Sunteți pe pagina 1din 6

Thin Solid Films 544 (2013) 318323

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Thin Solid Films


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/tsf

Hybrid solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystals and conjugated polymers


Yang-Yen Yu a, b, c,, Chi-Yi Ciou a
a
b
c

Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Rd., Taishan Dist., New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan
Center for Thin Film Technologies and Applications, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Rd., Taishan Dist., New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan
Battery Research Center of Green Energy, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Rd., Taishan Dist., New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Available online 6 April 2013


Keywords:
Hybrid solar cell
poly(3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl)
titania
poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)
poly(styrenesulfonate)

a b s t r a c t
In this study, monodispersed colloidal titanium dioxide (TiO2) was synthesized and applied with
poly(3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3OT), phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), poly(3,4-ethylene
dioxythiophene) (PEDOT), and poly(styrenesulfonate (PSS) to fabricate an aluminum/calcium/P3OT:PCBM:
TiO2/PEDOT:PSS/indium tin oxide hybrid solar cell using spin coating and evaporation deposition. The effects
of the TiO2 content and annealing temperature on cell performances were investigated. The results showed
that optimization of the TiO2 content (15 wt.%) and annealing temperature (150 C) effectively enhanced the
performance of the hybrid solar cells. The PCBM and TiO2 absorbed more light photons in the P3OT:PCBM:
TiO2 active layer. The charge transfer in the P3OT:PCBM:TiO2 active layer was more efcient, increasing the
amount of photoluminescence quenching. The increased active layer surface roughness reduced the chargetransport distance and enhanced the internal light scattering and light absorption. The best values for the
open circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, ll factor, and efciency for the prepared hybrid solar cell
were 0.61 V, 9.50 mA/cm2, 34.46%, and 2.09%, respectively.
2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
Organic photovoltaic solar cell technology based on conjugated
polymerfullerene composites is attractive because of its light weight,
mechanical exibility, and low production costs. High-efciency polymer solar cells are of interest as a potential source of renewable alternative electrical energy [14]. However, the low efciency of these
polymer solar cells limits their feasibility for commercial use. One of
the most promising methods for enhancing device efciency is to construct an interpenetrating network of electron-accepting (i.e., acceptor)
and -donating (i.e., donor) components in the active layers of solar cells.
To date, various hybrid solar cells have been reported using different
-conjugated polymers [511] and metal or metal oxides [1216].
Poly(3-octylthiophene) (P3OT) has a polar backbone (i.e., thiophene
ring) and nonpolar side chain (i.e., octal group) that are soluble in polar
and nonpolar solvents, providing a more exible choice of either polar
or nonpolar matrix polymers [1720]. The P3OT/semiconductor junction
produces a photovoltaic device that has physical characteristics that
strongly depend on the electronic and optical properties of P3OT and
the semiconductors that are used [21,22]. The P3OT/semiconductor junction may be described as a hybrid heterojunction barrier type, where
P3OT, in its highly doped state, behaves like a metal and the photocarriers
are generated in the semiconductor.
Corresponding author at: Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University
of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Rd., Taishan Dist., New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan. Tel.: +886 2
29089899 4676; fax: +886 2 29084091.
E-mail address: yyyu@mail.mcut.edu.tw (Y.-Y. Yu).
0040-6090/$ see front matter 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2013.03.084

Power conversion efciencies (PCEs) that approximate 6% using


thermal annealing treatment for poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)
and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) hybrid solar cells
have been reported, but higher PCEs must be attained (more than
10%) for general photovoltaic use. It was reported that addition of
well-dened titanium dioxide (TiO2) (porosity, nanoparticles, nanotubes, and nanorods) could not only signicantly improve the stability of devices composed of P3HT, but also enhance the charge transfer
and thus efciency of hybrid solar cells [2326]. One of the chief difculties of hybrid solar cells is the agglomeration and/or aggregation
of inorganic nanoparticles in the active layer. In addition, the size
distribution of the inorganic nanoparticles in the active layer has
not yet been precisely controlled, and can result in a serious external
light-scattering problem. One solution to these problems is to prepare
active materials using monodispersed colloidal metal oxides rather
than preparing metal oxide networks from metal alkoxides or powders.
In this study, the active material P3OT:PCBM:TiO2 was obtained
from the regioregular P3OT, fullerene derivative PCBM, and
monodispersed colloidal titanium dioxide with an OH group on the surface. The regioregular P3OT was synthesized using the Grignard reagent
method. Monodispersed colloidal TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) with a
surface OH group were prepared using the solgel method. The
prepared P3OT:PCBM:TiO2 was then applied to fabricate a hybrid
solar cell with a structure of aluminum (Al)/calcium (Ca)/P3OT:PCBM:
TiO2/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:
PSS)/indium tin oxide (ITO). The PEDOT:PSS was synthesized using the
oxidative chemical polymerization method. The regioregular P3OT was
a p-type semiconducting polymer. The PCBM and TiO2 were n-type

Y.-Y. Yu, C.-Y. Ciou / Thin Solid Films 544 (2013) 318323

semiconductors. The structures and properties of the P3OT:PCBM:


TiO2 materials were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1H-NMR) spectra, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultravioletvisible spectrophotometer
(UVvis), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and an atomic force
microscope (AFM). The performance of the hybrid solar cell was
analyzed using the current densityvoltage (JV) curves and incident
photon-to-current conversion efciency (IPCE) spectra under a calibrated AM1.5G solar simulator at 100 mW/cm2 of light intensity. The
performance of the hybrid solar cells prepared from pristine P3OT and
P3OT:PCBM was compared. The effects of the TiO2 content, ratio of
P3OT to PCBM, and annealing temperature on the performance of the
prepared hybrid solar cells were investigated.
2. Experimental details

319

with the organic solvent dimethyl sulfoxide and spin-coated onto


the ITO glass substrate at 1500 rpm and baked at 150 C for 20 min.
The substrate was cured for 20 min at 120 C on a hotplate in a
glove box to remove the solvent. A chlorobenzene solution composed
of P3OT, PCBM, and TiO2 was then spin-coated with a thickness of
100 nm at 800 rpm on top of the PEDOT:PSS layer. Subsequently,
the active layer was baked for 120 s at 90 C on the hotplate to evaporate the solvent and thermally annealed at each temperature. Next,
the cell was heated at 150 C for 20 min inside a glove box lled
with nitrogen. Thereafter, the device was deposited thermally under
a vacuum (b1.33 10 5 Pa) on top with 50 nm Ca and 100 nm Al.
The deposited Al electrode area that dened the active area of the device was 2 mm 2. The characteristic parameters of the cell were
obtained at an AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW/cm2), and are listed in
Table 1.

2.1. Materials
2.4. Characterization
The 3-octylthiophene, 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)proane] nickel (II) chloride (Ni(dppp)Cl2), tert-butylmagnesium chloride, and
tetrahydrofuran (THF, 99%) were obtained from Aldrich. Nbromosuccinimide (99%) was obtained from Acros. Hexane (95%)
and methanol (MeOH, 98%) were obtained from TEDIA (Faireld,
USA). Chlorobenzene anhydrous was obtained from Aldrich. The 6,6phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) powder was obtained
from Uni-region (USA). All monomers were purchased and used without
purication.
2.2. Preparation of P3OT:PCBM:TiO2 (POPT) nanocomposites
First, the TiO2 NPs solution was prepared using the solgel procedure. The prepared TiO 2 NPs have an almost spherical shape with
a size around 20 nm. The detailed description could be found in our
previous study [27,28]. Then, P3OT was obtained by direct oxidation of
respective monomer using FeCl3 as the oxidant/catalyst at room temperature in an inert atmosphere [17]. Anhydrous FeCl3 (0.03835 mol)
dissolved in anhydrous CHCl3 was slowly added to 0.0254 mol of distilled monomer dissolved also in anhydrous CHCl3. The reaction
mixture was stirred at room temperature for 25 h. The product was precipitated in methanol, ltered and carefully washed with methanol,
hydrochloric acid, distilled water and acetone. The nal black P3OT
product was then dried at 55 C. Finally it was extracted in chloroform
to remove the insoluble part of the polymer. In a typical preparation,
0.0236 g of P3OT was added into 6 mL of chloroform, followed by the
addition of 0.051 g of PCBM. Next, the desired amount of the TiO2 colloidal solution was added into the P3OT:PCBM solution and stirred for
48 h to obtain the P3OT:PCBM:TiO2 nanocomposite solution. The solution was coated on the surface of the ITO glass substrate using spin coating at 3000 rpm for 20 s. The as-prepared lm was baked for 20 min at
150 C, 30 min at 200 C, and 60 min at 250 C, respectively. The product was labeled POPTX (X: a number representing the wt.% of TiO2 in
the nanocomposites).
2.3. Preparation of Al/Ca/P3OT:PCBM:TiO2/PEDOT:PSS/ITO hybrid solar
cell
Highly conducting polymer PEDOT/PSS was prepared from the
mixed solution of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene, 6 wt.% PSS, Na2S2O8,
and water at room temperature under stirring. Then, Fe2(SO4)3 was
added into the solution to extract the PEDOT/PSS. After 24 h, blue
black pure PEDOT/PSS was obtained by the ion-exchange reaction [29]. The hybrid solar cell devices were fabricated by spin coating. The polymer solar cells were prepared based on the following
procedure. The patterned ITO glass substrate was rst cleaned with
acetone and IPA ultrasonically, and was subsequently dried by N2
purging after being rinsed with DI water. The PEDOT/PSS was mixed

The 1H-NMR spectra of the prepared P3OT were performed using


a Jeol EX-400 spectrometer. The molecular weight was determined
using a gel permeation chromatography (GPC) instrument equipped
with a refractive index detector (Schambeck SFD GmbH, model RI
2000), a Lab Alliance solvent delivery system, and a column (PLgel
5 m mixed-C and D). Calibration was achieved by injecting a polystyrene standard diluted to 0.5 wt.% in tetrahydrofuran (1 mL/min)
at 40 C. An AFM (Veeco DI3100) was used to probe the surface morphology of the coated lms with a monolithic silicon probe under
tapping mode. The tip of the probe is shaped like a polygon based
pyramid with a height of 1015 m. The baseline noise was less
than 0.1 nm. The PL spectra were obtained using a Horiba Jobin
Yvon Fluoromax-4 spectrouorometer with a 450 nm excitation
wavelength. The UVvis absorption spectrum was recorded using a
Jasco Model V-650 UVvisNIR spectrophotometer.
TGA and DSC were performed under a nitrogen ow using a TGA
(DuPont, Model 951) and DSC (DuPont, Model 910S) at a heating rate
of 20 C/min and 10 C/min, respectively. The performance of the
photovoltaic cells was measured using a calibrated AM1.5G solar simulator (Oriel 300 W) at 100 mW/cm 2 of light intensity adjusted with a
standard photovoltaic reference cell (monocrystalline silicon solar cell,
calibrated at NREL, CO, USA). The currentvoltage (JV) characteristics
were measured with a source meter (Keithley 2400) and an AM1.5
solar simulator (MFS-PV-Basic) was employed as the light source. All
fabrication steps and characterizations were performed in an ambient
atmosphere. The thicknesses of the thin lms were measured using a
KLA Tencor Alpha-step IQ surface prolometer with an accuracy of
71 nm. The IPCE spectra were recorded by illuminating the samples
with a 300 W Xenon lamp dispersed by a Dongwoo-optron (South
Korea) DM151i single-grating monochromator. The properties of the
hybrid photovoltaic cells were compared with a pristine P3OT:PCBM
system, and the effect of adding TiO2 on the performance of the hybrid
photovoltaic cells was studied. The crystalline structure of the active
layer was analyzed using XRD (PANalytical X'Pert PRO MPO) with the
rated power 4 kW, horizontal goniometer with 185 mm radius, continuous scanning mode with 0.03 interval and 1.0 s counting time, Cu K
Table 1
Characteristic parameters of Al/Ca/POPT/PEDOT:PSS/ITO cells as a function of TiO2 content under AM1.5 illumination (100 mW/cm2).
no

TiO2
(wt.%)

VOC
(V)

JSC
(mA/cm2)

FF
(%)

(%)

POPT0
POPT10
POPT15
POPT20
POPT25

0
10
15
20
25

0.57
0.58
0.61
0.60
0.59

0.21
1.04
9.50
6.72
3.12

28.09
29.41
34.46
31.99
32.42

0.03
0.18
2.09
1.31
0.60

320

Y.-Y. Yu, C.-Y. Ciou / Thin Solid Films 544 (2013) 318323

radiation = 1.54056 between 20 and 60 (2). The operation voltage and anode current were 40 kV and 30 mA, respectively.

(a)
Absorbance (arb. units)

0.4

3. Results and discussion

POPT15
POPT20
0.2

POPT25
POPT10
POPT0

0.0
400

500

600

700

800

900

Wavelength (nm)

(b)
1.6x107

Intensity (arb.units)

The effects of composition on the surface morphology of the P3OT:


PCBM:TiO2 hybrid lms were studied using AFM images. The AFM
image shows that the surface roughness of P3OT:PCBM lm is dependent on the TiO2 content. The experimental results show that the average surface roughness is 0.73 nm for 0 wt.% TiO2, 2.74 nm for
10 wt.% TiO2, 3.54 nm for 15 wt.% TiO2 (as shown in Fig. 1(a)),
7.27 nm for 20 wt.% TiO2 (as shown in Fig. 1(b)), and 12.64 nm for
25 wt.%. Some mountain-like structures observed in Fig. 1 might be
resulted from the aggregation between titania particles and thus
caused the larger surface roughness. It is known that proper increase
in surface roughness of active layer has the advantage to increase the
contact area between the active layer and electrode, which can decrease the charge transfer barrier and thus improve the performance
of the hybrid solar cells [30,31]. Fig. 2 shows the UVvis and PL spectra of the pristine P3OT:PCBM (POPT0) and P3OT:PCBM:TiO2 (POPT)
hybrid lms obtained with various TiO2 contents (1025 wt.%). The
lm thickness obtained at different TiO2 content is similar (~ 80 nm)
and the change in the peak absorption could be attributed to an increased TiO2 content. It is known that the light absorption range
caused by P3OT is between approximately 500 and 650 nm, as

POPT0

1.2x107

POPT10
8.0x106

POPT25
POPT20

4.0x106

POPT15

0.0
500

600

700

800

Wavelength (nm)
Fig. 2. (a) UVvis and (b) PL spectra of pristine P3OT:PCBM (POPT0) and P3OT:PCBM:
TiO2 (POPT) hybrid lms obtained at different TiO2 contents (1025 wt.%).

Fig. 1. AFM images of P3OT:PCBM:TiO2 hybrid lms at different TiO2 contents:


(a) 15 wt.% and (b)20 wt.%.

shown in Fig. 2(a). This shows that P3OT has a maximum absorption
peak at 525 nm. The absorbance at 525 nm increases with the TiO2
content. The P3OT molecules have a more regular arrangement
under the existence of TiO2 NPs, and thus, absorb more light and produce more electron-hole pairs in the active layer. However, decreased
absorbance was observed when the TiO2 content was higher than
20 wt.%. The maximum absorbance was obtained when the TiO2 content in P3OT:PCBM was 15 wt.%. Conversely, PL spectra show that the
maximum emissive peak was at 580 nm, as shown in Fig. 2(b). The
intensity of the emission decreased when the TiO2 NPs were added
to the active layer. The minimum emission occurred when the TiO2
content in the P3OT:PCBM was 15 wt.%. The results indicate that
adding TiO2 can enhance exciton dissociation at the P3OTTiO2 interface because of the production of potential energy gaps between the
P3OT and TiO2. The decreased PL emissive intensity conrms the
mentioned results.
Fig. 3 shows the IPCE spectra of the pristine P3OT:PCBM (POPT0)
and P3OT:PCBM:TiO2 (POPT) hybrid lms obtained at different TiO2
contents (i.e., 1025 wt.%). This shows that adding TiO2 NPs in
P3OT:PCBM can increase the value of IPCE from approximately 11%
to 60% (at 500 nm). Fig. 4 shows the JV curve of the ITO/PEDOT:
PSS/POPT/Ca/Al hybrid solar cell obtained in the dark and when illuminated. Fig. 4(a) shows that the addition of TiO2 NPs caused an increase in the leakage current density of the hybrid solar cells. In
addition, the components of the series resistance increased under
the existence of the TiO2 NPs. Conversely, Fig. 4(b) shows that the
prepared hybrid solar cell had an open circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.47
0.61 V. The value of VOC typically depends on the highest occupied

Y.-Y. Yu, C.-Y. Ciou / Thin Solid Films 544 (2013) 318323

70
60

POPT15

IPCE (%)

50

POPT20
40

POPT10

30

POPT25

POPT0

20
10
0
400

500

600

700

800

Wavelength (nm)
Fig. 3. IPCE spectra of pristine P3OT:PCBM (POCT0) and P3OT:PCBM:TiO2 (POPT) hybrid lms obtained at different TiO2 contents (1025 wt.%).

molecular orbital (HOMO) energy of P3OT and the lowest unoccupied


molecular orbital (LUMO) of PCBM using the following equation [31]:

 

Donor
PCBM
Voc 1=e E
HOMO E
LUMO 0:3 V
The energy difference between the HOMO of the P3OT and the
LUMO of the PCBM was 0.83 eV [32,33]. Therefore, the predicted
value of VOC was 0.53 V, which was close to the experimental values
obtained in this study. Furthermore, the JV characteristic parameters

(a)

100

Current Density ( mA/cm2)

10
1
0.1
0.01
1E-3

POPT 0
POPT 10
POPT 15
POPT 20
POPT 25

1E-4
1E-5
1E-6
1E-7
1E-8
-2.0

-1.5

-1.0

-0.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Voltage (V)

(b)

321

of the VOC, short-circuit current density (JSC), ll factor (FF), and efciency () of the hybrid solar cell with the P3HT:PCBM:TiO2 active layer
obtained at annealing temperature 150 C for 20 min are listed in
Table 1. As shown in Table 1, the best parameters obtained from cell
Al/Ca/PEDOT:PSS/POPT15/ITO was VOC = 0.61 V, JSC = 9.50 mA/cm2,
FF = 34.46%, and = 2.09%. These results show that the optimum
content of TiO2 NPs can effectively enhance the performance of hybrid
solar cells. The TiO2 NPs were randomly distributed in the polymer matrix, forming an interconnected network structure. The homogeneous
distribution was advantageous for both electron and hole carrier transport. However, when the TiO2 content was higher than the optimum
value, the performance of the cells began to decrease because the aggregation of TiO2 NPs hindered the continuous pathways for the charge
carriers [34]. Fig. 5 shows the AC impedance analysis of the hybrid
solar cell with POPT15 active layers obtained at various annealing
temperatures (110 C200 C) under AM1.5 illumination (100 mW/
cm2). Semicircles can help investigate the internal resistance of hybrid
solar cells [22,27]. The diagram clearly shows that the semicircle
diameter of the cells prepared at 150 and 170 C was much less than
those obtained at 110 C, 130 C, and 200 C. This result indicates that
annealing at an optimum temperature can effectively reduce cell resistance and enhance cell performance. Fig. 6 shows the TGA and DSC curves
of the P3OT, indicating that the thermal decomposition (Td) and melting
point (Tm) of the P3OT were nearly 450 C and 180.56 C, respectively.
This was similar to the reported melting point of 187 C and the glass
transition temperature of 100 C in a previous study [35]. Therefore, the
annealing temperature used in this study was less than 200 C. Fig. 7
shows the JSC and FF of the hybrid solar cell with POPT15 active layers
prepared at various annealing temperatures for 20 min under an AM1.5
illumination. Fig. 8 shows the efciency of the hybrid solar cell with
POPT15 active layers prepared at various annealing times for the xed
annealing temperature of 150 C under AM1.5 illumination. These results
show that the optimum annealing temperature and time were 150 C
and 20 min, respectively. This results indicate that optimum annealing
time can improve the nanoscale morphology and reordering of P3OT
molecular chains and thus increase the P3OT crystallinity, hole mobility,
and solar cell efciency [36,37]. Therefore, the best condition for fabricating P3HT: PCBM:TiO2 active layer for the device with the highest
efciency is 15 wt.% TiO2 content, 150 C annealing temperature, and
20 min annealing time. However, it is known that the P3HT-base solar
cells have a better efciency than those fabricated from P3OT [38,39].
It is because that the P3HT is the preferred donor material as it has
better hole mobility than P3OT (10 3 cm2 V1 s 1 for P3HT and
104 cm2 V1 s1 for P3OT) and also have lower band gap (1.9 eV)
enabling absorption in longer wavelength regime. The lower alkyl
chain length in P3HT compared to P3OT increases the electron density
and hence increases the electron donation possibility and favors the

1000

110 C
o
130 C
o
150 C
o
170 C
o
200 C

100
8000
10

-Z''/Ohm

Current Density ( mA/cm2)

10000

POPT0
POPT10
POPT15
POPT20
POPT25

0.1
0.01
1E-3
-2.0

6000
4000
2000
0

-1.5

-1.0

-0.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Volatge (V)
Fig. 4. JV curves of Al/Ca/POPT/PEDOT:PSS/ITO hybrid solar cell obtained at (a) dark
and (b) AM1.5 illumination.

10000

20000

30000

Z'/Ohm
Fig. 5. AC impedance analysis of hybrid solar cell with POPT15 active layer obtained at
different annealing temperatures (110200 C) under AM1.5 illumination.

322

Y.-Y. Yu, C.-Y. Ciou / Thin Solid Films 544 (2013) 318323

(a)

2.5
100
2.0

90

Efficiency (%)

Weight (%)

80
70
60
50

1.5
1.0
0.5

40
30

0.0

20
0

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

0.2

30

40

50

60

adjusting the TiO2 content. The addition of the 15 wt.% TiO2 in


P3OT:PCBM can create continuous pathways for charge carriers. The
results showed that properly increasing the surface roughness of active layers has the advantage of increasing the contact area between
the active layer and electrode, which can reduce the charge transfer
barrier and enhance the performances of hybrid solar cells. Conversely, an optimum annealing treatment can enhance the nanoscale morphology and reordering of P3OT molecular chains, thus increasing
hole mobility and short-circuit current. The best performance of a hybrid solar cell with the structure of Al/Ca/PEDOT:PSS/POPT15/ITO is
VOC = 0.61 V, JSC = 9.50 mA/cm 2, FF = 34.46%, and = 2.09%.

0.0

Heat Flow (Wg-1)

20

Fig. 8. Efciency of hybrid solar cell with POPT15 active layer prepared at different
annealing times for xed annealing temperature 150 C under AM1.5 illumination.

(b) 0.4

-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1.0
o

-1.2

Tm= 180.56 C

-1.4
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Acknowledgment

Temperature (oC)

The authors acknowledge the nancial support of the National


Science Council through project NSC 101-2221-E-131-006-MY3.

Fig. 6. (a) TGA and (b) DSC curve of P3OT.

oxidation. The P3OT still attracts many researchers to investigate their


potential application on the photovoltaic device. It is because P3OT
has a polar thiophene ring and nonpolar side octal chain which have
proved soluble in polar and nonpolar solvents, providing a more exible
choice of either polar or nonpolar matrix polymers.

4. Conclusion
In conclusion, the addition of TiO2 NPs can enhance the efciency
of hybrid solar cells with P3OT:PCBM:TiO2 as an active layer by
50
6
45

5
4

40

35

FF (%)

Jsc (mA/cm2)

10

Annealing Time (min)

Temperature (oC)

2
30
1
25

0
0

50

100

150

200

250

Annealing Temperature (oC)


Fig. 7. JSC and FF of hybrid solar cell with POPT15 active layer prepared at different
annealing temperatures for 20 min under AM1.5 illumination.

References
[1] Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, L. Yu, Adv. Mater. 22 (2010)
E135.
[2] G. Zhao, Y. He, Y. Li, Adv. Mater. 22 (2010) 4355.
[3] Y. He, H.Y. Chen, J. Hou, Y. Li, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 (2010) 1377.
[4] L. Huo, J. Hou, S. Zhang, H.Y. Chen, Y. Yang, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49 (2010) 1500.
[5] Y. Wu, G. Zhang, Nano Lett. 10 (2010) 1628.
[6] J.S. Huang, C.Y. Chou, C.F. Lin, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94 (2010) 182.
[7] M. Zhong, D. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Shi, X. Wang, C. Li, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 96
(2012) 160.
[8] Y. Zhou, M. Eck, C. Veit, B. Zimmermann, F. Rauscher, P. Niyamakom, S. Yilmaz, I.
Dumsch, S. Allard, U. Scherf, M. Kruger, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95 (2011)
1232.
[9] L. Baeten, B. Conings, J.D. Haen, A. Hardy, J.V. Manca, M.K.V. Bael, Sol. Energy
Mater. Sol. Cells 107 (2012) 230.
[10] J. Yang, A. Tang, R. Zhou, J. Xue, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95 (2011) 476.
[11] S.H. Baek, S.B. Kim, J.K. Shin, J.H. Kim, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 96 (2012) 251.
[12] A. Afzal, N. Ciof, L. Sabbatini, L. Torsi, Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 171172 (2012)
25.
[13] M. Wang, Y. Liu, H. Yang, Electrochim. Acta 62 (2012) 424.
[14] K.W. Kim, E.H. Lee, D.Y. Chung, J.K. Moon, H.S. Shin, J.S. Kim, D.W. Shin, Chem.
Eng. J. 200202 (2012) 52.
[15] X. Li, E. Chin, H. Sun, P. Kurup, Z. Gu, Sens. Actuators B 148 (2010) 404.
[16] M. Hua, S. Zhang, B. Pan, W. Zhang, L. Lv, Q. Zhang, J. Hazard. Mater. 211212
(2012) 317.
[17] M.E. Nicho, D. Pea-Salgado, P. Altuzar-Coello, Thin Solid Films 518 (2010) 1799.
[18] H. Ciftci, U. Tamer, React. Funct. Polym. 72 (2012) 127.
[19] Z. Han, Y. Yu, J. Zhang, X. Yang, W. Cao, Synth. Met. 162 (2012) 212.
[20] E.A. Parlak, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 100 (2012) 174.
[21] H. Chang, Y. Liu, H. Zhang, J. Li, J. Electroanal. Chem. 656 (2011) 269.
[22] W. Yu, L. Shen, S. Ruan, F. Meng, J. Wang, E. Zhang, W. Chen, Sol. Energy Mater.
Sol. Cells 98 (2012) 212.
[23] J. Liu, W. Wang, H. Yu, Z. Wu, J. Peng, Y. Cao, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92
(2008) 1403.
[24] S.I. Na, S.S. Kim, W.K. Hong, J.W. Park, J. Jo, Y.C. Nah, T. Lee, D.Y. Kim, Electrochim.
Acta 53 (2008) 2560.
[25] N.J. Gerein, M.D. Fleischauer, M.J. Brett, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94 (2010)
2343.

Y.-Y. Yu, C.-Y. Ciou / Thin Solid Films 544 (2013) 318323
[26] M. Myahkostupov, M. Zamkov, F.N. Castellano, Energy Environ. Sci. 4 (2011) 998.
[27] S. Fazio, J. Guzmn, M.T. Colomer, A. Salomoni, R. Moreno, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 28
(2008) 2171.
[28] C.C. Chen, D.J. Lin, T.M. Don, F.H. Huang, L.P. Cheng, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354
(2008) 3828.
[29] M. Lefebvre, Z. Qi, D. Rana, P.G. Pickup, Chem. Mater. 11 (1999) 262.
[30] A. Keawprajak, P. Piyakulawat, A. Klamchuen, P. Iamraksa, U. Asawapirom, Sol.
Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94 (2010) 531.
[31] M.Y. Chang, Y.F. Chen, Y.S. Tsai, K.M. Chi, J. Electrochem. Soc. 156 (2009) B234.
[32] Y. Zhang, H.L. Yip, O. Acton, S.K. Hau, F. Huang, A.K.Y. Jen, Chem. Mater. 21 (2009)
2598.

323

[33] M.C. Scharber, D. Mhlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A.J. Heeger, C.J.
Brabec, Adv. Mater. 18 (2006) 789.
[34] H.Z. Yu, J.C. Liu, J.B. Peng, Chin. Phys. Lett. 25 (2008) 3013.
[35] M. Drees, R.M. Davis, J.R. Hein, J. Appl. Phys. 97 (2005) 036103.
[36] W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, A.J. Heeger, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15 (2005) 1617.
[37] M. Kaur, A. Gopal, R.M. Davis, J.R. Hein, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93 (2009)
1779.
[38] F. Previti, S. Patane, M. Allegrini, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255 (2009) 9877.
[39] A.T. Mallajosyula, S.S.K. Lyer, B. Mazhari, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48 (2009) 011503.