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Cyberbullying among high school students: Cluster analysis of sex and age differences and

the level of parental monitoring


Ykuko Aoyama, Lucy Barnard-Bark,Tony Talbert
Lucrare acceptata pentru publicare in the International Journal of Cyber Behaviour,
Psychology and Learning (IJCBPL)
Bullying, un fenomen tipic n coli, a devenit digital. Drept rezultat bullying virtual a
devenit din ce n ce mai prezent printre tineri. Studiul curent dorete s clasifice elevii de liceu n
patru focus grups, formate pe experien lor despre cyberbullying i s examineze caracteristicile
acestor grupuri bazate pe gen i vrst ale participanilor precum i nivelul de monitorizare
parental. Participanii au fost 133 de elevi din centrul Texas-ului. O analiz cluster relev patru
grupuri distincte de elevi care erau: foarte implicai att c btu, ct i c victime, mai mult
victim dect btu, mai mult btu dect victim sau cel mai puin implicai.
Semnificativ mai multe fete i mai muli elevi din clasele inferioare au fost clasifica i drept
mai mult victime dect batau n timp ce elevii mai mari au fost mai probabil a fi clasifica i n
grupul mai mult btui dect victime. Nici o diferen semnificativ nu a fost gsit ntre grupul
cluster i gradul de monitorizare parental.
n bullying-ul tradiional, cercettorii au argumentat c cei mici erau agresai de ctre colegi
mai mari sau de aceeai vrst.Pe de alt parte, elevii mari erau agresai de ctre colegi de aceea i
vrst.
Mai mult chiar, este posibil ca elevii mai mari s cunoasc mai bine tehnologia dect cei
mici, tiind astfel cum s se protejeze pentru a nu deveni cyber victime prin: blocare contactelor
nedorite sau limitarea reelei de prieteni pe site-urile sociale.
Aadar, a fost mai puin probabil c elevii mai mari s devin victime n comparaie cu
studenii mai mici. Adiional, studenii seniori au un grup social extins fa de cei care sunt n
clasele inferioare ale liceului. Dei cyberbullying poate avea loc sub caracterul anonimatului, acest
tip de haruire apare adesea n grupul de prieteni. De fapt, Smith et al raporteaz c cyberbullying
este efectuat cu preponderen de ctre elevii din aceeai clas sau din acelai an de studiu. Similar,
Kowalski & Limber (2007) au gsit victime hruite de ctre un cyberbully elev din aceeai coal.
Altfel spus, studenii au fost victimizai de ctre un cunoscut, nu de ctre un strin din mediul

virtual. Aadar, studenii mai mari care cunosc mai muli oameni la coala au un risc crescut de a fi
foarte implicai drept btu sau victim.
Cercetrile (Smith, Madsen, & Moody) sugereaz c nvarea elevilor mai tineri a unui
comportament asertiv este important.
Nivelul de monitorizare parental nu a fost asociat cu gruparea cluster. Rezultatele studiului
converg cu cele din studiul lui Mesch(2009). Acest rezultat indic ineficiena strategiilor de
monitorizare parental i protectiv aa cum a fost indicat i de ctre McQuade et al.(2009).
Studiul a gsit diferene ntre gen i vrst. Spre deosebire de bullying-ul tradi ional, for a
fizic i vrsta nu par a fi semnificativ predictive n contextul cuberbullying; ns, fetele i elevii
mai tineri rmn predispui la victimizare de ctre biei, i/sau studeni mai mari c vrst. Dei
poate prea mai simplu, pentru o victim virtual s riposteze, unele victime nu cunosc moduri de a
se proteja. Asftel, se poate conchide c pattern-ul victimizrii prin cyberbullying este similar cu cel
al agresrii tradiionale.
n final, unele limitri trebuie adresate. n primul rnd, acesta este un studiu trans-sec ional;
astfel, cauzalitatea inferenelor nu poate fi efectuat. n al doilea rnd, mrimea eantionului poate fi
considerat redus, ns analizele relev nivele acceptabile de putere statisitc(1 = .95 to .99),
iar majoritatea studenilor sunt caucazieni care fac parte din familii de clas mijlocie din mediul
rural. n consecin, studii viitoare pot include indivizi de etnii i fundal socio-economic diferite. n
ultimul rnd, diferenele de vrst sunt comparate doar ntre elevi de liceu, n studiul curent. Dac
elevi de gimnaziu sau de din ciclul primar ar fi fost inclui, analiz poate arata mai multe diferen e
distincte, ntre vrst i nclinare. Studii viitoare pot replica acest studiu, avnd eantioane mai
extinse i mai diverse. n plus, viitori cercettori pot examin, de asemenea, variabile precum
rezultatele colare sau aspecte psihologice pentru a distinge grupurile. n pofida acestor limitri,
aceast cercetare se adaug la literatur crescnd asupra cyberbullying n rndul tinerilor.
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