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Ch08HW

Ch08HW
Due:9:30amonMonday,March28,2016
Youwillreceivenocreditforitemsyoucompleteaftertheassignmentisdue.GradingPolicy

Problem8.2
A500g modelrocketisonacartthatisrollingtotherightataspeedof3.5m/s .Therocketengine,whenitisfired,exertsa7.0Nverticalthrustonthe
rocket.Yourgoalistohavetherocketpassthroughasmallhorizontalhoopthatis20mabovethelaunchpoint.

PartA
Atwhathorizontaldistanceleftoftheloopshouldyoulaunch?
Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
x

= 11m

Correct

AMassonaTurntable:Conceptual
Asmallmetalcylinderrestsonacircularturntablethatisrotatingataconstantrate,as
illustratedinthediagram.

PartA
Whichofthefollowingsetsofvectorsbestdescribesthevelocity,acceleration,andnetforceactingonthecylinderatthepointindicatedinthe
diagram?

Hint1.ThedirectionofaccelerationcanbedeterminedfromNewton'ssecondlaw
AccordingtoNewton'ssecondlaw,theaccelerationofanobjecthasthesamedirectionasthenetforceactingonthatobject.

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ANSWER:
a
b
c
d
e

Correct

PartB
LetRbethedistancebetweenthecylinderandthecenteroftheturntable.NowassumethatthecylinderismovedtoanewlocationR/2 fromthe
centeroftheturntable.Whichofthefollowingstatementsaccuratelydescribethemotionofthecylinderatthenewlocation?
Checkallthatapply.

Hint1.Findthespeedofthecylinder
Findthespeedv ofthecylinderatthenewlocation.AssumethatthecylindermakesonecompleteturninaperiodoftimeT .
ExpressyouranswerintermsofRandT .
ANSWER:
v

R
T

Hint2.Findtheaccelerationofthecylinder
Findthemagnitudeoftheaccelerationa ofthecylinderatthenewlocation.Assumethatthecylindermakesonecompleteturninaperiodof
timeT .
ExpressyouranswerintermsofRandT .

Hint1.Centripetalacceleration
Recallthattheaccelerationofanobjectthatmovesinacircularpathofradiusr withconstantspeedv hasmagnitudegivenby
a=

Notethatboththevelocityandradiusofthetrajectorychangewhenthecylinderismoved.

ANSWER:

2
T

ANSWER:
Thespeedofthecylinderhasdecreased.
Thespeedofthecylinderhasincreased.
Themagnitudeoftheaccelerationofthecylinderhasdecreased.
Themagnitudeoftheaccelerationofthecylinderhasincreased.
Thespeedandtheaccelerationofthecylinderhavenotchanged.

Correct

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DirectionofAccelerationofPendulum
LearningGoal:
Tounderstandthatthedirectionofaccelerationisinthedirectionofthechangeofthevelocity,whichisunrelatedtothedirectionofthevelocity.
Thependulumshownmakesafullswingfrom/4to+/4.Ignorefrictionandassumethat
thestringismassless.Theeightlabeledarrowsrepresentdirectionstobereferredtowhen
answeringthefollowingquestions.

PartA
Whichofthefollowingisatruestatementabouttheaccelerationofthependulumbob,a.
ANSWER:
isequaltotheaccelerationduetogravity.

isequaltotheinstantaneousrateofchangeinvelocity.

isperpendiculartothebob'strajectory.

istangenttothebob'strajectory.

Correct

PartB
Whatisthedirectionofawhenthependulumisatposition1?
Entertheletterofthearrowparalleltoa.

Hint1.Velocityatposition1
Whatisthevelocityofthebobwhenitisexactlyatposition1?
ANSWER:
v1

= 0 m/s

Hint2.Velocityofbobafterithasdescended
Whatisthevelocityofthebobjustafterithasdescendedfromposition1?
ANSWER:
verysmallandhavingadirectionbestapproximatedbyarrowD
verysmallandhavingadirectionbestapproximatedbyarrowA
verysmallandhavingadirectionbestapproximatedbyarrowH
Thevelocitycannotbedeterminedwithoutmoreinformation.

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ANSWER:
H

Correct

PartC
Whatisthedirectionofaatthemomentthependulumpassesposition2?
Entertheletterofthearrowthatbestapproximatesthedirectionofa.

Hint1.Instantaneousmotion
Atposition2,theinstantaneousmotionofthependulumcanbeapproximatedasuniformcircularmotion.Whatisthedirectionofacceleration
foranobjectexecutinguniformcircularmotion?
ANSWER:
C

Correct
Weknowthatfortheobjecttobetravelinginacircle,somecomponentofitsaccelerationmustbepointingradiallyinward.

PartD
Whatisthedirectionofawhenthependulumreachesposition3?
Givetheletterofthearrowthatbestapproximatesthedirectionofa.

Hint1.Velocityjustbeforeposition3
Whatisthevelocityofthebobjustbeforeitreachesposition3?
ANSWER:
verysmallandhavingadirectionbestapproximatedbyarrowB
verysmallandhavingadirectionbestapproximatedbyarrowC
verysmallandhavingadirectionbestapproximatedbyarrowH
Thevelocitycannotbedeterminedwithoutmoreinformation.

Hint2.Velocityofbobatposition3
Whatisthevelocityofthebobwhenitreachesposition3?
ANSWER:
v3

= 0 m/s

ANSWER:
F

Correct

PartE
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Asthependulumapproachesorrecedesfromwhichposition(s)istheaccelerationvectoraalmostparalleltothevelocityvectorv .
ANSWER:
position2only
positions1and2
positions2and3
positions1and3

Correct

ConicalPendulumI
AbobofmassmissuspendedfromafixedpointwithamasslessstringoflengthL(i.e.,itisa
pendulum).Youaretoinvestigatethemotioninwhichthestringmovesinaconewithhalfangle
.

PartA
Whattangentialspeed,v ,mustthebobhavesothatitmovesinahorizontalcirclewiththestringalwaysmakinganangle fromthevertical?
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesm,L,and ,aswellastheaccelerationduetogravityg .

Hint1.What'shappeninghere?
Inthissituation,whichofthefollowingstatementsistrue?
ANSWER:
Thebobhasnoaccelerationsinceitsvelocityisconstant.
Thetensioninthestringislessthanmg.
Acomponentofthetensioncausesaccelerationofthebob.
If

thetensioninthestringwouldbegreaterthanmg.

= 0

Hint2.Findtheverticalaccelerationofthebob
Whatisa vertical ,theverticalcomponentoftheaccelerationofthebob?
ANSWER:
a vertical

= 0

Hint3.Findthetensioninthestring
Findthemagnitude,T ,ofthetensionforceinthestring.
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesm,L,and ,aswellastheaccelerationduetogravityg .

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Hint1.Whatapproachtouse
Youknowtheverticalaccelerationofthebob,andsoyouknowthenetverticalforce.Theforceduetothestringhasbothverticaland
horizontalcomponents,andsobreakingthisforceintocomponentsshouldallowyoutofindthemagnitudeofthetensionforce,whichis
T.
ANSWER:

mg

cos()

Hint4.Findthehorizontalaccelerationofthebob
Findageneralexpressionfora ,themagnitudeofthebob'scentripetalacceleration,asafunctionofthetangentialspeedv ofthebob.
Expressyouranswerintermsofv andsomeorallofthevariablesm,L,and .

Hint1.Findtheradiusofthebob'smotion
Thebobmovesuniformlyinacircleofwhatradiusr ?
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesm,L,and .
ANSWER:
r

Lsin()

ANSWER:

Lsin()

Hint5.Findthehorizontalforce
Findthemagnitude,Fr ,oftheinwardradialforceonthebobinthehorizontalplane.
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesm,L,and ,aswellastheaccelerationduetogravityg .
ANSWER:
Fr

mgtan()

ANSWER:
v

Lgsin()tan()

Allattemptsusedcorrectanswerdisplayed

PartB
Howlongdoesittakethebobtomakeonefullrevolution(onecompletetriparoundthecircle)?
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesm,L,and ,aswellastheaccelerationduetogravityg .

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Sincethespeedofthebobisconstant,thisisarelativelysimplekinematicsproblem.Youknowthespeed,whichyoufoundintheprevious
part,andyoucancalculatethedistancetraveledinonerevolution(i.e.,thecircumferenceofthecircle).Fromthesetwoyoucancalculatethe
timerequiredtotravelthatdistance.

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ANSWER:
2Lsin
gLtansin

Correct

Position,Velocity,andAcceleration
LearningGoal:
Toidentifysituationswhenposition,velocity,and/oraccelerationchange,realizingthatchangecanbeindirectionormagnitude.

Ifanobject'spositionisdescribedbyafunctionoftime,r (t)
(measuredfromanonacceleratingreferenceframe),thentheobject'svelocityisdescribedby

thetimederivativeoftheposition,v (t)
=
a(t) =

dv (t)
dt

r (t)

dt

dr (t)
dt

,andtheobject'saccelerationisdescribedbythetimederivativeofthevelocity,

Itisoftenconvenienttodiscusstheaverageofthelattertwoquantitiesbetweentimest 1 andt 2 :

v avg
(t 1 , t 2 ) =

t )r (
t )
r(
2
1
t 2 t 1

and
aavg (t 1 , t 2 ) =

t )v (
t )
v(
2
1
t 2 t 1

PartA
Youthrowaball.Airresistanceontheballisnegligible.Whichofthefollowingfunctionschangewithtimeastheballfliesthroughtheair?

Hint1.ThePullofGravity
ThereasontheballcomesbacktoyourhandisthatitisbeingpulledonbytheEarth'sgravity.Thisisthesamereasonthattheballfeel's
heavywhenit'srestinginyourhand.Doestheweightoftheballchangeatdifferentheights,oristhepullofgravityconstantthroughoutthe
ball'sflight?Whatdoesthistellyouabouttheaccelerationoftheball?
ANSWER:
onlythepositionoftheball
onlythevelocityoftheball
onlytheaccelerationoftheball
thepositionandvelocityoftheball
thepositionandthevelocityandaccelerationoftheball

Correct

PartB
Youaredrivingacarat65mph.Youaretravelingnorthalongastraighthighway.Whatcouldyoudotogivethecaranonzeroacceleration?

Hint1.Whatconstitutesanonzeroacceleration?
Thevelocityofthecarisdescribedbyavectorfunction,meaningithasbothmagnitude(65mph)anddirection(north).Thecarexperiencesa
nonzeroaccelerationifyouchangeeitherthemagnitudeofthevelocityorthedirectionofthevelocity.
ANSWER:

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Pressthebrakepedal.
Turnthesteeringwheel.
Eitherpressthegasorthebrakepedal.
Eitherpressthegasorthebrakepedalorturnthesteeringwheel.

Correct

PartC
Aballislodgedinaholeinthefloorneartheoutsideedgeofamerrygoroundthatisturningatconstantspeed.Whichkinematicvariableorvariables
changewithtime,assumingthatthepositionismeasuredfromanoriginatthecenterofthemerrygoround?

Hint1.Changeofavector
Avectorquantityhasbothmagnitudeanddirection.Thevectorchangeswithtimeifeitherofthesequantitieschangeswithtime.
ANSWER:
thepositionoftheballonly
thevelocityoftheballonly
theaccelerationoftheballonly
boththepositionandvelocityoftheball
thepositionandvelocityandaccelerationoftheball

Correct

PartD
Forthemerrygoroundproblem,dothemagnitudesoftheposition,velocity,andaccelerationvectorschangewithtime?

Hint1.Changeofmagnitudeofavector
Avectorquantityhasbothmagnitudeanddirection.Themagnitudeofavectorchangeswithtimeonlyifthelengthchangeswithtime.
ANSWER:
yes
no

Correct

MassonTurntable
Asmallmetalcylinderrestsonacircularturntablethatisrotatingataconstantspeedasillustratedinthediagram.
Thesmallmetalcylinderhasamassof0.20kg ,thecoefficientofstaticfrictionbetweenthecylinderandtheturntableis0.080,andthecylinderislocated
0.15mfromthecenteroftheturntable.
Takethemagnitudeoftheaccelerationduetogravitytobe9.81m/s 2 .

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PartA
Whatisthemaximumspeedv max thatthecylindercanmovealongitscircularpathwithoutslippingofftheturntable?
Expressyouranswernumericallyinmeterspersecondtotwosignificantfigures.

Hint1.Centripetalacceleration
Ifyouknowabodyisinuniformcircularmotion,youknowwhatitsaccelerationmustbe.Ifabodyofmassmistravelingwithspeedv ina
circleofradiusR,whatisthemagnitudea c ofitscentripetalacceleration?
ANSWER:
mv

mv R
2

v R
v

Hint2.Determinetheforcecausingacceleration
Wheneveryouseeuniformcircularmotion,thereisarealforcethatcausestheassociatedcentripetalacceleration.Inthisproblem,whatforce
causesthecentripetalacceleration?
ANSWER:
normalforce
staticfriction
weightofcylinder
aforceotherthanthoseabove

Hint3.Findthemaximumpossiblefrictionforce
Themagnitudef s oftheforceduetostaticfrictionsatisfiesf s

f max

.Whatisf max inthisproblem?

Expressyouranswernumericallyinnewtonstothreesignificantfigures.
ANSWER:
f

max

= 0.157 N

Hint4.Newton's2ndlaw
Tosolvethisproblem,relatetheanswerstotheprevioustwohintsusingNewton's2ndlaw:

F = m a

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ANSWER:
v max

= 0.34 m/s

Correct

BankedFrictionlessCurve,andFlatCurvewithFriction
AcarofmassM =1400kg travelingat65.0km/hour entersabankedturncoveredwithice.Theroadisbankedatanangle ,andthereisnofriction
betweentheroadandthecar'stiresasshownin.Useg =9.80m/s 2 throughoutthisproblem.

PartA
Whatistheradiusr oftheturnif =20.0 (assumingthecarcontinuesinuniformcircularmotionaroundtheturn)?
Expressyouranswerinmeters.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
YouneedtoapplyNewton's2ndlawtothecar.Becauseyoudonotwantthecartoslipasitgoesaroundthecurve,thecarneedstohavea
netaccelerationofmagnitudev 2 /r pointingradiallyinward(towardthecenterofthecurve).

Hint2.Identifythefreebodydiagramandcoordinatesystem
Whichofthefollowingdiagramsrepresentstheforcesactingonthecarandthemostappropriatechoiceofcoordinateaxes?

ANSWER:
FigureA
FigureB
FigureC

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Hint3.Calculatethenormalforce
Findn ,themagnitudeofthenormalforcebetweenthecarandtheroad.Takethepositivexaxistopointhorizontallytowardthecenterofthe
curveandthepositiveyaxistopointverticallyupward.
Expressyouranswerinnewtons.

Hint1.Considerthenetforce
Theonlyforcesactingonthecararethenormalforceandgravity.Theremustbeanetaccelerationinthehorizontaldirection,but
becausethecardoesnotslip,thenetaccelerationintheverticaldirectionmustbezero.Usethisfacttofindn .

Hint2.ApplyNewton's2ndlawtothecarintheydirection
Whichequationaccuratelydescribestheequationforthenetforceactingonthecarintheydirection?
ANSWER:
F y = n cos + M g
F y = n sin + M g
F y = n cos M g
F y = n sin M g

ANSWER:
n

= 1.46104 N

Hint4.Determinetheaccelerationinthehorizontalplane
Taketheyaxistobeverticalandletthexaxispointhorizontallytowardthecenterofthecurve.Byapplying Fx
direction,determinea ,themagnitudeoftheacceleration,usingyourresultforthenormalforce.

= M ax

inthehorizontal

Expressyouranswerinmeterspersecondsquared.

Hint1.ApplyNewton's2ndlawtothecarinthexdirection
Whichequationaccuratelydescribestheequationforthenetforceactingonthecarinthexdirection?
ANSWER:

F x = n cos
F x = n sin

Fx = n cos +
Fx = n cos

Mv

r
Mv

ANSWER:
a

= 3.57 m/s 2

ANSWER:
r

= 91.4 m

Correct

PartB
= 0

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Now,supposethatthecurveislevel( = 0)andthattheicehasmelted,sothatthereisacoefficientofstaticfriction betweentheroadandthe


car'stiresasshownin.Whatis min ,theminimumvalueofthecoefficientofstaticfriction
betweenthetiresandtheroadrequiredtopreventthecarfromslipping?Assumethatthe
car'sspeedisstill65.0km/hour andthattheradiusofthecurveis91.4m.
Expressyouranswernumerically.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
YouneedtoapplyNewton's2ndlawtothecar.Becauseyoudonotwantthecartoslipasitgoesaroundthecurve,thecarneedstohavea
netaccelerationofmagnitudev 2 /r pointingradiallyinward(towardthecenterofthecurve).

Hint2.Identifythecorrectfreebodydiagram
Whichofthefollowingdiagramsrepresentstheforcesactingonthecarasitgoesaroundthecurve?Ff r representsthefrictionforce.

ANSWER:
FigureA
FigureB
FigureC
FigureD

Hint3.Calculatethenetforce
WhatisthenetforceFnet thatactsonthecar?
Expressyouranswerinnewtons.

Hint1.Howtodeterminethenetforce
Newton's2ndlawtellsyouthat

F = ma.
Becauseyoudonotwantthecartoslipasitgoesaroundthecurve,thecarneedstohaveanetaccelerationofmagnitudev 2 /r
pointingradiallyinward(towardthecenterofthecurve).

ANSWER:

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F net

= 4990 N

Hint4.Calculatethefrictionforce
Ifthecoefficientoffrictionwereequalto min ,whatwouldbeFf r ,themagnitudeoftheforceprovidedbyfriction?Letmbethemassofthe
carandg betheaccelerationduetogravity.

Hint1.Equationfortheforceoffriction
Theforceoffrictionisgivenby
.

F f r = n

Hint2.Findthenormalforce
Whatisthenormalforcen actingonthecar?
Enteryouranswerinnewtons.

Hint1.Accelerationintheydirection
Becausethecarisneithersinkingintotheroadnorlevitating,youcanconcludethata y

= 0

ANSWER:
n

= 1.37104 N

ANSWER:

Ff r =

Ff r =

min

Mg

min

Mg

ANSWER:

min

= 0.364

Correct

NormalForceandCentripetalForceRankingTask
Arollercoastertrackhassixsemicircular"dips"withdifferentradiiofcurvature.Thesamerollercoastercartridesthrougheachdipatadifferentspeed.

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PartA
ForthedifferentvaluesgivenfortheradiusofcurvatureRandspeedv ,rankthemagnitudeoftheforceoftherollercoastertrackonthecartatthe
bottomofeachdip.
Rankfromlargesttosmallest.Torankitemsasequivalent,overlapthem.

Hint1.Newtons2ndlaw
Newtons2ndlawisvalidforanymotion,whetherthemotionisalongastraightlineoracircularpath.Thenetforceactingonthecartmustbe
equaltotheproductofitsmassandacceleration,
,

F = ma

andsincethecartismovingalongacircularpath,itsacceleration(towardthecenterofthecircularpath)isgivenby
a =

Hint2.Determinethenetforceonthecart
Definingupasthepositivedirection,whichofthefollowingexpressionsdescribesthenetforceactingonthecartintheverticaldirectionwhile
it'satthebottomofthedip?ThevariablesFgravity andFtrack arethemagnitudesoftheforces.
ANSWER:

F = F gravity + F track
F = F gravity F track
F = F track F gravity
F = F track F gravity

ANSWER:

Correct

Problem8.6
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A200g blockona60.0cmlongstringswingsinacircleonahorizontal,frictionlesstableat55.0rpm.

PartA
Whatisthespeedoftheblock?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
3.46

m
s

Correct

PartB
Whatisthetensioninthestring?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
3.98N

Correct

Problem8.9
Supposethemoonwereheldinitsorbitnotbygravitybutbyamasslesscableattachedtothecenteroftheearth.

PartA
Whatwouldbethetensioninthecable?Usethetableofastronomicaldatainsidethebackcoverofthetextbook.
Expressyouranswertothreesignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
T

= 2.011020N

Correct

Problem8.14
Theweightofpassengersonarollercoasterincreasesby52%asthecargoesthroughadipwitha38mradiusofcurvature.

PartA
Whatisthecar'sspeedatthebottomofthedip?
Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
v

= 14

m
s

Correct

PSS8.1CircularMotionProblems
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LearningGoal:
TopracticeProblemSolvingStrategy8.1forcircularmotionproblems.
Acyclistcompetesinaonelapracearoundaflat,circularcourseofradius140m.Startingfromrestandspeedingupataconstantratethroughoutthe
race,thecyclistcoverstheentirecoursein60s .Themassofthebicycle(includingtherider)is76kg .WhatisthemagnitudeofthenetforceFnet
actingonthebicycleasitcrossesthefinishline?
PROBLEMSOLVINGSTRATEGY8.1Circularmotionproblems
MODEL: Makeappropriatesimplifyingassumptions.
VISUALIZE: Drawapictorialrepresentation.

Establishacoordinatesystemwiththeraxispointingtowardthecenterofthecircle.
Showimportantpointsinthemotiononasketch.Definesymbols,andidentifywhattheproblemistryingtofind.
Identifytheforces,andshowthemonafreebodydiagram.
SOLVE: Newton'ssecondlawis
(Fnet )

= Fr = mar =
(F net )

and

(F net )

mv

= m r ,

= F t = ma t

= Fz = 0

Determinetheforcecomponentsfromthefreebodydiagram.Becarefulwithsigns.
Solvefortheacceleration,andthenusekinematicstofindvelocitiesandpositions.
ASSESS: Checkthatyourresulthasthecorrectunits,isreasonable,andanswersthequestion.

Model
Thecyclistmovesinacircleatanincreasingspeed.Thismeansthatthecyclisthasbothcentripetalandtangentialacceleration.Moreover,therateat
whichthecyclist'sspeedisincreasingisconstant.Thus,tosimplifytheproblem,youcanmodelthebicycle+riderasaparticleinnonuniformcircular
motionanduseconstantaccelerationkinematicstoworkoutyoursolution.

Visualize
PartA
Whichofthefollowingsetsofrtzcoordinateaxesisthemostappropriateforthisproblem?Theblackdotrepresentsthebicycle+rideratanarbitrary
instantduringtherace.
ANSWER:

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Correct
Unlessotherwisestated,incircularmotionproblemsalwaysusetheusualconventioninwhichthetaxispointsinthecounterclockwisedirection.
Notethattheraxisalwayspointsfromthepositionofthecyclisttothecenterofthecourse,regardlesswherethecyclistisalongthecircular
course.Thismeansthatthedirectionoftheraxischangesasthecyclistmoves.

PartB
Identifywhichofthefollowingforcesactonthebicycle+ridersystem,andsortthemaccordingly.
Dragtheappropriateitemstotheirrespectivebins.
ANSWER:

Correct
Sincethemotionishorizontal,Newton'ssecondlawrequirestheverticalcomponentofthenetforcebezero,thatis,(Fnet ) z = Fz = 0.This
meansthatgravitywillcanceloutthenormalforce,andwedon'tneedtoworryabouttheseverticalforces.Asforthehorizontalforcesactingon
thecyclist,bothrollingfrictionandairresistanceopposetheforwardmotionofthebicycle,sotheymustactalongthetangentialdirection,
oppositetothevelocityvector.Staticfriction,instead,hastwoeffects:Itpropelsthebicycletiresforward(thetirespushbackwardagainstthe
earth,andtheearthpushesforwardonthetiresasfriction)andpreventsthebicyclefromslidingsideways.So,itmusthavebothacomponent
alongthetangentialdirectionthatprovidesthetangentialaccelerationandacomponentalongtheradialdirectionthatprovidesthecentripetal
acceleration.
Notethatalthoughtheeffectsofrollingfrictionandairresistancecanbeignored,staticfrictioncannotbeneglected.Ifyouneglectrollingfriction
and/orairresistance,youwouldsimplyendupwithanoverestimateofthecyclist'stangentialacceleration.Ifyouignorestaticfriction,instead,
youwouldneglecttheonlyforcethatprovidesthecyclist'scentripetalacceleration,whichisanessentialelementofcircularmotion.

PartC
Belowisatopviewofthecircularcourse.Theblackdotrepresentsthebicycle+rideratanarbitraryinstantduringtherace.Assumethebicyclistis
travelingaroundthetrackinthecounterclockwisedirection.Tosimplifytheproblem,alsoassumethatrollingfrictionisnegligible.(Thisisreasonable
becausethecontactareabetweenthebicycletiresandthegroundisoftenverysmall.)
Drawafreebodydiagramshowingallthehorizontalforcesactingonthebicycle.Makeareasonableestimationofthedirectionofeachforce.
Drawthevectorsstartingattheblackdot.Thelocationandorientationofthevectorswillbegraded.Thelengthofthevectorswillnotbe
graded.

Hint1.Howtoestimatethedirectionofdragandstaticfriction

Asexplainedinthepreviouspart,airresistance(drag)opposestheforwardmotionofthebicycle,sod mustactalongthetangentialdirection,

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oppositetothevelocityvector.Staticfriction,instead,hastwoeffects.Itpropelsthebicycletiresforward(thetirespushbackwardagainstthe
earth,andtheearthpushesforwardonthetiresasfriction)andpreventsthebicyclefromslidingsideways.So,f s musthavebotha
componentalongthetangentialdirectionthatprovidesthetangentialaccelerationandacomponentalongtheradialdirectionthatprovidesthe
centripetalacceleration.Sincethemagnitudesandtheexactdirectionoftheseforcesareunknown,itissufficienttodeterminethesignoftheir
componentstodrawareasonablefreebodydiagram.Todothat,determinethesignsofthecomponentsofthenetforce,whichmusthavethe

samesignsasthetangentialandthecentripetalacceleration.Then,drawf s andd sothattheirvectorsum(thenetforce)hascomponents


withtherequiredsigns.

ANSWER:

Correct
Now,youcancompleteyourpictorialrepresentation.Notethatalthoughthetangentialacceleration(andthereforethetangentialforce)isconstant
throughtherace,theradialforceFr andaccelerationa r ,aswellastheangularvelocity,arenotconstant.So,youshoulddefineunique
symbolsforthesequantitiesatimportantpointsinthemotion:Forthisproblem,we'llusethesubscripti torefertovalues(Fi,r ,a i,r ,i )atthe
momenttheracebeginsandthesubscriptf torefertovalues(Ff ,r ,a f ,r ,f )atthemomentthecyclistcrossesthefinishline.Keepinmindthat
youaretryingtofindthemagnitudeofthenetforceatthefinishline,Ff ,net .
Yourpictorialrepresentationshouldlooklikethis:

Solve
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PartD
FindFf ,net ,themagnitudeofthenetforceactingonthecyclistatthefinishline.
Expressyouranswerinnewtonstotwosignificantfigures.

Hint1.Thenetforceintermsofitscomponents
Themagnitudeofthenetforceisgivenbytheusualformulaforfindingthemagnitudeofavectorintermsofitscomponents:

F net = [(F net )

+ [(F net ) ]
t

Tofindthecomponentsofthenetforceactingonthecyclistatthefinishline,useNewton'ssecondlaw,asexplainedinthestrategyabove.
Thatwillrequireyoutocalculatethecomponentsofthecyclist'saccelerationatthefinishline.

Hint2.Findthetangentialacceleration
Fromtheproblemintroduction,youknowthatthecyclistspeedsupataconstantrateor,inotherwords,accelerateswithconstanttangential
accelerationa t .Usetheappropriatekinematicequationformotionwithconstantaccelerationtofinda t .
Expressyouranswerinmeterspersecondsquaredtothreesignificantfigures.

Hint1.Motionwithconstantacceleration
Foraparticleincircularmotionwithconstanttangentialacceleration,itisconvenienttousetheequationfortheangulardisplacement
oftheparticleintermsofitsangularvelocityandangularacceleration:
f = i + i t +

wherethesubscripti referstoinitialvaluesattimet

1
2

(t)

,andthesubscriptf referstofinalvaluesattimet

= 0

= t

Inthisproblem,inmakingonecompletecircuitofthecourse,thecyclist'sangularpositionchangesby2 .Youalsoknowthatthe
cycliststartsfromrest,soherinitialangularvelocityiszero(i = 0).

Hint2.Tangentialandangularaccelerations
Recallthatforaparticleincircularmotion,therelationshipbetweentheparticle'stangentialandangularaccelerations,a t and,
respectively,is
,

a t = r

wherer istheradiusofthecircularpath.
ANSWER:
at

= 0.489 m/s 2

Hint3.Findtheradialacceleration
Whatisthecyclist'sradialaccelerationatthefinishline,a f ,r ?Notethattheradialcomponentofthecyclist'saccelerationissimplythe
centripetalaccelerationneededtokeepthecyclistmovinginacircle.
Expressyouranswerinmeterspersecondsquaredtothreesignificantfigures.

Hint1.Centripetalacceleration
Thecentripetalaccelerationofaparticlemovinginacircleofradiusr is
ar =

= r,
2

wherev istheparticlespeed,andisitsangularspeed.Therefore,tofindthecyclist'scentripetalaccelerationatthefinishline,a f ,r ,
youwillneedtocalculatethecyclist'sspeed,v f ,or,alternatively,thecyclist'sangularvelocity,f ,atthefinishline.Inbothcases,
youwillneedtoknowthecyclist'sconstanttangentialacceleration.

Hint2.Findthefinalangularvelocity
Tofindthecyclist'sfinalangularvelocity,f ,youcanusethekinematicformulaformotionwithconstantangularacceleration:
f = i + (t).
Consideringthatthetangentialacceleration,a t ,isrelatedtotheangularaccelerationbytheexpressiona t
ofthecircularpath,whatisthefinalangularvelocityf ofthecyclist?

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,wherer istheradius

= r

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Expressyouranswerinradianspersecondtothreesignificantfigures.
ANSWER:
f

= 0.209 rad/s

ANSWER:
a f ,r

= 6.14 m/s 2

ANSWER:
F f ,net

= 470 N

Correct

Assess
PartE
Toassesswhetheryourcalculationsmakesense,let'ssimplifytheproblemevenfurtherandassumeairresistanceisnegligible.Inthiscase,thenet
forceactingonthebicyclistisequivalenttojusttheforceofstaticfriction,andyouranswertoPartDisthemagnitudef s .Basedonthisvalue,what
istheminimumcoefficientofstaticfriction s betweentheracetrackandthebicycle?
Expressyouranswernumericallytotwosignificantfigures.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Themagnitudef s oftheforceofstaticfrictionislessthanorequalto s n ,where s isthecoefficientofstaticfrictionandn isthemagnitude
ofthenormalforce.Therefore,theminimumcoefficientofstaticfrictionbetweentheracetrackandthebicyclecanbefoundbysolvingthe
equationf s = s n,whereyouuseyourresultfrompartDasf s .
Youmadeuseoftherelation(Fnet ) z = Fz = 0previouslytojustifyignoringgravityandthenormalforceincalculatingthenetforce,
becausetheyhadtocancelout.Now,usethatrelationtofindthemagnitudeofthenormalforce.
ANSWER:

= 0.63

Correct
Thisisareasonablevalueforthecoefficientofstaticfriction.Actualcoefficientsofstaticfrictionbetweenracetracksandbicycletiresusually
rangefromaround0.4upto0.7.Ifyoufoundthatyouranswerimpliedacoefficientof1orgreater,thenyouwouldknowthatyouhadmadea
mistake.Ifyoufoundthattheminimumcoefficientwasverysmall,lessthan0.01forinstance,thenyoumightguessthatyouhadmadeanerror
aswell.

Problem8.20
Atoytrainrollsaroundahorizontal1.2mdiametertrack.Thecoefficientofrollingfrictionis0.12.

PartA
Whatisthemagnitudeofthetrain'sangularaccelerationafteritisreleased?
Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:

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= 2.0

rad
s2

Allattemptsusedcorrectanswerdisplayed

PartB
Howlongdoesittakethetraintostopifit'sreleasedwithanangularspeedof31rpm?
Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
t

= 1.7s

Allattemptsusedcorrectanswerdisplayed

Problem8.21
Apopularpastimeistoseewhocanpushanobjectclosesttotheedgeofatablewithoutitsgoingoff.Youpushthe100gobjectandreleaseit1.00m
fromthetableedge.Unfortunately,youpushalittletoohard.Theobjectslidesacross,sailsofftheedge,falls1.50mtothefloor,andlands50.0cmfrom
theedgeofthetable.

PartA
Ifthecoefficientofkineticfrictionis0.300,whatwastheobject'sspeedasyoureleasedit?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
2.59 m
s

Allattemptsusedcorrectanswerdisplayed

Problem8.29
Communicationssatellitesareplacedinacircularorbitwheretheystaydirectlyoverafixedpointontheequatorastheearthrotates.Thesearecalled
7
geosynchronousorbits.Thealtitudeofageosynchronousorbitis3.58 10 m
( 22, 000 miles) .

PartA
Whatistheperiodofasatelliteinageosynchronousorbit?
Expressyouranswertothreesignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
24.0hr

Correct

PartB
Findthevalueofg atthisaltitude.
Expressyouranswertothreesignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:

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0.223

m
s2

Correct

PartC
Whatistheweightofa2000kgsatelliteinageosynchronousorbit?
Expressyouranswerasanintegerandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
0N

Correct

Problem8.35
You'vetakenyourneighbor'syoungchildtothecarnivaltoridetherides.ShewantstorideTheRocket.Eightrocketshapedcarshangbychainsfromthe
outsideedgeofalargesteeldisk.Averticalaxlethroughthecenteroftherideturnsthedisk,causingthecarstorevolveinacircle.You'vejustfinished
takingphysics,soyoudecidetofigureoutthespeedofthecarswhileyouwait.Youestimatethatthediskis6mindiameterandthechainsare6mlong.
Theridetakes10s toreachfullspeed,thenthecarsswingoutuntilthechainsare25 fromvertical.

PartA
Whatisthecar'sspeed?
Expressyouranswertoonesignificantfigureandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
v

m
= 5 s

Correct

Problem8.43
InanamusementparkridecalledTheRoundup,passengersstandinsidea17.0mdiameterrotatingring.Aftertheringhasacquiredsufficientspeed,it
tiltsintoaverticalplane,asshowninthefigure.

PartA
Supposetheringrotatesonceevery5.20s .Ifarider'smassis59.0kg ,withhowmuchforcedoestheringpushonheratthetopoftheride?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
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154N

Correct

PartB
Supposetheringrotatesonceevery5.20s .Ifarider'smassis59.0kg ,withhowmuchforcedoestheringpushonheratthebottomoftheride?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
1310N

Correct

PartC
Whatisthelongestrotationperiodofthewheelthatwillpreventtheridersfromfallingoffatthetop?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
5.85s

Correct

Problem8.53
A300g ballona70cmlongstringisswunginaverticalcircleaboutapoint200cmabovethefloor.Thestringsuddenlybreakswhenitisparalleltothe
groundandtheballismovingupward.Theballreachesaheight600cmabovethefloor.

PartA
Whatwasthetensioninthestringaninstantbeforeitbroke?
Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
T

= 34N

Correct
ScoreSummary:
Yourscoreonthisassignmentis79.1%.
Youreceived95.72outofapossibletotalof121points.

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