is zero in all other faces.

Total energy flowing per second from a face in XY-plane

1

EBa 2

.

=

( EB sin 90 ) a 2 =

0

0

of the rate of change of the electric field strength, i.e.

dE

between the plates is

dt

(a)

0i

2 r

(b)

0 0r dE

.

2

dt

(c) zero

(d)

0i dE

2 dt

axis of plates and R is the radius of each plate of

capacitor)

(a)

(a) visible

(c) ultra violet region

1

[ E B ].

0

average values.

(a)

0i D

2 R 2

(b)

0. i D

2 R

(c)

0. i D

2 r

(d) zero

of the following pairs of space and time varying fields

would generate such a wave?

(a) E x , By

(b) E y , Bz

(c) E z , Bx

(d) E y , Bx

travelling in Z-direction. E, B and k from a right handed system k$ is

along Z-axis. (As, $i $j = k$ ) E $i + B $j = c k$ .

x

together (area = A, separation = d). Neglecting edge

effects, the displacement current through the

capacitor is

(a)

d

A 0

d

sin 2 ft

0

2 fq 0

(d)

cos 2 ft

0

(b)

(c) 2 fq 0 cos 2 ft

separated by distance of 4 mm of a parallel plate

capacitor of capacitance 100 pF along the axis of plates

having conduction current of 015

. A is

(a) zero

(b) 15

. T

(c) 15 T

(d) 015

. T

magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the ring.

The field B changes with time according to the

equation, B = kt , where k is a constant and t is the time.

The electric field in the ring is

(a)

kr

4

(b)

kr

3

(c)

kr

2

(d)

k

2r

Speed

G

In

is

E

1

c=

= 0 = 3 108 m/s, where 0

B0

0 0

given

by

is absolute

or vacuum.

1

, where and are absolute

In medium, v =

Energy

G

between the electric and magnetic fields.

1

Energy density of electric field, UE = 0 E 2

2

The electric vector is responsible for the optical effects of

an electromagnetic wave and is called as Light vector.

1 B2

Energy density of magnetic field, Um =

2 0

1 B2

Total energy per unit volume, U = UE + Um =

2 0

B2

1

Uav = 0 E 20 = 0

2

2 0

Intensity

The energy crossing per unit area per unit time

perpendicular to the direction of propagation of

electromagnetic waves.

Total EM energy

Total energy density Volume

i.e. I =

=

Surface area Time

Surface area Time

Radiation Pressure

It is the momentum imparted per second per unit area on

which the light falls.

For a perfectly reflecting surface, pr = 2 S/ c, where S is

Poynting vector and c is speed of light.

For a perfectly absorbing surface, p = S/ c

G

at the perfectly reflecting surface is 2 p cos and the

2S

corresponding radiation pressure is p =

cos, where is the

c

angle of incidence.

Refractive Index ( n)

The refractive index n of a material medium is given by

1

c

n= =

=

Q = r , = r

1

v

0 0

0 0

0

0

So,

n = r r

where, r = relative permeability of the medium

r = relative permittivity of the medium.

Wave Impedance (Z )

G

wave at any point gives the waves direction of travel and

the direction of energy transport at that point.

Momentum

G

of electromagnetic wave of energy U propagating with

Energy (U)

speed c, then linear momentum, i.e. p =

Speed (c)

Such hindrance is called wave impedance. It is given by

Z=

Poyntings Vector

In electromagnetic waves, the rate of flow of energy crossing

a unit area is described by a vector S, called as Poynting

vector.

Its unit is watt/m2 or Js 1 m2 and it can be expressed as

1

S=

(E B)

0

then the momentum is transported to the surface is twice,

2U

then momentum becomes, p =

c

The average force exerted by electromagnetic waves on the

p 2U

surface will be F = =

t

tc

r

=

0

0

0

= 376.6

0

Electromagnetic Spectrum

The orderly distribution of the electromagnetic waves in

accordance with their wavelength or frequency into distinct

groups having widely different properties is called

electromagnetic spectrum as shown in the figure.

Wavelength (m)

103 102 101

101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 1010 1011 1012

X-rays

Infrared

Radio waves

(AM, FM, TV)

Ultraviolet

Microwaves

(radar, etc.)

-rays

Visible Light

7107

Red

6107

Yelloworange

5107

Bluegreen

4107

Violet

53

accelerating through conducting wires. Their

wavelengths lie in the range of 104 m to about 0.1 m. It

is used in radio and television communication system.

Microwaves have wavelengths ranging from approximately 0.3 m to 10 4 m and are also generated by

electronic devices. They are used in radar systems and

for studying the atomic and molecular properties of

matter.

Infrared waves have wavelengths ranging from 10 3 m

to the longest wavelength of visible light, 7 10 7 m.

These waves are produced by molecules and room

temperature objects. It is used in physiotherapy,

infrared photography and vibrational spectroscopy.

Visible light is that component of the electromagnetic

spectrum that can be detected by human eye. These

extend from a wavelength of 7.8 10 7 m to

3.8 10 7 m and frequencies from 4 1014 Hz to 8 1014

Hz.

Radiation

-rays

Uses

Gives information on nuclear structure,

medical treatment etc

X-rays

crystal structure, industrial radiograph

UV-rays

instruments, detecting the invisible writings,

finger prints etc

Visible light

To see objects

Infrared rays

photography during the fog, haze, etc

Microwave and

radio waves

approximately 4 10 7 m to 6 10 10 m. These are

produced by the sun, special lamps like mercury lamp,

hydrogen tube, etc., and very hot bodies. It has various

uses such as in LASIK eye surgery, to kill germs in

water purifiers as disinfectant in hospitals etc.

As an UV light from the sun is absorbed by ozone (O3 )

molecules in the earths upper atmosphere in a layer

called the stratosphere. This ozone shield converts

(central) high energy UV radiations to infrared

radiations. As a result absorption of UV radiation

results in warming the stratosphere.

X-rays have wavelengths in the range from

approximately 10 8 m to 10 12 m. It is obtained by the

deceleration of high energy electrons bombarding a

metal target. It is used in the study of crystal structure

and treatment of cancer.

54

When an electromagnetic wave travels from one medium to another, its

wavelength changes but frequency remains unchanged.

All the types of electromagnetic waves travel with the same speed in

free space.

The amplitude of electric field in an electromagnetic waves of intensity I

2I

is given by E 0 =

0c

The current in L-C circuit during oscillatory discharge is given by

dq

d

I = = (q 0 cost ) = q 0 sin t

dt

dt

During the discharge of a capacitor, the current in the circuit increases.

The ratio of the amplitudes of electric and magnetic fields is constant

and it is equal to velocity of the electromagnetic waves in free space

E

i.e. 0 = c

B0

The magnitudes and the amplitudes of the electric and magnetic

components of the electromagnetic wave obey a wave equation :

2

2 E y (x , t )

2 0 0 2

=0

t B z (x , t )

x

A standing electromagnetic waves do not propagate, but instead the

electric and magnetic fields execute simple harmonic motion perpendicular

to the direction of propagation,

i.e. E y ( x , t ) = 2E 0 sin kx sint , B z ( x , t ) = 2B 0 cos kx cost .

PHYSICS

Superfast Light Pulses :

A Measure of Response Time of

Electrons to Light

A team of researchers has found a way to measure the

time. It takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a

pulse of light. The team describes their use of a light

field synthesizer to create pulses of light so fast that

they were able to reveal the time, it took for electrons in

an atom to respond when struck.

As scientists have begun preparing for the day when

photons will replace electrons in high speed

computers, work is being done to better understand

the link between the two. One important aspect of this

is learning what happens when photons strike

electrons that remain in their atom (rather than being

knocked out of them), specifically, how long does it

take them to respond.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(b) voltage applied to tube

(c) current in the tube

(d) nature of target of the tube

the same direction but have a phase difference of 90

mutually perpendicular directions and are in phase

mutually perpendicular directions but has a phase

difference of 90

directions and they are in same phase.

3

of electromagnetic flux to

the earths surface. The radiation force on the roof of

dimensions 10 m 20 m is

(a) 6.67

(b) 6.67

(c) 6.67

(d) 2.35

10 6

10 4

10 3

10 4

N

N

N

N

1

0 0

1

/

(b)

(d)

(d) v s = v x = v m

medium is 1.0. The relative permittivity is

(b) 4. 25

(c) 8.62

(d) 0

wavelength in 1 mm length will be

(d) 0

(a) v s > v x > v m

(c) v s > v x > v m

(b) 31

. 10 5 k$ T

(d) 2.25

perpendicular and completely absorbed, the average

force associated with the radiation pressure is

(Solar constant = 1.4 k Wm2 )

(a) 2.33 10 3 N

(c) 2.33 10 5 N

1

1

c=

=

0 0 r r

(a) 9.25

(b) light and can absorb electrons

(c) a heavy element with a high melting point

(d) an element having high thermal conductivity

(a) 2.1 10 8 k$ T

(c) 5.0 10 6 k$ T

Total power

Velocity of light

(c)

particular point in space and time, E = 63 $j V/ m . What

is B at the point?

(a)

(b) 2.33 10 4 N

(d) 2.33 10 6 N

(a) electrons from lower to higher energy orbit of atom

(b) electrons from higher to lower energy orbit of atom

(c) protons from lower to higher energy orbit of nucleus

(d) protons from higher to lower energy orbit of nucleus

Hint X-rays are produced when there is vacancy for the electron

on inner complete orbits of an atom and jump of electrons takes

place from higher orbit to lower orbit of atom.

vapour lamp

(b) radioactive sources, X-ray tube, sodium vapour lamp,

crystal oscillator

(c) X-ray tube, radioactive sources, crystal oscillator, sodium

vapour lamp

(d) X-ray tube, crystal oscillator, radioactive sourcess, sodium

vapour lamp

Hint Radioactive sources, X-ray tube, sodium vapour lamp, crystal

oscillator.

Z-direction. What can you say about the directions of

its electric and magnetic field vectors ? If the frequency

of the wave is 30 MHz, what is its wavelength?

(a) 20 m

(b) 15 m

(c) 10 m

(d) 5 m

electric and magnetic fields are in XY-direction and are

perpendicular to each other.

population is covered by the TV broadcast if the

average population density around the tower is

1000 km2 ? (Radius of the earth = 6.37 106 m)

(a) 4 lakh

(c) 40000

(b) 4 billion

(d) 40 lakh

(a) less than 3 10 7 m

(c) more than 3 10 7m

(b) equal to 3 10 7m

(d) All of these

Hint Ozone layer blocks the high energy radiations like ultraviolet

(UV) (3 10 7m).

55

hydrogen in interstellar space is due to the interaction

called the hyperfine interaction in atomic hydrogen,

the energy of the emitted wave is nearly

(a) 10 17J

(c) 7 10 8 J

(b) 1 J

(d) 10 24 J

coming from 100 W bulb at a distance 3 m is E0 . The

electric field intensity produced by the radiations

coming from 50 W bulb at the same distance is

(a)

E

2

(b) 2 E

(c)

E

2

(d) 2 E

from 50 W bulb at the same distance is 2 E.

waves. The range R related with the transmitter height

h is in proportion to

(c) h1/ 2

(b) h1/ 2

(a) h

(d) h1

So, R h1 / 2 .

Answers

1. (c)

11. (a)

21. (c)

2. (c)

12. (c)

22. (a)

3. (b)

13. (c)

23. (b)

4. (c)

14. (b)

24. (b)

5. (c)

15. (b)

25. (c)

MASTER

60% reflecting and 40% absorbing. The total force on

the surface is

(b) 13

. 10 6 N

(d) 103

. 10 7 N

(a) 107

. 10 6 N

(c) 107

. 10 7 N

its speed in a medium of dielectric constant K and

relative permeability is

c

c

(b) v =

1

K

(c) v =

K

c

(d) v = c K

2

perpendicular to the approaching wave. The radiation

force on the mirror will

11

11

N

N

(b) 133

(a) 6.6 10

. 10

(c) 133

(d) 6.6 10 11 N

. 10 10 N

Hint Radiation force = momentum transferred per second by

electromagnetic wave to the mirror.

is

(b) square of the refractive index of the medium

(c) refractive index of the medium

(d) energy density of the medium

Hint As,

has relative permeability by 1.3 and relative

permittivity 2.14. Then, the speed of the

electromagnetic wave in the medium will be

56

7. (b)

17. (d)

27. (b)

8. (c)

18. (c)

28. (d)

9. (a)

19. (b)

29. (d)

(a) 1.8 10 7 ms 1

(b) 1.8 10 8 ms 1

(d) 5.7 10 9 ms 1

(c) 2.5 10 ms

6

Hint As, v =

(a) v =

6. (b)

16. (d)

26. (d)

c

0

3 10 8

1.3 2 .14

10. (c)

20. (b)

30. (b)

1.8 10 8 ms 1

stored in a cylinder of cross-section 10 cm2 and the

length 100 cm along the x-axis will be

(a) 5.5 10 12 J

(c) 2.2 10 11 J

(b) 1.1 10 11 J

(d) 1.65 10 11 J

dielectric constant 2.25 and relative permittivity is

(a) 1 10 8 ms 1

(c) 4 10 ms

8

(b) 2.5 10 8 ms 1

(d) 3 10 8 ms 1

1

1

c

v=

=

=

0 0

0 r 0 r

The wave is propagating along the Z-axis, then the

average density of electric field is

(a) 2.21 10 10 Jm3

(c) 81

. 10 12 Jm3

(d) 6.25 10 3 Jm3

surface. The wave delivers momentum p and energy

E is

(a) p 0, E 0

(b) p = 0, E = 0

(c) p = 0, E 0

(d) p 0, E = 0

surface, the wave delivers some momentum and energy to the

surface and hence, p 0, E 0.

electromagnetic spectrum will the vibrational motion

of the molecules give rise to absorption?

(a) Ultraviolet

(b) Microwaves

(c) Infrared

microwave region of electromagnetic spectrum due to Kirchhoffs

law in spectroscopy the same will be absorbed.

is doubled with no other changes made to the wave. As

a result of this doubling of the amplitude, which of the

following statement is true?

(a) The speed of wave propagation changes only

(b) The frequency of the wave changes only

(c) The wavelength of the wave changes only

(d) None of the above

Hint Velocity of an electromagnetic wave,

1

c=

= 3 10 8 m / s is independent of amplitude, frequency

0 0

and wavelength of an electromagnetic wave.

capacitor and A = area of the capacitor plate)

(a)

q2

2 0 A 2

(b)

q

2 0 A 2

(c)

q2

2 0 A

(d) zero

U=

1 q2 1 q2

1 q

=

=

Ad

2 c 2 0 A / d 2 0 A2

and permittivity respectively of the media and , are

the absolute permeability and permittivity of medium

respectively, then the refractive index of the medium is

(a)

0 0

(b)

r r

00

(c) r r

(d)

0r

the amplitude 48 Vm1 . The amplitude of oscillating

magnetic field will be

(a) 16 10 8 Wbm2

(c) 18 10

Wbm

(b) 12 10 8 Wbm2

aparts may have a wavelength of about 0.20 m. If the

speed of the wave is 3 108 ms 1 , then frequency of the

wave will be

(a) 1.5 10 9 Hz

(c) 1.5 10 3 Hz

(b) 15

. 10 8 Hz

(d) 135 Hz

Answers

1. (a)

6. (b)

11. (d)

2. (a)

7. (a)

12. (a)

3. (c)

8. (a)

13. (c)

4. (a)

9. (a)

14. (a)

5. (b)

10. (b)

15. (b)

57

Formulae at a Glance

Electromagnetic Waves

G

df E

The displacement current is given by the relation, ID = e 0

dt

df E

where, e 0 = absolute permittivity of space,

= rate of change of

dt

electric flux

e df

dt

E dS =

(ii)

-d

(iii) E dl =

S

dt

induction)

(iv)

G

q

(Gausss law in electrostatics)

e0

(i)

B dS

S

E dl m 0 I + m 0 e0

d

dt

Ray Optics

G

E dS (Ampere-Maxwells law)

1

c=

= 3 10 8 m/s

m 0 e0

The amplitudes of electric and magnetic fields in free space in

electromagnetic waves are related by, E 0 = cB0

Alternating Current

G

and alternating voltage, V = V0 sin wt .

where, I0 and V0 are the maximum or peak values of current and

voltage, wis the angular frequency, n is the frequency and T is the time

period of given AC.

T

Average or mean value of an AC over a half cycle, i.e. t = 0 to .

2

2I

Iav = 0 = 0.637 I0 Similarly, Vav = 0.637 V0

\

p

I

V

The rms value of an AC is defined as, ( Irms ) = 0 and Vrms = 0

2

2

1

Reciprocal of reactance is known as susceptance, i.e S =

X

1

Reciprocal of impedance is known as admittance. Thus, Y = . Its unit

Z

is Siemen (S).

V

V

In pure resistive circuit, V = V0 sin wt , where current, I = or Irms = rms

R

R

and current, voltage are in same phase, i.e. current is given by

p

I = I0 sin wt , average power, Pav = Vrms Irms cos = 0.

2

V

In inductive reactance, X L: = 2p nL = wL, current, I = , current lags

XL

p

behind the voltage by , i.e. I = I0 sin( wt - p / 2 ) for V = V0 sin wt .

2

1

As pure capacitive circuit, capacitive reactance, XC =

, current

wC

V

p

and current leads the voltage by

flowing, I =

, i.e.

XC

2

I = I0 sin ( wt + p / 2 ) for V = V0 sin wt .

Average power over a full cycle of AC, Pav = Vrms Irms cos f =

1

V0 I0 cos f

2

1 1 1 2

= + =

f u v R

where, f is focal length, u is distance of the object, R is radius of

curvature and v is distance of the image from the pole of mirror.

h

+v

Linear magnification, m = 2 =

h1 - u

where, h2 is size of image and h1 is size of the object.

sin i

(As light goes from rarer to denser medium) and

Snells law, m =

sin r

sin r

(When light goes from denser to rarer medium)

m=

sin i

Mirror formula,

1

1

1

= (u - 1)

f

R

R

1

2

where, R1 and R2 are radii of curvature of the two surfaces of the lens

and m is refractive index of material of lens.

1

Power of lens, i.e. P = when f = 1m, P = 1 dioptre

f

If m is refractive index of material prism, then from Snells law,

sin i sin( A + dm ) / 2

=

sin r

sin A / 2

m=

R

True power

=

Z Apparent power

1

, i.e. the natural

LC

frequency of the circuit is equal to applied frequency, then the circuit is

said to be in resonance.

At resonance, current in the circuit is maximum and impedance is

minimum and Zmin = R.

E

At resonance, I0 = 0 and VL = I0 X L

R

wL

1

VC = I0 XC , i.e. VL =

E0 =

E 0 = QE 0

R

wRC

wL

1

or

is termed as quality factor circuit.

where, Q =

R

wRC

It determines the sharpness of resonance. Higher the value of Q,

sharper is the resonance.

In series L-C-R circuit, if X L = XC = w 0 =

is net deviation angle.

Angular dispersion

Dispersive power of prism, w =

Mean deviation

d

Magnifying power of a simple microscope, m = 1 + , where d is

f

least distance of distinct vision from the eye and f is focal length of

an eye.

In normal adjustment, when final image is at infinity, m = d / f .

v d

Magnifying power of a compound microscope, m = 0 1 +

-u 0

fe

where, v 0 and u 0 are distance of image and object from optical centre

of objective lens, fe is focal length of eyelens.

The magnifying power of astronomical telescope is given by

f

f

m= 0 = 0

- fe |fe |

When final image is at the least distance of distinct vision from the eye,

-f

f

the magnifying power is given by m = 0 1 + e

fe d

where, f0 is focal length of objective lens.

f

(R / 2 )

Magnifying power of a reflecting type telescope is m = 0 =

fe

fe

77

coincide with (N 1) divisions of main scale (in which

length of one division is 1mm. The least count of the

instrument should be

(a) N

(b) N 1

(c)

1

10N

(d)

1

N1

(a) [MLT 2A 2 ]

(b) [ML2T 1A 2 ]

(c) [ML2T 2A 2 ]

(d) [ML2T 2A 1 ]

falling body from rest in 4th and 5th seconds of

journey?

(a) 4 : 5

(b) 7 : 9

(c) 16 : 25

(d) 1 : 1

opposite point on the bank of a river. His speed of

swimming is 0.5 m/s at an angle 120 with the direction

of flow of water. The speed of water in stream is

(a) 1.0 m/s

(c) 0.25 m/s

(d) 0.43 m/s

If g = 10 m/s2 , then muzzle velocity of a shell must be

(a) 160 m/s

from the axis of rotation. If the fan is rotating at

120 rev/min, the acceleration of a point on the tip of the

blade is

78

speed is 1000 m/s, the mass of the gas ejected per

second to supply the thrust needed to overcome the

weight of rocket is

with a speed of 72 km/h. If the coefficient of static

friction between the tyres and the road is 0.5, the

shortest distance in which the car can be stopped is

(Take g = 10 m/s2 )

(a) 30 m

(b) 40 m

(c) 72 m

(d) 20 m

+ 0.5 m/s and 0.3 m/s respectively collide head on

elastically. The velocity of the balls A and B after

collision will be respectively,

(a) + 0.5 m/s and + 0.3 m/s

(c) + 0.3 m/s and + 0.5 m/s

(d) 0.5 m/s and + 0.3 m/s

36 km/h has a head on collision with a stationary ball of

mass 3 kg. If after the collision, the two balls move

together, the loss in kinetic energy due to collision is

(a) 140 J

(b) 100 J

(c) 60 J

(d) 40 J

To keep its moment of inertia maximum about a

geometrical axis, it should be prepared that

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

iron is at the interior and aluminium surrounds it

aluminium and iron layers are in alternate order

sheet of iron is used at both external surfaces and

aluminium sheet as inner material

AIPMT PREP UP

12. The moment of inertia of a body about a given axis is

1.2 kg- m2 . Initially, the body is at rest. In order to

produce a rotational kinetic energy of 1500 J, an

angular acceleration of 25 rad / s2 must be applied

about the axis for a duration of

(a) 4 s

(b) 2 s

(c) 8 s

(d) 10 s

what potential difference must it be accelerated,

starting from rest to acquire a speed of 10 m/s?

(a) 5 kV

(b) 50 kV

(c) 5 V

(d) 50 V

electric field E. The work done in rotating the dipole by

90 is

S2 . Which one of the following statements is true?

(a) 2 pE

(b) The potential energies of earth and satellite in the two cases

are equal

(c) S1 and S 2 are moving with the same speed

(d) The kinetic energies of the two satellites are equal

(c) 2 pE

pE

2

(d) pE

(b)

function of the current (I) flowing through it. The slope

and intercept of the graph between V and I, then

respectively equal to

whose radius of curvature is 20 m. The speed of the car

at the top of the hill is in between

(c) 16 m/s and 17 m/s

(d) 13 m/s and 14 m/s

emission from a black body at a temperature T K is

maximum, then

(a) m T 4

(b) m is independent of T

(c) m T

(d) m T 1

2 1

heat radiated in the same units will be

(b) 50

(c) 112

(d) 80

series. The effective spring constant of the combination

is given by

(a) k1k 2

(b)

( k1 + k 2 )

2

(c) k1 + k 2

(d)

k1k 2

( k1 + k 2 )

by 2 cm is U. If the spring is stretched by 8 cm, the

potential energy stored in it, is

(a) 4 U

(b) 8 U

(c) 16 U

(d) U / 4

Number of beats produced per minute are

(a) 360

(c) 30

(b) 180

(d) 60

represented by

4

where, x is in metre and t is in second. The speed of the

wave is

(a) 4 m/s

(c) m/s

4

(d) 8 m/s

(b) r and

(d) and r

energy to an electron in the metal will be

(in unit of Vm1 )

(a) 8 10 7

(c) 8 10 11

(b) 5 10 11

(d) 5 10 7

Which has higher resistance?

(a) 60

(a) and r

(c) r and

(a) 25 W bulb

(b) 100 W bulb

(c) Both bulbs will have equal resistance

(d) Resistance of bulbs cannot be compared

and then in parallel. Each time the combination is

connected to a 220 V AC supply line. The power drawn

by the combination in each case respectively will be

(a) 200 W, 150 W

(c) 50 W, 100 W

(d) 50 W, 200 W

connect

(a) high resistance in series with galvanometer

(b) low resistance in series with galvanometer

(c) high resistance in parallel with galvanometer

(d) low resistance in parallel with galvanometer

battery of 3V alongwith a resistance of 2950 in series.

A full scale deflection of 30 divisions is obtained in the

galvanometer. In order to reduce this deflection to

20 divisions, the resistance in series should be

(a) 5050

(c) 6050

(b) 5550

(d) 4450

(a) a ferromagnetic substance becomes paramagnetic

(b) a paramagnetic substance becomes diamagnetic

(c) a diamagnetic substance becomes paramagnetic

(d) a paramagnetic substance becomes ferromagnetic

79

AIPMT PREP UP

30. A bar magnet having a magnetic moment of

A horizontal magnetic field B = 6 10 4 T exists in the

space. The work done in taking the magnet slowly from

a direction parallel to the field to a direction 60 from

the field is

(a) 0.6 J

(b) 12 J

(c) 6 J

(d) 2 J

changes with time according to relation i = t 2 e t . At

what time emf is zero?

(a) 4 s

(b) 3 s

(c) 2 s

(d) 1 s

is moved in magnetic field depends on

D1

30

(b) 5.6 10 10 m

(a) 2.5 m

(c) 4 10

10

(d) 4.6 10 10 m

The number of photons emitted on the average by the

source per second is

(a) 5 1015

(b) 5 1016

(c) 5 1017

(d) 5 1014

is 13.6 eV. The energy of first excited state will be

(b) 27.2 eV

(c) 6.8 eV

(d) 3.4 eV

D2

then the maximum wavelength of X-rays (in metre) is

(a) 54.4 eV

(b) initial magnetic flux only

(c) the total change in magnetic flux

(d) final magnetic flux only

30

excited to higher energy levels to emit radiations of

6 wavelengths. Maximum wavelength of emitted

radiation corresponds to transition between

(a) n = 3 to n = 2 states

(c) n = 2 to n = 1 states

(b) n = 3 to n = 1 states

(d) n = 4 to n = 3 states

and the half-time (T) will be

(a) =

5

(b)

A

50

4

(c)

A

50

2

(d)

A

50

connected to a 12 V battery. The current in the coil is

1.0 A at approximately time

(a) 500 s

(b) 25 s

(c) 35 s

(d) 1 ms

minimum distance between these two objects, which

can be resolved by the telescope, when the mean

wavelength of light is 5000 is of the order of

(b) 5 m

(c) 5 mm

the same number of nuclei, then the ratio of the

1

number of nuclei of N1 to that of N2 will be after a time

e

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d) 5 cm

(a) OR gate

following is correct?

(a)

80

5

d

4

3L/4

(b)

4

d

5

Diode

across R is V

V

(b) In reverse biasing, the voltage

across R is V

(c) In forward biasing, the voltage across R is 2 V

(d) In reverse biasing, the voltage across R is 2 V

A

B

(c) d

2d

H/2

(d)

with its axis vertical at the liquid-liquid interface with

length L/4 in the denser liquid as shown in the figure.

The lower density liquid is open to atmosphere having

pressure p0 . Then, density of solid is given by

1

4

H/2

T

log 2 e

(d) =

loge 2

T

(a) 0.5 m

(c) =

20

3

(a)

A

50

log10 2

loge 2

(b) =

T

T

(d)

d

5

(a) OR gate

(c) XOR gate

(d) NAND gate

1. (c) Given,

N VSD = ( N 1) MSD,

N 1

1 VSD =

MSD

N

1

0.1

1

N 1

MSD = MSD =

cm =

cm

N

N

10 N

N

a = g

1

a (2 n 1)

2

u = 0, a = 9.8 m/s 2

sn = u +

1

1

9.8 (2 4 1) and s 5 = 9.8 (2 5 1)

2

2

s

7

Therefore, 4 =

s5 9

B

from A. He wants to reach at point B

directed opposite to A.

As given, v makes an angle 120

with direction of flow u, the resultant

of v and u is along AB as shown in

figure.

v

u = v sin = v sin 30 = , u = 0.25m/s

2

120

A

2

5. (c) Range of projectile is given by R = u sin 2

g

For range to be maximum, angle should be of 45

u 2 sin 2 45 u 2 sin 90

u2

or Rmax =

Rmax =

=

g

g

g

Here,

Rmax =

u2

= 16 km = 16000 m

g

2 r 2 2

[ as = r ]

= r2

=

r

r

= angular frequency, but = 2

where, = frequency of rotation

ac = r(2 )2 = r 4 2 2.

ac =

r = 30 cm = 0.30 m

120

rev/s = 2 rev/s

and

= 120 rev/min =

60

Acceleration of a point on the tip of the blade,

Here,

F = u

w.r.t. rocket,

dm

, where u = relative velocity of exhaust gases

dt

dm

= rate of combustion of fuel at that instant

dt

dm

dm mg

.

=

= mg

dt

dt

u

Here, m = 600 kg, u = 1000 m/s

F = u

collision in one dimension, their velocities are just interchanged.

s4 =

5

= 20 m/s and v = 0

18

a = g = 0.5 10 = 5m/s 2

Now, from third law of motion, i.e.

v 2 u 2 0 (20 )2

v 2 = u 2 + 2 as or s =

=

= 40 m

2a

2 ( 5)

u = 72 km/h = 72

Here,

di

(c) As, emf induced across a coil, e = L

dt

edt W dt [ML2T 2 ][T]

or L =

= [ML2T 2A 2 ]

= =

[AT][A]

di

q di

Here,

dm 600 10

=

= 6 kgs 1.

dt

1000

LC = 1

2.

m1v1 + m 2v 2 = ( m1 + m 2 )v

v1 = 36 km/h = 36

Given,

5

= 10 m/s and v 2 = 0

18

m1 = 2 kg, m 2 = 3 kg

m v + m 2v 2 (2 10 + 3 0 ) 20

=

= 4 m/s

Final velocity, v = 1 1

=

2 +3

5

m1 + m 2

1

1

1

Loss in kinetic energy = m1v12 + m 2v 22 ( m1 + m 2 )v 2

2

2

2

1

1

= 2 (10 )2 + 0 (2 + 3 )( 4 )2 = 100 J 40 J = 60 J

2

2

of rotation. Density of iron is more than that of aluminium,

therefore for moment of inertia to be maximum, the iron should be

far away from the axis.

1 2

I

2

2 Kr

2 1500

=

=

= 50 rad /s

I

1.2

According to equation of rotational motion, we get

0 50 0

=

= 0 + t or t =

=2 s

25

Kinetic energy of rotation, K r =

13. (c) When two satellites of earth are moving in same orbit, then

time period of both are equal. From Keplers third law, T 2 r 3

periods will be equal. The PE and KE are mass dependent,

hence PE and KE of satellites are not equal.

But, if they are orbiting in a same orbit, then they have equal

orbital speed.

N=0

mv2/r

attraction of the Earth on a body in

mg

space is equal to centripetal force.

mv 2

= mg or v = rg = 20 10 = 14.14 m/s

maximum intensity of emission of black body radiation is inversely

proportional to absolute temperature (T ) of black body.

or

m =

constant

T

or m

1

T

or m T 1

81

external force is given by W = pE(cos 1 cos 2 )

(i)

Putting 1 = 0 , 2 = 90 in Eq. (i), we get

W = pE(cos 0 cos 90 ) = pE(1 0 ) = pE

E = T 4

E1 T1

273 + 727 1000

=

7

E 2 = 7

=

E 2 T2

273 + 227 500

2 1

= 112 cal -cm s

dV

= r and V = , if I = 0 [As, V + Ir = ]

dI

Slope of the graph = r and intercept =

spring constants k1 and k 2

k1

joined in series as shown in

figure.

Under a force F, they will

stretch by Y1 and Y2.

F F

F

So,

Y = Y1 + Y2 or = 1 + 2

k k1 k 2

k2

F

eV0 = 2 eV V0 = 2

2

= 0.5 10 8 = 5 10 7 Vm 1

4 10 8

mg

i.e.

F1 = F2 = F

1 1

1

k k

So,

or k = 1 2

=

+

k k1 k 2

k1 + k 2

V2

P

Given, P1 = 25 W, P2 = 100 W, V1 = V2 = 220 volt

1

For same potential difference ( V ), R

P

Thus, we observe that for minimum power, resistance will be

maximum and vice-versa.

Hence, resistance of 25 W will be maximum.

So, resistance of electric bulb ( R ) =

1

k x2

2

where, k = spring constant or force constant.

U1 x12

=

U 2 x 22

U=

(i)

Given, U1 = U, x1 = 2 cm, x 2 = 8 cm

Putting these values in Eq. (i), we get

U (2 )2

4

1

or U 2 = 16 U

=

=

=

U 2 ( 8 )2 64 16

(i)

y 2 = 2 sin 506 t

Comparing Eqs. (i) and (ii) with

y = a sin t

We have, 1 = 500 and 2 = 506

500

506

= 250 beats/s f2 =

= 253 beats/s

f1 =

2

2

Number of beats = f2 f1 = 3 = 3 60 = 180 beats/min

4

where, a = amplitude, k = propagation constant

and = angular frequency.

Comparing Eqs. (i) and (ii), we have k = 0.5, = 4

Therefore, speed of transverse wave,

4

v= =

= 8 m/s

k 0.5

(ii)

(iii)

Given,

1

mv 2 = qV

2

V=

m = 2 g = 2 10

(ii)

kg,

2 2 10 6

= 50 10 3 V = 50 kV

angle.

82

Galvanometer

High resistance

Voltmeter

V

3

=

= 10 3A

Rseries 50 + 2950

(i)

mv 2

2q

2 10 3 (10 )2

galvanometer.

Since, resistance of a coil of

galvanometer of its own is low its

resistance is to be increased as is

a necessary condition for a

voltmeter. For this, an appropriate

high resistance should be

connected

in

series

with

galvanometer.

i=

v = 10 m/s, q = 2 C = 2 10 6 C

V=

200

P1 + P2

For Parallel Peq = ( P1 + P2 ) = (100 + 100 ) = 200 W

i.e.

27. (a) A voltmeter indeed is a modified form of a pivoted-coil

y1 = 4 sin 500 t

2

10 3

3

10 3

2

20 = 10 3 A

30

3

3

=

R = 4450

( 50 + R )

a ferromagnetic substance, then at a definite temperature, the

ferromagnetic property suddenly disappears and the substance

becomes paramagnetic.

final position = 2, then work done is

= MB (cos 1 cos 2 )

1 2 10 4 6 10 4

= MB 1 =

=6J

2

2

e = L

di

di

=0 L =0

dt

dt

d 2 t

(t e ) = 0 2 t e t + t 2 ( 1) e t = 0

dt

te t (2 t ) = 0 t = 2 s

(Qte t 0 )

e

e

1

, q = dt = e dt

R

R

R

d

Induced emf e is given by e =

dt

1 d

1

q =

dt = d

R dt

R

As,

i=

upon resistance of loop and change in magnetic flux.

reversed biased. Therefore, no current flows in the arm containing

D2 and all of the current flows through arm containing D1.

5

5

A

Thus, current flowing through the circuit,

=

20 + 30 50

t /

i = i 0 (1 e

)

V 12

Here,

i0 = =

=2 A

R 6

L 8.4 10 3

So, relaxation time ( ) = =

= 1.4 10 3 s

R

6

i = 1 A, i = 2 (1 e

t /1. 4 10 3

i = 2 (1 e t /1. 4 10 )

35.

= 0.97 10

0.97 ms 1 ms

x

(c) Resolving limit of telescope is = .

D d

D

x=

N=

or

or

or

= 5000 = 5000 10 m,

d = 10 cm, D = 1 km = 1000 m

Hence, Minimum distance between objects,

5000 10 10 1000

= 5 10 3 m = 5 mm

x=

0.1

A 3

A L

v D g = L d g + 2 d g

5 4

5 4

A L d g

A

L D g =

5

4

D d

5

=

D= d

5 4

4

2d sin

(b) Wavelength of X-rays =

n

2d (sin )max 2 d 1

[Q (sin )max = 1]

max =

=

n

1

10

= 2d = 2 2 .8 10 m

= 5.6 10 10 m

Energy of photon ( E ) = h = 6.6 10 34 6 1014 J

where, h = Plancks constant.

Number of photons emitted per second,

P

2 10 3

n= =

= 5 1015

E 6.6 10 34 6 1014

39. (d) Energy of hydrogen atom in its nth excited state is given by

n( n 1)

2

n( n 1)

=6

2

2

n n 12 = 0

( n 4 )( n + 3 ) = 0

n=4

therefore electron jumps from the 4th orbit to the 3rd orbit.

41. (b) The time required for the number of parent nuclei to fall to 50%

is called half-time (T ) and may be related to disintegration

constant ( ) as follows.

Since,

0.5N 0 = N 0. e T

We have,

T = loge T

loge T

=

2

10

Given,

37.

13.6

eV

En =

n 2

For ground state ( n = 1),

13.6

E1 =

eV = 13.6 eV

(1)2

For first excited state ( n = 2 ),

13.6

E2 =

= 3.4 eV

(2 )2

N1 = N 0. e 5T

(i)

N 2 = N 0. e T

(ii)

N1 1 e 5t

4 t

= = t = e

N2 e e

or

1 = 4 t

1

t=

4

Output of lower AND gate = AB

Thus, output of OR gate = ( AB + A B )

This is Boolean expression for XOR gate

For ideal-junction diode, the forward resistance is zero.

Therefore, entire applied voltage occurs across resistance R,

i.e. there is no voltage drop.

In reverse biasing, the diode does not conduct, so it has

infinite resistance. Thus, voltage across R is zero.

Using De-Morgans theorem A B = A + B

So, X = A + B.

Output of second NAND gate Y = X = A + B

Again, A + B = A B = A B

[Q A = A ]

Hence,

Y = A B

This is the logic function of AND gate.

83

3.

charge carriers. This reduces the

recombination rate of electrons and holes

at the base-emitter junction.

increases K times,

i.e. C = KCo

(b) Now, new charge is Q = CV = KCo V

(c) The field between the plate becomes

V V

E = = 0 = E 0 (no change)

d d

5. VD < VC = VB < VA

6.

I

VOC (Open circuit voltage)

V

ISC

7.

9.

The colour code of the carbon

resistor is blue, red, orange and gold.

The graph is shown below

mA

+

+

V1 V

B

K1

15.

16.

17.

18.

semiconductor obtained is p-type

2

n

(ii) ne = i = 10 6 m 3

nh

(iii) Energy gap decreases on doping.

1

(i) r =

= 50 rad/s

LC

(ii) Current of resonance,

V

240

Irms = rms =

=6A

R

40

(iii) Vrms across capacitor,

Vrms = Irms XC = 1500 V

(i) Infrared waves are produced by hot

bodies

(ii) (a) Visible light (b) Microwaves

The distance of the nth minima from the

nD

centre of the screen is given by x n =

a

(i)

(ii)

Photo current

10.

11.

depends upon the frequency of incident

radiation. Since 1 > 2 , therefore

stopping potential will be more for the

radiation of frequency 1 .

The properties of nuclear forces are

(a) exchange forces

(b) spin dependent

(c) charge independent

(d) do not obey inverse square law

As we know, V = E Ir

E V

r=

= 5

I

bias

V 2

=

= 0.1 A

R 20

(ii) No current flows in the circuit.

So,

I=

Intensity

10

II

J

or

We know from radioactive equation

N = N 0 e t . The activity of a radioactive

substance can also be expressed in terms

of its half-life

0.693 N

I = N =

T1 / 2

Saturation

current

21.

24.

cos is the power factor, to supply

given power at a given voltage

(c) Saurabh Social awareness,

adaptation etc.

Uncle Knowledge, adaptation,

concern of others etc.

(i) A field in which work done does not

depend on the path followed.

(ii) Capacitance

of

a

spherical

capacitance depends on

(a) radius

(b) medium between the plates

(iii) E =

V

12

=

= 4 10 3 V/m

d 3 10 3

(iv)

Q

or

+q

Fq = qE

V

19. E = mc = 1.5 10

Retarding potential

VCE

K2

IC

V01 V02

IE

Vo

1 > 2

Rh2 +

n-p-n +

VC V2

solar cell does not draw current but

supplies same to the load.

Using formula,

30

+ 1,

= A( 1), = + 1 =

A

60

= 1.5

or

If the intensity of light remains same in

all the orientations of the polariser, then

the light is unpolarised. But if the

intensity of light varies from maximum to

minimum then the light is a polarised

light beam.

IB

VCC Rh1

+

Photo current

Y

Y=A+B

IC

mA +

2.

2 i = A + m

Space wave or Line of Sight (LOS)

propagation.

It is an OR gate and symbol is

Photo current

back by ionosphere.

(ii) These are not reflected by the

ionosphere therefore to reflect back

the TV signals to desire location on

Earth, then satellites are used.

It is based on the Wheatstone bridge

principle for the present situation.

R 40 2

2X

or

=

=

R=

X 60 3

3

When the resistors are doubled and

interchanged, we have

2X

L

2X3

L

or

=

=

2 R 100 L

2 2 X 100 L

3

L

=

2 100 L

Solving, L = 60 cm. There will be no

change in the balance

point on

interchanging the battery and the

galvanometer.

F+q = qE

d sin

|F+q | = |Fq | and opposite direction

(ii) Torque,

=p E

(iii) Work done, W = d = 2 pE 2 pE

energy.

(ii) Electron has maximum kinetic energy.

or

NIR 2

(iii) For coil 1, B1 = 0 2 3 / 2

2 (2 R )

For coil 2, B2 =

0 NIR 2

2 (2 R 2 )3 / 2

magnetic field is

NIR 2

B = 0 2 3/ 2

(2 R )

P = 4 + 2 = 2D

1

P=

f

1

1

f= =

100 = 50 cm

P 2

(ii) Focal length increases, i.e. fr > fv

(iii) Using lens maker formula,

1

1

1

= ( n 1)

f

R1 R2

Quizzer (No.16)

1. An astronaut marooned on the surface of an

asteroid of radius r and mean density equal to the

earth, find that he can escape by jumping. What is

the minimum value of r?

(a) r 2 > Rh

(c) r 2 < Rh

(b) r > Rh

(d) None of these

-3

-1

neutrons in a parallel beam is 1 nm, determine the

distance from the source where the beam intensity

has dropped to half its starting value.

(a) 2.5 10 5 m

(c) 2.5 10 4 m

(b) 3.5 10 4 m

(d) 15

. 10 6 m

10 km, two objects which are 0.12 m apart and

illuminated by light of wavelength 600 nm.

Estimate the diameter of the objective lens of the

telescope, if it can just resolve the two objects.

(a) 5 cm

(b) 4 cm

(c) 6 cm

(d) 8 cm

atoms can occupy only two energy levels separated

by 1.5 eV energy gap. Ratio of number of atoms in

the higher energy level to the lowest energy level is

(a) 1

+

r = 60 cm. The frequency of a cyclotron oscillator is

equal to n = 10 MHz, the effective accelerating

voltage across the dee is V = 50 kV. Neglecting the

gap between the dees. Find the total time of

acceleration of the ion and approximate distance

covered by the ion in the process of its acceleration.

(a) 15 ms, 0.74 km

(c) 16 ms, 0.74 km

(d) 22 ms, 3.24 km

and pressure of 10 N /cm2 . An 80 kg piston is then

dropped into the cylinder. Find the maximum

friction. There is no heat transfer

between the gas, the cylinder and

the piston, because of the rapidity

of the process. (Take g = 10 m/s2 )

C V = 3150 Jkg -1K -1 , C p = 5250 Jkg -1K -1

(a) 2.7 m/s

(c) 4.5 m/s

(d) 5.9 m/s

80 kg

2.24 m

1 dm2

2

uniformly with 3000 turns of wire. If a current of

1.6 A passes through the wire, find the magnetic

field B and magnetisation in the ring.

(a) 2.9 10 6 Am-1

(c) 3.2 10 6 Am-1

(d) 9.2 10 6 Am-1

energy storage device. What is the maximum energy

stored in a solenoid with the dimensions of a torch

battery of length 0.05 m and diameter 0.03 m, if the

maximum magnetic field sustainable by the

superconductor is 15 T?

(a) 3.2 kJ

(b) 4.89 kJ

(c) 9.2 kJ

(d) 10.1 kJ

m

2

moving along the axis with velocity -v. If the two

particles coalesce, find the rest mass of the resulting

particle.

m

2

7m

(c)

2

(a)

3m

2

9m

(d)

2

(b)

distributed) and radius R. Find the electric field at

any point inside the nucleus at a distance r from the

centre. Hence, find the potential difference between

the centre of the nucleus and its surface.

(a) 4 MV

(c) 1 MV

(b) 2 MV

(d) 0.1 MV

95

MAGAZINE QUIZ

KNOWLEDGE

Coefficient

Quizzer (No. 16)

Quizzer (No. 15) (February Issue)

Ashish Singh (Haridwar)

Physics Spectrum

Arihant Media Promoters

c/o Arihant Prakashan

Kalindi, T.P. Nagar, Meerut (UP) - 250002

96

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