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Direct Questions

1- Explain the basic Operation of Pulse Code Modulation with proper figure?
The most common technique to change an analog signal to digital data
(digitization) is called pulse code modulation (PCM).

2- Compare and contrast PCM and DM.

PCM finds the value of the signal amplitude for each sample, while DM
finds the change from the previous sample.
PCM is a very complex technique. DM has been developed to reduce the
complexity of PCM.
3- What are the advantages and Disadvantages of Pulse Code Modulation?
4- What are the differences between parallel and serial transmission?
In Parallel we send number of n data at the same time while Serial we send one bit
each time.

Parallel transmission can increase the transfer speed by a factor of n over serial

5-List three different techniques in serial transmission and explain the differences.
In asynchronous transmission, we send 1 start bit (0) at the beginning and 1 or
more stop bits (1s) at the end of each byte.
In synchronous transmission, we send bits one after another without start or stop
bits or gaps.
In isochronous transmission guarantees that the data (real audio and video in TV)
arrive at a fixed rate using one or more frames which synchronization b/w
characters in not enough. Furthermore the entire stream of bits must be
6-What is the position of the transmission media in the OSI or the Internet model?
transmission media is below physical layer OSI or the Internet model

7-Name the two major categories of transmission media.

Guided and unguided.
8-How do guided media differ from unguided media?
Guided media include twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable, and fiber-optic cable.
Unguided medium is free space.
9-What are the three major classes of guided media?
Twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable, and fiber-optic cable.
10-What is the significance of the twisting in twisted-pair cable?

11.Name the advantages of optical fiber over twisted-pair and coaxial cable?
the advantages of optical fiber over twisted-pair and coaxial cable
Higher bandwidth
Less signal attenuation
Immunity to electromagnetic interference
Resistance to corrosive materials.
Greater immunity to tapping
Disadvantages There are some disadvantages in the use of optical fiber.
Its installation and maintenance require expertise that is not yet
available everywhere
Unidirectional light propagation
more expensive than those of other guided media

12 .How does sky propagation differ from line-of-sight propagation?

sky propagation(2-30MHZ)
line-of-sight propagation(above 30MHZ)
13-What is the difference between omnidirectional waves and unidirectional waves?
Unidirectional Antenna : Microwaves need unidirectional antennas that send out
signals in one direction
Omni directional Antenna Radio waves use omni directional antennas that send
out signals in all directions
14-How does a single-bit error differ from a burst error?
In a single-bit error, only 1 bit in the data unit has changed

A burst error means that 2 or more bits in the data unit have changed.
15-Discuss the concept of redundancy in error detection and correction?
The central concept in detecting or correcting errors is redundancy. To be able to
detect or correct errors, we need to send some extra bits with our data. These
redundant bits are added by the sender and removed by the receiver. Their
presence allows the receiver to detect or correct corrupted bits.
16- What is the definition of a linear block code?
In a linear block code, the exclusive OR (XOR) of any two valid code words
creates another valid codeword
17- What is the Hamming distance? What is the minimum Hamming distance?
The Hamming distance between two words is the number of differences between
corresponding bits.
The minimum Hamming distance is the smallest Hamming distance between
all possible pairs in a set of words.

18- Example 4.14, Example 10.4, Example 10.6,

Example 10.10
Let us see if the two codes we defined in Table 10.1 and Table 10.2 belong to the
class of linear block codes.
1. The scheme in Table 10.1 is a linear block code
because the result of XORing any codeword with any
other codeword is a valid codeword. For example, the
XORing of the second and third code words creates the
fourth one.
2. The scheme in Table 10.2 is also a linear block code.
We can create all four code words by XORing two
other code words.
19- If the frequency spectrum of a signal has a bandwidth of 500 Hz with the highest
frequency at 600 Hz, what should be the sampling rate, according to the Nyquist
Sapling rate
is 2x600=1200HZ