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Ch02HW
Due:9:30amonMonday,February8,2016
Youwillreceivenocreditforitemsyoucompleteaftertheassignmentisdue.GradingPolicy

Whatxvs.tGraphsCanTellYou
Todescribethemotionofaparticlealongastraightline,itisoftenconvenienttodrawagraphrepresentingtheposition
oftheparticleatdifferenttimes.Thistypeofgraphisusuallyreferredtoasanxvs.tgraph.Todrawsuchagraph,
chooseanaxissysteminwhichtimet isplottedonthehorizontalaxisandpositionx ontheverticalaxis.Then,
indicatethevaluesofx atvarioustimest .Mathematically,thiscorrespondstoplottingthevariablex asafunctionoft
.Anexampleofagraphofpositionasafunctionoftimeforaparticletravelingalongastraightlineisshownbelow.
Notethatanxvs.tgraphlikethisdoesnotrepresentthepathoftheparticleinspace.
Nowlet'sstudythegraphshowninthefigureinmoredetail.
RefertothisgraphtoanswerPartsA,B,andC.

PartA
Whatisthetotaldistancextraveledbytheparticle?
Expressyouranswerinmeters.

Hint1.Totaldistance
Thetotaldistancextraveledbytheparticleisgivenbythedifferencebetweentheinitialpositionx 0 at
t = 0.0 sandtheposition x at t = 50.0 s.Insymbols,
x = x x 0

Hint2.Howtoreadanxvs.tgraph
Rememberthatinanxvs.tgraph,timet isplottedonthehorizontalaxisandpositionx onthevertical
axis.Forexample,intheplotshowninthefigure,x = 16.0 matt = 10.0 s.
ANSWER:
x

= 30 m

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Correct

PartB
Whatistheaveragevelocityv av oftheparticleoverthetimeintervalt

= 50.0 s

Expressyouranswerinmeterspersecond.

Hint1.Definitionandgraphicalinterpretationofaveragevelocity
Theaveragevelocityv av ofaparticlethattravelsadistancexalongastraightlineinatimeintervalt
isdefinedas
v av =

x
t

Inanx vs.t graph,then,theaveragevelocityequalstheslopeofthelineconnectingtheinitialandfinal


positions.

Hint2.Slopeofaline
TheslopemofalinefrompointA,withcoordinates(t A , x A ) ,topointB,withcoordinates(t B , x B ) ,is
equaltothe"rise"overthe"run,"or
m=

x B x A
t B t A

ANSWER:
v av

= 0.600 m/s

Correct
Theaveragevelocityofaparticlebetweentwopositionsisequaltotheslopeofthelineconnectingthetwo
correspondingpointsinanxvs.tgraph.

PartC
Whatistheinstantaneousvelocityv oftheparticleatt

= 10.0 s

Expressyouranswerinmeterspersecond.

Hint1.Graphicalinterpretationofinstantaneousvelocity
Thevelocityofaparticleatanygiveninstantoftimeoratanypointinitspathiscalledinstantaneous
velocity.Inanxvs.tgraphoftheparticle'smotion,youcandeterminetheinstantaneousvelocityofthe
particleatanypointinthecurve.Theinstantaneousvelocityatanypointisequaltotheslopeoftheline
tangenttothecurveatthatpoint.
ANSWER:
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v

= 0.600 m/s

Correct
Theinstantaneousvelocityofaparticleatanypointonitsxvs.tgraphistheslopeofthelinetangenttothe
curveatthatpoint.Sinceinthecaseathandthecurveisastraightline,thetangentlineisthecurveitself.
Physically,thismeansthattheinstantaneousvelocityoftheparticleisconstantovertheentiretimeintervalof
motion.Thisistrueforanymotionwheredistanceincreaseslinearlywithtime.

Anothercommongraphicalrepresentationofmotionalongastraightlineisthevvs.tgraph,thatis,thegraphof
(instantaneous)velocityasafunctionoftime.Inthisgraph,timet isplottedonthehorizontalaxisandvelocityv onthe
verticalaxis.Notethatbydefinition,velocityandaccelerationarevectorquantities.Instraightlinemotion,however,
thesevectorshaveonlyonenonzerocomponentinthedirectionofmotion.Thus,inthisproblem,wewillcallv the
velocityanda theacceleration,eventhoughtheyarereallythecomponentsofthevelocityandaccelerationvectorsin
thedirectionofmotion.

PartD
Whichofthegraphsshownisthecorrectvvs.tplotforthemotiondescribedinthepreviousparts?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Recallyourresultsfoundinthepreviousparts,namelythefactthattheinstantaneousvelocityoftheparticle
isconstant.Whichgraphrepresentsavariablethatalwayshasthesameconstantvalueatanytime?

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ANSWER:
GraphA
GraphB
GraphC
GraphD

Correct
Wheneveraparticlemoveswithconstantnonzerovelocity,itsxvs.tgraphisastraightlinewithanonzero
slope,anditsvvs.tcurveisahorizontalline.

PartE
Showninthefigureisthevvs.tcurveselectedinthepreviouspart.WhatistheareaAoftheshadedregionunder
thecurve?
Expressyouranswerinmeters.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Theshadedregionunderthevvs.tcurveisarectanglewhosehorizontalandverticalsideslieonthet axis
andthev axis,respectively.Sincetheareaofarectangleistheproductofitssides,inthiscasetheareaof
theshadedregionistheproductofacertainquantityexpressedinsecondsandanotherquantityexpressed
inmeterspersecond.Theareaitself,then,willbeinmeters.
ANSWER:
A

= 30 m

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Correct
ComparethisresultwithwhatyoufoundinPartA.Asyoucansee,theareaoftheregionunderthevvs.t
curveequalsthetotaldistancetraveledbytheparticle.Thisistrueforanyvelocitycurveandanytime
interval:Theareaoftheregionthatextendsoveratimeintervaltunderthevvs.tcurveisalwaysequalto
thedistancetraveledint.

PSS2.1KinematicswithConstantAcceleration
LearningGoal:
TopracticeProblemSolvingStrategy2.1forconstantaccelerationproblems.
Acaristravelingataconstantvelocityofmagnitudev 0 whenthedrivernoticesagarbagecanontheroadinfrontof
him.Atthatmoment,thedistancebetweenthegarbagecanandthefrontofthecarisd .Atimet afternoticingthe
garbagecan,thedriverappliesthebrakesandslowsdownataconstantratebeforecomingtoahaltjustbeforethe
garbagecan.Whatisthemagnitudeofthecar'saccelerationafterthebrakesareapplied?
PROBLEMSOLVINGSTRATEGY2.1Kinematicswithconstantacceleration
MODEL: Usetheparticlemodel.Makesimplifyingassumptions.
VISUALIZE: Usedifferentrepresentationsoftheinformationintheproblem.

Drawapictorialrepresentation.Thishelpsyouassesstheinformationyouaregivenandstartsthe
processoftranslatingtheproblemintosymbols.
Useagraphicalrepresentationifitisappropriatefortheproblem.
Gobackandforthbetweenthesetworepresentationsasneeded.
SOLVE: Themathematicalrepresentationisbasedonthethreekinematicequations

v f s = v is + a s t

sf = si + v is t +
v

2
fs

= v

2
is

1
2

as (t)

+ 2a s s

,and

Usex ory,asappropriatetotheproblem,ratherthanthegenerics .
Replaceiandf withnumericalsubscriptsdefinedinthepictorialrepresentation.
Uniformmotionwithconstantvelocityhasa s = 0.
ASSESS: Isyourresultbelievable?Doesithaveproperunits?Doesitmakesense?

Model
Startbymakingsimplifyingassumptionsappropriateforthesituation.Inthisproblem,theobjectofinterest,thecar,
shouldbemodeledasaparticle.

Visualize
PartA
Belowisasketchofthesituationdescribedinthisproblem,alongwithfourdifferentmotiondiagrams.Whichof
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thesediagramsisthecorrectpictorialrepresentationoftheproblem?

ANSWER:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Correct

PartB
Asanalternativetothepictorialrepresentationshownabove,youcouldconsiderusingagraphicalrepresentation
instead.Belowarefourvelocityversustimegraphs.Whichgraphcorrectlyrepresentsthesituationdescribedinthis
problem?

ANSWER:

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A
B
C
D

Correct
Nowthatyouhaveassessedtheinformationgivenintheproblem,youneedtotranslateitintosymbols.You
knowthatwhenthedriverhitsthebrakesattimet afterseeingtheobstacle,themagnitudeofthecar's
accelerationchangesfromzerotoaconstant(unknown)value.Therefore,youwillneedtoconsiderthetwo
timeintervals(beforeandafterthebrakesarepressed)separately,sincetheyhavedifferentaccelerations.
Alignthexaxiswiththedirectionofmotion,andlett 0 bethemomentwhenthedriverseesthegarbagecan,
x 0 bethecar'spositionatthatmoment,and v 0x bethecar'svelocityatthatmoment.Let t 1 , x 1 ,and v 1x be
thetime,position,andvelocity,respectively,whenthedriverhitsthebrakes,andlett 2 ,x 2 ,andv 2x bethe
time,position,andvelocity,respectively,whenthecarfinallycomestorest.Notethatitismostconvenientto
taketheoriginofthecoordinateaxistobeatx 0 .Atthispoint,yourpictorialrepresentationshouldlooklike
this:

Now,decidewhichquantitiesareknownandwhichneedtobefound.

Solve
PartC
Findthemagnitudeofa x ,theaccelerationofthecarafterthebrakesareapplied.
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesd ,t ,andv 0 .

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Therelevantkinematicequationsneededtosolvethisproblemaregiveninthestrategyabove.Youmight
find,though,thatyouwillnotneedthemall.Infact,eventhoughyouknowthedelayoccurringfromwhen
thedriverseesthegarbagecanandwhenthebrakesareapplied,youdon'tknowhowlongittakesthecarto
cometoarest.Thus,thefirstequationmightnotbeveryuseful.Whatyoudoknow,instead,isthetotal
distancethecartravelsbeforestopping.Youalsoknowthataportionofthatdistanceiscoveredata
constantvelocityv 0 ,sousingtheappropriateequation,youcouldcalculatewhatdistancethecarstillhas
totravelbeforestopping.Thatinformation,whenusedwiththeappropriateequation,willallowyoutofindthe
magnitudeofthecar'saccelerationafterthebrakesareapplied.

Hint2.Findthedistancetraveledinthefirsttimeinterval
Afterthedriverfirstnoticestheobstacle,thecarmovesuniformlyforatimeintervalt 1 t 0 = tbeforethe
brakesareapplied.Findthedistancex 1 x 0 coveredbythecarinthetimeintervalbeforethebrakesare
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appliedandafterthedriverseestheobstacle.
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesd ,v 0 ,t ,anda x .
ANSWER:
x1 x0

v0 t

IncorrectTryAgain5attemptsremaining
Hint3.Findthedistancetraveledinthesecondtimeinterval
Whenthedriverfirstnoticesthegarbagecan,thedistancebetweenthecarandthecanisx 2 x 0 = d.
Youhavefoundthatthedistancetraveledbythecarbeforethebrakesareappliedisv 0 t.Findthedistance
x 2 x 1 traveledbythecarafterthebrakesareapplied.
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesd ,v 0 ,t ,anda x .
ANSWER:
x2 x1

d v0 t

Hint4.Findwhichequationtouse
Whenyouapplyeachofthethreekinematicsequationslistedinthestrategyabovetothecar'smotionafter
thebrakesareapplied,whichequationwillallowyoutofindthemagnitudeofthecar'sacceleration,given
onlytheinitialandfinalvelocityandthedistancetraveledinthattimeinterval?
ANSWER:
v f s = v is + a s t

sf = si + v is t +
v

2
fs

= v

2
is

1
2

as (t)

+ 2a s s

ANSWER:

|a x |

v0

2(dv 0 t)

Correct

Assess
PartD
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InPartC,youfoundthatthemagnitudeofthecar'saccelerationafterthebrakesareappliedis
|ax | =

2
0

2(dv 0 t)

Basedonthisexpression,whathappensto|a x | ift increasesandalltheothervariablesremainconstant?


ANSWER:
|a x |

decreasesbecauseitisinverselyproportionaltoalinearfunctionoft thatincreasesast increases.

|a x |

increasesbecauseitisinverselyproportionaltoalinearfunctionoft thatincreasesast increases.

|a x |

increasesbecauseitisalinearfunctionoft .

|a x |

decreasesbecauseitisinverselyproportionaltoalinearfunctionoft thatdecreasesast increases.

|a x |

increasesbecauseitisinverselyproportionaltoalinearfunctionoft thatdecreasesast increases.

Correct
Youranswerdoesmakephysicalsense!Ifthedrivertakeslongertoreact(i.e.,ift increases),the
accelerationrequiredtostopthecarjustbeforethegarbagecanmustbelargerinmagnitudebecausenowthe
distancetraveledafterthebrakesareappliedissmaller.

CleartheRunway
Totakeofffromtheground,anairplanemustreachasufficientlyhighspeed.Thevelocityrequiredforthetakeoff,the
takeoffvelocity,dependsonseveralfactors,includingtheweightoftheaircraftandthewindvelocity.

PartA
Aplaneacceleratesfromrestataconstantrateof5.00m/s 2 alongarunwaythatis1800mlong.Assumethat
theplanereachestherequiredtakeoffvelocityattheendoftherunway.Whatisthetimet TO neededtotakeoff?
Expressyouranswerinsecondsusingthreesignificantfigures.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Astheplanetravelsalongtherunway,ithasconstantacceleration.Tosolvetheproblem,you'llneedtouse
thekinematicsequationsforsuchmotion.Inparticular,youneedtousetheequationrelatingthedistance
traveledandtime.

Hint2.Findtheequationforthedistancetraveledbytheplane
Whichexpressionbestdescribesthedistanced traveledbytheplaneduringacertainintervaloftimet ?Let
s 0 and v 0 be,respectively,theinitialpositionandspeedoftheplane,anduse a fortheaccelerationofthe
plane.Rememberthattheplaneacceleratesfromrest.
ANSWER:

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v0 +

at

s0 + v 0 t +
d

1
2

at

1
2

at

s0 + v 0 +
s0 +

1
2

at

1
2

at

ANSWER:
t TO

= 26.8 s

Correct
Ifyouneedtousetheanswerfromthispartinsubsequentparts,usetheunroundedvalueyoucalculated
beforeyouroundedtheanswertothreesignificantfigures.Recallthatyoushouldonlyroundasafinalstep
beforesubmittingyouranswer.

PartB
Whatisthespeedv TO oftheplaneasittakesoff?
Expressyouranswernumericallyinmeterspersecondusingthreesignificantfigures.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Sinceyouaregiventheconstantaccelerationoftheplane,andyouhavealsofoundthetimeittakestotake
off,youcancalculatethespeedoftheplaneasitascendsintotheairusingtheequationforthevelocityof
anobjectinmotionatconstantacceleration.

Hint2.Findtheequationforthevelocityoftheplane
Whichexpressionbestdescribesthevelocityv oftheplaneafteracertainintervaloftimet ?Letv 0 bethe
initialvelocityoftheplane,andusea fortheaccelerationoftheplane.Rememberthattheplanestartsfrom
rest.
ANSWER:
v0 t

v 0 + at

v0 t +

1
2

at

at

ANSWER:
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v TO

= 134 m/s

Correct
Ifyouneedtousetheanswerfromthispartinsubsequentparts,usetheunroundedvalueyoucalculated
beforeyouroundedtheanswertothreesignificantfigures.Recallthatyoushouldonlyroundasafinalstep
beforesubmittingyouranswer.

PartC
Whatisthedistanced f irst traveledbytheplaneinthefirstsecondofitsrun?
Expressyouranswernumericallyinmetersusingthreesignificantfigures.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
ApplythesameequationthatyouusedtosolvePartA.
ANSWER:
d f irst

= 2.50 m

Correct
Ifyouneedtousetheanswerfromthispartinsubsequentparts,usetheunroundedvalueyoucalculated
beforeyouroundedtheanswertothreesignificantfigures.Recallthatyoushouldonlyroundasafinalstep
beforesubmittingyouranswer.

PartD
Whatisthedistanced last traveledbytheplaneinthelastsecondbeforetakingoff?
Expressyouranswernumericallyinmetersusingthreesignificantfigures.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Usetheequationthatgivesthedistancetraveledasafunctionoftime.Notethatyouarelookingforthe
distancetraveledinthelastsecondbeforetheplanetakesoff,whichcanbeexpressedasthelengthofthe
runwayminusthedistancetraveledbytheplaneuptothatlastsecond.
ANSWER:
d last

= 132 m

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Correct
Sincetheplaneisaccelerating,theaveragespeedoftheplaneduringthelastsecondofitsrunisgreaterthan
itsaveragespeedduringthefirstsecondoftherun.Notsurprisingly,soisthedistancetraveled.
Ifyouneedtousetheanswerfromthispartinsubsequentparts,usetheunroundedvalueyoucalculated
beforeyouroundedtheanswertothreesignificantfigures.Recallthatyoushouldonlyroundasafinalstep
beforesubmittingyouranswer.

PartE
Whatpercentageofthetakeoffvelocitydidtheplanegainwhenitreachedthemidpointoftherunway?
Expressyouranswernumericallytothenearestpercent.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Youneedtofindthevelocityoftheplanebythetimeitcovershalfthelengthoftherunwayandcompareit
withthetakeoffvelocity.Applythesamemethodthatyouusedtodeterminethetakeoffvelocity.
ANSWER:
70 %

Correct
Thisisa"ruleofthumb"generallyusedbypilots.Sincethetakeoffvelocityforaparticularaircraftcanbe
computedbeforetheflight,apilotcandeterminewhethertheplanewillsuccessfullytakeoffbeforetheendof
therunwaybyverifyingthattheplanehasgained70%ofthetakeoffvelocitybythetimeitreacheshalfthe
lengthoftherunway.Iftheplanehasn'treachedthatvelocity,thepilotknowsthatthereisn'tenoughtimeto
reachtheneededtakeoffvelocitybeforetheplanereachestheendoftherunaway.Atthatpoint,applyingthe
brakesandabortingthetakeoffisthesafestcourseofaction.

OvercomingaHeadStart
CarsAandBareracingeachotheralongthesamestraightroadinthefollowingmanner:CarAhasaheadstartandis
adistanceDA beyondthestartinglineatt = 0.Thestartinglineisatx = 0.CarAtravelsataconstantspeedv A .
CarBstartsatthestartinglinebuthasabetterenginethanCarA,andthusCarBtravelsataconstantspeedv B ,
whichisgreaterthanv A .

PartA
HowlongafterCarBstartedtheracewillCarBcatchupwithCarA?
Expressthetimeintermsofgivenquantities.

Hint1.Considerthekinematicsrelation
WriteanexpressionforthedisplacementofCarAfromthestartinglineatatimet afterCarBstarts.(Note
thatwearetakingthistimetobet = 0.)
D
t
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x = 0

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Answerintermsofv A ,v B ,DA ,andt fortime,andtakex

atthestartingline.

= 0

Hint1.WhatistheaccelerationofCarA?
TheaccelerationofCarAiszero,sothegeneralformulax(t)
onetermequaltozero.

= x 0 + v 0 t + (1/2)at

hasatleast

ANSWER:
x A (t)

DA + v A t

Hint2.Whatistherelationbetweenthepositionsofthetwocars?
Thepositionsofthetwocarsareequalattimet catch .

Hint3.ConsiderCarB'spositionasafunctionoftime
WritedownanexpressionforthepositionofCarBattimet afterstarting.
Giveyouranswerintermsofanyvariablesneeded(uset fortime).
ANSWER:
x B (t)

vB t

ANSWER:

t catch

DA
v B v A

Correct

PartB
HowfarfromCarB'sstartinglinewillthecarsbewhenCarBpassesCarA?
Expressyouranswerintermsofknownquantities.(Youmayuset catch aswell.)

Hint1.Whichexpressionshouldyouuse?
Justuseyourexpressionforthepositionofeithercaraftertimet
t catch (foundinthepreviouspart).

,andsubstituteinthecorrectvaluefor

= 0

ANSWER:

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d pass

t catch v B

Correct

VelocityfromGraphsofPositionversusTime
Anobjectmovesalongthexaxisduringfourseparatetrials.Graphsofpositionversustimeforeachtrialareshownin
thefigure.

PartA
Duringwhichtrialortrialsistheobject'svelocitynotconstant?
Checkallthatapply.

Hint1.Findingvelocityfromapositionversustimegraph
Onagraphofcoordinatexasafunctionoftimet ,theinstantaneousvelocityatanypointisequaltothe
slopeofthecurveatthatpoint.

Hint2.Equationforslope
Theslopeofalineisitsrisedividedbytherun:
slope =

x
t

ANSWER:

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TrialA
TrialB
TrialC
TrialD

Correct
ThegraphofthemotionduringTrialBhasachangingslopeandthereforeisnotconstant.Theothertrialsall
havegraphswithconstantslopeandthuscorrespondtomotionwithconstantvelocity.

PartB
Duringwhichtrialortrialsisthemagnitudeoftheaveragevelocitythelargest?
Checkallthatapply.

Hint1.Definitionofaveragevelocity
Recallthat
average velocity =

(position)
(time)

x
t

Thennotethatthequestionasksonlyaboutthemagnitudeofthevelocity.
ANSWER:
TrialA
TrialB
TrialC
TrialD

Correct
WhileTrialBandTrialDdonothavethesameaveragevelocity,theonlydifferenceisthedirection!The
magnitudesarethesame.Neitheroneis"larger"thantheother,anditisonlybecauseofhowwechoseour
axesthatTrialBhasapositiveaveragevelocitywhileTrialDhasanegativeaveragevelocity.InTrialCthe
objectdoesnotmove,soithasanaveragevelocityofzero.DuringTrialAtheobjecthasapositiveaverage
velocitybutitsmagnitudeislessthanthatinTrialBandTrialD.

AnalyzingPositionversusTimeGraphs:ConceptualQuestion
Twocarstravelontheparallellanesofatwolaneroad.Thecarsmotionsarerepresentedbythepositionversustime
graphshowninthefigure.Answerthequestionsusingthetimesfromthegraphindicatedbyletters.

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PartA
Atwhichofthetimesdothetwocarspasseachother?

Hint1.Twocarspassing
Twoobjectscanpasseachotheronlyiftheyhavethesamepositionatthesametime.
ANSWER:
A
B
C
D
E
None
Cannotbedetermined

Correct

PartB
Arethetwocarstravelinginthesamedirectionwhentheypasseachother?
ANSWER:
yes
no

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Correct

PartC
Atwhichoftheletteredtimes,ifany,doescar#1momentarilystop?

Hint1.Determiningvelocityfromapositionversustimegraph
Theslopeonapositionversustimegraphisthe"rise"(changeinposition)overthe"run"(changeintime).
Inphysics,theratioofchangeinpositionoverchangeintimeisdefinedasthevelocity.Thus,theslopeon
apositionversustimegraphisthevelocityoftheobjectbeinggraphed.
ANSWER:
A
B
C
D
E
none
cannotbedetermined

Correct

PartD
Atwhichoftheletteredtimes,ifany,doescar#2momentarilystop?

Hint1.Determiningvelocityfromapositionversustimegraph
Theslopeonapositionversustimegraphisthe"rise"(changeinposition)overthe"run"(changeintime).
Inphysics,theratioofchangeinpositionoverchangeintimeisdefinedasthevelocity.Thus,theslopeon
apositionversustimegraphisthevelocityoftheobjectbeinggraphed.
ANSWER:

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A
B
C
D
E
none
cannotbedetermined

Correct

PartE
Atwhichoftheletteredtimesarethecarsmovingwithnearlyidenticalvelocity?

Hint1.DeterminingVelocityfromaPositionversusTimeGraph
Theslopeonapositionversustimegraphistherise(changeinposition)overtherun(changeintime).In
physics,theratioofchangeinpositionoverchangeintimeisdefinedasthevelocity.Thus,theslopeona
positionversustimegraphisthevelocityoftheobjectbeinggraphed.
ANSWER:
A
B
C
D
E
None
Cannotbedetermined

Correct

PhETTutorial:MovingMan
LearningGoal:
Tounderstandtherelationshipsbetweenposition,velocity,andacceleration.
Forthistutorial,usethePhETsimulationTheMovingMan.Thissimulationallowsyoutodragapersonbackandforth
andlookattheresultingposition,velocity,andacceleration.Youcanalsoenterapositionasafunctionoftime
mathematicallyandlookattheresultingmotion.
Startthesimulation.Whenyouclickthesimulationlink,youmaybeaskedwhethertorun,open,orsavethefile.
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Choosetorunoropenit.

UndertheChartstabyoucanclickanddragthepersonleftandright,orenteranumericvalueintheboxesontheleft
paneltoseeplotsforthepersonsposition,velocity,andaccelerationasafunctionoftime.ClickthePlaybuttonto
startasimulationandthePausebuttontostopasimulation.YoucanalsowatchaplaybackbyselectingthePlayback
radiobuttoninsteadofthedefaultRecordradiobutton.YoucanclickCleartoremovethecurrentplotwhilemaintaining
yoursettingsforposition,velocityandaccelerationorclickResetAlltostartover.InthePlaybackmode,thegreybar
canbedraggedovertheplottoanyvalueintime,andthedigitalreadoutswillshowthecorrespondingvaluesofthe
position,velocity,andacceleration.
UndertheSpecialFeaturesmenu,theExpressionEvaluatoroptionproducesasecondwindowinwhichyoucan
mathematicallytypeinanyfunctionforthepositionasafunctionoftime,x(t).Aftertypinginafunction,clickthePlay
buttontostartthesimulation.
Tozoominvertically,clickanyofthethree+buttonstothetoprightofeachplot.Tozoominhorizontally,clickthe+
buttontothebottomrightoftheaccelerationplot.
Feelfreetoplayaroundwiththesimulation.Whenyouaredone,clickResetAllontheChartstabbeforebeginningPart
A.

PartA
First,youwillfocusontherelationshipbetweenvelocityandposition.Recallthatvelocityistherateofchangeof
position(v x = dx/dt).ThismeansthatthevelocityisequaltotheslopeofthePositionvs.Timegraph.
Movethepersontothepositionx = 6 morenter6.00inthepositionbox.Ifyoudraggedthepersontoposition,
clickthePausebuttonandthentheClearbutton.Next,dragthepersontotherighttoroughlyx = 6 mandreverse
hisdirection,returninghimtotheoriginalposition,atx = 6 m.Movethepersonrelativelyquickly,aboutafew
secondsfortheroundtrip.Yourplotsshouldlooksomethinglikethoseshownbelow.

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LookatthePositionvs.TimeandVelocityvs.Timeplots.Whatistheperson'svelocitywhenhispositionisatits
maximumvalue(around6m)?
ANSWER:
positive.
Theperson'svelocityis

negative.
zero.

Correct
Whenthepersonspositionisamaximum,theslopeofthepositionwithrespecttotimeiszero,sodx/dt =
.However,duetothepersonsacceleration,thevelocitydoesnotremainzeroheeventuallymovestothe
left.

PartB
Accelerationistherateofchangeofthevelocity,a x

,soitistheslopeoftheVelocityvs.Timegraph.

= dv x /dt

Becauseitisdifficulttodragthepersoninaconsistentandreproducibleway,usetheExpressionEvaluatorunder
theSpecialFeaturesmenuforthisquestion.
ClickResetAllandtypeinthefunctionx(t) = 8 t 2 t t intheExpressionEvaluator.ClickthePlay
buttonandletthesimulationrunroughly5simulationsecondsbeforepressingthePausebutton.Usethezoom
buttonstoadjusttheplotssotheyfitinthescreen.Youshouldseeaplotsimilartowhatyougotintheprevious
question,butmuchsmoother.
LookatthePositionvs.Time,Velocityvs.Time,andAccelerationvs.Timeplots.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
InPlaybackmode,usethegreyverticalbar.Slidethebaruntilthevaluex
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isdisplayedinthe

= 8m

x = 8m

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positionboxontheleftpanel.Whatarethevaluesofvelocityandaccelerationwhenx

= 8m

ANSWER:
boththevelocityandtheaccelerationarenonzero.
Whenthepersonis8mtotherightoftheorigin,

thevelocityiszerobuttheaccelerationisnegative.

thevelocityiszerobuttheaccelerationispositive.
boththevelocityandtheaccelerationarezero.

Correct
Atx = 8 m,thepersonturnstogobackintheoppositedirection.Hisvelocityiszero,buthisaccelerationis
negativesincethevelocityisdecreasingwithtime.Thisissimilartothrowingaballstraightupintotheairat
itshighestpoint,thevelocityiszerobuttheaccelerationisstilldirecteddownward.

PartC
Keepthefunctionx(t) = 8 t 2 t t intheExpressionEvaluator.Whatisthevalueofthepersons
accelerationa att = 2 s?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Usethegreyverticalbar.Slidethebaruntilitcoincideswitht
valuedisplayedintheaccelerationboxontheleftpanel?

onthehorizontalaxis.Whatisthe

= 2s

ANSWER:
4 m/s

ax

4 m/s

0
2 m/s

Correct
Thisisanexampleofonedimensionalmotionwithconstantacceleration.Thepositionofanobjectundergoing
thistypeofmotionobeysthekinematicequationx(t) = x 0 + v x,0 t + 1/2 a x t 2 .Inthiscase,theinitial
velocityisv x,0

andtheaccelerationisa x

= 8 m/s

= 4 m/s

(since1/2 a x

= 2 m/s

).

PartD
Inthepreviousquestion,thepersonhadaninitialvelocityof8 m/s andaconstantaccelerationof4 m/s 2 .How
wouldthemaximumdistancehetravelstotherightoftheoriginchangeifinsteadhisinitialvelocityweredoubled(
v x,0 = 16 m/s)?
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Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
GototheIntroductiontabtorunthesimulationusingthenewinitialvelocityv x,0 = 16 m/sandthesame
accelerationof4 m/s 2 ,andreadthevalueforpositionwhenthevelocityequalszero.Rememberto
removethewallsfromthesimulationbyclickingontheredclosebuttononthewalls.InPlaybackmodethe
simulationcanberunslowlyandpausedwhenthevelocityiszero.
Or,mathematically,determinehowlongittakesforthepersontostopandusethisvalueoftimeinthe
equationforx(t).

ANSWER:
Themaximumdistancewoulddouble.
Themaximumdistancewouldnotchange.
Themaximumdistancewouldincreasebyafactoroffour.

Correct
Becauseittakestwiceasmuchtimetomomentarilystop,andbecausehisaveragevelocitywillbetwiceas
fast,thedistancehetravelswillbefourtimesgreater.Usingthekinematicequation,
2
2
x(4 s) = (16 m/s) (4 s) (1/2) (4 m/s ) (4 s)
= 32 m .

PartE
Now,assumethatthepositionisgivenbytheequationx(t)

= 4t

EnterthisfunctionintheExpressionEvaluatorasx(t) = 4 t t t .RunthesimulationbyclickingthePlay
buttonintheRecordmodeforroughlythreesimulatedsecondsandthenclickthePausebutton.Nowtakealook
atthegraphs.Youwillhavetozoominhorizontally(bottomright),sothatyourrangecoverstwoseconds.
Whichofthefollowingstatementsistrue?
ANSWER:
Thepositionisincreasingataconstantrate.
Thevelocityisincreasingataconstantrate.
Theaccelerationisincreasingataconstantrate.
Theaccelerationisconstantintime.

Correct
ThegraphshowingAccelerationvs.Timeisastraightlinethatisnothorizontal.

PartF
Whatisthepositionofthepersonwhent

= 1s

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Expressyouranswernumericallyinmeterstoonesignificantfigure.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Youcansolvethismathematicallyusingtheexpressioninputforpositionasafunctionoftime,
x(t) = 4 t t t .
Alternatively,youcanputthesimulationinPlaybackmodeanddragthegreybox/bartot
theapproximatevalueforposition.

,thenread

= 1s

ANSWER:
4 m

Correct
Noticethatsincethepositionisgivenbyx
x = 4(1)

= 4t

,whenthetimeist

,thepositionis

= 1s

m = 4 m.

PartG
Whatisthevelocityofthepersonwhent

= 1s

Expressyouranswernumericallyinmeterspersecondtotwosignificantfigures.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Thevelocityisthefirstderivativeofpositionwithrespecttotime,v x
oftheexpressionofx(t)andevaluatewhent = 1 s.

.Youcantakethederivative

= dx/dt

Alternatively,youcanputthesimulationinPlaybackmodeanddragthegreybox/bartot
theapproximatevalueforvelocity.

,thenread

= 1s

ANSWER:
12 m/s

Correct
Noticethatsincethepositionisgivenbyx(t) = 4t 3 ,thevelocity,whichisthefirstderivativeofpositionwith
respecttotime,isgivenbyv x = dx/dt = 12t 2.Sowhent = 1 s,v = 12 m/s.

PartH
Whatistheaccelerationofthepersonwhent

= 1s

Expressyouranswernumericallyinmeterspersecondsquaredtotwosignificantfigures.
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Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Theaccelerationisthefirstderivativeofvelocitywithrespecttotime,a x
derivativeofpositionwithrespecttotime,a x
v x (t)andevaluatewhen t = 1 s.

= d

x/dt

orthesecond

= dv x /dt

.Youcantakethederivativeoftheexpressionof

Alternatively,youcanputthesimulationinPlaybackmodeanddragthegreybox/bartot
theapproximatevalueforacceleration.

,thenread

= 1s

ANSWER:
24 m/s 2

Correct
Noticethatsincethepositionisgivenbyx = 4t 3 ,theacceleration,whichisthefirstderivativeofvelocity
withrespecttotime,isgivenbya x = dv x /dt = d(12t 2 )/dx = 24t.Sowhent = 1 s,a x = 24 m/s 2 .
Noticealsothattheaccelerationisproportionaltotime,whichexplainswhyitisincreasingataconstantrate
(asdiscoveredinpartG).

PhETInteractiveSimulations
UniversityofColorado
http://phet.colorado.edu

Problem2.28
Thefigureshowstheaccelerationgraphforaparticlethat
startsfromrestatt =0s .

PartA
Determinetheobject'svelocityattimest

0s ,2s ,4s ,6s ,and8s .

Expressyouranswerusingtwosignificantfigures.Enteryouranswersnumericallyseparatedbycommas.
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ANSWER:
v(0), v(2), v(4), v(6), v(8)

= 0,5.0,20,30,30 m/s

Correct

Problem2.3
Juliedrives100mi toGrandmother'shouse.OnthewaytoGrandmother's,Juliedriveshalfthedistanceat40.0mph
andhalfthedistanceat60.0mph .Onherreturntrip,shedriveshalfthetimeat40.0mph andhalfthetimeat60.0
mph .

PartA
WhatisJulie'saveragespeedonthewaytoGrandmother'shouse?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
48.0mph

Correct

PartB
Whatisheraveragespeedonthereturntrip?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
50.0mph

Correct

Problem2.11
Thefigureshowsthevelocitygraphofaparticlemovingalongthexaxis.Itsinitialpositionisx 0 =
t =2 s ,whataretheparticle's(a)position,(b)velocity,and(c)acceleration?

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att 0 =0 .At

2 m

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PartA
Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
x

= 6.0m

Correct

PartB
Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
vx

= 4.0

m
s

Correct

PartC
Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
ax

= 2.0

m
s

Correct

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Problem2.12
Thevelocityversustimegraphisshownforaparticlemovingalongthexaxis.Itsinitialpositionisx 0 =3.0matt 0
= 0 s.

PartA
Whatistheparticle'spositionatt =

1.0 s ?

Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
x

= 7.0m

Correct

PartB
Whatistheparticle'svelocityatt =

1.0 s ?

Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
v

= 4.0

m
s

Correct

PartC
Whatistheparticle'saccelerationatt =

1.0 s ?

Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:

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= 0 s

Correct

PartD
Whatistheparticle'spositionatt =

3.0 s ?

Expressyouranswertothreesignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
x

= 14.0m

Correct

PartE
Whatistheparticle'svelocityatt =

3.0 s ?

Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
v

m
= 2.0 s

Correct

PartF
Whatistheparticle'saccelerationatt =

3.0 s ?

Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
a

= 2.0

m
s

Correct

Problem2.17
Ballbearingsaremadebylettingsphericaldropsofmoltenmetalfallinsideatalltowercalledashottowerand
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solidifyastheyfall.

PartA
Ifabearingneeds4.20s tosolidifyenoughforimpact,howhighmustthetowerbe?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
86.4m

Correct

PartB
Whatisthebearing'simpactspeed?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
41.2

m
s

Correct

Problem2.24
Aparticlemovingalongthexaxishasitsvelocitydescribedbythefunctionv x =
positionisx 0 =1.7matt 0 =0s .

2t

,wheret isins .Itsinitial

m/s

PartA
At1.5s ,whatistheparticle'sposition?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
x

= 4.0m

Correct

PartB
At1.5s ,whatistheparticle'svelocity?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
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ANSWER:
v

m
= 4.5 s

Correct

PartC
At1.5s ,whatistheparticle'sacceleration?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
a

= 6.0

m
s

Correct

Problem2.43
Youaredrivingtothegrocerystoreat20m/s .Youare110mfromanintersectionwhenthetrafficlightturnsred.
Assumethatyourreactiontimeis0.50s andthatyourcarbrakeswithconstantacceleration.

PartA
Howfarareyoufromtheintersectionwhenyoubegintoapplythebrakes?
Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
s

= 100m

Correct

PartB
Whataccelerationwillbringyoutorestrightattheintersection?
Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
a

= 2.0 s

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Correct

PartC
Howlongdoesittakeyoutostopafterthelightturnsred?
Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
t

= 11s

Correct

Problem2.52
Ahotelelevatorascends200
magnitudeof1.0 m/s 2 .

withmaximumspeedof5

m/s

.Itsaccelerationanddecelerationbothhavea

PartA
Howfardoestheelevatormovewhileacceleratingtofullspeedfromrest?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
12.5m

Correct

PartB
Howlongdoesittaketomakethecompletetripfrombottomtotop?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
45.0s

Correct

Problem2.55
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Santaloseshisfootingandslidesdownafrictionless,snowyroofthatistiltedatanangleof30.0 .

PartA
IfSantaslides10.0mbeforereachingtheedge,whatishisspeedasheleavestheroof?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
9.90 m
s

Correct

Problem2.65
Davidisdrivingasteady21.0m/s whenhepassesTina,whoissittinginhercaratrest.Tinabeginstoaccelerateata
steady2.70m/s 2 attheinstantwhenDavidpasses.

PartA
HowfardoesTinadrivebeforepassingDavid?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
327m

Correct

PartB
Whatisherspeedasshepasseshim?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
42.0

m
s

Correct

Problem2.7
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Thefollowingfigureisasomewhatidealizedgraphofthevelocityofbloodintheascendingaortaduringonebeatofthe
heart.

PartA
Approximatelyhowfar,incm,doesthebloodmoveduringonebeat?
Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
l

= 8.0cm

Correct
ScoreSummary:
Yourscoreonthisassignmentis114%.
Youreceived85.07outofapossibletotalof85points,plus12.21pointsofextracredit.

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