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SERV1816

March 2006

GLOBAL SERVICE LEARNING


TECHNICAL PRESENTATION

D10T TRACK-TYPE TRACTOR


(RJG529 AND UP)

Service Training Meeting Guide


(STMG)

D10T TRACK-TYPE TRACTOR


(RJG529 AND UP,)
MEETING GUIDE 816

VISUALS AND SCRIPT


AUDIENCE

Level II Service personnel who have knowledge of the principles of machine systems operation,
diagnostic equipment, and procedures for testing and adjusting machine systems and
components.

CONTENT
This presentation discusses the operation of the power train, the steering system, the implement
hydraulic system, the demand fan system, the cooling system, and the Caterpillar Monitoring
and Display System with Advisor on the D10T Track-type Tractor. Also discussed is the
operation of the controls in the operator compartment and the location and identification of the
major components of the C27 ACERT technology engine.

OBJECTIVES
After learning the information in this presentation, the serviceman will be able to:
1. locate and identify all of the major D10T machine components;
2. locate and identify all filters, dipsticks, indicators, fill tubes, drains and test points;
3. locate and identify the major components of the C27 ACERT technology engine;
4. trace the flow of fuel through the C27 engine fuel delivery system;
5. trace the flow of air through the C27 engine air intake system;
6. trace the flow of coolant through the cooling system of the D10T;
7. identify and explain the function/operation of each major component in the hydraulic
demand fan system;
8. trace the flow of oil through the hydraulic demand fan system and explain its operation;
9. identify and explain the function/operation of each major component in the power train
system;
10. trace the flow of oil through the power train hydraulic system and explain its operation;
11. explain the function/operation of each major component in the implement hydraulic
system;
12. trace the flow of oil through the implement hydraulic system and explain its operation;
13. locate and identify all of the major components in the Caterpillar Monitoring and Display
System, with Advisor; and
14. explain the function of each component in the Caterpillar Monitoring and Display
System, with Advisor and explain the system's basic operation at machine start-up.

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REFERENCES
Engine Specifications (C27 Engine) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SENR9937
Engine Systems Operation, Testing & Adjusting (C27 Engine) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SENR9936
Engine Troubleshooting Guide (C27 Engine) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SENR5090
Systems Operation, Testing & Adjusting (Power Train) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RENR7547
Systems Operation, Testing & Adjusting (Hydraulic System) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RENR7971
Systems Operation (Cooling Systems) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RENR8199
Operation and Maintenance Manual (OMM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SEBU7764
Schematic (Hydraulic System) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RENR7531
Schematic (Power Train Oil System) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RENR8168
Schematic (Electrical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RENR8164

PREREQUISITES
Interactive Video Course "Fundamentals of Mobile Hydraulics" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TEMV9001
Interactive Video Course "Fundamentals of Electrical Systems" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TEMV9002
STMG 546 "Graphic Fluid Power Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SERV1546

SUPPLEMENTARY TRAINING MATERIALS


STMG 800 "D10T Track-type Tractor" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SERV1800
"D10T Track-type Tractor - New Product Introduction" (NPI) . . . . . . .SERV7105-02 (V02N01)
STMG 790 "Caterpillar Monitoring and Display System, with Advisor" . . . . . . . . . . .SERV1790
STMG 758 "D10R Track-type Tractor" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SERV1758
Technical Instruction Module "Air Conditioning Principles and Operation" . . . . . . . .SERV2580
Technical Instruction Module "Air Conditioning Service Procedures" . . . . . . . . . . . . .SERV2581

Estimated Time: 8 Hours


Visuals: 144 Slides
Handouts: 9
Form: SERV1816
Date: 03/06

2006 Caterpillar Inc.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................5
OPERATOR'S COMPARTMENT................................................................................................6
CATERPILLAR MONITORING AND DISPLAY SYSTEM WITH ADVISOR .................22
Start-up..................................................................................................................................29
ENGINE......................................................................................................................................34
Fuel Delivery System............................................................................................................63
Engine Air System ................................................................................................................65
Cooling System.....................................................................................................................67
Hydraulic Demand Fan System ............................................................................................71
POWER TRAIN .........................................................................................................................84
Power Train Electronic Control System ...............................................................................85
Power Train Hydraulic System .............................................................................................86
Torque Divider ......................................................................................................................97
Power Shift Transmission ...................................................................................................104
Electronic Steering and Brake Control Valve .....................................................................113
IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM..................................................................................130
Implement Hydraulic System Component Identification ...................................................132
Pilot Hydraulic System .......................................................................................................142
Dozer Control Valve ...........................................................................................................150
Dozer Lift and Tilt Circuits.................................................................................................153
Ripper Control Valve ..........................................................................................................161
Ripper Lift and Tip Circuits................................................................................................163
Dual Tilt Operation .............................................................................................................167
Quick-drop Valve Operation ...............................................................................................173
AutoCarry ...........................................................................................................................179
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM .........................................................................................................185
CONCLUSION.........................................................................................................................189
HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC COLOR CODE.........................................................................190
VISUAL LIST ..........................................................................................................................192
SERVICEMAN'S HANDOUTS...............................................................................................194
Posttest (5 pages) ................................................................................................................198
Instructor's Answer Sheets (for Posttest) ............................................................................203

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D10T TRACK-TYPE TRACT OR


(RJG529 AND UP)

2006 Caterpillar Inc.

1
INTRODUCTION
This presentation discusses the major design features and changes, the component location and
identification, and the systems operation of the D10T Track-type Tractor, Serial Number
RJG529 and up.
The D10T is similar in appearance to the D10R. The operator station incorporates the common
cab, which is also used for the D8T and the D9T Track-type Tractors.
The D10T is powered by the C27 ACERT (Advanced Combustion Emissions Reduction
Technology) electronic engine, which is equipped with a Mechanical Electronic Unit Injection
(MEUI) fuel system and Air to Air After Cooling (ATAAC) for intake air. This engine also
utilizes the A4 Electronic Control Module (ECM) engine control. The C27 engine is a 12cylinder "V" arrangement with a displacement of 27 liters. The C27 is rated at 432 kW (580
horsepower) at 1800 rpm.
Other standard features include a power train hydraulic system using the common top pressure
strategy for operation of the transmission and brakes, an electro-hydraulic demand fan, an
electro-hydraulic implement system, the Advanced MOdular Cooling System (AMOCS)
radiator, and the new Caterpillar Monitoring and Display System with Advisor.
The D10T can also be equipped with optional attachments such as an engine pre-lubrication
system, a cold weather arrangement, a reversing fan and/or fan bypass arrangement, dual tilt
blade control with the Automatic Blade Assist (ABA) feature, and AutoCarry. The D10T can be
ordered ready to accept the Computer Aided Earthmoving System (CAES).

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OPERATOR'S COMPARTMENT
The operator's compartment for the D10T incorporates the "Common Cab" design, which is
used on the D8T, the D9T, and the D10T Track-type Tractors. The cab is eight inches wider
than the cab used for previous track-type tractor models. The cab has wider doors that open 20
further for easier entry and exit. It contains more glass area which allows better overall
visibility for the operator.
The new cab design also includes:
- the Caterpillar Monitoring and Display System with Advisor;
- a new dash with an automotive style instrument cluster; and
- a new right-hand console with redesigned controls for lighting and other machine systems.

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The padded left armrest is adjustable fore and aft using the mechanical sliding lever (1). Pulling
the sliding lever up allows the armrest to be moved to the desired position. Releasing the sliding
lever mechanically locks the armrest into position.
Power height adjustment of the arm rest is controlled using the rocker switch (2). Depressing
and holding the top of the rocker switch raises the armrest height. Depressing and holding the
bottom of the rocker switch lowers the armrest height.
The left and right Finger Tip Control (FTC) steering levers (4) are each connected to a rotary
position sensor (3), which send a PWM signal to the Power Train ECM when they are pulled
rearward. The PWM signals are proportional to the movement of the steering levers.
The status of the steering lever position sensors (percent of duty cycle/percent of lever position)
may be viewed through the Advisor panel (Service/System Status/Steering screens) or by using
Caterpillar Electronic Technician (Cat ET).

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2
3

4
6

The Finger Tip Control (FTC) console is located at the front of the left armrest. The two small
levers allow the operator to control left and right turns. A PWM signal is sent to the Power
Train ECM when the levers are pulled rearward. The Power Train ECM then sends a signal to
the electronic steering clutch and brake control valve, which controls the hydraulic circuits for
the left and right steering clutch and brake pistons. Pulling the left steering lever (1) toward the
rear of machine (approximately one-half the full travel distance) releases the left steering clutch,
which disengages power to the left track. This action will result in a gradual left turn. Pulling
the left steering lever (1) the full travel distance engages the left brake. This action will result in
a sharp left turn. The steering response is directly proportional to the amount of steering lever
movement. The right steering lever (2) operates the same as the left steering lever.
The tractor direction is controlled by rotating the F-N-R direction lever (3). Pushing on the top
of the lever selects the FORWARD direction. Pushing on the bottom of the lever selects the
REVERSE direction. The center position of the lever selects NEUTRAL. Each lever position is
identified with a corresponding detent that holds the lever in place.
Depressing the top yellow button (4) upshifts the transmission one gear range at a time.
Depressing the bottom yellow button (5) downshifts the transmission one gear range at a time.

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The parking brake switch (6) shifts the transmission to FIRST gear NEUTRAL and energizes
the parking brake solenoid and the secondary brake solenoid (as a backup measure) on the
electronic steering clutch and brake valve, which fully engages the brakes.
The status of the F-N-R direction lever position sensor (percent of duty cycle/percent of lever
position), the transmission upshift and downshift switches, and the parking brake switch may be
viewed through the Advisor panel (Service/System Status/Powertrain screens) or by using Cat
ET.
NOTE: When the parking brake is engaged, the secondary brake solenoid is also
energized, as a backup measure.

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1
2

The right console contains the implement controls and most of the controls and switches for
machine systems and functions. The dozer control lever (1) allows the operator to control all of
the blade functions with one lever.
If the machine is equipped with a ripper, the ripper control handle (2) is located to the rear of the
dozer control lever. The ripper control handle allows the operator to control all of the ripper
functions.
Located to the rear of the ripper handle and on the vertical panel of the right console is the rear
action lamp (3), which alerts the operator of a machine system that is operating out of its normal
range. Forward of the action lamp is a 12 volt, switched power adapter (4).
To the right of the dozer control lever is the horn button (5).
The key start switch (6) is located on the vertical panel above the horn button.
The Cat Advisor graphical display module (7) is located forward of the dozer control lever.
Cat Advisor will be discussed later in this presentation.

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3
2
4

5
6

The dozer control lever (1) allows the operator to control all of the blade functions with one
lever. When the lever is moved FORWARD, the blade will LOWER. Moving the lever forward
to a point within 3- 4 of the soft FLOAT detent causes the quick-drop valve to activate.
Moving the lever completely forward to the soft FLOAT detent activates the FLOAT function.
The lever can be returned to the centered position and maintain the FLOAT function. Moving
the lever either forward or rearward from the centered position will deactivate the FLOAT
function. Moving the lever to the rear of the center (HOLD) position causes the blade to
RAISE. Moving the dozer control lever to the right tilts the right side of the blade down.
Moving the lever to the left tilts the left side of the blade down. The FLOAT function may be
disabled through Advisor, using the "Implement Setup" option from the "Settings" menu.
If the machine is equipped with dual tilt, moving the thumb lever (2) to the right allows the
operator to DUMP the blade (PITCH FORWARD). Moving the thumb lever to the left allows
the operator to LOAD the blade (RACK BACK).
The left yellow button (3) allows the operator to activate sequential segments in the Auto Blade
Assist (ABA) cycle and/or the AutoCarry cycle, if equipped with ABA or AutoCarry. The ABA
and/or AutoCarry modes must be armed for this button to perform this function.

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The right yellow button (4) cancels the ABA or AutoCarry cycle. The blade may be controlled
manually at any time during the ABA or AutoCarry cycles.
The trigger switch (not visible) is located on the front of the dozer control lever. The trigger
switch toggles between single tilt and dual tilt modes when it is depressed and held. Releasing
the trigger switch toggles back to the default tilt mode. Either single tilt or dual tilt may be set
as the default tilt mode using Cat Advisor.
The left rocker switch (5) on the panel ahead of the dozer control lever, and below the Advisor
panel, is the ABA switch. It is used to arm the ABA mode. All of the Auto Blade Pitch settings
for LOAD, CARRY, and SPREAD may be configured using Cat Advisor.
The right rocker switch (6) manually activates the fan reversing cycle, if the machine is
equipped with a reversing fan. (The manual fan reversing switch is not installed in illustration
No. 6.)
The status of the ABA switch may be viewed through the Advisor panel (Service/System
Status/Implement screens) or by using Cat ET.
The status of the manual fan reversing switch may be viewed through the Advisor panel
(Service/System Status/Engine screens) or by using Cat ET.
The status of all of the switches and the status of the position sensors (percent of duty
cycle/percent of lever position) used on the dozer control lever may be viewed through the
Advisor panel (Service/System Status/Implement screens) or by using Cat ET.
NOTE: There are three different dozer control levers that may be installed in the D10T,
depending on how the machine is equipped.
The dozer control lever shown in illustration No. 6 is used on machines that are
equipped with dual tilt. Machines equipped with dual tilt also include the ABA feature.
If the machine is not equipped with dual tilt, but is equipped with AutoCarry, the control
lever will look the same, but the thumb rocker switch is not active.
If the machine has neither dual tilt nor AutoCarry (standard single tilt machine), the
dozer control lever will not include the thumb rocker switch or the two yellow mode
buttons. The trigger switch is also not included with the standard single tilt machine.

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The ripper control handle (1) is located to the rear of the dozer control lever. It is similar to the
ripper control handle that is used on the D10R Track-type Tractor. Pulling back on the left side
of the finger switch (2) moves the tip of the ripper SHANK IN. Pulling back on the right side of
the finger switch moves the tip of the ripper SHANK OUT.
At the left of the ripper control handle is the thumb switch (3), which controls RIPPER RAISE
and RIPPER LOWER. Pushing against the top of the thumb switch RAISES the ripper.
Pushing against the bottom of the thumb switch LOWERS the ripper.
Pushing the Auto-Stow button (4) raises the ripper to the maximum height and can move the
ripper tip to the full SHANK IN or full SHANK OUT position, depending on the operator's
settings that can be configured using Cat Advisor. There are three Auto-Stow positions that may
be configured. The three positions are: RIPPER RAISE, RIPPER RAISE/SHANK IN, or
RIPPER RAISE/SHANK OUT.
The status of the AutoStow switch and the status of the position sensors used on the ripper
control handle (percent of duty cycle/percent of lever position) may be viewed through the
Advisor panel (Service/System Status/Implement screens) or by using Cat ET.

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The panel on the outside of the right console contains a number of switches that control various
machine functions. To the immediate right of the key start switch is the High/Low Idle
switch (1).
Just above the High/Low Idle switch is the Implement Lockout switch (2), which disables
implement movement and illuminates the Implement Lockout indicator light in the instrument
cluster when activated. Activating the Implement Lockout switch de-energizes the implement
lockout solenoid which shuts off the flow of pilot oil to the implement control valves. The
implements cannot move with no pilot oil available to the implement control valves.
The AutoShift mode switch (3) activates the AutoShift mode. The AutoShift mode may be
configured using Cat Advisor, or by using Cat ET.
The Auto KickDown mode switch (4) enables the Auto KickDown mode, when activated.
Shift-point sensitivity for the Auto KickDown mode (Low, Medium, and High) may be
configured using Cat Advisor, or by using Cat ET.

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If the machine is equipped with AutoCarry, the AutoCarry mode switch (5) arms the AutoCarry
mode when activated. Blade pitch angles for the LOAD and CARRY segments of the
AutoCarry cycle may be configured using Cat Advisor.
The ripper pin puller switch (6) is used to automatically retract and extend the ripper shank pin,
if the machine is equipped with a single shank ripper.
The four switches (7) at the rear of the console activate all the exterior machine lights.
The status of the High/Low Idle switch may be viewed through the Advisor panel
(Service/System Status/Engine screens) or by using Cat ET.
The status of the AutoShift mode switch and the Auto KickDown mode switch may be viewed
through the Advisor panel (Service/System Status/Powertrain screens) or by using Cat ET.
The status of the Implement Lockout switch and the AutoCarry mode switch may be viewed
through the Advisor panel (Service/System Status/Implement screens) or by using Cat ET.
NOTE: Dual Tilt and Auto Blade Assist must be installed on machine to have Autocarry
functionality.

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5
7

The main fuse panel, the circuit breakers, and the diagnostic connector are located at the bottom
of the left console, inside the left cab door. Opening the hinged door gains access to:
- the air conditioning remote condenser circuit breaker (if equipped - not shown, above) (1)
- the HVAC blower motor circuit breaker (2)
- the diagnostic connector for the Cat ET (3)
- the 12 volt switched power supply (for powering a laptop computer or other devices) (4)
- the 175 amp alternator fuse (5)
- the main electrical fuse panel, using automotive type fuses (6)
A fuse and breaker identification chart (7) is affixed to the inside of the hinged door. The chart
identifies fuse locations and their associated electrical circuits.
Several spare fuses, a spare 175 amp alternator fuse, and a fuse puller tool are also stored inside
the hinged door.
NOTE: The hinge on the panel door is spring loaded and the door may be easily
removed, if necessary.

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10

The HVAC controls and the wiper/washer controls are located overhead, above the right
console. From left to right, these controls are:
- HVAC blower fan speed switch, with four fan speed positions (1)
- HVAC temperature control (2)
- air conditioning selector switch (ON/OFF) (3)
- front windshield wiper/washer control switch (4)
- left cab door wiper/washer control switch (5)
- right cab door wiper/washer control switch (6)
- rear cab window wiper/washer control switch (7)
The wiper/washer control switches allow for intermittent wiper settings and for high/low speed
settings.

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1
5

11
The dash in the new cab contains a sealed instrument cluster, which replaces the quad gauge
module, the speedometer/tachometer module, and the Vital Information Display System (VIDS)
message center module used in the D10R Track-type Tractor. The instrument cluster is a sealed
unit that contains the following four analog gauges:
- hydraulic oil temperature gauge (1)
- engine coolant temperature gauge (2)
- torque converter oil temperature gauge (3)
- fuel level gauge (4)
The instrument cluster also contains the tachometer (5) and up to fifteen indicator lights that
alert the operator of different operational modes or conditions.
The LCD display (6) is positioned below the tachometer. It displays the service hours at the
bottom of the display, the track speed at the upper left, and the selected transmission gear and
direction at the upper right.
The Action Alarm and the 24V-12V power converter are installed behind the storage bin (7).
The dash panel must be removed to access these components.
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The instrument cluster and the new monitoring system will be
discussed in more detail, later in this presentation.

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12
Below the dash is the service brake pedal (1) and the decelerator pedal (2). The service brake
pedal applies the service brakes (both left and right) proportionately with the amount of pressure
applied by the operator. Pedal movement provides an electrical signal to the Power Train ECM
from a rotary position sensor connected to the pedal pivot. The Power Train ECM then signals
the electronically controlled brake valve. The brakes are fully engaged when completely
depressed,.
The smaller pedal on the right is the decelerator pedal. During normal operation, the machine
operates at high idle. Depressing the decelerator pedal decreases the engine rpm by a signal to
the Engine ECM from a rotary position sensor connected to the pedal pivot.
Intermediate engine speeds are attained in the following manner. Set the high/low idle switch to
the HIGH IDLE position, and then depress the decelerator pedal to the desired engine speed.
Press and hold the high idle (rabbit) side of the high/low idle switch for approximately three
seconds. Release the switch to set the intermediate engine speed. The engine speed may then
be reduced from this intermediate engine speed by depressing the decelerator pedal. The engine
speed will return to the intermediate setting when the decelerator pedal is released. The
intermediate engine speed setting may be cancelled by pressing either the high idle (rabbit) or
low idle (turtle) side of the switch again.

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The status of the brake pedal position sensor (percent of duty cycle/percent of pedal position)
and the secondary brake switch may be viewed through the Advisor panel (Service/System
Status/Powertrain screens) or by using Cat ET.
The status of the decelerator pedal position sensor (percent of duty cycle/percent of pedal
position) may be viewed through the Advisor panel (Service/System Status/Engine screens) or
by using Cat ET.

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13
The Power Train ECM (1) and the Implement ECM (2) are located at the rear of the cab. The
Power Train ECM can be accessed by removing the operator seat and the sound panel at the rear
of the cab. The panel under the right console must also be removed to access the Implement
ECM. Other components and service points located here are:
- J1/P1 connector for the Implement ECM (3)
- J2/P2 connector for the Implement ECM (4)
- J1/P1 connector for the Power Train ECM (5)
- J2/P2 connector for the Power Train ECM (6)
- external lighting relays (7)
- 24V DC to 12V DC power converter (attachment) (8)
NOTE: The Implement ECM and Power Train ECM code plugs are tied to the wiring
harness, which is routed through the channel below the ECMs. The 24V to 12V power
converter shown above is used to power accessories other than the standard machine
equipment. It is an attachment that can be ordered from the factory. The optional
Product Link ECM is located above the cab headliner.

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14

CATERPILLAR MONITORING AND DISPLAY SYSTEM, WITH ADVISOR


The monitoring system for the D10T has been upgraded to the Caterpillar Monitoring and
Display System with Advisor. This system is standard equipment for the T-Series Track-type
Tractors.
The major components in the new monitoring system consist of the Advisor graphical display
module (1) and the in-dash instrument cluster (2). The graphical display module has a selfcontained ECM (Advisor ECM).
Cat Advisor allows the operator to configure machine and implement operation and Advisor
display options, and then save them to an operator profile that may be selected whenever the
operator desires.
Advisor also allows the serviceman to configure certain password protected machine functions
and to view system status information for the engine, the power train, the steering, and the
implement systems. The serviceman can also use the Advisor panel to perform calibrations of
the machine and implement controls, the brakes and the transmission, and the steering system.

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CATERPILLAR MONITORING AND DISPLAY SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Implement
ECM

J2

J1

Power
Train
ECM

Key Start
Switch
J2

J1

Engine
ECM

J2

J1

CAN A
Data Link

CAES
Attachments

Product
Link

CAN A Data Link


CAT Data Link
15

20

AUTO

25

10

X100

n/min

Dynamic
Inclination
Sensor

CAN B
Data Link

Advisor

CAN C
Data Link

30

35

2.3

1F

132.1

Instrument
Cluster

Comm
Adapter II

Fuel Level Sensor

Rear
Action Lamp

Action Alarm

ET

Alternator
(R-Terminal)

15

The Caterpillar Monitoring and Display System (CMDS) continuously monitors all machine
systems. CMDS consists of both software and hardware components. The hardware
components consist of the Cat Advisor graphical display module, a sealed instrument cluster, the
Engine ECM, the Implement ECM, the Power Train ECM, the Action Alarm, the rear Action
Lamp, and various switches, sensors, and senders. The CMDS may also include connections to
a Product Link ECM, and/or Computer Aided Earthmoving System (CAES).
The CMDS components communicate with each other and with electronic controls on the
machines components through the Cat Data Link and through Controller Area Network (CAN)
Data Links. A machine with standard equipment uses the Cat Data Link, the CAN A Data Link,
and the CAN C Data Link. With AutoCarry attachments (an option with ), CMDS will also
include a CAN B Data Link (shown in dashed lines, above) and a CAN D Data Link (not
shown, above).
Advisor constantly monitors all of the ECMs, the alternator R-Terminal, the system input
voltage, and the fuel level sensor. Advisor then drives the instrument cluster and activates its
mode and alert indicators, its displays, and its gauges. This information may also be accessed
and displayed on Advisors screens or with Cat ET.

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INSTRUMENT CLUSTER
Auto KickDown
Activated (5)
Winch
Freespool or
Release (4)
Winch
Low Speed
Lock (3)
Winch
Disabled (2)

AutoCarry
Charging
Parking
AutoShift Brake On (7) System Fault (9)
Active (11)
Activated (6)
Action
ABA
Lamp (8)
Enabled (10)

15

Single Tilt
Enabled (14)

25

10

AUTO

n/min

X100

Engine
Prelube
Activated (1)

Float
Active (13)

20

AUTO

Implement
Lockout
Activated (12)

30

35

2.3

1F
132.1

Dual Tilt
Enabled (15)
Not
Used

Not
Used

16
The instrument cluster may contains up to fifteen LED indicators that show the operator the
status of a number of machine functions. The LEDs are used to indicate the following
functions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Engine pre-lube activated (active only if equipped with a pre-lube system)


Winch Disabled (not functional for the D10T)
Winch Low Speed Lock (not functional for the D10T)
Winch Freespool or Release (not functional for the D10T)
Auto KickDown Activated
AutoShift Activated
Parking Brake ON
Action Lamp
Charging System Fault (abnormal output at the "R" terminal)
Auto Blade Assist Enabled (active only if the machine is equipped with ABA)
AutoCarry Active (active only if the machine is equipped with AutoCarry)
Implement Lockout Activated
FLOAT Active
Single Tilt Enabled
Dual Tilt Enabled (active only if the machine is equipped with dual tilt)

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Text Reference

1
2

17

The heart of the CMDS is the graphical display module, which is located on the right console,
ahead of the dozer control lever. The graphical display module is referred to as Advisor.
Advisor consists of the display screen (1), the navigational buttons (2), and an internal,
self-contained ECM (not visible).
Advisor is used to access, to monitor, and to display operating characteristics, diagnostics and
events, and modes of operation. Advisor is also used to view and change operator preferences
and parameters, much like the Vital Information Display System (VIDS) on D10R (with serial
numbers starting AKT) and D11R Track-type Tractors.
Advisor also allows the serviceman to troubleshoot and adjust machine systems by:
- viewing active and logged codes and events, and clearing logged codes;
- viewing the status of machine systems and their components; and
- performing calibrations for the steering, the implement, and the power train systems.

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Text Reference

ADVISOR GRAPHICAL DISPLAY MODULE


Gear / Direction
Display Area

Dozer Mode
Display Area

Auto-Shift Mode
Display Area
(1) Left / Up Arrow Button

1F

Float

(2) Right / Down Arrow Button

1F-2R

Home Menu
Performance

(3) Back Button


(Delete / Backspace Button)

Settings
Operator
Service

"More Options" Icon

OK

Data Display / Menu Selection


Display Area

(4) Home Button

(5) OK Button
(Enter / Select Button)

18

Cat Advisor is the interface between the operator or serviceman and the CMDS. Information is
displayed on a backlit LCD screen.
The top portion of the screen is called the "Top Banner" and displays vital machine information
at all times. The Top Banner may display different information from machine to machine,
depending on the attachments and the machine configuration. The banner displays:
- Transmission Gear and Direction, at the left;
- Dozer Mode, in the center;
- AutoShift Mode, at the right
The Transmission Gear and Direction display area shows the transmission gear and direction
that is currently selected. The display may show any of the following transmission gear and
direction combinations: "1F, 2F, 3F, 1R, 2R, 3R, or 1N."

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Text Reference

The Dozer Mode display area can display a number of messages which show the current dozer
mode, the current segment during the Auto Blade Assist (ABA) cycle or AutoCarry cycle, or the
status of the implement or the implement system. The Dozer Mode display area may show any
of the following messages:
- Carry (CARRY segment active - blade is in CARRY position)
- Spread (blade is moving from CARRY to a preset SPREAD position)
- Ready To Return (blade is at end of SPREAD segment - gear is Neutral)
- Return (blade has reset - not in Forward gear)
- Ready To Carry (blade is loading, next move will position for CARRY)
- Manual (Manual blade mode active - ABA or AutoCarry not armed)
- Not Reset (ECM does not know blade position)
- Resetting (blade automatically moving to find load position)
- Float (blade is in FLOAT - dozer control lever is in FLOAT position)
- Low Engine Speed (engine speed too low for ABA/AutoCarry modes)
- Wrong Gear (wrong gear for AutoCarry mode - shift the transmission to 1F)
- Service (displayed during implement calibrations)
- Implements Off (Implement Shutoff is ON, or active)
- Stowing Ripper (ripper moving to stow position - AutoStow activated)
The AutoShift Mode display area shows the current AutoShift Mode that is selected, using the
AutoShift Mode selector switch on the right operator console. Depending on how the tractor is
configured, it can display "1F-2R," "2F-2R," "2F-1R," or "Inactive," if no AutoShift Mode is
selected.
The bottom portion of the Advisor display screen is the Data Display/Menu Selection Display
Area. It displays numerous menus and sub-menus used for navigation from screen to screen. It
may also display operator warnings, system information, and system status, depending on what
menu or sub-menu selection has been made.
A "More Options" icon may also appear on the display screen. This is an indicator that more
information is available for selecting or displaying from the current highlighted position. This
icon may point down, up, left, or right. Using the Arrow Button that corresponds to the "More
Options" icon will allow the operator or serviceman to move to and/or view the additional
information.
At the right of the display screen is a column of five User Interface buttons. These buttons are
used to navigate through the numerous Advisor screens, to make menu selections, or to enter
data.

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Text Reference

The five User Interface buttons, from top to bottom, are:


1. LEFT/UP Arrow button - This button is used for screen navigation or data entry. It can be
used:
- to scroll up a vertical list or scroll left across a horizontal list;
- to decrease a setting value, such as decreasing brightness/contrast.
2. DOWN/RIGHT Arrow button - This button is also used for screen navigation or data entry.
It can be used:
- to scroll down a vertical list or scroll right across a horizontal list;
- to increase a setting value, such as increasing brightness/contrast.
3. BACK button - This button is used:
- to go up one level in a stair-step (hierarchical) menu structure, or to return to the
previous screen, much the same as the BACK button is used in Windows Internet
Explorer;
- as a backspace or cancel key when the operator or serviceman wishes to delete entered
characters.
4. HOME button - This button is used to return to the home menu screen, regardless of what
screen is currently displayed.
5. OK button - This button is used:
- to make selections from a screen;
- to confirm an entry, such as a password, or for saving an operator profile entry.
Navigation through the menus and sub-menus is accomplished by using the ARROW buttons to
highlight the desired selection, then pressing the OK button. The ARROW buttons are also used
to highlight a mode or to set a parameter. Pressing the OK button selects that option. (Example:
Choosing either "Enabled" or "Disabled" for the FLOAT option in the Implement Settings
menu.)
NOTE: The column of five buttons at the left of the display screen currently have no
function.

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1F

Float

Text Reference

1F-2R

Recall Operator Settings


Default Settings
Activated in 10 Seconds
Or
Press
OK

To Recall
Previous Settings

OK

19

Start-up
Advisor will perform a self-test routine at machine start-up (key ON). The preliminary screen
(illustration No. 19) displays, "Default Settings Activated in 10 Seconds Or Press OK To Recall
Previous Settings." To use the operator profile (settings) that were active the last time the
machine was operated, the operator must press the OK button.
Default settings (or factory settings) will be loaded into Advisor's memory if no action is taken.
If the operator wishes to use an operator profile (settings) other than the profile last used or the
default settings, another operator profile may be selected from the "Operator" menu selection,
from the Home Menu.
If there are any active faults in any of the machine systems (see illustration No. 20) they will be
displayed after the preliminary screen has timed out.

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Float

1F
Engine ECM
MID 36

ID 164-3

Text Reference

1F-2R

Injection Actuation Pressure Sensor


Voltage Above Normal Shorted High

ACKNOWLEDGE
PRESS THE OK KEY TO ACKNOWLEDGE

OK

20

The illustration above shows a "pop-up" warning screen generated by the Engine ECM and
reported by Advisor. There may be more warning screens if there are any other active faults or
events reported to Advisor by the Engine ECM, or any other ECM on the machine. Advisor will
scroll through all of the warning screens generated by all of the active faults and events. Each of
these warning screens must be individually acknowledged by pressing the "OK" button.
Each of these warning screens contains the following information:
- The reporting ECM (in text)
- The reporting MID (module identifier, or ECM code)
- The ID (Component ID and Failure Mode Identifier)
- A text message stating the failed component
- A text message stating the failure mode of the component
- A prompt for the operator to acknowledge the warning
Acknowledging these warnings does not clear them from the reporting ECM's memory.
Acknowledging them only clears them from the screen, or "snoozes" them. They may re-occur
after a pre-determined amount of time, depending on their severity.
The CMDS provides three Warning Category Indicators (levels), utilizing "pop-up" warning
messages on Advisor's screen (see above), the front Action Light (contained in the instrument
cluster), the rear Action Lamp, and an Action Alarm.

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Text Reference

The three warning category indicators and the resulting combinations of the Action Lamps and
the Action Alarm are:
- Warning Category Indicator 1: A warning appears on the Advisor screen, describing
the event or diagnostic failure. The forward Action Lamp will illuminate to solid amber.
The warning can be acknowledged (snoozed) by pressing the OK button, and will not
reappear for several hours, depending on the failure or event (or if the event or failure does
not reoccur).
- Warning Category Indicator 2: A warning appears on the Advisor screen, describing
the event or diagnostic failure. The Action Light and Lamp will flash red, alerting the
operator to change the machine operation mode. The warning can be acknowledged
(snoozed) by pressing the OK button, and will not reappear for one hour, depending on the
event or failure (or if the event or failure does not reoccur) and the Action Light and Lamp
will stop flashing.
- Warning Category Indicator 3: A warning appears on the Advisor screen, describing
the event or diagnostic failure. The Action Light and Lamp will flash red, and the Action
Alarm will pulse to alert the operator to shut down the machine. The warning can be
acknowledged (snoozed) and will continue to appear every five minutes. The Action
Light and Lamp will continue to flash red and the Action Alarm will continue to pulse
after the operator acknowledges the warning.
NOTE: If the Warning Category Indicator (fault) is related to an implement control
failure, Advisor will prompt the operator to go to "Limp Home Mode." Choosing YES
at this prompt will display the Limp Home Screen. The Limp Home screen allows the
operator to use Advisor to slowly and incrementally move the implements to a position
that will allow the machine to be moved for service work. Gear selections for the
transmission in Limp Home Mode will be limited to first gear forward, or first gear
reverse.
NOTE: At machine start-up (key ON), the LCD display in the Instrument Cluster will
briefly display the Instrument Cluster's part number. Although the T-Series tractors all
have a common cab the Instrument Cluster is different for the D8T, the D9T, and the
D10T, this is due mainly to differences in engine rpm between these models.

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Text Reference

PERFORMANCE SCREEN 1 OF 2

Float

1F

1F-2R

Performance

1 of 2

Engine
Coolant Temp

Engine
Speed

Hydraulic Oil
Temperature

TCO
Temperature

87.8 C

n/min

21

1410 RPM

76.6 C

68.8 C
Next

OK

PERFORMANCE SCREEN 2 OF 2

Float

1F

Performance

1F-2R

2 of 2

Engine Oil
Pressure

Air Inlet
Temperature

Fuel Level

System
Voltage

506.0 kPa
75 %

Previous

22

40 C

26.3 Volts

OK

The "Performance 1 of 2" screen will appear on the display (illustration No. 21) after any
warning screens have been acknowledged. The Performance screens are the default machine
operation screens. Pressing the right ARROW button will display the "Performance 2 of 2"
screen (illustration No. 22).
Using the left and right ARROW buttons allows the operator to switch back and forth between
the two Performance screens. Vital information about the machine's major systems may be
easily monitored using these two screens and the in-dash Instrument Cluster.

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Text Reference

The two Performance screens display real-time text information for the following:
- Engine Coolant Temperature
- Engine Speed
- Hydraulic Oil Temperature
- Torque Converter Oil Temperature
- Engine Oil Pressure
- Air Inlet Temperature (engine intake air temperature)
- Fuel Level
- System Voltage
The Home Menu may be displayed from any screen by pressing the HOME button.
NOTE: A simple reset mode has been added to the most recent software for Advisor if
the screen contrast, the screen backlight, or the display language is set such that the
operator or serviceperson cannot see or read the display, . Use the following procedure
to correct these problems:
1. Set the key switch to OFF and then back to ON.
2. Wait approximately 15 seconds.
3. If the Action Lamp is illuminated or flashing, press the OK button a number of times
until the Action Lamp is no longer illuminated. If the Action Lamp is not illuminated,
proceed to step 4.
4. Press and hold the OK button for five seconds.
Performing this procedure will cause the brightness and contrast to be reset to 50%, the
screen will display the language selection menu, and the operator or serviceperson may
then select the desired language.
The above information supercedes the Service Training publication SERV1790,
"Caterpillar Monitoring and Display System with Advisor for Track-type Tractors."

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: For more detailed information about the new monitoring
system with Advisor and how to access and use all of the options, refer to SERV1790
(STMG 790), "Caterpillar Monitoring and Display System with Advisor for Track-type
Tractors."
SERV1790 also contains several structured, hands-on lab exercises that require the
students to create operator profiles, change machine settings and save them, access and
record machine systems status information, and perform several machine system
calibrations.
STMG 790 will provide a thorough understanding and a practical application of this

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Text Reference

23
ENGINE
The C27 ACERT technology engine is new for the D10T Track-type Tractor. The engine is
equipped with Mechanical Electronic Unit Injection (MEUI), and an electro-hydraulic demand
fan system.
The C27 engine also utilizes the A4 Engine Electronic Control Module (ECM), which is air
cooled. The C27 is rated at 432 kW (580 horsepower) at 1800 rpm.
The C27 engine is a 12 cylinder "V" arrangement with a displacement of 27 liters. Many of the
service points for the C27 have been located on the left side of the engine. The fuel filter and
coolant SOS valve are located at the right front of the engine compartment.
The C27 ACERT engine meets U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier III
Emissions Regulations for North America and Stage III European Emissions Regulations.
Engine oil and filter change intervals have been increased to 500 hours, under most operating
conditions. Engine load factor, sulfur levels in the fuel, lube oil quality, and operating altitude
may negatively affect the extended oil change intervals. Regular engine oil samplings (SOS)
must be performed every 250 hours to confirm oil cleanliness.

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Text Reference

The C27 is mechanically similar to the 3412E engine used in the D10R, except that a camshaft
is now located in each cylinder head, instead of a single camshaft in the engine block. The gear
trains for the camshafts have been moved to the rear of the engine. The Engine ECM and its
software, the cams, the injectors, the crankshaft, the piston rods, the pistons, and a few other
components are also different, reflecting the ACERT technology.
An elctro-hydraulic demand fan is standard equipment for the D10T and may be equipped with
an automatic/manual fan reversing feature for those applications requiring it.
The engine performance specifications for the D10T Track-type Tractor are:
- Serial No. Prefix: EHX
- Performance Spec: 0K4650 (for North America)
- Max Altitude: 3657 m (12,000 ft.)
- Gross Power: 483 kW (648 hp)
- Net Power: 433 kW (580 hp)
- Full Load rpm: 1800
- High Idle rpm (full throttle, neutral): 2010 10 (for North America), 1970 10 (for E.U.)
- Low Idle rpm: 700
NOTE: The C27 engine uses a "Ground Speed Governor" software strategy to prevent
engine overspeed and to maintain a constant speed in downhill and uphill situations
when there is little or no load on the blade. The Engine ECM constantly monitors
engine speed and torque converter output speed to make the following adjustments.
- the Engine ECM will automatically lower engine rpm to maintain the correct torque
converter output speed if the engine is at high idle and the machine is traveling downhill.
The Engine ECM will automatically increase engine rpm to maintain the correct torque
converter output speed, up to a maximum of 2000 engine rpm, in uphill climb situations.
- This ground speed strategy is ignored in uphill situations if the operator has set an
intermediate engine speed using the decelerator and the high-low idle switch.
NOTE: On machines built for the E.U., the torque converter output speed target is
approximately 5% lower than those built for North America, due to more stringent noise
requirements. For EU market machines the ground speed target is a bit slower also.
The reduced ground speed target will result in slightly slower speeds when "roading" the
machine and when backing up.

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Text Reference

5
1
7
6

24

Major components and service points accessible from the left side of the engine are:
- air conditioning compressor (1)
- two engine oil filters and associated service points (discussed later in this presentation) (2)
- engine oil dipstick (3)
- left side air filter (4)
- left side gear train lube line (engine oil) (5)
- starter (6)
- left side turbocharger (7)

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Text Reference

7
6

25
Major components and service points accessible from the right side of the engine are:
- Engine ECM (1)
- secondary fuel filter (2)
- alternator (3)
- external engine oil cooler (4)
- twin powertrain oil coolers (the engine oil cooler is behind the powertrain oil coolers) (5)
- right side turbocharger (6)
- right side gear train lube line (engine oil) (7)
- right side air filter (8)
NOTE: The exhaust manifolds, the turbine side of the turbochargers, and the exhaust
pipes connecting the turbochargers to the mufflers are covered with "soft wrap" insulation,
or heat shields. This insulation is used to prevent pre-heating the outside air that is drawn
in through the engine compartment doors by the hydraulic demand fan. This air is used
for cooling purposes (the radiator, the hydraulic oil cooler, and the ATAAC cores).

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Text Reference

4
5
3
6

1
7

26
The 10-micron primary fuel filter (1) and water separator (7) are located in the compartment at
the rear of the left fender. The primary fuel filter is mounted to the front of the fuel tank. The
primary fuel filter contains a water separator which removes water from the fuel. Water in a
high pressure fuel system can cause premature failure of the fuel injectors due to corrosion and
lack of lubricity. Water should be drained from the water separator daily, using the drain valve
located at the bottom of the filter.
Fuel is drawn from the primary fuel filter by the fuel pump (shown later) and is directed to the
secondary fuel filter (not shown). The secondary fuel filter removes contaminants that could
damage the fuel injectors. The fuel filters should be replaced regularly, according to the
guidelines in the D10T Operation and Maintenance Manual (SEBU7764), to ensure that clean
fuel is always delivered to the fuel injectors.
The electric fuel priming pump (3) is integrated into the primary fuel filter base. It is activated
by activating the electric fuel priming pump switch (4). The fuel priming pump is used to fill
the fuel filters after they have been replaced. The fuel priming pump is capable of forcing the
air from the entire fuel system.

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Text Reference

Activate the priming pump and crack open the fuel line fitting at the outlet of the primary fuel
filter after any fuel filters have been replaced to purge air from the primary fuel filter, the fuel
lines, and the priming pump. (Always place a suitable container under the primary fuel filter to
collect any fuel that escapes through the fitting while purging air from the system.)
Trapped air and some fuel will escape through the fuel line fitting as the pump primes itself.
When the fitting drips only fuel, the fitting should be re-tightened. Continue operating the
priming pump until it is determined that all air has been forced from the entire fuel system from
the priming pump back to the fuel tank.
The priming pump produces enough pressure to force fuel past the bypass valve in the fuel
transfer pump and past the fuel pressure regulator.
Note that the main disconnect switch must be turned to the ON position and the key start switch
must be in the OFF position for the fuel priming pump to operate.
Shown in illustration No. 26 is the fuel shutoff valve (2). When the shutoff valve handle is
moved to a position that is perpendicular to the fuel line, the flow of fuel from the fuel tank to
the primary fuel filter is shut OFF.
The fuel supply line (6) connects the fuel tank to the fuel priming pump and the primary fuel
filter.
The fuel return line (5) directs unused fuel from the fuel pressure regulator back to the fuel tank.

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Text Reference

6
7

27

The fuel transfer pump (1) is located on top of the engine, at the rear. The fuel transfer pump is
installed in the front side of the timing gear cover and is driven by a gear in the rear gear train.
The fuel transfer pump draws fuel from the primary fuel filter through a fuel line connected to
the pump inlet port (3). The fuel transfer pump forces the fuel through the pump outlet (2) to
the secondary fuel filter which is located at the right front of the engine.
Also shown in illustration No. 27 is the fuel pressure regulator manifold (4). Unused fuel from
the fuel gallery in the left cylinder head enters the manifold at the top inlet (6). Unused fuel
from the fuel gallery in the right cylinder head enters the manifold at the rear inlet (5). The fuel
pressure regulator is a check valve (8) that is installed in the front of the manifold. The fuel
pressure regulator maintains the fuel pressure at approximately 550 kPa (80 psi), with a full load
on the engine (torque converter stall).
Fuel that flows past the fuel pressure regulator is directed back to the fuel tank through a fuel
line connected to the manifold outlet port (7).

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Text Reference

5
2

28

The 4-micron secondary fuel filter (1) is located at the right front of the engine. The fuel
temperature sensor (5), the fuel pressure sensor (4), the fuel pressure test port (3), and the fuel
pressure differential switch (2) are installed in the secondary fuel filter base. The fuel filter
pressure differential switch compares the filter inlet pressure to the filter outlet pressure. This is a
normally closed switch. A preset pressure differential between the filter inlet and the filter outlet
will cause the switch to open and the Advisor panel will warn the operator, "Fuel Filter Is
Plugged - Change Fuel Filter Soon."
Engine performance may be degraded when the fuel flow is restricted and the fuel injectors may
be starved of fuel. This condition, if ignored, could cause damage to the fuel injectors.
The fuel pressure test port (3) will allow the serviceperson to test supply fuel pressure. The fuel
test port is installed at the outlet of the secondary fuel filter.
The status of the fuel pressure sensor, the fuel temperature sensor, and the filter pressure
differential switch may be viewed through the Advisor panel (Service/System Status/Engine
screens) or by using Cat ET.

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Text Reference

29

The two engine oil filters (1) are located at the left front of the engine. The engine oil sampling
(SOS) port (5) is located on the front of the outer filter base. The SOS port provides an oil
sample before the oil is filtered.
The engine oil pressure test port (2) is located behind the filters and is positioned at the oil filter
outlet (after oil filtering).
Also shown in illustration No. 29 is the engine oil dipstick (3).

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Text Reference

4
1

30

A number of engine sensors are located on top of the engine, near the front. These sensors are:
- left intake manifold air pressure (boost) sensor (1)
- engine coolant temperature sensor (2)
- atmospheric pressure sensor (3)
- right intake manifold air pressure (boost) sensor (4)
- intake air temperature sensor (5)
Boost pressure (both left and right) may be read on the status screen in Cat ET. The boost
pressure is a calculation of the difference between the signal from the atmospheric pressure
sensor and the signal from the intake manifold air pressure sensor. The signals from both the
left and the right intake manifold air pressure sensors are used by the Engine ECM to calculate
boost for the left and the right cylinder banks. A failure of an intake manifold air pressure
sensor can cause the Engine ECM to perceive a "zero boost" condition, resulting in a reduction
in power by as much as 60%.
The status of all five of these engine sensors may be viewed through the Advisor panel
(Service/System Status/Engine screens) or by using Cat ET. The intake manifold air
temperature may also be viewed on the Advisor panel in the Performance 2 screen.

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Text Reference

NOTE: The Engine ECM only uses the right intake manifold air pressure sensor for
calculating the air-to-fuel ratio. Engine derate will occur if the right intake manifold air
pressure sensor fails or goes out of range. This engine derate is caused by the Engine
ECM's inability to calculate the air-to-fuel ratio and/or boost pressure.
The left intake air pressure sensor is only used to calculate "boost" pressure for the left
cylinder bank. Cat ET may be used to compare the left and right intake air pressures for
diagnostic and troubleshooting purposes, such as turbocharger failure or air filter
restriction.
NOTE: The signal from the atmospheric pressure sensor is used by the Engine ECM to
calculate a number of pressure measurements in most electronic engines. The signal
from the atmospheric pressure sensor is compared to the signal from the other engine
pressure sensors to determine the following:
- ambient (absolute) pressure is the atmospheric pressure;
- boost pressure is determined by comparing the atmospheric pressure (sensor) to the intake
manifold air pressure (sensor);
- engine oil (gauge) pressure is determined by comparing the atmospheric pressure (sensor)
to the engine oil pressure (sensor);
- air filter restriction is determined by comparing the atmospheric pressure (sensor) to the
turbo inlet pressure (sensor);
- fuel (gauge) pressure is determined by comparing the atmospheric pressure (sensor) to the
fuel pressure (sensor).
The engine ECM uses the signal from the atmospheric pressure sensor to set a reference
point for calibration of the other pressure sensors on the engine. If the key start switch
is turned to the ON position for at least five seconds, the engine ECM will interrogate all
engine sensors.

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Text Reference

31

32
3

The primary speed/timing (crankshaft speed) sensor (1) is located at the lower left front of the
engine, behind the crankshaft damper. This sensor provides engine speed information to the
Engine ECM. This information is also shared with the Power Train ECM through the CAT data
link, eliminating the need for an engine output speed sensor.
The starter (2) is installed on the front side of the flywheel housing, at the left rear of the engine.
A second starter can be installed in the same place on the right side of the engine if the tractor is
equipped with a cold weather arrangement. The ports for inserting the 9S9082 engine turning
tool and the TDC timing pin (not visible) are also located on the front side of the flywheel
housing, above the starter mounting port.
An engine block heater element (3) is an attachment installed on tractors with a cold weather
arrangement. A second block heater element would be installed on the right side of the engine,
in the same location if the machine is equipped with the cold weather arrangement.

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Text Reference

33
1

2
4

34
3

The ecology drain (1) for engine oil is located on the front of the engine oil pan. It may be
accessed through a plate in the bottom guard, directly below the drain valve.
The engine pre-lube pump (3) is mounted to the inside of the left frame rail, adjacent to the
engine oil pan (4), if the machine is equipped with this attachment. The engine pre-lube
pump (3) is driven by an electric motor (2). The pre-lube pump is no longer driven by the
starter motor, as in previous models.
The engine pre-lube strategy prevents premature wear of critical engine components by ensuring
a minimum engine oil pressure throughout the engine oil system before the engine starts.
The engine prelube pump may run for a short time before the starter engages when the key start
switch is moved to the START position,.

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Text Reference

The Engine ECM determines when to activate the engine pre-lube pump by monitoring the
engine oil pressure sensor. The Engine ECM will activate the pre-lube pump until the oil
pressure reaches 30 kPa (4.4 psi), if the oil pressure is already less than 30 kPa (4.4 psi), or for a
maximum of 45 seconds, whichever occurs first.
Turning the key start switch to the START position, back to the OFF position, and then back to
the START position within one second will allow the starter to engage without cycling the
engine pre-lube pump.
NOTE: Advisor will inform the operator if the engine pre-lube routine is activated.
Advisor will instruct the operator to hold the key start switch in the "START" position
until the engine cranks and starts.

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Text Reference

1
4

35
3

36

5
7

The starter disconnect switch (1) and the main electrical disconnect switch (2) may be accessed
by opening a spring-hinged door, located between the left engine compartment door and the
front step on the left fender. The starter disconnect switch will disable the starter(s) when the
switch is set to the OFF position. The auxiliary start connector (4) is installed in this same
compartment. A block heater receptacle (3) is also located here if the machine is equipped with
the cold weather arrangement. (A 120V AC or a 240V AC version of the block heater is
available.)
The ether aid solenoid (5) and the ether bottle mounting bracket (6) are located beneath the
electrical disconnect switches (the ether canister is not installed). When the ether aid solenoid is
energized, ether is injected into the intake manifold inlet tube through the small diameter line (7)
to aid in starting the engine in cold weather.

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Text Reference

The Engine ECM controls ether injection when the conditions warrant its use. The Engine ECM
monitors the intake air temperature sensor and the coolant temperature sensor to determine when
ether injection is required. Ether injection will be activated if the temperature of the engine
coolant or the intake air is less than 0 C (32 F), AND the engine speed is greater than 35 rpm,
but less than 700 rpm (low idle speed). Once the engine starts and the low idle speed is attained,
the Engine ECM then looks to the ether injection map (contained in the engine software) to
determine how long and how often to provide ether injection. The extended ether injection
period helps attain emissions regulations by eliminating white smoke when a cold engine is first
started.
The status of the ether aid solenoid may be viewed through the Advisor Panel (Service/System
Status/Engine screens) or by using Cat ET.

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Text Reference

2
1

37

3
4

38

The coolant temperature regulator (thermostat) housing (1) is located at the right front of the
engine. Two thermostats are contained in the thermostat housing. Jacket water is diverted
directly back to the jacket water pump through the bypass tube (3) when the jacket water is cold
and the thermostats have not yet opened. The jacket water pump forces coolant through the
engine oil cooler and the power train oil coolers before the coolant enters the engine block and
then the cylinder heads.
Jacket water (coolant) samples (SOS) may be taken at the coolant sampling port (5), which is
identified by the green protective cap. Coolant samples should be taken only when the engine is
at operating temperature and the coolant is circulating through the entire system.

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Text Reference

Always use a clean, lint-free towel to clean the test port prior to taking a fluid sample. Always
replace the protective cap after a fluid sample has been taken. Doing so will prevent damage to
the test port and lessen the likelihood of introducing contamination into subsequent fluid
samples
The jacket water pump (4) is also located at the right front of the engine, below the thermostat
housing.
The engine oil fill tube (2) is located at the right front of the engine above the oil filter base and
near the oil level dipstick.

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Text Reference

2
3

39

The air cooled A4 Engine ECM (1) is installed above the right front valve cover. The J1/P1
connector (2) is a 70-pin connector and the J2/P2 connector (3) is a 120-pin connector.
There is no timing calibration probe connector on the C27 engine. The timing calibration probe
is permanently installed in the engine flywheel housing (shown later). The probe is also
permanently wired into an engine wiring harness, so that no cable is needed to connect the probe
with the Engine ECM.
NOTE: The Engine ECM is not fuel cooled. The Engine ECM is air cooled.

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Text Reference

40

The engine oil pressure sensor (1) is installed in the top front of the right cylinder head, between
the front valve cover and the front timing gear cover.
The secondary (camshaft) speed/timing sensor (2) is installed in the rear of the timing gear
cover, at the right front of the engine. This sensor reads the pick-up teeth on the rear face of the
cam balance gear. The balance gear is attached to the front of the right camshaft.
The fuel supply line for the right cylinder head (3) is also visible above.
The status of the engine oil pressure sensor may be viewed through the Advisor Panel
(Service/System Status/Engine screen and the Performance 2 screen) or by using Cat ET.

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Text Reference

41

4
3

42

The turbo inlet pressure sensor (1) is installed in the rear of the manifold that connects the left
and right air filter canisters. The Engine ECM compares the signal from the turbo inlet air
pressure sensor to the signal from the atmospheric air pressure sensor and calculates the
difference between the two pressures. If this pressure differential is too great, it can indicate that
the air filter is clogged and needs to be replaced. Too great a pressure differential (air
restriction) will cause the engine to derate and will degrade engine performance.
The "Crank-Without-Inject" connector and plugs (2) are fastened to the wiring harness below
the right air filter canister.

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Text Reference

Removing the plug (4) from the "Crank-Without-Inject" connector (3) and inserting the plug at
the right (5) will electronically disable the fuel injectors. This allows the engine to be turned
(cranked) using the starter, but without the engine starting. No fuel will be injected into the
cylinders in this mode. The engine cannot start and run.
The status of the turbo inlet pressure sensor and the "Crank-Without-Inject" status may be
viewed through the Advisor panel (Service/System Status/Engine screens) or through Cat ET.
NOTE: Before engaging the starter to turn the engine always ensure that the either aid
solenoid is unplugged. Even though the fuel injectors are electronically disabled, the
Engine ECM will still allow ether injection on a cold engine. The engine can start and
run with ether injection.

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Text Reference

43

2
4
3

44

The external engine oil cooler is an oil-to-water type cooler. Engine oil flows from the engine
oil pump into the rear of the engine oil cooler (1) where it flows around a tube bundle that is
filled with coolant. Some lube oil flows through the cooler bypass tube (not visible) when the
oil is cold. Engine oil flows to the front of the cooler where it exits through the cooler bonnet
and is routed to the oil filters (shown earlier). From the oil filters, the engine oil enters an oil
galley in the engine block where it is used for lubrication purposes. Coolant from the jacket
water pump flows into the front of the cooler through the coolant inlet (5). The engine oil cooler
is in parallel with the two power train oil coolers (2).
The hot coolant supply line to the cab heater connects to the lower water shutoff valve (3). The
return coolant line from the cab heater connects to the upper water shutoff valve (4).

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Text Reference

The coolant flow switch (6) is installed in the inlet bonnet of the external engine oil cooler.
The timing calibration probe (7) is installed at the factory. The probe is located above the
mounting position of the right side starter, on the front of the flywheel housing (forward of the
right rear engine mounting pad). The probe is permanently wired into the Engine ECM. No
cables are needed to make the connection between the probe and a connector when performing
an engine timing calibration routine.
The status of the coolant flow switch may be viewed through the Advisor panel (Service/System
Status/Engine screens) or through Cat ET.
NOTE: It should be understood that both the engine oil cooler and the power train oil
coolers are heat sources that raise the temperature of the coolant before it enters the
engine block.

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Text Reference

45
3

10

11
12

46

The C27 ACERT engine contains a cam in each cylinder head, instead of a single cam in the
engine block, as in the 3412E engine that was used in the D10R. The timing gear train for the
C27 has been moved to the rear of the engine. Illustration No. 45 shows the front gear train with
the front gear cover removed. The components identified in illustration No. 45 are:
idler gear (drives the oil pump drive gear) (1)
front crankshaft gear (2)
idler gear (3)
idler gear for the jacket water pump drive gear (not shown) (4)
Note that the timing marks on the gears of the front gear train are not used for any purpose.

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Text Reference

Illustration No. 46 shows the rear timing gear train of the C27 with the rear gear train cover
removed. The components identified in illustration No.46 are:
rear crankshaft gear (5)
idler gear (drives the implement pump and powertrain oil pump) (6)
idler gear (driven by gear No. 6) (7)
left camshaft drive/timing gear (8)
left camshaft timing mark (stamped into the machined surface) (9)
idler gear (drives both camshafts and the fuel transfer pump) (10)
right camshaft timing mark (stamped into the machined surface) (11)
right camshaft drive/timing gear (12)
Cylinder No. 1 will be at TDC of its compression stroke and cylinder No. 11 will be at TDC of
its exhaust stroke when the timing pin is used to locate top dead center.
The firing order for the C27 engine is: 1, 10, 9, 6, 5, 12, 11, 4, 3, 8, 7, 2.
The rear timing gear cover has two separate inspection covers for the camshaft gears. Correct
camshaft timing can be checked by removing the camshaft gear covers and indexing the
crankshaft to top dead center (compression stroke) of the No. 1 cylinder.
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Service personnel must be informed that the procedure for
finding TDC on the compression stroke (cylinder No. 1) is different for C27 ACERT
engines used in the first D10T tractors built, as compared to the TDC procedure
described earlier. This information is extremely important when checking or setting
valve lash or when setting fuel injector height. The procedure for these early production
engines is:
- When the timing marks on the camshaft gears are aligned with the timing marks on the
rear gear housing, (see illustration No. 45) cylinder No. 1 will be at TDC of its exhaust
stroke and cylinder No. 11 will be at TDC of its compression stroke .
- Rotating the crankshaft another 360 will put cylinder No. 1 at TDC of its compression
stroke and cylinder No. 11 at TDC of its exhaust stroke. The timing marks on the camshaft
gears should now be 180 off the timing marks on the rear gear housing.
Machines with engine serial number EHX02327 (machine serial number RJG00313) and
above have revised camshaft drive gears that will put the number 1 piston at TDC
compression stroke when the camshaft gear timing marks are aligned with the timing
gear housing. Always refer to the correct C27 Engine Specifications manual (Form No.
SENR9936 and SENR9937) for more detailed information about these procedures.

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Text Reference

47

2
3

5
6
9

48
7
8

The two turbochargers used on the C27 do not use a wastegate.


The turbocharger bearings are lubricated with engine oil. Oil is supplied through the upper oil
line (1). Oil returns to the engine block through the lower oil line (4). Engine coolant is used to
cool the turbocharger bearings. Coolant is supplied to the bearings through the lower tube (3).
Coolant is returned to the shunt tank through the upper tube (2).
Illustration No. 48 shows the fuel heater (5) (an attachment) that is included in the cold weather
arrangement. The fuel heater is mounted to the inside of the left fender, in front of the left
rollover support post, under the floor of operator's compartment.

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Text Reference

Fuel is heated using the hot coolant supply from the cab heater lines. Hot coolant enters the fuel
heater at the coolant inlet (7) and exits through the coolant outlet (8).
Fuel from the primary fuel filter is drawn through the heater by the fuel transfer pump. Fuel
enters the fuel heater through the fuel inlet (6) and exits the heater at the fuel outlet (9), where it
continues to the fuel transfer pump.
Fuel should not be heated in warmer weather. The water shutoff valves to the cab heater must
be closed to disable the heating function of the fuel heater. The water shutoff valves are located
on the right side of the engine and were shown earlier in this presentation (illustration No. 43).

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Text Reference

49

The sonar type fuel level sensor (1) is installed on the underside of the fuel tank, near the center.
The fuel tank is located at the rear of the machine.
The fuel level sensor is directly monitored by the Advisor ECM. The Advisor ECM then
provides a signal to the analog type fuel level gauge in the instrument cluster. The Performance 2
screen on the Advisor panel also displays a digital readout showing the percent of remaining fuel.
Advisor will alert the operator with a pop-up warning when the fuel level reaches 10% of tank
capacity (Warning Category Level I). A second, and more severe pop-up, warning will be
generated by Advisor (Warning Category Level II) if the fuel tank reaches 5% of capacity. The
fuel tank should be filled immediately if the second (Level II) warning is generated.
The fuel injectors can be badly damaged if they are starved of fuel, due to the lack of cooling and
lubrication properties provided by the fuel.
Fuel capacity is 1204 liters (318 U.S. gal.).

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Text Reference

C27 ACERT ENGINE FUEL DELIVERY SYSTEM


Electric Fuel
Priming Pump
Fuel
Transfer
Pump

Secondary
Fuel Filter
Right Fuel Gallery

(Optional)
Fuel Heater

Fuel Tank

Fuel
Shutoff
Valve

Primary
Fuel Filter

Fuel
Pressure
Regulator

Left Fuel Gallery

50
Fuel Delivery System
Fuel is drawn from the fuel tank through the primary fuel filter (10 micron) and water separator
by a gear-type fuel transfer pump. The fuel transfer pump forces the fuel through the secondary
fuel filter (4 micron).
The fuel is then directed through a fuel line to a "tee" fitting that divides the fuel flow and
directs the fuel to both the left and right cylinder heads. The fuel enters the front of the cylinder
heads and flows into the fuel galleries, where it is made available to each of the twelve MEUI
fuel injectors. Any excess fuel not injected into the cylinders by the fuel injectors leaves the
rear of the cylinder heads and is directed to the fuel pressure regulator. The fuel pressure
regulator maintains a fuel system pressure of approximately 560 kPa (80 psi).
The excess fuel flow returns to the fuel tank from the fuel pressure regulator. The ratio of fuel
used for combustion and fuel returned to tank is approximately 3:1 (i.e. four times the volume
required for combustion is supplied to the system for combustion and injector cooling purposes).

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Text Reference

A pressure differential switch is installed in the secondary fuel filter base and will alert the
operator via an Advisor message of a fuel filter restriction. The pressure differential switch
compares the filter inlet pressure to the filter outlet pressure. When the difference in the inlet
and outlet pressures causes the switch to activate, the Advisor panel will warn the operator that
the secondary fuel filter is clogged and that fuel flow is restricted. The secondary fuel filter will
not be bypassed but engine performance will be degraded due to the restriction of fuel flow to
the injectors. The injectors themselves can be damaged due to a lack of cooling provided by the
fuel. The fuel used by the injectors also lubricates and protects small component parts inside the
fuel injectors.
The status of the fuel pressure differential switch may be viewed through the Advisor panel
(Service/System Status/Engine screens) or by using Cat ET.

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Text Reference

9
1
2
8
3

11

10

51
Engine Air System
Engine intake air is drawn into the engine pre-air cleaners (1) by the vacuum created by the
compressor wheels in the turbochargers.
The engine intake air flows through the left and right precleaner canisters and into the air
cleaner canisters (2). Fine contaminants are removed by the air filter elements inside the
canisters. The filtered engine intake air is then drawn into the air inlets of the turbochargers (3).
Simultaneously, the exhaust gasses passing through both mufflers (4) flows past a dust ejector
tube in each exhaust stack. As the exhaust flows past the ejector tubes, it creates a vacuum
(venturi effect) in the ejector tubes. The dust ejector tubes are connected to the precleaner by
flexible hoses (5). These connections create a secondary vacuum in the precleaner housing
which serves to draw large contaminant particles from the engine intake air as it passes through
the precleaner. The large contaminant particles drawn through the ejector tubes are then ejected
through the exhaust stacks (9).
The turbochargers compress the engine intake air and forces the air out of the compressor outlets
and into the Air To Air AfterCooler (ATAAC) inlet tubes (6). The compressed engine intake air
then enters the top of both the left and the right ATAAC heat exchanger cores (7).

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Text Reference

As the intake air passes through the ATAAC heat exchanger cores, the air is cooled by outside
air that is drawn through the ATAAC cores by the demand fan. The cooled engine intake air
then exits the ATAAC cores through the lower ATAAC outlets (10).
The compressed and cooled engine intake air is then directed to the intake manifolds through the
ATAAC outlet air tubes (8). From the intake manifolds, the engine intake air enters the cylinder
heads. The cooler, more dense intake air then enters the cylinders through the intake valves in
the cylinder heads. As the pistons rise in their respective cylinders, they compress the air. The
compressed air then becomes super-heated. Combustion occurs when fuel is injected into the
super-heated air near the top of the compression stroke. The combustion of the fuel/air mixture
forces the pistons down. As the pistons are forced down, the energy is transferred to the
crankshaft through the piston rods. As the crankshaft rotates, it causes the pistons to rise and
fall in their respective cylinders.
The exhaust gasses flow out of the exhaust valves in the cylinder heads as the pistons rise during
their exhaust strokes and enters the exhaust manifolds.
The exhaust manifolds then direct the hot exhaust gasses into the inlets of the turbine side of the
turbochargers. These hot, high-pressure gasses are used to spin the turbine wheels as they
expand and pass through the turbochargers. The turbine wheel is connected to the compressor
wheel by a shaft in each turbocharger. As the turbines rotate, so do the compressor wheels.
The exhaust gasses exit the turbochargers through the exhaust outlets, which direct the gasses to
the mufflers (4) and the exhaust stacks (9).
NOTE: The optional air conditioning condenser (11) is mounted in the hood above the
ATAAC cores and ahead of the mufflers and precleaners.
NOTE: There are now 2 service lights mounted to the underside of the hood assembly.
A pair of 3-way light switches are mounted to brackets on both sides of the hood to
control the service lights.

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Text Reference

D10T COOLING SYSTEM


ENGINE AT OPERATING TEMPERATURE
Vent Line

Shunt
Tank
Radiator

Turbo
> 92 C

87 C

< 82 C

Thermostat
Housing

Hottest

Increasing
Coolant
Temperature

C27 Engine

Cab
Heater

Coldest

Turbo
Power Train Oil Cooler 2
Power Train Oil Cooler 1
Jacket Water
Pump

Engine Oil Cooler

Hydraulic
Oil Cooler

52

Cooling System
Shown above is a schematic of the cooling system for the D10T Track-type Tractor.
The AMOCS radiator contains twelve cores that are the standard "two-pass" type cores. The
hydraulic demand fan is mounted in front of the radiator and is controlled by the Engine ECM.
This arrangement draws air in from the sides and/or the top of the engine compartment, through
the ATAAC cores (not pictured above), the radiator, and out the front of the tractor. This "draw
through" design reduces the possibility of the fan ejecting debris into the radiator cores.
Coolant flows from the jacket water pump through the power train and engine oil coolers, then
to the engine block. Coolant then flows through the engine block and into the cylinder heads.
The coolant then flows to the temperature regulators (thermostats) and either goes directly to the
water pump through the bypass tube or to the radiator, depending on the temperature of the
coolant. If the thermostats are open, the hot coolant enters the bottom of the radiator and flows
up through the front side of the cores and then down the back side of the cores.

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Text Reference

The coolant exits the radiator at the bottom through two outlets. Some of the coolant passes
through the hydraulic oil cooler and some of the coolant bypasses the hydraulic oil cooler.
These two flows combine after the hydraulic oil cooler and return to the jacket water pump.
A small amount of coolant flows to the turbochargers to cool the bearings, and is then directed
to the shunt tank. Coolant from the shunt tank is directed to the jacket water pump.
The air vent lines allow air to escape from the cooling system while the system is being filled
and during operation. The vent lines also aid in draining the system by eliminating any vacuum
in the system caused by draining.
The shunt tank is a reservoir which retains the expansion volume of the coolant as the coolant
temperature increases. The level of the coolant in the shunt tank will rise as the coolant
temperature increases. The coolant level in the shunt tank will fall as the temperature of the
coolant decreases.
A drain valve (shown later) is installed below the radiator and is used to drain coolant from the
radiator cores, the engine oil cooler, the power train oil cooler, and the cab heater circuit.
NOTE: The thermostat housing for the C27 engine contains two thermostats. The
opening temperature for these thermostats is 81 - 84 C (178 - 183 F). The
thermostats should be fully open at 92 C (198 F).

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Text Reference

53

54

4
3
8

The twelve AMOCS radiator cores (1) and the shunt tank (2) are shown above, from the rear of
the radiator guard.
Hot coolant enters the radiator through the inlet tube (4) at the bottom left of the radiator. The
hot coolant flows up through the front side of the AMOCS cores, then down the back side,
passing twice through the cores. The hydraulic oil cooler (3) is located beneath the radiator
guard. Some of the coolant exits the radiator through the cooler inlet bonnet (5) and flows
through the "oil-to-water" type hydraulic oil cooler. The remainder of the coolant exits the
radiator through the radiator outlet bonnet (6) where it mixes with the coolant from the hydraulic
oil cooler. The combined coolant flow exits the bonnet through the outlet tube and returns to the
water pump. The coolant drain line from the engine oil cooler and power train oil coolers, and
the coolant drain line from the engine block all connect to the fittings (7). This allows coolant to
be drained from the entire system through the radiator drain valve (8).

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Text Reference

55
1

56

The fan (1) and the hydraulic fan motor (2) can be accessed by opening the grill doors on the
front of the radiator guard, as shown in illustration No. 55. The hydraulic demand fan pump is
mounted to the rear of the engine flywheel housing, at the upper left corner of the housing. (The
hydraulic demand fan system will be discussed in greater detail later in this presentation).
The radiator fill cap (3) and coolant level sight glass (4) are located under the spring-hinged
door (5) on top left front of the hood. The coolant level sight glass (4) is installed in the coolant
shunt tank and is visible when the access door is opened. A correct coolant level will
completely fill the sight glass lens.

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Text Reference

D10T STANDARD HYDRAULIC FAN DRIVE SYSTEM


MAXIMUM FAN SPEED

Engine Coolant
Temp. Sensor

Engine
ECM
Fan Pump
Pressure Cont rol
Solenoid

Intake Manifold
Air Temp. Sensor

Fan
Pump

Fan Pump
Pressure
Sensor

Fan Motor with


Makeup Valve

Pump
Cont rol
Valve
HDFP

Hydraulic Oil Cooler


Bypass Valve

To Tank

Hydraulic
Oil Cooler

57

Hydraulic Demand Fan System


The hydraulic demand fan is standard on the D10T Track-type Tractor. The fan is part of the
hydraulic system, but is controlled by the Engine ECM. The Engine ECM considers three
inputs for controlling the fan.
The engine coolant temperature sensor and the intake manifold air temperature sensor provide
temperature information to the Engine ECM. The Engine ECM constantly monitors these
temperature inputs. The fan pump discharge pressure sensor is the third input to the Engine
ECM. Fan pump discharge pressure is controlled by the Engine ECM. Fan speed is determined
by fan system pressure.
The Engine ECM monitors the temperature inputs and also considers fan pump discharge
pressure to provide a signal to the proportional fan pump pressure control solenoid. Maximum
flow is sent to the fan motor, causing the fan to turn at the maximum controlled rpm, when the
solenoid receives minimum current from the Engine ECM. Maximum mechanical pump
pressure (high pressure cutoff) can be achieved by disconnecting the electrical connection to the
solenoid or by using Cat ET to turn OFF the fan control (Engine ECM/Configuration screen).

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Text Reference

Illustration No. 57 shows a schematic of the standard hydraulic demand fan system with the fan
system at maximum controlled pressure, resulting in maximum controlled fan speed.
The fan pump pressure control solenoid is de-energized when maximum fan speed is required.
Maximum controlled fan speed is attained when the fan pump pressure control solenoid receives
the least amount of current from the Engine ECM.
The fan will default to the maximum mechanical pressure setting (high pressure cutoff) if
communication is lost between the Engine ECM and the fan pump pressure control solenoid. A
failure of the pressure control solenoid will produce a higher system pressure and fan speed than
the maximum controlled pressure and speed allowed by the Engine ECM.
Cat ET may be used to reset the maximum controlled fan system pressure (from the maximum
pressure set at the factory). This adjustment may be necessary to correct the maximum
controlled fan speed due to differences in the initial factory settings and the tractor's current
working environment. The Systems Operation Test and Adjust manual for the D10T hydraulic
system (Form No. RENR7546) provides details of the fan speed/pressure adjustment procedure.
A photo-tachometer must be used to determine the fan speed at any given pressure. If the fan
speed is not within the specification at the given pressure, Cat ET must be used to override the
pump control solenoid until the correct fan speed is obtained. The pressure observed at the
correct fan speed must then be entered and saved to the Engine ECM (Clip Pressure, found in
the Engine Configuration screen). The new clip pressure then becomes the target pressure that
the Engine ECM seeks under the maximum controlled fan system pressure condition.
The Engine ECM may utilize an engine software strategy called "Cool Engine Elevated Idle
Strategy" in cool ambient temperatures and the when following conditions are met:
- Coolant Temperature is less than 70 C (158 F)
- Parking brake is set to ON
- Transmission is in NEUTRAL
- Throttle switch is set to LOW IDLE
Under the above conditions the Engine ECM will automatically increase engine speed, up to
1100 rpm, in an effort to increase coolant temperature.
NOTE: Refer to the Hydraulic Schematic Color Code chart at the end of this
presentation to interpret the meaning of each color/pattern in the schematic.

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Text Reference

D10T STANDARD HYDRAULIC FAN DRIVE SYSTEM


MINIMUM FAN SPEED

Engine Coolant
Temp. Sensor

Engine
ECM
Fan Pump
Pressure Control
Solenoid

Intake Manifold
Air Temp. Sensor

Fan
Pump

Fan Pump
Pressure
Sensor

Fan Motor with


Makeup Valve

Pump
Cont rol
Valve
HDFP

Hydraulic Oil Cooler


Bypass Valve

To Tank

Hydraulic
Oil Cooler

58

Shown above is a schematic of the D10T standard hydraulic demand fan system with the fan at
minimum speed.
The fan pump pressure control solenoid is energized, causing the fan to turn at a slower speed if
maximum fan speed is not required. Minimum fan speed is attained when the fan pump
pressure control solenoid is completely energized.
The pressure control spool is unseated by the solenoid, allowing pump pressure to drain to tank
when the fan pump pressure control solenoid is completely energized. This action lowers the
pressure in the spring chamber of the pump control spool and the pump control spool shifts up.
Pump flow is then allowed to fill and pressurize the large actuator in the fan pump and the pump
destrokes. Oil flow to the fan motor is reduced and the fan speed is reduced when the pump is
destroked.

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Pressure
Control
Solenoid

Pump Output
to Fan Motor

D10T FAN PUMP AND CONTROL VALVE


MAXIMUM FAN SPEED
Case
Drain
Passage

Pressure
Control
Spool

Text Reference

Large
Actuator

Swashplate

Spring

Spring

Orifice

Drive
Shaft

Pump
Control
Spool

Small Actuator
and Bias Spring
Adjustment
Screw

Signal Passage
to Actuator Piston

Piston and
Barrel Assembly

59

The Engine ECM de-energizes the pressure control solenoid, sending the least amount of current
when conditions require maximum controlled fan speed. With no current, the mechanical high
pressure cutoff will raise the fan speed to its absolute maximum rpm. This state can be achieved
by disconnecting the fan pump control solenoid or by using Cat ET to turn fan control OFF.
This procedure is required when making adjustments to the fan system pressure settings.
The pressure control spool spring forces the top half of the pressure control spool up against the
solenoid pin and holds the land of the upper pressure control spool against the seat when the
solenoid receives minimum signal. This spool shift blocks most of the pump output oil in the
pump control spool spring chamber from draining to tank through the case drain passage, which
causes the pump control spool spring chamber to become pressurized. The force of the spring at
the top of the pump control spool, plus the pressure of the oil, is greater than the oil pressure at
the bottom of the pump control spool. The pump control spool is held down, blocking pump
output oil from entering the signal passage to the large actuator piston in the pump. The large
actuator piston is then open to drain and is at tank pressure.

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Text Reference

The bias spring moves the pump swashplate to an increased angle, which causes the pump to
UPSTROKE when only tank pressure is present in the large actuator piston. This condition
provides a controlled maximum flow of oil to the fan motor and creates maximum controlled fan
pump system pressure, which results in maximum controlled fan speed.
The solenoid pin does not force the top half of the pressure control spool down against the
spring if the solenoid fails (no current to the solenoid). This condition causes the pressure
control spool to be completely seated. Pump pressure will then increase until the upper half of
the pressure control spool is forced down by oil pressure, against the force of the pressure
control spool spring. The oil in the pump control spool spring chamber can then flow past the
upper control spool and drain to tank through the case drain passage. This lowers the pressure
in the pump control spool spring chamber. The force of the spring at the top of the pump control
spool plus the pressure of the oil in the pump control spool spring chamber is now less than the
oil pressure at the bottom of the pump control spool, due to the orifice effect of the passage
through the pump control spool. The higher pressure at the bottom of the pump control spool
forces the spool up, allowing pump output oil to enter the signal passage. This causes pressure
in the pump's large actuator piston to increase.
The increased pressure in the large actuator piston overcomes the pressure in the pump's small
actuator plus the force of the pump bias spring. This causes the swashplate to move to a
decreased angle and the pump DESTROKES until a balance is attained in the pressures. This
condition results in mechanical high pressure cutoff. The pump then provides maximum flow to
the fan motor, resulting in a higher fan pump system pressure than that allowed by the control of
the Engine ECM. The fan motor will then turn at its highest speed, which is higher than the
maximum controlled fan speed.
The mechanical high pressure cutoff is adjusted using the adjustment screw. Turning the
adjustment screw clockwise increases the force of the pressure control spool spring, which in
turn increases the pump pressure required to unseat the land of the upper pump control spool
and increases maximum cutoff pressure.
Maximum cutoff pressure will be lowered when the screw is turned counterclockwise.

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Pressure
Cont rol
Solenoid

Pump Out put


t o Fan Mot or

D1 0 T FAN PUMP AND CONTROL VALVE


MINIMUM FAN SPEED
Case
Drain
Passage

Pressure
Cont rol
Spool

Text Reference

Large
Act uat or

Swashplat e

Spring

Spring

Orifice
Drive
Shaft
Pump
Cont rol
Spool
Adjust ment
Screw

Small Act uat or


and Bias Spring
Pist on and
Barrel Assembly

Signal Passage
t o Act uat or Pist on

60
The Engine ECM energizes the pressure control solenoid (proportional to the coolant
temperature sensor signal) when a slower fan speed is required.
The solenoid pin pushes down on the upper half of the pressure control spool when the solenoid
is energized. This unseats the spool against the force of the pressure control spool spring,
allowing oil in the pump control spool spring chamber to drain to tank through the case drain
passage. This lowers the pressure in the pump control spool spring chamber. The force of the
spring at the top of the pump control spool plus the pressure of the oil in the pump control spool
spring chamber is now less than the oil pressure at the bottom of the spool, due to the orifice
effect of the passage through the pump control spool. The higher pressure beneath the pump
control spool then forces the spool up, allowing pump output oil to enter the signal passage.
This causes pressure in the pump's large actuator piston to increase.
The increased pressure in the large actuator piston overcomes the oil pressure in the pump's
small actuator plus the force of the pump bias spring. This causes the swashplate to move to a
decreased angle, and the pump DESTROKES. The pump then provides less flow to the fan
motor, resulting in lower fan pump system pressure and a slower fan speed.

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Text Reference

Illustration No. 60 shows the fan pump swashplate at minimum angle, which produces minimum
flow. This will cause the fan motor to turn at its slowest speed.
Refer to RENR7546, "Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting - D10T Track-type Tractor
Hydraulic System" for information regarding the adjustment of the hydraulic demand fan.

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Text Reference

D1 0 T HYDRAULIC FAN DRIVE SYSTEM


WITH REVERSING / BYPASS VALVE
MAXIMUM FAN SPEED - FORWARD
Crossover
Relief Valves
Fan Reversing / Bypass Valve

Fan Bypass Fan Pump


Solenoid Valve Pressure
Sensor

Relief
Valve

Pump
Fan Pump
Pressure Cont rol Cont rol
Valve
Solenoid

Fan
Pump

HDFP
Bi-direct ional
Fan Mot or

Pilot Operat ed
Reversing Valves

Fan Reversing
Solenoid Valve

Hydraulic
Oil Cooler Bypass
Valve
To Tank
Hydraulic
Oil Cooler
Engine Coolant
Temp. Sensor

Engine ECM

Int ake Manifold


Air Temp. Sensor

61
A combination fan reversing/bypass valve will be installed on the lower right bottom plate of the
radiator guard if the machine is equipped with either the reversing fan feature or the fan bypass
feature. A bi-directional fan motor will replace the standard fan motor with the reversing fan
feature. The valve body contains all of the components for either feature, regardless of which
way the demand fan system is configured. The software (flash file) contained in the Engine
ECM contains the code that activates either strategy.
The Engine ECM will automatically activate the fan reversing solenoid valve at pre-determined
intervals, if the machine is equipped with the optional reversing fan. Fan reversing intervals and
reversing duration may be re-configured using Cat ET. The fan may also be reversed manually
using the manual fan reversing switch located below the Advisor display panel in the operator
compartment.
The combination fan reversing/bypass valve contains the following components:
- Fan Bypass Solenoid Valve - The Engine ECM will energize the fan bypass solenoid
valve when cold weather requires fan speeds lower than the minimum fan speed of the
standard fan strategy. The solenoid valve opens and allows most of the oil to bypass the
fan circuit. Most of the oil then flows directly to the hydraulic oil cooler. Some of the oil
still flows to the fan motor, but the fan turns slowly and the cooling effect of the fan is
extremely low.

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Text Reference

- Fan Reversing Solenoid Valve - The fan reversing solenoid valve is DE-ENERGIZED
when the system is in the normal, or fan forward condition. When the Engine ECM
energizes the fan reversing solenoid valve, some fan pump output oil is directed by the
solenoid valve to the pilot operated reversing valves. The shifting of the reversing valves
causes the flow of oil to enter the opposite side of the bi-directional fan motor and reverse
fan blade rotation.
- Pilot Operated Reversing Valves - The pilot operated reversing valves are shifted by fan
pump oil when the fan reversing solenoid valve is ENERGIZED. When the valves are
shifted, they reverse the flow of pump oil to and from the bi-directional fan motor.
- Crossover Relief Valves - The momentum of the fan prevents the fan motor from
immediate directional change when the fan is first commanded to change directions (either
reverse or forward). One of the crossover relief valves will open to help dissipate excess
pressure during the directional change. The crossover relief valves also serve as anticavitation valves when the engine is shut down and the momentum of the fan continues to
drive the fan motor. The crossover relief valve that opens is dependent on the direction of
oil flow in the system.
- Relief Valve - The relief valve opens momentarily whenever there are any pressure spikes
in the system. The relief valve also opens when the fan is first commanded to change
directions (either reverse or forward). The momentum of the fan prevents the fan motor
from immediate directional change when the flow of oil is reversed. The relief valve helps
dissipate excess pressure that may damage the system during a directional change.
Illustration No. 61 shows the fan hydraulic system with the reversing/bypass valve installed in
the demand fan hydraulic system, the fan at maximum controlled speed, and neither the fan
reversing function nor the fan bypass function activated.
A reversing fan is standard on landfill machines and some other special applications. It may
also be added as an attachment to a machine with a standard demand fan system.
The fan bypass feature is standard on all machines that are equipped with the cold weather
arrangement.

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Text Reference

D1 0 T HYDRAULIC FAN DRIVE SYSTEM


WITH REVERSING / BYPASS VALVE
MAXIMUM FAN SPEED - REVERSE
Crossover
Relief Valves

Fan Bypass Fan Pump


Solenoid Valve Pressure
Sensor

Pump
Fan Pump
Pressure Cont rol Cont rol
Valve
Solenoid

Fan Reversing / Bypass Valve

Relief
Valve

Fan
Pump

HDFP
Bi-direct ional
Fan Mot or

Pilot Operat ed
Reversing Valves

Fan Reversing
Solenoid Valve

Hydraulic
Oil Cooler Bypass
Valve
To Tank
Hydraulic
Oil Cooler
Engine Coolant
Temp. Sensor

Engine ECM

Int ake Manifold


Air Temp. Sensor

62
Illustration No. 62 shows the fan hydraulic system with the fan reversing function activated.
Either a command from the Engine ECM or the operator activating the manual fan reversing
switch will energize the fan reversing solenoid valve. Supply oil is directed to shift the two pilot
operated reversing valves when the solenoid valve is ENERGIZED. This action reverses the
flow of oil to and from the fan motor. The fan will then reverse direction, causing air to flow
from the front to the radiator out through the engine compartment access doors.
Pump flow is redirected and conflicts with the flow of oil from the outlet port of the fan motor,
(due to the momentum of the fan and the "pumping effect" of the motor), during a fan motor
directional change. The lower crossover relief valve will open during the transition from
forward to reverse until the fan changes direction and has attained most of the target speed.
Excess oil flow is directed back to the (new) tank passage when the crossover relief valve is
open. The upper crossover relief valve performs the same function when the flow of oil changes
from reverse to forward.
The Engine ECM software determines when it is time for the fan to reverse direction. The
Engine ECM will energize the reversing valve solenoid only when the transmission is shifted to
reverse. This strategy helps lessen the chance that any material spilling over the top of the dozer
blade will be ejected into the fan blades and/or into the radiator cores, minimizing the potential
for damage to the fan blades and the radiator fins.

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Text Reference

D1 0 T HYDRAULIC FAN DRIVE SYSTEM


WITH REVERSING / BYPASS VALVE
MINIMUM FAN SPEED - FAN BYPASS ACTIVATED
Crossover
Relief Valves
Fan Reversing / Bypass Valve

Fan Bypass Fan Pump


Solenoid Valve Pressure
Sensor

Relief
Valve

Pump
Fan Pump
Pressure Cont rol Cont rol
Valve
Solenoid

Fan
Pump

HDFP
Bi-direct ional
Fan Mot or

Pilot Operat ed
Reversing Valves

Fan Reversing
Solenoid Valve

Hydraulic
Oil Cooler Bypass
Valve
To Tank
Hydraulic
Oil Cooler
Engine Coolant
Temp. Sensor

Engine ECM

Int ake Manifold


Air Temp. Sensor

63

The illustration above shows the fan hydraulic system with minimum oil flow and the fan
bypass function activated. The Engine ECM will ENERGIZE the fan bypass solenoid valve
when the temperature conditions specified in the software (flash file) have been met.
Most of the oil flow from the fan pump is directed back to tank when the fan bypass solenoid is
energized. Some oil still flows to the fan motor, but the fan turns at a greatly reduced rpm that is
below the minimum fan speed of the standard fan system.
The fan bypass strategy results in minimal air to flow through the radiator.

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Text Reference

64
5

3
4

9
10
65

The hydraulic demand fan pump (1) is mounted at the upper left of of the flywheel housing.
Shown above is the pressure test port for Hydraulic Demand Fan Pump discharge pressure
(HDFP) (2), the fan pump pressure sensor (3), the pump pressure control spool adjustment
screw (4), the pump control spool adjustment screw (5), and the fan pump pressure control
solenoid (6). The drive hub (7) at the rear of the fan pump is connected to a drive shaft for the
power train oil pump.
The hydraulic demand fan motor (8) is mounted to a bracket at the front of the radiator guard.
Shown in illustration No. 64 is the fan motor case drain line (10), and the fan motor inlet and
outlet ports (9).
The status of the fan pump pressure sensor may be viewed through the Advisor panel
(Service/System Status/Engine screens) or by using Cat ET.

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Text Reference

66

The combination fan reversing/bypass valve (1) is mounted on top of the bottom plate of the
radiator guard, at the right side if the machine is equipped with a reversing fan or if it is
equipped for cold weather. It may be accessed through the front grill doors on the radiator
guard.
Service points on the fan reversing/bypass valve shown here are:
- the pilot operated reversing (diverter) valve (the other reversing valve is located on the
other side of the valve body) (2)
- the two crossover relief valves (3)
- fan pump supply lines to/from the fan motor (the supply lines to/from the valve are
connected beneath the valve) (4)
- fan reversing solenoid valve (5)
- fan bypass solenoid valve (6)
- check valves (7)
The status of the fan reversing solenoid and the fan bypass solenoid may be viewed through the
Advisor panel (Service/System Status/Engine screens) or by using Cat ET.

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Text Reference

D10T POWER TRAIN


COMPONENT LOCATION

Torque Divider

C27 ACERT
Engine

Power Train
Oil Cooler No. 2

Power Train Oil


Fill Tube and
Dipstick

Power Train
Oil Cooler No. 1
Torque Converter
Outlet Relief Valve
Torque Converter
Inlet Relief Valve

Power Train
Oil Pump

Lube Distribution
Manifold

Electronic
Steering Clutch
and Brake Valve

Power Train ECM

Steering Clutches
and Brakes

Final Drives
Torque Converter
Charging Filter

Transmission
Charging Filter
Transfer and
Bevel Gears

Transmission
Hydraulic Control

Transmission

67
POWER TRAIN
Shown above is an illustration that identifies the relative location of all of the major power train
components for the D10T Track-type Tractor. Numerous upgrades have been implemented in
the power train for the D10T Track-type Tractor, as compared to the D10R machine. The most
prominent of these upgrades include:
- the torque converter impeller has been reengineered to provide slightly more engine lug;
- the elimination of the transmission intermediate speed sensors;
- transmission output speed sensors that are more easily installed and require no adjustment;
- the elimination of the priority valve and the lube management valve simplifies the system,
making it more reliable and easier to service and troubleshoot;
- a new A4 Power Train ECM controls the transmission, the braking, and the steering;
- a new four-section power train oil pump;
- easy access to two, 6 micron power train oil filters; and
- extended change intervals for power train oil filters.

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Text Reference

D10T POWER TRAIN ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM


Left Steering
Clutch and Brake
Parking Brake
Switch

FTC

Transmission
Controls

Instrument Cluster

Advisor
CAN C
Data Link

Transmission
Charging Filter

2.3

CAT Data Link


Service Brake
Pedal

Power Train
Inputs/Outputs

Transmission
Modulating Valves

3
2

Data Port

CAN A
Data Link

Electronic
Steering Clutch
and Brake Valve

1F
132.1

Parking and
Secondary
Brake Valve

Power Train ECM

Torque
Divider

Main Relief Valve

Torque Converter
Inlet Relief Valve

Engine ECM

Torque Converter
Outlet Relief Valve
Primary (Crankshaft)
Speed / Timing Sensor
Power Train
Oil Coolers

Lube Distribution
Manifold
To Clutch / Brake and
Transmission Lube
Torque Converter
Charging Filter
Right Steering
Clutch and Brake

68

Power Train Electronic Control System


The illustration above is a simplified schematic that shows all of the major hydraulic
components and all of the major electronic components in the power train system.
The Power Train Electronic Control System consists of the Power Train ECM and all the inputs
to and outputs from the Power Train ECM. The Power Train ECM and its software considers
the input information, such as the service brake pedal position sensor, and controls the power
train output components, such as the electronic steering clutch and brake control valve.
The Power Train ECM will update the Caterpillar Monitoring and Display System if any of the
controls or components are operating improperly or performing outside their operating
parameters. Advisor will then warn the operator or serviceman of the specific abnormal
condition.
Refer to STMG 790, "Caterpillar Monitoring and Display System, with Advisor for Tracktype Tractors" (SERV1790) for more information and instructions for:
- accessing and viewing the status of the power train components;
- how to change the parameters or the power train configuration; and/or
- how to perform calibrations for any of the power train components.

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Power Train
Breather
Filter Bypass
Switch

C1
B1

LB1

Transmission
Charging Filter

Text Reference

D10T POWER TRAIN SCHEMATIC


Transmission
Scavenge
Section

Torque
Converter
Scavenge
Section

FIRST GEAR FORWARD

Torque
Converter
Charging
Section
Power Train
Oil Pump

Electronic
Clutch / Brake
Valve
Transmission Pump
Pressure (TP)

B2

Transmission
Controls
Temp. Sensor

Fan
Pump

D
Transmission &
Torque Converter
Charging
Section

C2

C1 B1

4
Transmission
Main Relief Valve
Pressure (P)

Vent Line

Torque Converter
Supply Pressure
(M1)

ECPC
Transmission
Torque
Converter Supply
Pressure (M)

Transmission
Lube Pressure
(L1)

T/C Outlet
Relief Pressure
(N)

Cooler Lube
Pressure
(CL)
Torque Converter
Inlet Relief
Valve

Fluid
Sampling Port
(SOS)

Lube Distribution
Manifold

T/C
Charging
Filter

TC Outlet
Temperature Sensor
Power Train Lube
Temperature Sensor
Torque Converter
Outlet Relief Valve

LB2

Torque
Converter

Flywheel
Housing

C27
Engine

Torque
Divider

Implement
Pump

Power Train Cooler 2


Power Train Cooler 1

Lube Manifold
Pressure (L2)

B2
C2

69

Power Train Hydraulic System


The four-section fixed displacement power train oil pump is installed at the left front of the main
case. The pump is driven by a drive shaft connected to the rear of the demand fan pump.
At high idle, the transmission and torque converter charging section "D" of the power train oil
pump supplies approximately 190 L/min (50.2 gpm) of power train oil to the transmission
hydraulic control and to the electronic steering clutch and brake control valve.
The transmission main relief valve maintains the correct pressure for operation of the
transmission modulating valves and for the operation of the electronic steering clutch and brake
control valve.
The transmission clutches, the steering clutches, and the brakes operate at the same pressure,
due to the common top pressure power train strategy. Transmission clutch engagement pressure
calibrations and brake pressure adjustments are not required. (The transmission clutch fill time
calibrations, steering clutch high pressure calibrations, and the brake touch-up calibrations are
still required.) Correct oil pressure is available for the operation of the transmission clutches,
the steering clutches, and the brakes when the transmission main relief valve is properly
adjusted.

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Text Reference

The torque converter charging section "C" of the power train oil pump draws approximately
140 L/min (37 gpm) of power train oil to the torque converter, through the torque converter inlet
relief valve at high idle. Oil from the transmission and torque converter charging section of the
power train oil pump that flows past the main relief valve mixes with the torque converter
charge oil. The two oil flows mix inside the torque converter inlet relief valve. The torque
converter inlet relief valve limits the maximum oil pressure to the torque converter.
The torque converter outlet relief valve maintains the minimum pressure inside the torque
converter. Oil that exits the torque converter through the torque converter outlet relief valve is
directed to the power train oil coolers. Oil that exits the power train oil coolers is then sent to
the lube distribution manifold. The lube distribution manifold provides cooled lube oil to the
transmission, the bevel gears, and the steering clutches and brakes.
The torque converter scavenge section "B" of the power train oil pump draws oil from the torque
converter housing through a screened port. This oil is then directed back to the main sump. The
torque converter scavenge section draws approximately 20 L/min (5.3 gpm) of oil at high idle.
The transmission scavenge section "A" of the power train oil pump draws oil from the
transmission and bevel gear case through a screened port. This oil is directed to the lube
distribution manifold where it mixes with the oil from the power train oil coolers. The
combined oils are used to lubricate the transmission and bevel gears and the steering clutches
and brakes.
The transmission pump pressure (TP), transmission main relief pressure (P), torque converter
supply pressure (M), transmission lube pressure (L1), and the power train oil fluid sampling
(SOS) port are all easily accessible from the rear of the machine. All of the other power train
pressure test ports must be accessed beneath the floor plates in the operator's compartment.
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: It should be noted that the D10T no longer uses a priority
valve.

NOTE: Refer to the Hydraulic Schematic Color Code chart at the end of this
presentation to interpret the meaning of each color/pattern in the schematic.

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Text Reference

3
4

70

The torque converter inlet relief valve and the lube distribution manifold are mounted to the
right front of the main case. They are consolidated into one housing (1).
The electronic steering clutch and brake control valve (2) is mounted to the top of the main case.
The four-section power train oil pump (4) is driven by a shaft that connects the drive hub (3) to a
drive hub on the rear of the hydraulic demand fan pump (not pictured). The drive shaft is
covered by a guard when the machine is completely assembled.
The transmission charging section and the torque converter charging section of the power train
oil pump (4) draw their oil from the main sump through the screened suction manifold (5). The
suction screen is accessible for cleaning by removing the cover (6) on the front of the suction
manifold.
The vent line (7) connects the torque converter housing and the main case to maintain an equal
atmospheric pressure inside both components. The power train breather is remotely mounted in
the compartment at the rear of the left fender. The remote line for the breather (not yet installed
in the illustration, above) connects to the vent line with a "tee" fitting.

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Text Reference

4
7

2
8

1
9

71

The four-section, fixed displacement power train oil pump is mounted to the left front of the
main case. This fixed displacement gear pump consists of:
- transmission and torque converter charging section "D" (1)
- torque converter charging section "C" (2)
- torque converter scavenge section "B" (3)
- transmission scavenge section "A" (4)
The pump drive hub (5) connects to a shaft that is driven by the hub at the rear of the hydraulic
demand fan pump (shown earlier in this presentation).
Other power train components shown in the illustration above are:
- transmission oil fill tube (6)
- transmission oil dipstick tube (7)
- screened main sump suction manifold (8)
- access cover to the main sump suction screen (9)

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Text Reference

4
3

72

The two 6 micron power train oil filters are located at the rear of the machine. Shown in the
illustration above is the torque converter charging filter (1) and the transmission charging
filter (2).
The ecology drain (3) for the transmission case is also located at the rear of the machine, at the
bottom of the transmission case.
The transmission hydraulic control, which contains the transmission modulating valves and the
transmission main relief valve, may be accessed by removing the transmission inspection
cover (5), at the top of the transmission case.
The transmission output speed sensors may be accessed by removing the bolts from the main
cover for the transmission case (4) and then sliding the transmission rearward, out of the
transmission and bevel gear case. (The four bolts that hold the transmission and bevel gear case
to the main case must remain.) This procedure allows access to the speed sensors without
draining all of the power train oil and without removing the axles. Refer to the procedure for
"Transmission Removal and Installation" in the D10T Power Train Disassembly and Assembly
Manual (Form No. RENR8166) for the details of this procedure.

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Text Reference

3
2
1
73

74

The transmission charging filter (1) is located at the upper left rear of the main case. Service
points located on this filter base are:
- power train oil filter bypass switch (2)
- transmission temperature sensor (3)
- transmission pump pressure test port (TP) (4)
The torque converter charging filter (6) is located at the upper right rear of the main case.
Power train oil fluid samples (SOS) maybe taken from the test port (5), located on the right
side of the filter base.

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Text Reference

The transmission controls temperature sensor monitors the temperature of the power train oil
from the main sump. This is the sensor that that is considered when using the Advisor panel or
Cat ET to perform power train calibration routines. This is also the sensor that provides the
signal for the "Transmission Oil Temperature" readout on the Advisor panel (Service/System
Status/Power Train screens).
The power train oil filter bypass switch is a normally open pressure switch. The status of the
power train oil filter bypass switch may be viewed using the Advisor panel (Service/System
Status/Power Train screens) or by using Cat ET.

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Text Reference

75

Located at the top of the transmission case are the following pressure test ports:
- transmission main relief pressure (P) (1)
- torque converter supply pressure (M) (2)
- transmission lube pressure (L1) (3)

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Text Reference

5
2

6
1

7
8

76
Power train oil exiting the torque converter passes through the power train oil coolers and then
flows through the hose at the left (1) and into the lube distribution manifold (4). Oil from the
transmission scavenge section of the power train oil pump is directed to the lube distribution
manifold through the steel tube (5), where it combines with the oil from the coolers. This
combined oil is used for lubrication purposes and is distributed to the left and right steering
clutches and brakes and to the transmission and bevel gears.
System lube pressure (L2) can be checked using the alternate lube system pressure tap (2)
(partially hidden, above), on the right side of the manifold. The lube temperature sensor (3) is
installed in the top of the lube distribution manifold.
Oil from the torque converter charge section of the power train oil pump flows through the
torque converter charge filter and then to the torque converter inlet relief valve (7) where it
mixes with the oil that flows past the transmission main relief valve. Most of this oil is supplied
to the torque converter through the hose at the right (8). Relief oil from the torque converter
inlet relief valve flows back into the main sump through a port (not visible) at the back of the
housing. Torque converter supply pressure (M1) can be tested at the alternate pressure tap (6)
on the left side of the housing.

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Text Reference

TORQUE CONVERTER INLET RELIEF VALVE


Spool

Tank
Passage

To Torque
Convert er

Inlet
Passage

Poppet

Hole

Spring
From
Main Relief
Valve

From
TC Charging
Filt er

77

The torque converter inlet relief valve protects the components in the torque converter by
limiting the maximum oil pressure to the torque converter during pressure spikes in the system.
This valve also protects the torque converter components when the engine is started and the oil
is cold.
Oil from the torque converter charging section of the power train oil pump is directed to the
torque converter inlet relief valve through a passage in the front of the main case. Transmission
and torque converter charge oil that flows past the transmission main relief valve combines with
the torque converter charge oil through another passage in the front of the main case. The two
flows combine in the valve body and then flow past the torque converter inlet relief valve to the
torque converter through a connecting hose.
Oil flows into the torque converter inlet relief valve through the inlet passage. The oil then
flows into the cross-drilled hole in the small diameter of the spool and through the center
passage of the spool. The oil then flows through the center of the poppet and then into the
chamber at the right end of the spool, pressurizing the chamber. When the oil pressure at the
right end of the spool overcomes the force of the spring at the left end, the spool shifts to the left
and dumps the excess oil back into the main case through the tank passage. This limits the
pressure in the torque converter circuit.

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Text Reference

The torque converter inlet relief valve is not adjustable. There is no adjustment screw for the
torque converter inlet relief valve. Do not add or remove shims.
The spring and/or the spool or other components must be replaced if the torque converter inlet
relief valve is not operating properly.

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Text Reference

4
1
5

6
7

78

Torque Divider
The D10T Track-type Tractor uses a torque divider (1) to transfer engine power to the
transmission. The torque divider is similar to those used on other Caterpillar Track-type
Tractors.
The torque divider provides both a hydraulic and a mechanical connection from the engine to
the transmission. The torque converter provides the hydraulic connection, while the planetary
gear set provides the mechanical connection. During operation, the planetary gear set and the
torque converter work together to provide an increase in torque as the load on the machine
increases.
The illustration above shows the torque divider used in the D10T. The torque converter output
speed sensor (2) is installed above the torque divider output shaft (5) and senses the speed of the
output shaft. The Power Train ECM monitors the signal from this sensor and uses it, along with
the signal from the engine primary (crankshaft) speed/timing sensor, to determine engine lug
and shifting points for the Auto KickDown strategies. This signal is also used as one of the
inputs to determine track speed, which is displayed on the LCD display in the instrument cluster.

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Torque converter charge oil from the torque converter inlet relief valve enters the torque
converter through the torque converter inlet port (3), at the top of the torque divider housing.
A vent line between the torque converter housing and the main case is installed at the fitting (4)
near the top of the torque converter housing. A breather is installed on the vent line (remotely
mounted inside the rear compartment on the left fender) to ensure that case pressures are equal
to the atmospheric air pressure. The breather needs to be cleaned periodically.
The ecology drain valve for the torque divider housing (7) is located at the bottom of the torque
divider housing. It may be accessed through a plate in the bottom guard, directly below the
drain valve.
The scavenge section of the power train oil pump draws oil from the torque divider housing
through the port (6) to the left of the ecology drain. The torque converter scavenge screen (not
visible) is located inside the hose flanges.
The torque converter outlet relief valve (8) is located on the right side of the torque divider
housing.
The status of the torque converter output speed sensor may be viewed through the Advisor panel
(Service/System Status/Power Train screens) or through Cat ET.

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D10T TORQUE DIVIDER

Ring
Gear

Flywheel
Spline

Housing
Inlet
Passage

Planet
Carrier

Carrier

Output
Shaft

Sun Gear
Planet
Gears

Outlet
Passage
Stator

Turbine

Impeller

79
This illustration shows a typical torque divider as used in the D10T. The impeller, the rotating
housing, and the sun gear are shown in red. These components are on a direct mechanical
connection to the engine flywheel. The turbine and the ring gear, shown in blue, are
mechanically connected to each other. The planetary carrier, planetary gears, planetary gear
shafts (shown in brown) and the output shaft, (shown in blue) are also mechanically connected
to each other. The stator and carrier are shown in orange.
The sun gear and the impeller are mechanically connected to the flywheel and will always rotate
at engine speed. As the impeller rotates, it directs oil against the turbine blades, causing the
turbine to rotate. Turbine rotation causes the ring gear to rotate. The components of the
planetary gear set rotate as a unit and the planet gears do not rotate on their shafts during NO
LOAD conditions.
The output shaft rotation will slow down as the operator loads the machine. A decrease in
output shaft speed causes the rpm of the planetary carrier to decrease. Decreasing the planetary
carrier rotation causes the relative motion between the sun gear and the planet carrier to change,
causing the planet gears to rotate. Rotating the planet gears decreases the rpm of the ring gear
and the turbine. Engine torque output is now split with the torque converter multiplying the
torque hydraulically and the planetary gear set multiplying the torque mechanically.

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An extremely heavy load can stall the machine. The output shaft and the planetary carrier will
not rotate if the machine stalls. This condition causes the ring gear and turbine to rotate in the
opposite direction of engine rotation. Maximum torque multiplication is achieved just as the
ring gear and turbine begin to turn in the opposite direction.
The torque divider is also equipped with a stator. The stator is splined to a cam which rotates
around the stationary carrier in only one direction. Machined into the cam are tapered openings,
each of which contain a roller and a spring. Spring force holds the rollers against the taper and
the carrier, preventing the stator from rotating anytime there is a difference in impeller and
turbine speeds.
The stator is held stationary when the machine is under a load, and the impeller and turbine are
rotating at different speeds. The stator redirects oil flow from the turbine to the impeller,
multiplying engine torque.
The turbine provides 70% of the output shaft torque, and the planetary gear set provides the
remaining 30% of the output shaft torque during all load conditions.

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3
6
2

80
The torque converter outlet relief valve (1) is installed at the right rear of the torque divider
housing. Torque converter oil exiting the torque converter enters the torque converter outlet relief
valve through the inlet passage in the valve body (1). The oil then exits the outlet relief valve at
the valve outlet passage and is directed to the power train oil cooler through the upper steel tube
(5). The cooled power train oil returns from the coolers through the lower steel tube (6). The oil
is then directed to the lube distribution manifold through a hose that connects to the outlet (7) at
the rear of the valve body.
Torque converter outlet relief pressure (N) can be tested at the left pressure test port (3). Cooler
lube pressure (CL) can be tested at the right pressure test port (2).
The torque converter oil temperature sensor (4) is installed in the torque converter outlet relief
valve. It senses the temperature of the power train oil exiting the torque converter and provides a
signal to the Power Train ECM. Cat Advisor monitors this temperature data from the Power
Train ECM and uses it to operate the torque converter oil temperature gauge (analog), located at
the upper right of the instrument cluster. The status of the torque converter oil temperature sensor
(in degrees) may also be viewed through the Advisor panel (Service/System Status/Power Train
screens and Performance 1 screen) or by using Cat ET.
Access to the torque converter outlet relief valve components is through the plate at the bottom of
the valve body.

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D10T TORQUE CONVERTER OUTLET RELIEF VALVE

Torque Converter
Outlet Relief
Pressure Tap

Inlet Passage
from Torque Converter
Orifice

Spool

Outlet Passage
to Power Train Oil Cooler

Shims

Spring

81

The torque converter outlet relief valve maintains a constant minimum pressure inside the torque
converter.
Oil from the torque converter enters the inlet of the torque converter outlet relief valve through
the outlet passage of the torque converter. The pressure of the oil acts against the top of the
spool. The spool shifts down when the pressure of the torque converter oil becomes greater than
the force of the spring. Torque converter oil then flows through the holes around the
circumference of the spool to the outlet passage. The outlet passage directs the hot torque
converter oil to the power train oil coolers.
The orificed passage that bypasses the valve spool increases the stability of the valve when there
are shocks to the system. This passage also helps ensure that a minimum amount of oil is
always available to the power train oil coolers, regardless of the state of the valve.
The torque converter outlet relief valve may be adjusted by adding or removing shims between
the spring and the spool.

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5
6

8
11

10

82

The D10T uses two power train oil coolers to cool the oil coming from the torque converter.
The power train oil coolers are oil-to-water type oil coolers and are located along the right side
of the engine.
Hot power train oil exits the torque converter outlet relief valve and is directed to the power
train oil coolers by the upper steel tube (1). Some of the oil passes through passage (2) into the
No. 1 power train oil cooler (3). The remainder of the oil enters the No. 2 power train oil
cooler (4) at the forward inlet (5).
The oil is cooled as it passes front to rear through the oil-to-water type coolers. The cooled oil
exits the No. 2 cooler through the cooler outlet (8), at the front of the cooler. Cooled oil exits
the No. 1 cooler through the outlet (9) at the rear of the cooler, where it combines with the oil
from the No. 2 cooler (10). The cooled oil returns to the front side of the torque converter outlet
relief valve (see illustration No. 81) through the lower steel tube (11). The cooled oil is then
directed to the lube distribution manifold.
Engine coolant enters the power train oil coolers through the cast tubes (7) that are connected to
the water pump. The coolant exits the coolers through an outlet passages on the engine side (not
visible) where it is directed into the water jacket of the engine block.

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83
Power Shift Transmission
The planetary power shift transmission is capable of three speeds FORWARD and three speeds
REVERSE. Power is transferred from the engine and the torque converter to the transmission
through the input shaft, which is inside the output shaft. Power is transferred from the
transmission to the transfer and bevel gears through the output shaft (1).
The transmission contains three hydraulically controlled speed clutches and two hydraulically
controlled directional clutches, which are located in the planetary group (2).
The Power Train Electronic Control System consists of the Power Train ECM and all the inputs to
and outputs from the Power Train ECM. The transmission shifting function is controlled by the
Power Train ECM.
The Power Train ECM receives signals from the upshift switch, the downshift switch, and/or the
FNR direction lever position sensor when the operator requests a speed or directional change.
The Power Train ECM responds to the shifting requests by controlling the electrical current to the
solenoids on the transmission modulating valves (4), located on the transmission hydraulic control
manifold (3). The transmission modulating valves engage and disengage the transmission
clutches by controlling the flow of oil to and from the clutches. The Power Train ECM may also
make automatic shift requests, if the AutoShift or the Auto KickDown functions are active.

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The Power Train ECM uses the transmission speed, the engine speed, and the power train oil
temperature signals to control the engagement of the clutches and provide a smooth transition
from one clutch to another clutch. Each transmission clutch in the planetary group has a
corresponding transmission modulating valve located on the transmission hydraulic control
manifold.
Electronic clutch modulation by the Power Train ECM controls the time required to fill a clutch
with oil. Clutch engagement pressure calibrations no longer need to be performed with the
"common top pressure" power train strategy. However, clutch fill time calibrations are still
required. The automated clutch fill calibration procedure can be performed using Cat Advisor or
by using Cat ET. This calibration routine "teaches" the Power Train ECM the length of time
required for each clutch modulating valve to attain its clutch engagement pressure.
During the calibration routine, the ECM applies current to a clutch solenoid until the Power Train
ECM detects a change in the ratio between engine speed and torque converter output speed. This
change in the ratio occurs because the parking brake is applied, which will not allow the
transmission output shaft to turn (the transmission input shaft rotates freely at this point because
no transmission clutches are engaged). When a clutch is pressurized to engagement pressure, the
inability of the transmission output shaft to rotate causes the transmission to stall. When the
transmission stalls, the transmission input shaft cannot turn, which causes the torque converter to
begin to stall. When the torque converter begins to stall, the engine lugs down. This action
changes the ratio between torque converter output speed and engine speed. The ECM has then
"learned" the time required to pressurize the clutch to its engagement pressure.
This calibration routine is performed several times for each clutch and the Power Train ECM
actually stores in its memory the average length of time required to pressurize a clutch to
engagement pressure. This routine is automatically repeated for each transmission clutch until all
five clutch solenoid valves have been calibrated.
NOTE: With the "common top pressure" strategy, clutch No. 1 (reverse direction), clutch
No. 2 (forward direction), clutch No. 3 (speed 3), and clutch No. 4 (speed 2) operate at
main relief pressure. The Power Train ECM sends approximately 1.0 amp of current to
these four transmission modulating valve solenoids to attain the clutch engagement
pressure. Clutch No. 5 (speed 1) operates at a reduced pressure. The Power Train ECM
regulates the pressure to the No. 5 clutch by sending a reduced current (approximately
0.7 - 0.8 amps) to the No. 5 transmission modulating valve solenoid.

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NOTE: The Power Train ECM commands the transmission to 3rd speed/Neutral (No. 3
clutch engaged and no directional clutch engagement) when the transmission is shifted
to NEUTRAL.
The Power Train ECM constantly monitors the torque converter output speed and the
engine speed. The Power Train ECM uses the preprogrammed speed maps (in software)
to determine what the torque converter output speed should be, considering power train
oil temperature and engine speed. If the Power Train ECM determines that the torque
converter output speed is too low (torque load too high), the assumption is that the
transmission is trying to move the machine (example: a directional clutch is trying to be
applied or is "dragging"). The Power Train ECM will then incorporate the "No Clutch
Neutral" strategy under these conditions, and will automatically disengage clutch No. 3.
The Power Train ECM will also ensure that the brakes are applied (proportional brake
solenoid is de-energized) if the power train oil is below 40 C (104 F).
This strategy is AUTOMATIC for the first 10 seconds after ANY start-up situation,
regardless of power train oil temperature. If the operator releases the parking brake
(switch OFF) within the first 10 seconds after start-up, the brakes will remain
ENGAGED indefinitely until the operator toggles the parking brake switch, requests a
transmission shift, or tries to steer the machine.

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2
3
1

84

Transmission output speed and rotational direction is sensed by the two transmission output
speed sensors (1). The speed/direction pick-up wheel (2) is splined to the transmission output
shaft (3). The wheel induces a current (signal) into each sensor as the speed/direction pick-up
wheel moves past the sensors.
The difference in the timing between the signals of the two sensors determines the output shaft
speed. Output shaft rotational direction is determined by sensing which sensor provides a signal
first. The signals from the sensors are monitored by the Power Train ECM. These signals are
used by the Power Train Electronic Control System to modify the timing of clutch engagements.
The transmission output speed sensors do not require adjusting when they are installed. They
are held in place with two clips, which maintain the proper air gap between the sensors and the
speed/direction pick-up wheel.
The status of transmission output speed sensors may be viewed through the Advisor panel
(Service/System Status/Power Train screens) or by using Cat ET.

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TRANSMISSION MODULATING VALVE


ENERGIZED

Ball

Solenoid

Valve
Spool

Orifice

Pin
To
Clutch

Spring

Supply Oil
from Pump

85

The transmission clutches are hydraulically engaged and spring released. The transmission
modulating valve solenoids are energized to send transmission charge oil to the clutches, as
shown in the illustration above. The pin extends to the right and moves the ball closer to the
orifice as current is applied to the solenoid. The ball begins to restrict the amount of oil to drain
through the orifice. This restriction causes the pressure to increase at the left end of the valve
spool. The spool shifts to the right against the spring, closing off the passage from the clutch to
the drain as the pressure at the left end of the valve spool increases. Simultaneously, the
movement of the valve spool to the right opens the passage from the pump supply to the clutch.
This causes the clutch pressure to increase.
De-energizing the solenoid decreases the force of the pin against the ball. This decreased force
allows the pressure at the left end of the valve spool to unseat the ball, de-pressurizing the
chamber at the left end of the spool. The valve spool shifts to the left due to the spring force
plus the supply oil pressure with no pressure at the left end of the spool. This condition reduces
the pressure to the clutch by closing off the supply passage to the clutch and opening up the
drain passage. The clutches will be released by spring force when hydraulic pressure to the
clutch falls below the clutch engagement pressure

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The transmission modulating valve that controls engagement of the No. 3 clutch allows oil flow
to the clutch when the transmission is in NEUTRAL. The other modulating valves stop flow to
the clutches, thereby allowing the clutches to be released by spring force. No power is
transmitted to the output shaft of the transmission since neither the No. 1 nor the No. 2
directional clutches are engaged.
The modulating valves that control oil flow to the No. 2 and the No. 5 clutches receive a signal
from the Power Train ECM when the transmission is in FIRST SPEED FORWARD. This
electrical signal energizes the solenoid which allows oil to flow to engage the clutches.
The status of all five transmission modulating valve solenoids may be viewed through the
Advisor panel (Power Train System Status screens) or by using Cat ET.
NOTE: Clutch Engagement Pressure Calibrations are no longer necessary due to the
common top pressure strategy. However, transmission Clutch Fill Time Calibrations
must be performed when any of the following repair procedures have been performed:
- Transmission modulating valve and/or solenoid is replaced.
- Transmission is serviced or replaced.
- Power Train ECM is replaced.
Transmission Clutch Fill Time Calibrations may be performed using Cat Advisor or by
using Cat ET.

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TRANSMISSION MAIN RELIEF VALVE


Adjustment
Screw

Spring

Spool

Slug
Chamber

Slug

Locknut
From
Trans. / TC
Charging Section
of PTO Pump

To TC Inlet Relief Valve

To Transmission
Hydraulic Control

86

The transmission main relief valve is located in the transmission hydraulic control manifold.
The manifold is on top of the transmission planetary group. The transmission main relief valve
maintains the "common top pressure" from the transmission charging section of the power train
oil pump. This oil is used to operate the brakes and the transmission clutches.
Oil to the main relief valve is supplied by the transmission charging section of the power train
oil pump.
Oil from the power train oil pump flows through the transmission charge oil filter and then to
the electronic brake control valve and the transmission modulating valves. The transmission
main relief valve is downstream from the electronic brake control valve and the transmission
modulating valves. The excess oil that flows over the main relief valve combines with the oil
that flows to the torque converter inlet relief valve.

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2
1

87

The transmission main relief valve may be accessed by removing the transmission inspection
cover, which is located at the top of the main transmission cover. The transmission main relief
valve is installed in the transmission hydraulic control manifold (1).
The transmission main relief valve may be adjusted by using the adjustment screw and
locknut (2), at the right of the transmission hydraulic control manifold.
Each of the transmission clutch modulating valves (3) have a pressure test port installed on top
of the valve body (see illustration No. 87). Individual clutch pressures may be tested by
connecting a hose and pressure gauge to the test port on the corresponding transmission
modulating valve.

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POWER SHIFT TRANSMISSION

Ring Gears

Ring
Gears
Input Sun
Gears

Input Shaft

Output Shaft
Planetary
Carrier

Output
Sun Gears
1

SPEED / DIR.

CLUTCHES

1 FWD

5 -2

2 FWD

4 -2

3 FWD

3 -2

1 REV

5 -1

2 REV

4 -1

3 REV

3 -1

NEUTRAL

88

This visual shows a sectional view of a typical transmission group like that used in the D10T
Track-type Tractor. The planetary group has two directional and three speed clutches which are
numbered in sequence (1 through 5) from the rear of the transmission to the front. Clutches
No. 1 and No. 2 are the reverse and forward directional clutches. Clutches No. 3, No. 4, and
No. 5 are the third, second, and first speed clutches. The No. 5 clutch is a rotating clutch.
In this sectional view of the transmission, the input shaft and input sun gears are shown in red.
The output shaft and output sun gears are blue. The ring gears are shown in green. The
planetary carrier, planet gears and planet gear shafts are shown in brown. The clutch discs, the
clutch plates, the pistons, the springs and the bearings are shown in yellow. The stationary
clutch housings are shown in gray.
The input sun gears are splined to the input shaft and drive the directional gear trains. The
output shaft is driven by output sun gears No. 3 and No. 4 and rotating clutch No. 5. When the
No. 2, No. 3, or No. 4 clutches are engaged, their respective ring gears are held stationary. The
No. 1 planetary carrier is held when the No. 1 clutch is engaged. When engaged, the No. 5
rotating clutch locks the output components (for FIRST gear) to the output shaft.

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5
4
2

89
Electronic Steering and Brake Control Valve
The electronic steering clutch and brake control valve (1) is installed on the top of the main case,
below the operator's seat. The steering clutch and brake control valve may be accessed by
removing the operator seat, the seat pedestal, and the rear floor plate in the operator compartment.
The valve body contains four proportional solenoid valves that are controlled by the Power Train
ECM. The Power Train ECM receives signals from the PWM rotary position sensors of the FTC
steering levers and from the PWM rotary position sensor that is connected to the service brake
pedal. The right steering clutch solenoid (2), the right brake solenoid (3), the left brake
solenoid (4), and the left steering clutch solenoid (5) are identified in illustration No. 89.
The brakes are spring applied and hydraulically released. The steering clutches are hydraulically
applied and spring released. The four proportional solenoids are normally ENERGIZED when
the steering clutches are engaged and the brakes are released. Pulling back on the left steering
control lever begins to DECREASE the amount of current to the left steering clutch solenoid (5)
and DE-ENERGIZES it. The solenoid begins releasing the left clutch and disengaging power to
the left track. When the left steering control lever is pulled back to approximately one-half of the
lever's travel distance, the left steering clutch solenoid is completely DE-ENERGIZED and the
left clutch is completely DISENGAGED. This results in a gradual left turn.

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Pulling back further on the left steering control lever begins to DECREASE the amount of
current to the left brake solenoid (4) and DE-ENERGIZES it, to begin engaging the left brake.
When the left steering lever is pulled all the way to the rear, the left brake solenoid is completely
DE-ENERGIZED and the left brake is completely ENGAGED, stopping the left track resulting
in a sharp left turn.
Depressing the service brake pedal DECREASES the amount of current to both the left and the
right brake solenoids and DE-ENERGIZES them to apply both the left and the right brakes.
The secondary brake valve is controlled by an ON/OFF solenoid (7). The ON/OFF solenoid is
ENERGIZED by connecting it to the battery when the secondary brake switch is activated. The
brake switch is a part of the service brake pedal and it is activated near the end of travel of the
service brake pedal.
The parking brake valve is also controlled by an ON/OFF solenoid (6). The parking brake
solenoid is ENERGIZED by connecting the solenoid to the battery when the operator activates
the parking brake switch. The steering clutch solenoids are also DE-ENERGIZED when the
parking brake switch is activated. The secondary brake valve solenoid is also ENERGIZED,
along with the parking brake valve solenoid when the parking brake switch is set to ON. This is
a new parking brake backup strategy and is a change for this type of electronic brake control
valve. This strategy is used by all of the T-Series Track-type Tractors.
The status of all four brake solenoids and the steering clutch solenoids may be viewed through
the Advisor panel (Service/System Status/Power Train screens) or by using Cat ET.
All four pressures for the steering clutches and the brakes (C1, B1, B2, C2) may be tested at the
pressure test ports that are located on top, and at the rear of the brake control valve. The
pressure test port (8) for the right steering clutch (C1) can be seen in illustration No. 89. The
other three pressure test ports correspond to the solenoids that are identified in the illustration.
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The following information outlines the state of the four brake
valve solenoids in the three possible conditions for the service brakes (brake pedal):
Service Brakes Released
- Proportional brake valve solenoids (L & R) - ENERGIZED
- Parking brake valve solenoid - DE-ENERGIZED
- Secondary brake valve solenoid - DE-ENERGIZED
Service Brakes Applied (full)
- Proportional brake valve solenoids (L & R) - DE-ENERGIZED
- Parking brake valve solenoid - DE-ENERGIZED
- Secondary brake valve solenoid - ENERGIZED
Parking Brake Applied
- Proportional brake valve solenoids (L & R) - DE-ENERGIZED
- Parking brake valve solenoid - ENERGIZED
- Secondary brake valve solenoid - ENERGIZED

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ELECTRONIC STEERING AND BRAKE CONTROL VALVE


ENGINE ON / BRAKES RELEASED

Parking Brake
Solenoid Valve
and
Secondary Brake
Solenoid Valve

Parking / Secondary
Brake Valve

Parking/Secondary
Brake Valve
Pilot Chamber
Check
Valve

Accumulator
Piston
Reducing Spool

Pilot Valve

Pressure Feedback
Chamber

Orifice

Accumulator Chamber
Proportional
Solenoid Valve

Pilot Pressure
Chamber

Slot Holes Shutoff


Spool

To Brakes

Supply Oil from Pump

Shutoff Valve

90
The proportional solenoid valves for the steering clutches and the brakes are controlled by the
Power Train ECM. The solenoid valves are ENERGIZED to engage the steering clutches and to
release the brakes. The Power Train ECM determines the amount of current sent to the solenoid
by the position of the FTC steering control levers or by the position of the service brake pedal.
The explanation that follows describes the operation of the service brakes. This explanation,
however applies to both the left and right brake circuits when the steering levers are used to
control the clutches and the brakes for steering. The steering clutches operate similarly, except
that the steering clutches do not use a shutoff valve or a shutoff spool in the valve body.
Hydraulic pressure is applied to release the brakes. Hydraulic pressure is applied to engage the
steering clutches.
When the proportional solenoid (valve) is ENERGIZED, the pilot valve is closed. Closing the
pilot valve allows pump supply oil to pressurize the pilot chambers at the proportional solenoid
valve, the parking brake valve, the secondary brake valve, and in the accumulator chamber. As
the accumulator chamber pressure increases, the reducing spool moves to the right against the
spring, closing off the drain passage. At the same time, the passage to the brakes is opened to the
passage from the pump supply oil. Pressure then builds in the pressure

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feedback chamber and in the passage to the brakes. As the pressure increases, the spring applied
brakes are released.
When the operator depresses the service brake pedal, the PWM sensor attached to the service
brake pedal sends a signal to the Power Train ECM. The Power Train ECM then decreases the
current to the proportional solenoid at a rate that is directly proportional to the movement of the
pedal.
As the solenoid is DE-ENERGIZED, the pilot valve opens and allows the pump supply oil in the
pilot pressure chamber to drain to tank. This reduces the pressure in the pilot pressure chamber
at the solenoid valve. The accumulator chamber and the parking/secondary brake valve pilot
chamber are also reduced by draining oil through the holes in the shutoff spool.
As the pilot pressure at the left end of the shutoff spool decreases, the pilot pressure at the right
end of the shutoff spool moves the spool to the left, against the spring. When the spool moves
all the way to the left, the holes in the spool are opened to drain due to the slot that is machined
in the shutoff valve. The pressures in the accumulator chamber and the parking/secondary brake
valve pilot chamber are now allowed to drain through the holes in the spool. As the pilot
pressure decreases, the spring begins to move the shutoff spool back to the right.
As the shutoff spool moves back to the right, the holes in the spool are covered again by the
right end of the shutoff valve. This reduces the rate of reduction in pilot pressure, allowing the
brakes to be slowly applied. The pilot oil can then only escape by flowing between the outer
diameter of the shutoff spool and the inner diameter of the shutoff valve, and then through the
holes in the shutoff spool. As the pilot pressure slowly decreases, the spring moves the shutoff
spool further to the right until the holes in the spool are uncovered again at the right end of the
shutoff valve. The remainder of the pilot pressure then completely drains to tank through the
shutoff spool.
As the pilot pressure decreases, the combined force of the reducing spool spring and the
pressure in the feedback chamber moves the reducing spool to the left. The accumulator piston
acts as a cushion and aids in preventing the reducing spool from moving too rapidly.
As the reducing spool moves to the left, the pump oil supply passage to the reducing spool is
closed off. At the same time, the tank passage to the reducing spool is opened, allowing the
pressure oil in the brakes to drain to tank. As the pressure to the brakes decreases, the Belville
springs begin to engage the brakes.
If the operator depresses the service brake pedal completely, the secondary brake switch is
activated. The secondary brake switch makes a direct connection between the battery and the
secondary brake valve solenoid, which ENERGIZES the secondary brake solenoid. When the
secondary brake solenoid is energized, all the oil in the brake circuits is drained and the brakes
are applied.

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When the parking brake switch is set to the ON position, the parking brake valve solenoid is
connected directly to the battery, which ENERGIZES the parking brake solenoid. The
secondary brake solenoid is also ENERGIZED by the battery when the parking brake switch is
set to the ON position as a backup measure. Again, all the oil is drained and the brakes are
applied.
Energizing either of the solenoids for the parking brake valve or the secondary brake valve
completely drains all pilot pressure oil, resulting in all of the oil being drained from the brakes.
The brakes are then fully engaged.
NOTE: The check valves that are installed in the valve body between the reducing
spools and the pressure chamber for the parking brake and the secondary brake valves
are only present on FTC machines. They serve to isolate the left brake circuit and the
right brake circuit from each other, for steering purposes. The check valves allow one
brake circuit to be depressurized while maintaining the brake pressure in the other brake
circuit. The brake valve used on differential steer machines operates the same way, but
the check valves are not present because the brakes are not used for steering and
therefore, need not isolate the left and right brake circuits.

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Text Reference

Pressure Reducing
Spool
Parking
Brake
Solenoid

Secondary
Brake
Solenoid

ELECTRONIC
STEERING AND BRAKE
CONTROL VALVE
STRAIGHT TRAVEL

Right Clutch
Solenoid
To Right Clutch
To Right Brake

Right Brake
Solenoid

Supply Oil
Left Brake
Solenoid
To Left Brake
To Left Clutch

Left Clutch
Solenoid

91
The illustration above, and those on the next few pages, show the electronic steering clutch and
brake control valve as if it had been sliced in half, horizontally, with the upper half laid over to
the top. The external lines in the illustrations represent the internal passages of the steering
clutch and brake control valve as they would normally be connected.
Illustration No. 91 shows the electronic steering and brake control valve in the STRAIGHT
TRAVEL, or NO STEER condition. Both brakes are DISENGAGED and the steering clutches
are fully ENGAGED.
When the service brake pedal is released and neither FTC steering control lever is moved
rearward, the rotary position sensors (connected to the brake pedal and the steering levers) send
PWM signals to the Power Train ECM. The Power Train ECM then sends maximum current to
all four of the (proportional) steering clutch and brake solenoids.
This maximum current completely ENERGIZES the solenoids, which close the poppets in the
solenoid valves and shuts off the flow of pump supply oil and pilot oil to drain. The result is
increased pilot pressure to all four pressure reducing spools. This increased pressure moves the
reducing spools to the right.

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As the spools move to the right, the passages to the drain are closed off and the passages to the
brake and steering clutch circuits are opened. High pressure pump supply oil flows into the
steering clutch and brake passages and then out to the steering clutches and the brakes. This
increased pressure ENGAGES the steering clutches and DISENGAGES, or releases the brakes
against their springs.
With the steering clutches ENGAGED and the brakes DISENGAGED, power is transferred to
the left and to the right final drives and the tracks move the machine in a straight line.

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Text Reference

Pressure Reducing
Spool
Parking
Brake
Solenoid

Secondary
Brake
Solenoid

ELECTRONIC
STEERING AND BRAKE
CONTROL VALVE
SERVICE BRAKES ENGAGED

Right Clutch
Solenoid
To Right Clutch
To Right Brake

Right Brake
Solenoid

Supply Oil
Left Brake
Solenoid
To Left Brake
To Left Clutch

Left Clutch
Solenoid

92
Illustration No. 96 shows the electronic steering clutch and brake control valve when the brakes
are fully engaged.
When the operator depresses the service brake pedal, the brake pedal position sensor sends a
signal to the Power Train ECM. The Power Train ECM then decreases the current to both the
left and the right proportional brake solenoids. The amount of current sent to the solenoid is
directly proportional to the position of the service brake pedal.
The decreased current DE-ENERGIZES the solenoids, which open the poppets in the solenoid
valves and opens the flow of pump supply oil and pilot oil to drain. The result is decreased pilot
pressure to both brake pressure reducing spools. This decreased pressure allows the springs to
move the brake reducing spools to the left.
As the spools move to the left, the passages from the brake circuits are connected to the drain
passages and the high pressure supply passages are closed off. This decreases the oil pressure to
both the left and the right brakes. The decreased pressure allows the brake springs to begin
engaging the brakes.

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When the operator completely depresses the service brake pedal, the secondary brake switch is
activated. The secondary brake switch then connects the battery to the secondary brake solenoid
and it is ENERGIZED. The secondary brake solenoid valve completely drains the brake pilot
oil to tank, which causes the reducing spools to move all the way to the left. As the spools move
to the left, pump supply is completely closed off and the brake circuits are completely open to
the drain passages. This decreases the pressure to the brakes and the brakes are then fully
engaged. The steering clutches are still pressurized and ENGAGED however, and will try to
move the machine against the brakes.

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Text Reference

Pressure Reducing
Spool
Parking
Brake
Solenoid

Secondary
Brake
Solenoid

ELECTRONIC
STEERING AND BRAKE
CONTROL VALVE
PARKING BRAKES ENGAGED

Right Clutch
Solenoid
To Right Clutch
To Right Brake

Right Brake
Solenoid

Supply Oil
Left Brake
Solenoid
To Left Brake
To Left Clutch

Left Clutch
Solenoid

93
Illustration No. 93 shows the electronic steering clutch and brake control valve with the parking
brakes ENGAGED. When the operator sets the parking brake switch to ON, the parking brake
valve solenoid is connected to the battery and the solenoid is ENERGIZED. The secondary
brake solenoid is also ENERGIZED by the Power Train ECM as a backup measure.
The left and the right proportional brake solenoids are also DE-ENERGIZED by the Power
Train ECM when the parking brake switch is set to ON.
The parking brake valve and the secondary brake valve completely drain the pilot oil from the
left and right brake reducing spools to tank through the check valves. This causes the pilot
pressure in the brake circuits to decrease and the brake reducing spools move to the left. As the
spools move to the left, the high pressure supply passages are closed off and the passages from
the brake circuits are connected to the drain passages, which decreases the pressure to the
brakes. This decreased pressure allows the brake springs to fully ENGAGE the brakes.
At the same time, both of the proportional steering clutch solenoids remain ENERGIZED. With
the steering clutch solenoids ENERGIZED, high pressure supply to the steering clutches is
maintained. This high pressure supply keeps the steering clutches ENGAGED against the
springs.

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Text Reference

Pressure Reducing
Spool
Parking
Brake
Solenoid

Secondary
Brake
Solenoid

ELECTRONIC
STEERING AND BRAKE
CONTROL VALVE
GRADUAL RIGHT TURN

Right Clutch
Solenoid
To Right Clutch
To Right Brake

Right Brake
Solenoid

Supply Oil
Left Brake
Solenoid
To Left Brake
To Left Clutch

Left Clutch
Solenoid

94
Illustration No. 94 shows the electronic steering and brake control valve with the right steering
clutch DISENGAGED.
When the operator pulls the right FTC steering control lever rearward, the right steering lever
position sensor sends a signal to the Power Train ECM. The Power Train ECM then decreases
the current to the right proportional clutch solenoid. The amount of current sent to the solenoid
is directly proportional to the position of the right FTC steering control lever.
The decreased current begins to DE-ENERGIZE the right steering clutch solenoid, which opens
the poppet in the solenoid valve and opens the flow of pump supply oil and pilot oil to drain.
The result is decreased pilot pressure to the right steering clutch pressure reducing spool. This
decreased pressure allows the spring to move the reducing spool to the left.
As the spool moves to the left, the high pressure supply passage to the steering clutch is closed
off and the passage to the drain is opened. This spool movement begins decreasing the pressure
in the right steering clutch circuit. The decreased pressure in the right steering clutch circuit
allows the springs to begin DISENGAGING the right steering clutch.

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When the operator moves the right FTC steering control lever to approximately half of its travel
distance, the right proportional steering clutch solenoid is completely DE-ENERGIZED. The
pilot oil to the right steering clutch reducing spool is completely drained to tank, which allows
the spring to move the spool all the way to the left. This spool movement completely closes off
pump supply to the steering clutch circuit and completely opens the right steering clutch circuit
to drain.
With no oil pressure to the steering clutch, the clutch springs completely DISENGAGE the right
steering clutch. With the right steering clutch DISENGAGED, power is disconnected to the
right track and the machine makes a gradual right turn.

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Text Reference

Pressure Reducing
Spool
Parking
Brake
Solenoid

Secondary
Brake
Solenoid

ELECTRONIC
STEERING AND BRAKE
CONTROL VALVE
SHARP RIGHT TURN

Right Clutch
Solenoid
To Right Clutch
To Right Brake

Right Brake
Solenoid

Supply Oil
Left Brake
Solenoid
To Left Brake
To Left Clutch

Left Clutch
Solenoid

95
Illustration No. 95 shows the electronic steering and brake control valve with the right steering
clutch DISENGAGED and the right brake ENGAGED.
When the operator pulls the right FTC steering control lever rearward, past the halfway position,
the right steering lever position sensor sends an increased signal to the Power Train ECM. The
Power Train ECM then decreases the current to the right proportional brake solenoid. The
amount of current sent to the right brake solenoid is directly proportional to the position of the
right FTC steering control lever.
The decreased current DE-ENERGIZES the right brake solenoid, which opens the poppet in the
solenoid valve and opens the flow of pump supply oil and pilot oil to drain. The result is
decreased pilot pressure to the right brake pressure reducing spool. This decreased pressure
allows the spring to move the reducing spool to the left. As the spool moves to the left, the high
pressure pump supply passage to the brake is closed off and the passage from the right brake
circuit is opened to drain. This spool movement begins decreasing the pressure to the right
brake. The decreased pressure allows the springs to begin ENGAGING the right brake.

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When the operator moves the right FTC steering control lever all the way to the rear, the right
proportional brake solenoid is completely DE-ENERGIZED. The pilot oil to the right brake
reducing spool is completely drained to tank, which allows the spring to move the reducing
spool all the way to the left.
This spool movement completely closes off pump supply to the brake circuit and completely
opens the right brake circuit to drain. With no oil pressure to the brake, the springs completely
ENGAGE the right brake. With the right brake ENGAGED, the right track is completely
stopped and the machine makes a sharp right turn.

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96
1

97

The power train oil fill tube (1) and the power train oil dipstick (2) may be easily accessed by
opening the spring-hinged door beside the step at the front of the left fender.
The remote mounted power train breather (3) is located inside the compartment at the rear of the
left fender. The breather is connected to the vent line that connects the torque divider case to the
main case. The breather should be periodically cleaned. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual for the D10T (Form No. SEBU7764) for the power train breather
maintenance intervals.

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Text Reference

1
2
3

98

99
4

Brake pressure for the left brake (B1) may be tested by removing the plug (1) at the top of the left
final drive and installing a pressure test tap. Steering clutch pressure for the left steering clutch
(C1) may be tested in a like manner at the middle port (2). Lube pressure (LB1) for the left
steering clutch and left brake may also be tested at the rear port (3). The test ports for right brake
pressure (B2) and for right steering clutch pressure (C2) are reversed on the right final drive.
The service brake pedal (4) is connected to a rotary position sensor (5). The rotary position
sensor sends a PWM signal to the Power Train ECM which, in turn, controls the proportional
solenoids for the service brakes. The secondary brake switch may be accessed through the
cover (6).
The status of service brake pedal position sensor and the secondary brake switch may be viewed
through the Advisor panel (Service/System Status/Power Train screens) or by using Cat ET.

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Text Reference

100

101
3

The high speed oil change connector for power train oil (1) may be accessed by opening the left
engine compartment door and then unlatching and lowering the valance below the door opening.
If the machine is equipped with a single-shank ripper, the pin puller valve (2) and solenoid (3)
are mounted to a bracket located at the right side of the transmission cover, near the top of the
cover. The pin puller is activated with the pin puller rocker switch, which is located on the right
console in the operator's compartment. When the pin puller switch is moved to the "Pin Out"
position, the solenoid is ENERGIZED. The valve uses power train oil to operate the hydraulic
pin puller cylinder (not shown).

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Text Reference

D10T IMPLEMENT HYDRAULICS


COMPONENT LOCATION
Quick-drop Valves

Fan Reversing
Valve

Dual Tilt Valve

Implement Pump

Hydraulic Oil
Cooler

Pilot Oil Pump

C27 Acert Engine

Pilot Oil Filter


Blade Lift / Tilt
Control Valves

Hydraulic Tank
Drain Valve
Return Oil Filters
and Bypass

Pressure Reducing
Manifold

Case Drain
Return Screen

EH Pilot Manifold
Ripper Lift / Tip
Control Valves

Implement ECM

Hydraulic Oil
Temp. Sensor

102
IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
The implement hydraulic system has also been upgraded for the D10T. These upgrades include:
- a three-section, fixed displacement gear-type implement pump with approximately 7%
more flow rate than the D10R;
- a new A4 Implement ECM;
- the addition of a separate pressure reducing manifold and improvements to the electrohydraulic pilot manifold;
- new proportional solenoid controlled pilot valves for all of the blade functions and
ON/OFF solenoid controlled pilot valves for all of the the ripper functions;
- two 6 micron high efficiency hydraulic oil filters;
- a remote mounted spin-on type pilot oil filter;
- a larger hydraulic oil tank with approximately 35% more capacity than the D10R tank;
- a hydraulic oil cooler that has been relocated to beneath the radiator;
- AutoCarry available now as an attachment; and
- elimination of the Remote Air to Air AfterCooler hydraulic fan system.

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The status of all of the sensors and solenoids in the implement hydraulic system may be viewed
through the Advisor panel (Service/System Status/Implement screens) or by using Cat ET.
The D10T is equipped with an electro-hydraulic (EH) implement system similar to the
implement system used in the D10R. The Implement ECM receives input signals from the
blade control lever position sensors, the ripper control lever position sensors, and various other
sensors and switches. The Implement ECM sends corresponding output signals to energize the
appropriate solenoid controlled pilot valves on the EH pilot manifold. The solenoid controlled
pilot valves control the amount of pilot oil that is sent to the dozer or the ripper control valves to
shift the appropriate spools and direct implement pump oil to the head ends or rod ends of the
implement cylinders.
The Implement ECM also sends corresponding output signals to energize the pitch and single
tilt ON/OFF solenoid valve on the dual tilt valve. The pitch and single tilt ON/OFF solenoid
valve directs oil to shift the dual tilt valve, which determines blade tilt modes and pitch angles.
The implement hydraulic system for the D10T Track-type Tractor is a fixed displacement flow
design that permits a minimum pressure in the system when the implement control valves are
not activated. The oil flow for operation of the bulldozer and the ripper is provided by two
sections (lift and tilt) of the three-section implement gear pump.
The rear (small or third) section of the implement pump provides pilot oil for operation of the
dual tilt valve, if the machine is equipped with dual tilt. The rear section of the implement pump
also provides oil to the pressure reducing manifold, which supplies pilot oil to the EH pilot
manifold for operation of the implement control valves.
A Pressure Compensation Override (PCO) valve provides engine overspeed protection when
energized by the Engine ECM. The PCO valve is also energized by the Implement ECM
whenever a ripper function is requested. The PCO valve allows the dozer lift relief valve to act
as the relief valve for the ripper circuit.
The resolver network transmits the highest implement cylinder pressure back to the pressure
reducing manifold. The highest resolved pressure is directed through the pressure reducing
manifold by the diverter valve and acts as pilot oil for lowering the implements in the event that
the engine will not run or the implement pump fails.
If the engine will not run and machine electrical power is not available, the "dead electric lower"
(or manual lower) valve is used to lower the implements. The dead electric lower valve allows
the flow of oil from the implement cylinders through the resolver network, and then to the
hydraulic oil tank. This allows the serviceman to slowly lower the implements.

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1
2

103
Implement Hydraulic System Component Identification
Most of the major components of the implement hydraulic system can be seen in the illustration
above. The implement pump is not visible, but is mounted to the upper right rear of the
flywheel housing.
The dozer control valve (1) is mounted to the inside of the left fender. The dozer control valve
controls the blade raise/lower/float functions and the blade tilt left/right functions.
The pressure reducing manifold (2) is mounted to the front of the main case. The pressure
reducing manifold receives oil from the rear section of the three-section gear-type implement
pump (not visible above), and supplies pilot oil to the EH pilot manifold via the pilot oil filter.
The EH pilot manifold (3) is mounted to the top of the main case and contains all the solenoid
controlled pilot valves. The pilot valves supply pilot oil to the implement control valves for the
operation of all implement functions.
The ripper valve (4) is mounted to a bracket at the top rear of the main case. The ripper valve
controls the ripper raise/lower functions and the ripper shank in/out functions.
The hydraulic tank is mounted to the rear of the right fender.

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3
1
2
4

12

11

6
7

10

104

The hydraulic tank is located on top of the right fender, forward of the right rollover support
post. The hydraulic tank provides oil for the operation of the implements, and the hydraulic
demand fan. Components and service points shown in the above illustration are:
- the vacuum breaker (1)
- the hydraulic filter access covers (two 6 micron filters) (2)
- the hydraulic oil fill tube and locking cap (3)
- the hydraulic oil level sight glass (4)
- the hydraulic oil sampling port (SOS) (5)
- the hydraulic tank drain valve (6)
- the hydraulic oil filter bypass switch (for the demand fan circuit filter) (7)
- demand fan circuit return (8)
- the case drain return (to internal screen) (9)
- the hydraulic oil temperature sensor (10)
- the main hydraulic oil suction manifold (for all hydraulic pumps) (11)
- the implement circuit return (12)

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The hydraulic oil tank contains two internal filters; one for return oil from the implements and
one for the return oil from the demand fan circuit. The hydraulic oil tank also contains a screen
for case drain return oil. The pilot oil drain return is located at the lower right. The drain is
hidden in this illustration by the main suction manifold.
The hydraulic filter bypass switch is a normally open pressure switch that senses the pressure of
the return oil in the circuit (before the filter). The switch provides a signal to the Implement
ECM at a specified pressure, indicating a filter restriction. Advisor will illuminate the Action
Lamp and light, and display a warning on the Advisor panel that the hydraulic oil filter is
clogged and is being bypassed.
The hydraulic oil temperature sensor (10) provides a signal to the Implement ECM. This signal
is considered when using the Advisor panel or Cat ET to perform calibration routines of the
implement pilot valve solenoids. The calibration routine will be aborted if the oil temperature
sensor signal indicates the temperature of the oil is above or below the temperature specified in
the calibration routine conditions.
The status of the hydraulic oil temperature sensor and the hydraulic oil filter bypass switch may
be viewed through the Advisor panel (Service/System Status/Implement screens) or by using
Cat ET. Advisor also displays a digital readout of the hydraulic oil temperature on the
Performance 1 screen.
NOTE: The vacuum breaker on the hydraulic oil tank should always be used to equalize the
pressure inside the hydraulic oil tank with the atmospheric pressure before removing the cap
from the filler tube. This will prevent scalding injuries due to hot hydraulic oil being expelled
through the filler tube when the cap is removed.

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Text Reference

1
10

3
4
9

5
7

8
6

105
The three-section fixed displacement gear-type implement pump is mounted to the rear of the
flywheel housing, at the upper right. This pump supplies oil to the implement valves and to the
pressure reducing manifold.
The lift (front) section (1) supplies oil to the blade lift section of the dozer control valve and to the
ripper control valve. Pump discharge from the lift section is through the forward pump outlet (8).
Discharge pressure for the lift section (HPD1) may be tested at the forward pressure test port (9),
and may be monitored through the Advisor panel or by using Cat ET.
The tilt (middle) section (2) supplies oil to the blade tilt section of the dozer control valve. Pump
discharge from the tilt section is through the middle pump outlet (6). Discharge pressure for the
tilt section (HPD2) may be tested at the middle pressure test port (7), and may also be monitored
through the Advisor panel or by using Cat ET.

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The rear (pilot) section of the implement pump (3) supplies oil to the pressure reducing manifold
via a fitting (5). Oil from the pressure reducing manifold is pilot oil for the EH pilot manifold.
Oil from the pilot section of the implement pump is also sent to the dual tilt valve, through use
of a tee fitting at the same location (5), if the machine is equipped with dual tilt (not shown
above). A relief valve (4) is used to limit pilot pump output pressure. The pilot pump discharge
pressure may be tested at the pressure test port (HFPD) on the pressure reducing manifold
(illustration 109). Pump supply oil enters the pilot pump at inlet fitting (10).
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The following standby pressures may be observed during lab
exercises.
- Lift pump (HPD1) pressure at high idle (implements in HOLD) should be approximately
760 kPa (110 psi).
- Tilt pump (HPD2) pressure at high idle (implements in HOLD) should be approximately
827 kPa (120 psi).
- Pilot pump (HFPD) pressure at low idle (implements in HOLD) should be approximately
3900 kPa (565 psi).
Always refer to the latest revision of the Service Manual for your machine serial number,
"Specifications, Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting - Hydraulic System" (Form
No. RENR7540) for the most recent specifications of system pressures.

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6
5
4
3
7

8
9

106
Shown above is the dozer control valve. It is mounted to the inside of the right fender, above
the right frame rail. It may be accessed by removing the floor plates in the operator's
compartment. The dozer control valve is supplied with oil from the lift and tilt sections of the
implement pump. The oil from both sections of the pump is combined when raising or lowering
the blade. The oil from the two sections is segregated so that only the oil from the tilt section of
the implement pump is used for tilting the blade and the oil from the lift section of the
implement pump is used for raising and lowering the blade when tilting the blade left or right.
High pressure pump supply oil from the lift (front) section of the implement pump enters the
dozer valve at the dozer lift valve inlet (4). High pressure pump supply oil from the tilt (middle)
section of the implement pump enters the dozer valve at the dozer tilt valve inlet (8).
The lift pump pressure sensor (3) is installed at the dozer lift valve inlet. This sensor detects the
Hydraulic Pump Discharge pressure (HPD1) in the lift circuit. The status of this sensor may be
viewed using the Advisor panel (Service/System Status/Implement screens) and is identified as
"Main Hyd Pump Oil Pressure." The tilt pump pressure sensor (5) is installed at the dozer tilt
valve inlet. This sensor detects the Hydraulic Pump Discharge pressure (HPD2) in the tilt
circuit. The status of this sensor may also be viewed using the Advisor panel (Service/System
Status/Implement screens) and is identified as "Tilt Hyd Pump Oil Pressure."

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High pressure pump supply oil is sent to and returns from the dozer lift cylinders through the
larger high pressure hydraulic lines (2). High pressure pump supply oil is sent to and returns
from the dozer tilt cylinder (or the dual tilt valve) through the smaller high pressure hydraulic
lines (1).
High pressure pump supply oil to the ripper valve is sent through a hose connected to the ripper
supply outlet (9). This oil is a combination of the flows from both the lift and the tilt sections of
the implement pump, unless a blade tilt function is commanded. During blade tilt operation,
only the lift section of the implement pump supplies oil to the ripper valve.
Return oil from the ripper cylinders flows into the implement return oil manifold (6) through the
manifold inlet (7) where it combines with the return oil from the lift cylinders and the tilt
cylinders. The combined return oil is then directed back to the hydraulic tank where it is filtered
before being recirculated by the implement pump.
The signals from the two implement pump pressure sensors are considered by the Implement
ECM for the operation of several implement system strategies. The following list outlines when
the sensors are used:
- During the solenoid calibration routines for the implement pilot valves (using Advisor or
Cat ET), the Implement ECM looks for a drop in implement pump discharge pressure to
determine the amount of solenoid current needed to move an implement. High pressure
supply oil begins to flow past the main valve spool and out to the implement cylinders
when the pilot pressure becomes great enough to move the implement control valve spool.
This will cause a brief drop in pressure in that circuit. The drop in pressure causes a
change in the electrical signal from the sensor that indicates the necessary current value
has been achieved and the Implement ECM will store this value in its memory.
- The signal from the lift pump sensor is also used for the ripper AutoStow strategy. When
the operator presses the AutoStow switch, the Implement ECM energizes the ripper raise
solenoid and the PCO valve solenoid (and either the ripper tip in or ripper tip out solenoid,
if AutoStow is so configured). The ripper will then raise until the end of the cylinder
stroke is reached. The hydraulic system pressure rises and the sensor signal reflects the
change in pressure when the end of cylinder stroke is attained. This change in signal
indicates that the end of stroke has been attained and the Implement ECM will then
de-energize the implement solenoids.
- The Implement ECM looks for a change in the signal from either sensor during the
operation of the ABA or the AutoCarry cycles. The change in signals indicate when the
tilt cylinders have reached the end of stroke during the "spread" and "blade reset"
segments of the automatic cycles, and when the lift cylinders have reached the end of
stroke during the "raise" and "return" segments of the automatic cycles.

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2
4

107

The ripper control valve assembly is shown in the illustration above. It is mounted to the rear of
the main case, above the transmission inspection cover and below the fuel tank. The ripper
control valve controls the ripper raise/lower functions and the shank in/out functions.
The ripper valve contains two valve sections - the ripper shank in/out valve section (3) and the
ripper raise/lower valve section (4).
The ripper valve is supplied with high pressure oil from the lift section of the implement pump
and from the tilt section, when the blade tilt function is not activated. Pump supply oil to the
ripper valve flows through the far high pressure hydraulic hose (1). Return oil from the ripper
cylinders flows through the near high pressure hydraulic hose (2) to the return oil manifold, and
then back to the hydraulic oil tank.
High pressure supply oil to the right ripper shank cylinder and return oil from the right ripper
shank cylinder is through the rear hose connections (5). High pressure supply oil to the right
ripper raise cylinder and return oil from the right ripper raise cylinder is through the forward
hose connections (6). Identical connections for the left ripper lift and shank cylinders are
located in the same positions on the left side of the valve assembly.

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The hard steel line (7) connects the two internal supply passages to the ripper lift valve with an
external resolver valve. The highest resolved pressure is transmitted through the resolver
network so that the ripper may be lowered manually with the dead electric lower valve. If
electricity is available, the ripper control handle can be used to lower the ripper in a dead engine
situation.
A ripper warming valve will be installed in the ripper control valve on machines equipped with
a cold weather arrangement. The warming valve allows a small amount of warm hydraulic oil
to circulate through the valve body and return to tank when the ripper is not being operated. The
warming valve helps prevent thermal shock from occurring inside the valve when a ripper
function is requested in an extremely cold environment. Without the ripper warming valve, hot
oil could cause a cold valve stem to expand faster than the valve body, causing the valve stem to
seize in the valve body during ripper operation.

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4
1

108

The hydraulic oil cooler (1) is an oil-to-water type cooler. It is located beneath the radiator
guard. Return oil from the hydraulic demand fan enters the cooler at the cooler inlet (2). The
cooler bypass valve is contained inside the housing (3). Only return oil from the hydraulic
demand fan passes through the hydraulic oil cooler.
The cooler bypass valve is pressure activated, only. The thicker (more viscous) oil creates more
pressure, which causes the bypass valve to open when the oil is cold. This allows most of the oil
to bypass the cooler. Once the oil is warm (less viscous), the pressure is less for the same
volume of oil and the bypass valve remains closed. All of the oil from the demand fan motor
will then pass through the cooler.
All of the oil exits the cooler, or the bypass valve, through the cooler outlet (4) and returns to the
hydraulic oil tank in either condition.

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Text Reference

10

11

1
12

109

Pilot Hydraulic System


The pressure reducing manifold (1) is located on the front of the main case, below the EH pilot
manifold. The pressure reducing manifold contains a pressure reducing valve (10). The
pressure reducing valve lowers the pressure of the pilot pump oil going to the EH pilot manifold.
The pump supply oil enters the pressure reducing manifold at the inlet (3). The Hydraulic Pilot
Supply (HPS) pressure may be tested at the pressure test port (5), installed on the bottom of the
pressure reducing manifold.
The line from the resolver network circuit (2) supplies oil to the diverter valve (11) when the
engine is OFF and the implements are raised above the ground.
After the oil is reduced to pilot pressure it is directed to the pilot oil filter through a hose
connected to the fitting at the manifold outlet (4).
The implement lockout valve is operated by the solenoid (6) that is installed in the left side of
the pressure reducing manifold.

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Text Reference

Oil that flows past the dead electric lower valve (9) or oil that flows past the pilot relief valve (8)
is directed back to the hydraulic tank through the hard steel line (7).
Pilot pump output pressure (HFPD) may be checked at the pressure test port (12) installed on
the right hand side of the pressure reducing manifold

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Text Reference

D10T PRESSURE REDUCING MANIFOLD


To EH Pilot Manifold
Dead Electric
Lower Valve

Pilot Relief
Valve

Pilot Filter

Filter Bypass
Valve

To Tank
From
Resolver
Network
HPS
Diverter
Valve

Implement
Lockout Valve

Screen

From Pilot
(Rear) Pump

Pressure
Reducing Valve

HFPD

110

The pressure reducing manifold supplies pilot supply oil to the EH pilot manifold via the pilot
oil filter, and to the AutoCarry diverter valve (if the machine is equipped with AutoCarry). The
pressure reducing manifold is supplied with oil from the pilot section of the implement pump.
Oil enters the pressure reducing manifold and passes through a screen before it reaches the
diverter valve. High pressure pump supply oil acts on the end of the diverter valve to move it
up, against the spring. The supply oil passes through the diverter valve, where it enters the
pressure reducing valve. The pressure reducing valve is infinitely variable, and meters the oil to
provide pilot oil pressure of approximately 3630 207 kPa (526 30 psi), at high idle.
The reduced pressure pilot oil then passes through the implement lockout valve. The implement
lockout valve is solenoid controlled and is ENERGIZED in the UNLOCKED position. The
ON/OFF solenoid is controlled by the implement lockout switch, which is located on the right
console in the operator's compartment. The implement lockout valve is DE-ENERGIZED in the
LOCKED position and the supply of pilot oil to the EH pilot manifold is blocked. The
implements cannot be moved using the implement controls when the implement lockout valve
solenoid is DE-ENERGIZED and the valve is in the LOCKED position.

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Text Reference

When engine speed is below 900 rpm, the Implement ECM automatically DE-ENERGIZES the
implement lockout solenoid and the valve is in the LOCKED position. The solenoid will be
ENERGIZED as soon as an implement control is moved. This strategy helps prevent inadvertent
implement movement during service procedures by shutting off the pilot supply to the EH
manifold.
The appropriate solenoid controlled pilot valve directs the pilot oil into the pilot chamber of the
implement control valve when the operator activates an implement. The pilot pressure then shifts
the implement valve spool. From the implement lockout valve, the pilot oil is directed to the
remote mounted pilot oil filter. The oil is directed to the EH pilot manifold from the pilot oil filter.
Also contained in the pressure reducing manifold is the pilot relief valve. The pilot relief valve
limits the pressure past the pressure reducing valve to approximately 6500 kPa (940 psi). This
valve opens to dissipate the excess pressure, in the event of pressure spikes in the pilot system.
When the implement lockout valve is in the LOCKED condition, the pilot relief valve opens to
direct the flow of pilot oil back to the hydraulic oil tank.
The diverter valve is used to provide pilot pressure for lowering the implements in a dead engine
situation. When the engine is OFF and any implements are suspended above the ground, the
weight of the implements creates pressure in the rod ends of the ripper and/or blade lift cylinders.
The highest resolved pressure from the implement cylinders is transmitted through the resolver
network and is directed into the passage between the diverter valve and the dead electric lower
valve. With no supply oil pressure from the pilot pump, the spring in the pilot operated diverter
valve moves the valve down, allowing the highest resolved pressure from the resolver network to
pass through to the pressure reducing valve. This oil now becomes pilot oil for lowering the
implements. The implements may be lowered using the EH implement controls in the operator's
compartment until all implements come into contact with the ground (if there is electric power
available to the implement controls) in this condition.
In a dead (no) electric situation, the EH implement controls will not function. The implements
must be slowly lowered by manually adjusting out the dead electric lower valve (screw and
locknut). This will allow all the oil from the rod ends of the ripper lift cylinders and the dozer lift
cylinders to slowly drain to the hydraulic tank through the resolver network until the implements
come into contact with the ground.
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: During lab exercises, the following pressures may be observed:
- The pilot pump pressure (HFPD) should be 3900kPa (565 psi) minimum at low idle.
- Hydraulic Pilot Supply (HPS) should be tested at high idle, with the implement lockout switch
set to ON. The pilot pressure (HPS) should be approximately 3630 kPa (526 psi).
Always refer to the latest revision of the Service Manual for your machine serial number,
"Specifications, Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting - Hydraulic System" (Form No.
RENR7540) for the most recent specifications of system pressures.

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Text Reference

111

The remote mounted pilot oil filter base is mounted to the inside of the right fender, toward the
front. It may be accessed by removing the cover beside the step at the front of the right fender.
The pilot oil filter (1) is a spin-on type filter.
Pilot oil from the pressure reducing manifold enters the filter base at the filter inlet (2). The
pilot oil returns to the EH pilot manifold through a line connected to the outlet of the filter
base (3) after the oil is filtered.
The filter base contains a filter bypass valve, but no filter bypass switch.
Filtration of the pilot oil is very important to ensure the proper operation of the implement
system. Contaminants in the pilot oil will clog the small openings in the solenoid controlled
pilot valves and could cause damage to the valve's small components. Refer to the D10T
Operation and Maintenance Manual (OMM) (Form No. SEBU7764) for recommendations
concerning filter change frequency intervals.

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Text Reference

2
3
1
4

112

The EH pilot manifold (1) is located on top of the main case, below the floor plates in the
operator's compartment. Reduced pressure pilot oil is sent to the pilot oil filter from the
pressure reducing manifold. The filtered pilot oil returns to the EH pilot manifold and enters the
manifold at the inlet fitting (4). The pilot oil is then distributed to each of the solenoid valves
through internal passages in the manifold.
The Implement ECM energizes the appropriate solenoid (2), sending pilot oil to the implement
control valve, which shifts the main valve spool when an implement lever is moved. The pilot
pressure to that implement control valve may be tested at the corresponding pressure test
port (3) while the implement is moving.
Return oil from the pilot relief valve and the dead electric lower valve in the pressure reducing
manifold flows through the hard steel line (6) where it combines with return oil from the pilot
manifold at the "tee" fitting (5). This oil then returns to the hydraulic oil tank.

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To Ripper Tip
Control Valve
(Shank Out) To Ripper Lift
Control Valve
(Ripper Lower) To Ripper Tip
Control Valve
(Shank In) To Ripper Lift
Control Valve
(Ripper Raise)

D10T EH PILOT MANIFOLD


BLADE RAISE

To Blade Lift Control Valve


(Blade Lower / Float)
DR

Pilot Supply from


Pilot Filter / Pressure
Reducing Manifold

Text Reference

RV

DR

TR

TL

TO
RV

DL

TR

TL

RD

TI

RU

RD

TI

RU

To
Tank

Drain from Pressure


Reducing Manifold
To Blade Lift Control Valve
(Blade Raise)

TO

DL

To PCO Valve
To Blade Tilt Control Valve
(Blade Tilt Left)
To Blade Tilt Control Valve
(Blade Tilt Right)

113
The EH pilot manifold receives pilot supply oil from the pressure reducing manifold, after passing
through the pilot oil filter. The EH pilot manifold contains four proportional solenoid valves that
receive PWM signals from the Implement ECM for operating the blade lift and the blade tilt
functions. The EH pilot manifold also contains five ON/OFF solenoid valves - two each for the
ripper raise/lower function and the ripper shank in/out function, and one solenoid valve for engine
overspeed protection and ripper operation (PCO valve). All of these solenoid valves are present
as standard equipment, regardless of attachments. Each solenoid valve has a corresponding
pressure tap for checking the pilot pressure to the implement control valve (except the PCO valve,
which has a plug installed instead of a pressure tap).
These nine solenoid valves are:
- blade raise, or dozer raise solenoid (DR)
- PCO valve solenoid (RV)
- blade tilt left solenoid (TL)
- blade tilt right solenoid (TR)
- blade lower/float, or dozer lower solenoid (DL)
- ripper shank out, or tip out solenoid (TO)
- ripper lower, or ripper down solenoid (RD)
- ripper shank in, or tip in solenoid (TI)
- ripper raise, or ripper up solenoid (RU)

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Text Reference

The solenoid plunger movement is proportional to the electrical current sent from the Implement
ECM for blade lift and blade tilt control. Solenoid plunger position determines the amount of
pilot oil pressure felt at the ends of the dozer lift and tilt spools. An increase in electrical current
causes an increase in oil pressure which moves the dozer lift and the dozer tilt control valve
spools proportionately. The electrical current sent to the dozer lift and tilt solenoids by the
Implement ECM is in direct proportion to the amount of movement of the dozer control lever by
the operator.
The Implement ECM sends only high current signals to the Pressure Control Override (PCO)
valve solenoid and the ripper solenoid valves. These five solenoid valves are ON/OFF solenoid
valves. They operate similarly to the dozer lift and dozer tilt solenoid controlled pilot valves.
However, the five ON/OFF solenoid controlled pilot valves provide full pilot oil pressure to the
ends of the ripper lift and ripper tip control valve spools when they are energized.
(Refer to the D10T hydraulic system schematic for the rest of the explanation that follows.)
The PCO valve provides engine overspeed protection when it is energized by the Engine ECM.
Energizing the PCO valve solenoid directs pilot oil to the end of the shuttle valve (contained in
the dozer control valve). The shuttle valve then directs high pressure implement pump supply oil
to the end of the dump valve, shutting off the flow of high pressure pump oil to tank. This
condition causes an extra load on the fixed displacement implement pump, which increases the
load on the engine and slows engine rpm.
The PCO valve is also energized whenever a ripper function is requested. The PCO valve is
energized by the Implement ECM when the operator requests a ripper function. The PCO valve
directs pilot oil to shift the shuttle valve (in the dozer control valve), shutting off the flow of high
pressure pump oil to tank. This ensures that maximum oil pressure is available for ripper
operation. In either of these situations, the PCO valve causes the dozer lift relief valve to act as
the relief valve for the ripper circuit and for the engine overspeed situation.
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The following pilot pressures should be observed at the pilot
pressure test ports on the EH pilot manifold during lab exercises.
- Dozer RAISE (HPDR) pressure should be approximately 3100 kPa (450 psi).
- Dozer LOWER (HPDL) pressure should be approximately 1725 kPa (250 psi).
- Dozer FLOAT (HPDL) pressure should be approximately 3450 kPa (500 psi).
- TILT LEFT/RIGHT (HPTL/HPTR) - pressures should be approximately 3100 kPa (450 psi).
- ALL ripper functions - pressures should be approximately 3100 kPa (450 psi).
- Hydraulic Pilot Supply (HPS) at the pressure reducing manifold should be approximately
4000 kPa (580 psi).
Always refer to the latest revision of the Service Manual for your machine serial number,
"Specifications, Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting - Hydraulic System" (Form No.
RENR7540) for the most recent specifications of system pressures.

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Text Reference

D10T DOZER CONTROL VALVE

Lift Relief
Valve

BLADE RAISE
(FRONT VIEW)

Passage to Lift Relief Valve


and Lift Dump Valve

Shuttle Valve
From Pressure
Compensation
Override Valve

Supply from
Lift Section

Signal Resolver to
Shuttle Valve

Signal Resolver
Passage

Passage to Tank

Pump Inlet
Lift Section

Load Check
Valve
Rod End
Makeup Valve

Head End
Makeup Valve
Rod End

Head End
Pump Inlet
Tilt Section

114
Dozer Control Valve
The dozer control valve contains a four position blade lift spool (RAISE, HOLD, LOWER, and
FLOAT) and a three position blade tilt spool (TILT RIGHT, HOLD, and TILT LEFT). The
blade lift spool is a "closed-center" spool, and the blade tilt spool is an "open-center" spool. In
this view and that on the next page, the dozer valve is shown in the BLADE RAISE condition.
(Refer to illustration No. 114 and No. 115 during the explanation of the BLADE RAISE
function that accompanies the illustration of the hydraulic schematic, later in this presentation.)
The dozer valve contains the following major components:
Blade Lift Spool: A closed-center valve that controls the flow of oil to the blade lift cylinders.
When in the RAISE or LOWER position, the lift spool also sends oil to the signal resolver,
which in turn sends the oil through the shuttle valve to a passage between the lift relief valve
and the lift dump valve.
Blade Tilt Spool: An open-center valve that controls the flow of oil from the tilt section of the
hydraulic oil pump to the blade tilt cylinder(s). In the normal center position, oil from the tilt
section of the implement pump flows past the spool and combines with the oil from the lift
section. Oil is also sent to a passage between the tilt dump valve and the tilt relief valve when
the spool is in the TILT RIGHT or TILT left position, .

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Text Reference

Lift Spool

Signal Resolver Valve

Load Check Valve

Shuttle Valve
From PCO Valve

To Lift
Cylinders

Tank Passage
Lift Relief Valve

Pump Inlet
from
Lift Section

To Tilt
Cylinders
Tilt Relief
Valve
Spring
Chamber

Dump
Valves

Load Check
Valve

Tilt Spool

D10T DOZER CONTROL VALVE


BLADE RAISE
(SIDE VIEW)

Pump Inlet
from Tilt Section

115

Signal Resolver: A cylinder load pressure signal is transmitted to the signal resolver valve,
through the shuttle valve, and to the spring chamber of the dump valve during blade lift
functions. The cylinder load pressure signal is from the lift cylinder rod end during RAISE and
from the cylinder head end during LOWER. The signal resolver valve directs the higher of the
cylinder rod or head end pressure to the shuttle valve.
Shuttle Valve: In its normally spring biased position, the shuttle valve directs pump supply oil
to a passage between the blade lift relief valve and the blade dump valve during blade lift
functions. In an engine overspeed condition or during a ripper function, the PCO valve is
energized. Energizing the PCO valve sends pilot oil to shift the shuttle valve, which opens a
passage for oil to be made available to the blade lift relief valve and blade lift dump valve.
Lift Relief Valve: During blade lift functions; lift cylinder load pressure is sent through the
signal resolver valve and the shuttle valve to a passage between the blade lift relief valve and the
blade lift dump valve. The relief valve for the blade lift circuit limits the maximum pressure in
the blade lift circuit. The blade lift relief valve is set to approximately 18790 kPa (2725 psi).

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Text Reference

Lift Dump Valve: During blade lift functions; lift cylinder load pressure is sent through the
signal resolver valve and the shuttle valve to a passage between the blade lift relief valve and the
blade lift dump valve. The cylinder pressure keeps the dump valve closed, which shuts off the
flow of pump supply oil to tank. This ensures that maximum system pressure is available for lift
cylinder operation. The lift dump valve should maintain a minimum lift circuit pressure of
approximately 400 kPa (58 psi) at low idle, and approximately 760 kPa (110 psi) at high idle
when not in a blade lift function.
Tilt Relief Valve: During blade tilt functions; tilt cylinder load pressure is sent to a passage
between the tilt relief valve and the tilt dump valve. The relief valve for the blade tilt circuit
limits the maximum pressure in the blade tilt circuit. The tilt relief valve is set to approximately
20,340 kPa (2950 psi).
Tilt Dump Valve: During blade tilt functions; tilt cylinder load pressure is sent to a passage
between the tilt relief valve and the tilt dump valve. The tilt cylinder pressure keeps the dump
valve closed, which shuts off the flow of pump supply oil to tank. This ensures that maximum
tilt circuit pressure is available for tilt cylinder operation. The tilt dump valve should maintain a
minimum tilt circuit pressure of approximately 415 kPa (60 psi) at low idle, and approximately
830 kPa (120 psi) at high idle when not in a blade tilt function.
Load Check Valve: The load check valve prevents reverse oil flow from the implement
cylinders when the main valve spool moves from the HOLD position and system pressure is
lower than the cylinder, or work port pressure. Without the load check valve, the implement
would drift down slightly (droop) before moving as commanded. The load check valve will
open to allow supply oil to flow through the control valve when the system pressure is higher
than the work port pressure.
Makeup Valve: The makeup valves are only present on the blade lift circuit in the dozer valve.
There is one makeup valve for the rod-ends and one for head-ends of the blade lift cylinders.
These valves are held closed by a spring. The makeup valves open whenever workport pressure
falls below tank pressure. The makeup valve for the head-ends of the lift cylinders will open to
allow tank oil to supplement pump flow in a quick-drop situation . When in FLOAT, the
makeup valve for the rod-ends of the lift cylinders may open if the blade rises quickly. The
make-up valve for the head-ends of the lift cylinders will not open when the blade drops during
the FLOAT condition. This is due to a slight head-end pressure in the lift cylinders, which will
be discussed later in this presentation.

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Text Reference

D10T IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


BLADE RAISE
Left Lift
Cylinder

Left Tilt
Cylinder

Quick-drop
Valves

Right Lift
Cylinder

Typical
for Blade

Dual Tilt Valve

RE

Right Tilt
Cylinder

Pilot Filter

HE

Lift and Tilt


Cylinders
Single Tilt
(S2)

Dead Electric
Lower Valve

To Case Drain
Pitch
(S1)
Resolver
Network

HPS

EH Pilot Manifold
Dump
Valve

HPRV

PCO
Valve

HPDR
Lift
Relief
Valve

Blade
Tilt
Spool

Dozer
Valve

Blade
Lift
Spool

HPDL
Blade
Lower / Float

Blade
Raise

HFPD

Pressure Reducing
Manifold

HPTL

Shuttle
Valve

HPTR
Dump
Valve

Signal
Resolver

Ripper
Valve

Ripper
Warming
Valve

Tilt
Relief
Valve

Tilt Left

Tilt Right

HPRR

Ripper
Raise

HPSO

Shank
Out

Tilt Pump
Pressure Sensor

Ripper
Lower

Shank
In

HPRL

HPSI

HFPD
HPD2

Lift Pump
Pressure Sensor

HPD1

Ripper
Lift

Return from
Hydraulic
Oil Cooler

Demand
Fan
Supply

Ripper
Tip
Vacuum
Valve
Group

Ripper Lift
Cylinder

Ripper Tip
Cylinders

SOS

Ripper Lift
Cylinder

116
Dozer Lift and Tilt Circuits
Shown above is a color schematic of the D10T implement hydraulic system in the BLADE
RAISE condition. Refer to illustrations No. 114 and No. 115 to see the state of the dozer control
valve components during the following explanation of the dozer lift circuit.
An electrical signal is sent to the Implement ECM when the operator moves the dozer control
lever from HOLD to RAISE. The Implement ECM then sends a signal to energize the solenoid
of the BLADE RAISE pilot valve on the EH pilot manifold (HPDR). The BLADE RAISE pilot
valve then directs pilot oil to shift the blade lift spool to the right, into RAISE position.
The combined high pressure oil from the lift section and the tilt section of the implement pump
then flows past the internal load check valve and the blade lift spool, then out to the rod ends of
the lift cylinders to raise the blade. Oil from the head end of the lift cylinders returns through
the head end passage of the dozer control valve and flows past the blade lift spool, and into the
passage to the hydraulic tank as the blade is raised, .
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Refer back to the color cutaway illustrations of the dozer valve
(illustrations No. 114 and No. 115) during the next few paragraphs of the explanation.

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Text Reference

Simultaneously, high pressure oil from the cylinder rod end passage flows through machined
slots in the left hand land of the main valve spool and into the signal resolver passage. This oil
shifts the signal resolver ball to the right and the oil enters the passage to the shuttle valve. The
high pressure oil then flows around the center stem of the shuttle valve and enters a passage that
directs the oil to the spring chamber between the lift relief valve and the dump valve.
The high pressure oil in the spring chamber plus the force of the spring keeps the dump valve in
the closed position so that maximum oil pressure is available to move the lift cylinders.
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Refer back to the color schematic (illustration No. 116) for the
remainder of the explanation.
High pressure oil flows to the lift cylinder rod ends and to the lift cylinder resolver during a
blade lift command. If this is the highest pressure in the implement system, this pressure is
transmitted through the rest of the resolvers in the resolver network, then on to the diverter
valve, contained in the pressure reducing manifold, where it is blocked at the diverter valve.
Gravity will cause the weight of the blade to produce high pressure in the rod ends of the lift
cylinders. With no pressure present from the pilot oil section of the pump, (dead engine) the
diverter valve is forced down by its spring, which then directs the highest resolved pressure
from the resolver network to the pressure reducing valve. This will now serve as pilot oil
pressure for lowering the implements with the implement controls.
The implements can be lowered manually by opening the "Dead Electric Lower Valve,"
contained in the pressure reducing manifold if electricity is not available for lowering
implements with the implement controls or if the implement controls have failed. This
procedure slowly drains the oil from the rod ends of the lift cylinders through the resolver
network and back to the tank.

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Text Reference

D10T IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


BLADE FLOAT
Left Tilt
Cylinder

Left Lift
Cylinder

Quick-drop
Valves

Right Lift
Cylinder

Typical
for Blade
Right Tilt
Cylinder

RE

Dual Tilt Valve


Pilot Filter

HE

Lift and Tilt


Cylinders
Single Tilt
(S2)

Dead Electric
Lower Valve

To Case Drain

Pitch
(S1)
Resolver
Network

Dump
Valve

HPRV

HPS

EH Pilot Manifold

PCO
Valve

HPDR
Lift
Relief
Valve

Blade
Lift
Spool

Blade
Tilt
Spool

Dozer
Valve

HPDL
Blade
Lower / Float

Blade
Raise

HFPD

Pressure Reducing
Manifold

HPTL

Shuttle
Valve
Dump
Valve

Signal
Resolver

HPTR
Tilt
Relief
Valve

Ripper
Raise

HPRR

Shank
Out

HPSO

Ripper
Valve

Ripper
Warming
Valve

Tilt Left

Tilt Right

Tilt Pump
Pressure Sensor

Ripper
Lower
Shank
In

HPRL

HPSI

HFPD

HPD2

Lift Pump
Pressure Sensor

HPD1

Ripper
Lift

Ret urn from


Hydraulic
Oil Cooler

Demand
Fan
Supply

Ripper
Tip
Vacuum
Valve
Group

Ripper Lift
Cylinder

Ripper Tip
Cylinders

SOS

Ripper Lift
Cylinder

117
Shown above is a color schematic of the D10T implement hydraulic system in the BLADE
FLOAT condition. Refer to illustration No. 118 to see the state of the dozer control valve
components during the following explanation of the dozer lift circuit. An electrical signal is
sent to the Implement ECM when the operator moves the dozer control lever from HOLD to
FLOAT. The Implement ECM then sends a signal to energize the solenoid of the BLADE
LOWER/FLOAT pilot valve on the EH pilot manifold (HPDL). The BLADE LOWER/FLOAT
pilot valve then directs pilot oil to shift the blade lift spool to the left, into the FLOAT position.
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Refer to the color cutaway illustration of the dozer lift valve
(illustration No. 118) during the next few paragraphs of the explanation.
The combined high pressure oil from the lift section and the tilt section of the implement pump
flows past the internal load check valve to the blade lift spool. The rod ends of the lift cylinders
are open to tank when the blade lift spool is shifted all the way to the left. However, the head
ends of the lift cylinders are only partially open to the tank passage. The head ends of the lift
cylinders are partially open to the pump supply passage, also. This results in a slight pressure in
the head-end of both lift cylinders. Although the blade will follow the contour of the ground in
FLOAT, there is a slight resistance to the blade rising and the blade is quick to fall.

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Text Reference

D10T DOZER CONTROL VALVE

Lift Relief
Valve

BLADE FLOAT

Shuttle Valve
Passage to Lift Relief Valve
and Lift Dump Valve

From Pressure
Compensation
Override Valve
Signal Resolver
to Shuttle Valve

Supply From
Large Pump

Head End
Tank Passage

Large Pump Inlet

Rod End
Tank Passage
Rod End
Makeup Valve
Load Check
Valve

Rod End

Head End

Head End
Makeup Valve

Small Pump Inlet

118

Because the head ends of the lift cylinders have a slight pressure present, the signal passage
from the head ends of the lift cylinders to the signal resolver are at the same pressure. This
slight pressure shifts the resolver ball to the left, allowing this low pressure to be felt at the ends
of the lift relief valve and the lift dump valve.
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Refer back to the color schematic (illustration No. 117) for the
remainder of the explanation.
Although there is a slight pressure in the chamber between the lift relief valve and the lift dump
valve, the high pressure oil in the lift circuit keeps the dump valve in the open position so that
pump flow is returned to tank.
Also note that as the blade follows the contour of the ground in FLOAT, the makeup valve for
the head-ends of the lift cylinders will not open if the blade falls quickly over a short distance.
This is due to the slight pressure in the head-ends of the lift cylinders, which is also felt against
the makeup valve in that side of the circuit. As the blade falls, pump flow will fill the void,
which also serves to prevent the makeup valve from opening.

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Text Reference

D10T IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


BLADE TILT LEFT - SINGLE TILT
Left Lift
Cylinder

Quick-drop
Valves

Right Lift
Cylinder

Typical
for Blade
RE

Right Tilt
Cylinder

Pilot Filter
HE

Lift and Tilt


Cylinders

Dead Electric
Lower Valve

Resolver
Network
HPS

EH Pilot Manifold
Dump
Valve

HPRV

PCO
Valve

HPDR
Lift
Relief
Valve

Blade
Lift
Spool

Blade
Tilt
Spool

Dozer
Valve

HPDL
Blade
Raise

Blade
Lower/Float

HFPD

Pressure Reducing
Manifold

HPTL

Shuttle
Valve

HPTR
Dump
Valve

Signal
Resolver

Ripper
Valve

Ripper
Warming
Valve

Tilt
Relief
Valve

Tilt Left

Tilt Right

HPRR

Ripper
Raise

HPSO

Shank
Out

Tilt Pump
Pressure Sensor

Ripper
Lower

Shank
In

HPRL

HPSI

HFPD

HPD2

Lift Pump
Pressure Sensor

HPD1

Ripper
Lift

Ret urn from


Hydraulic
Oil Cooler

Demand
Fan
Supply

Ripper
Tip
Vacuum
Valve
Group

Ripper Lift
Cylinder

Ripper Tip
Cylinders

SOS

Ripper Lift
Cylinder

119

Shown above is a color schematic of the D10T implement hydraulic system in the BLADE TILT
LEFT condition. Refer to illustration No. 120 to see the state of the tilt control valve
components during the following explanation of the dozer tilt circuit.
An electrical signal is sent to the Implement ECM when the operator moves the dozer control
lever from HOLD to TILT LEFT. The Implement ECM in turn sends a signal to energize the
solenoid of the BLADE TILT LEFT pilot valve on the EH pilot manifold (HPTL). The BLADE
TILT LEFT pilot valve then directs pilot oil to shift the blade tilt spool to the left, into the TILT
LEFT position.
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Refer to the color cutaway illustration of the dozer tilt valve
(illustration No. 120) during the next paragraph of the explanation.
The high pressure oil from the tilt section of the implement pump then flows past the left
internal load check valve and the blade tilt spool, and out through the tilt cylinder head end
passage of the dozer valve to the head end of the (right) tilt cylinder. The left side of the blade is
braced against the blade push-arm to provide the mechanical leverage to tilt the blade.

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Text Reference

D10T TILT CONTROL VALVE


BLADE TILT LEFT

Tilt Cylinder
Head End

Tilt Cylinder
Rod End
Passages to
Lift Valve
Stem

Passage to
Resolver Network

Passage to
Resolver Network

Head End
Tank Passage

Head End
Tank Passage

Pilot Supply

Pilot Supply

Load Check
Valve

Small Pump
Inlet

Load Check
Valve

120

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Refer back to the color schematic (illustration No. 119) for the
rest of the explanation.
As the cylinder rod extends, oil is forced from the rod end of the tilt cylinder back to the tilt
cylinder rod end passage of the dozer valve where it flows past the tilt valve spool, and into the
head end tank passage back to the hydraulic oil tank.
High pressure oil flowing out to the right tilt cylinder also flows into the resolver connected to
the tilt cylinder head end passage of the dozer valve. If this is the highest pressure in the
implement system, this pressure is transmitted to the diverter valve, contained in the pressure
reducing manifold, where it is blocked at the diverter valve.
The TILT RIGHT function (in the single function) operates in the same fashion, except that the
tilt spool is shifted to the right and oil flows into the rod end of the tilt cylinder. Oil from the
head end of the tilt cylinder flows back to the hydraulic oil tank.

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Text Reference

D10T IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


BLADE TILT LEFT - DUAL TILT
Left Lift
Cylinder

Left Tilt
Cylinder

Quick-drop
Valves

Right Lift
Cylinder

Typical
for Blade
Right Tilt
Cylinder

Dual Tilt Valve

RE

Pilot Filter

HE

Lift and Tilt


Cylinders
Single Tilt
(S2)

Dead Electric
Lower Valve

To Case Drain
Pitch
(S1)
Resolver
Network

Dump
Valve

HPRV

HPS

EH Pilot Manifold

PCO
Valve

HPDR
Lift
Relief
Valve

Blade
Lift
Spool

Blade
Tilt
Spool

Dozer
Valve

HPDL
Blade
Raise

Blade
Lower/Float

HFPD

Pressure Reducing
Manifold

HPTL

Shuttle
Valve

HPTR
Dump
Valve

Signal
Resolver

Ripper
Valve

Ripper
Warming
Valve

Tilt
Relief
Valve

Tilt Left

Tilt Right

HPRR

Ripper
Raise

HPSO

Shank
Out

Tilt Pump
Pressure Sensor

Ripper
Lower

Shank
In

HPRL

HPSI

HFPD

HPD2

Lift Pump
Pressure Sensor

HPD1

Ripper
Lift

Return from
Hydraulic
Oil Cooler

Demand
Fan
Supply

Ripper
Tip
Vacuum
Valve
Group

Ripper Lift
Cylinder

Ripper Tip
Cylinders

SOS

Ripper Lift
Cylinder

121

Shown above is a color schematic of the D10T implement hydraulic system in the BLADE TILT
LEFT condition, with DUAL TILT. Refer to illustration No. 120 to see the state of the tilt
control valve components during the following explanation of the dozer tilt circuit.
An electrical signal is sent to the Implement ECM when the operator moves the dozer control
lever from HOLD to TILT LEFT. The Implement ECM in turn sends a signal to energize the
solenoid of the BLADE TILT LEFT pilot valve on the EH pilot manifold (HPTL). The BLADE
TILT LEFT pilot valve then directs pilot oil to shift the blade tilt spool to the left, into the TILT
LEFT position.
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Refer to the color cutaway illustration of the dozer tilt valve
(illustration No. 120) during the next paragraph of the explanation.
The high pressure oil from the tilt section of the implement pump then flows past the left
internal load check valve and the blade tilt spool, and out through the tilt cylinder head end
passage of the dozer valve to the dual tilt valve.
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Refer back to the color schematic (illustration No. 121) for the
rest of the explanation.

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From the dual tilt valve, the oil flows to the head end of the right tilt cylinder and the cylinder
rod extends, which causes the right side of the blade to move up. As the right tilt cylinder rod
extends, oil is forced from the rod end back to the dual tilt valve where it is then directed to flow
to the rod end of the left tilt cylinder. The left tilt cylinder rod then retracts, causing the left side
of the blade to move down.
As the left cylinder rod retracts, oil is forced from the head end of the left tilt cylinder back to
the dual tilt valve. This oil then flows back to the tilt cylinder rod end passage of the dozer
valve where it flows past the tilt valve spool, into the head end tank passage, and back to the
hydraulic oil tank.
At the same time that high pressure oil flows out to the right tilt cylinder, high pressure oil also
flows into the resolver connected to the tilt cylinder head end passage. If this is the highest
pressure in the implement system, this pressure is transmitted from the resolver network to the
diverter valve, contained in the pressure reducing manifold, where it is blocked at the diverter
valve.
The TILT RIGHT function (in the dual function) operates in the same fashion, except that the oil
flows into the head end of the left tilt cylinder, from the rod end of the left tilt cylinder to the rod
end of the right tilt cylinder, and then from the head end of the right tilt cylinder back to the
hydraulic oil tank.
NOTE: The RIGHT tilt cylinder is isolated by the dual tilt valve and acts as the brace
for the mechanical leverage needed to tilt the blade when a single tilt function is
requested on a machine equipped with dual tilt. This is the opposite strategy used on a
single tilt machine, which uses a single tilt cylinder on the right and a brace on the left.
Dual tilt operation will be discussed in greater detail, later in this presentation.

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Text Reference

D10T RIPPER CONTROL VALVE


RIPPER RAISE

Load Check
Valve

Pump Inlet (Combined)


Passage to Head End

Passage to Rod End

Tank Passage

Tank Passage

Ripper Raise Spool

Pilot Supply
(Ripper Raise)

Pilot Supply
(Ripper Lower)
Plug or
Ripper Warming
Valve

Pilot Supply
(Shank In)

Pilot Supply
(Shank Out)

Passage to
Head End

Passage to
Rod End

Ripper
Tip Spool

122
Ripper Control Valve
The ripper control valve contains two "closed-center" spools. One spool controls ripper RAISE
and LOWER. The other spool controls ripper SHANK IN and SHANK OUT. The ripper
control valve contains the following major components:
Ripper Raise Spool: A closed-center valve that controls the flow of oil to and from the ripper
lift cylinders. The ripper raise spool also sends oil to an external signal resolver, which in turn
sends the oil through the series of resolvers in the resolver network and then to the diverter valve
in the pressure reducing manifold when in the RAISE or LOWER position.
Ripper Tip Spool: A closed-center valve that controls the flow of oil to and from the ripper tip
cylinders. No oil is sent to the series of resolvers in the resolver network during a ripper tip
function.

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Load Check Valve: The load check valve prevents reverse oil flow from the implement
cylinders when the main valve spool moves from the HOLD position and system pressure is
lower than the cylinder, or work port pressure. The implement would drift slightly (droop)
before moving as commanded without the load check valve. The load check valve will open to
allow supply oil to flow through the control valve when the system pressure becomes higher
than the work port pressure.
Makeup Valve: There are two makeup valves present in the ripper control valve. The makeup
valves open whenever workport pressure falls below tank pressure. One makeup valve is in the
head end circuit for ripper raise and will open if the ripper falls faster than the pump's ability to
supply oil to the head end of the ripper lift cylinders. The other makeup valve is in the rod end
of the circuit for the ripper tip and will open if the ripper shank (tip) is forced rearward when
using the ripper. (The makeup valves are not shown in illustration No. 122.)
The ripper control valve contains no relief valves or dump valves. The PCO pilot valve on the
EH pilot manifold is energized during any ripper operation. The PCO pilot valve sends pilot oil
to the end of the shuttle valve (contained in the dozer valve) to shift it. High pressure pump
supply oil is directed by the shuttle valve to the passage between the lift dump valve and the lift
relief valve when the shuttle valve shifts. This strategy closes the lift dump valve to block the
flow of combined pump supply oil to tank and also uses the lift relief valve as the relief valve
for the ripper circuit.

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Text Reference

D10T IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


RIPPER RAISE
Left Lift
Cylinder

Left Tilt
Cylinder

Quick-drop
Valves

Right Lift
Cylinder

Typical
for Blade
Right Tilt
Cylinder

RE

Dual Tilt Valve


Pilot Filter

HE

Lift and Tilt


Cylinders
Single Tilt
(S2)

Dead Electric
Lower Valve

To Case Drain
Pitch
(S1)
Resolver
Network

HPS

EH Pilot Manifold
Dump
Valve

HPRV

PCO
Valve

HPDR
Lift
Relief
Valve

Blade
Lift
Spool

Blade
Tilt
Spool

Dozer
Valve

HPDL
Blade
Raise

Blade
Lower/ Float

HFPD

Pressure Reducing
Manifold

HPTL

Shuttle
Valve

HPTR
Dump
Valve

Signal
Resolver

Ripper
Valve

Ripper
Warming
Valve

Tilt
Relief
Valve

Tilt Left

Tilt Right

HPRR

Ripper
Raise

HPSO

Shank
Out

Tilt Pump
Pressure Sensor

Ripper
Lower
Shank
In

HPRL

HPSI

HFPD

HPD2

Lift Pump
Pressure Sensor

HPD1

Ripper
Lift

Return from
Hydraulic
Oil Cooler

Demand
Fan
Supply

Ripper
Tip
Vacuum
Valve
Group

Ripper Lift
Cylinder

Ripper Tip
Cylinders

SOS

Ripper Lift
Cylinder

123

Ripper Lift and Tip Circuits


Shown above is a color schematic of the D10T implement hydraulic system in the RIPPER
RAISE condition. Refer to illustration No. 122 to see the state of the ripper control valve
components during the following explanation of the ripper raise circuit.
An electrical signal is sent to the Implement ECM when the operator moves the ripper lift
control handle from HOLD to RAISE. The Implement ECM sends a signal to energize the
solenoids for the RIPPER RAISE pilot valve and the PCO pilot valve on the EH pilot manifold
(HPRR and HPRV). The RIPPER RAISE pilot valve then directs pilot oil to shift the ripper
raise spool to the right, into the RIPPER RAISE position. The PCO valve directs pilot oil to
shift the shuttle valve down, which directs high pressure pump supply oil into the passage
between the lift dump valve and the lift relief valve (in the dozer valve). The high pressure oil
in this passage plus the force of the spring keeps the dump valve in the closed position so that
maximum oil pressure is available to move the ripper cylinders. The lift relief valve is also
available to be used as the relief valve for the ripper circuit.
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Refer to the color cutaway illustration of the ripper control
valve (illustration No. 122) during the next paragraph of the explanation.

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The high pressure oil from the implement pump then flows past the internal load check valve,
the ripper raise spool, and then out through the rod end passages to the ripper lift cylinders. This
causes the ripper cylinder rods to retract and the ripper raises.
As the ripper lift cylinder rods retract, head end oil from the ripper lift cylinders flows back to
the ripper control valve through the ripper raise head end passages in the ripper control valve.
This return oil flows past the ripper raise spool and into the tank passage and then returns to the
hydraulic oil tank.
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Refer back to the color schematic (illustration No. 123) for the
rest of the explanation.
High pressure oil flows into the resolver connected to the rod end passage of the ripper lift
cylinders at the same time that high pressure oil flows out to the ripper lift rod ends. If this is
the highest pressure in the implement system, this pressure is transmitted through the rest of the
resolvers in the resolver network, then on to the diverter valve, (contained in the pressure
reducing manifold) where it is blocked at the diverter valve.
The ripper lift relief valve will open to protect the ripper circuit from excessively high pressures
if the ripper lift cylinders reach the end of their stroke, in either direction, or if external forces
cause the ripper lift cylinders to move up.

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Text Reference

D10T IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


RIPPER SHANK IN
Left Lift
Cylinder

Left Tilt
Cylinder

Quick-drop
Valves

Right Lift
Cylinder

Typical
for Blade
Right Tilt
Cylinder

RE

Dual Tilt Valve


Pilot Filter

HE

Lift and Tilt


Cylinders
Single Tilt
(S2)

Dead Electric
Lower Valve

To Case Drain

Pitch
(S1)
Resolver
Network

Dump
Valve

HPRV

HPS

EH Pilot Manifold

PCO
Valve

HPDR
Lift
Relief
Valve

Blade
Lift
Spool

Blade
Tilt
Spool

Dozer
Valve

HPDL
Blade
Raise

Blade
Lower/ Float

HFPD

Pressure Reducing
Manifold

HPTL

Shuttle
Valve

HPTR
Dump
Valve

Signal
Resolver

Ripper
Valve

Ripper
Warming
Valve

Tilt
Relief
Valve

Tilt Left

Tilt Right

HPRR

Ripper
Raise

HPSO

Shank
Out

Tilt Pump
Pressure Sensor

Ripper
Lower
Shank
In

HPRL

HPSI

HFPD

HPD2

Lift Pump
Pressure Sensor

HPD1

Ripper
Lift

Ret urn from


Hydraulic
Oil Cooler

Demand
Fan
Supply

Ripper
Tip
Vacuum
Valve
Group

Ripper Lift
Cylinder

Ripper Tip
Cylinders

SOS

Ripper Lift
Cylinder

124

Shown above is a color schematic of the D10T implement hydraulic system in the RIPPER
SHANK IN condition. Refer to illustration No. 125 to see the state of the ripper control valve
components during the following explanation of the ripper raise circuit.
An electrical signal is sent to the Implement ECM when the operator moves the ripper shank
control from HOLD to SHANK IN. The Implement ECM sends a signal to energize the
solenoids for the ripper SHANK IN pilot valve and the PCO pilot valve on the EH pilot
manifold (HPSI and HPRV). The ripper SHANK IN pilot valve then directs pilot oil to shift the
ripper tip spool to the right, into the SHANK IN position. The PCO valve directs pilot oil to
shift the shuttle valve down, which directs high pressure pump supply oil into the passage
between the lift dump valve and the lift relief valve (in the dozer valve). The high pressure oil
in this passage plus the force of the spring keeps the dump valve in the closed position so that
maximum oil pressure is available to move the ripper cylinders. The lift relief valve is also
available to be used as the relief valve for the ripper circuit.
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Refer to the color cutaway illustration of the dozer tilt valve
(illustration No. 125) during the next paragraph of the explanation.

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Text Reference

D10T RIPPER CONTROL VALVE


SHANK IN
Load Check
Valve

Pump Inlet (Combined)


Passage to Head End

Passage to Rod End


Tank Passage
Tank Passage
Ripper Raise Spool

Pilot Supply
(Ripper Raise)

Pilot Supply
(Ripper Lower)
Plug or
Ripper Warming
Valve

Pilot Supply
(Shank In)

Pilot Supply
(Shank Out)

Ripper
Passage t o
Tip
Spool
Rod End

Passage t o
Head End

125

The high pressure oil from the implement pump then flows past the internal load check valve
and the ripper tip spool, and out through the head end passages to the ripper lift cylinders. This
causes the ripper cylinder rods to extend and the tip of the ripper shank moves in.
Rod end oil from the ripper tip cylinders flows back to the ripper control valve through the rod
end passages in the control valve as the ripper tip cylinder rods extend. This return oil flows
past the ripper tip spool and into the tank passage and then returns to the hydraulic oil tank.
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Refer back to the color schematic (illustration No. 124) for the
rest of the explanation.
The ripper tip circuit has no connection to the resolver network.
The ripper tip relief valve will open to protect the ripper circuit from excessively high pressures
if the ripper tip cylinder reaches the end of its stroke, in either direction, or if external forces
cause the ripper shank to move in or out.

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Text Reference

7
4

126
Dual Tilt Operation
The dual tilt valve (1) is mounted to the inside of the radiator guard, behind the left grill door for
machines equipped with dual tilt. A second tilt cylinder is installed on the left side of the blade.
The dual tilt valve is installed between the tilt control valve and the two tilt cylinders in the dual
tilt circuit. The rod end passage and the head end passage designation of the tilt control valve
are reversed from the single tilt configuration. The dual tilt valve allows the operator to tilt the
blade right and left to a greater degree than single tilt, to pitch the blade forward (dump), and to
rack the blade back.
Service points identified in the above illustration are:
- high pressure supply/return from/to blade tilt control valve (depending on tilt direction) (2)
- case drain line (3)
- pilot supply line (from the pilot pump pressure relief valve) (4)
- dual tilt solenoid (5)
- high pressure supply/return from/to blade tilt control valve (depending on tilt direction) (6)
- high pressure lines to the left tilt cylinder (7)
- high pressure lines to the right tilt cylinder (8)
Auto Blade Assist (ABA) is standard on machines equipped with dual tilt.

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Text Reference

DUAL TILT VALVE


DUAL TILT RIGHT

Left Tilt
Cylinder

From Tilt
Control Valve

Right Tilt
Cylinder

To Tilt
Control Valve

To Rod End

To Head End

Pilot Supply

Tilt Coil from


Trigger Switch
Pitch Coil from
Thumb Switch

127
The dual tilt valve has three modes of operation. They are:
- DUAL TILT
- SINGLE TILT
- BLADE PITCH
Oil from the rear section of the implement pump is used as pilot oil to control the dual tilt valve
spool. The pilot oil is controlled by a dual action solenoid valve. The dual action solenoid
valve has two coils - a "tilt coil" and a "pitch coil."
When the thumb switch on the dozer control lever is moved to the right or to the left, the pitch
solenoid coil is ENERGIZED and the solenoid valve directs pilot oil to the bottom of the dual
tilt valve spool, moving the spool up. The blade will PITCH FORWARD or RACK BACK,
depending on which direction the switch is moved.
The tilt solenoid coil is energized (when the default tilt mode is set to DUAL TILT) when the
trigger switch on the dozer control lever is depressed. The tilt solenoid valve directs pilot oil to
the top of the dual tilt valve spool, moving the spool down. The tilt solenoid coil is always
ENERGIZED if the default tilt mode is set to SINGLE TILT. The trigger switch will then
toggle to the DUAL TILT mode when the switch is depressed and the tilt coil is then
DE-ENERGIZED. (The default tilt mode can be set using Cat Advisor.)

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Illustration 127 shows the dual tilt valve in the DUAL TILT RIGHT condition. This is the
default mode of operation unless the operator has set the default tilt mode to single tilt, using
Cat Advisor. The tilt solenoid coil is always DE-ENERGIZED in the dual tilt mode and the
dual tilt spool remains centered by the springs on either end of the spool.
When the operator moves the dozer control lever to the right, commanding the TILT RIGHT
function, the tilt control valve operates in the fashion described earlier in this presentation. The
pump supply oil from the head end passage of the blade tilt control valve flows out to the head
end of the left tilt cylinder. The left tilt cylinder rod extends and forces the left tilt cylinder rod
end oil out to the dual tilt valve. The left cylinder rod end oil flows around the dual tilt spool
and out to the rod end of the right tilt cylinder. The right tilt cylinder rod retracts. The right tilt
cylinder head end oil is then forced out, back to the dual tilt valve where it flows around the dual
tilt spool and returns to the rod end passage of the blade tilt control valve as return oil.
The blade tilts right when the left tilt cylinder rod extends and the right tilt cylinder rod retracts.
For DUAL TILT LEFT, the flow of oil through the tilt circuit is reversed. In the DUAL TILT
LEFT condition, the left tilt cylinder rod retracts and the right tilt cylinder rod extends.
The status of the dual tilt solenoid, the dozer control lever tilt position sensor, the rotary thumb
switch (position sensor) on the dozer control lever, and the trigger switch on the dozer control
lever may be viewed through the Advisor panel (Service/System Status/Implement screens) or
by using Cat ET.
NOTE: For information about how to set the default tilt mode for the dual tilt valve,
refer to the "Caterpillar Monitoring and Display System with Advisor for Track-type
Tractors," STMG 790 (Form No. SERV1790).

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Text Reference

DUAL TILT VALVE


SINGLE TILT RIGHT

Left Tilt
Cylinder

From Tilt
Control Valve

Right Tilt
Cylinder

To Rod End

To Head End

To Tilt
Control Valve
Pilot Supply

Tilt Coil from


Trigger Switch
Pitch Coil from
Thumb Switch

128
Illustration 128 shows the dual tilt valve in the SINGLE TILT RIGHT condition. The operator
must depress and hold the trigger switch to toggle to SINGLE TILT mode if dual tilt has been
selected as the default tilt mode. The operator may also set SINGLE TILT as the default tilt
mode using the Advisor panel. Either condition results in the tilt solenoid coil being
ENERGIZED and the solenoid valve directs pilot oil to the top of the dual tilt spool, moving the
spool down. With the dual tilt spool in this position, the right tilt cylinder is isolated from the
circuit and acts as a brace to provide the mechanical leverage needed to tilt the blade.
When the operator moves the dozer control lever to the right, commanding a TILT RIGHT
function in the SINGLE TILT mode, pump supply oil from the head end passage of the blade tilt
control valve flows out to the head end of the left tilt cylinder. The left tilt cylinder rod extends
and forces the rod end oil back to the dual tilt valve. The left cylinder rod end oil flows around
the dual tilt spool. The passages to the right tilt cylinder are blocked, but the passage back to the
blade tilt control valve is open with the spool shifted down. The left tilt cylinder rod end oil
flows back to the rod end passage of the blade tilt control valve and returns to the tank.
When the left tilt cylinder rod extends and the right tilt cylinder remains stationary, the blade
TILTS RIGHT, but the angle of the tilt is not as acute as in the dual tilt mode.
The flow of oil through the tilt circuit is reversed for SINGLE TILT LEFT. In the SINGLE TILT
LEFT condition, the left tilt cylinder rod retracts and the right tilt cylinder remains stationary.

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Text Reference

DUAL TILT VALVE

BLADE PITCH FORWARD


Left Tilt
Cylinder

From Tilt
Control Valve

Right Tilt
Cylinder

To Tilt
Control Valve

To Rod End

To Head End

Pilot Supply

Tilt Coil from


Trigger Switch
Pitch Coil from
Thumb Switch

129
Illustration 129 shows the dual tilt valve in the PITCH FORWARD condition. To pitch the
blade forward, the operator must move the thumb rocker switch on the dozer control lever to the
right (away from the operator). This results in the pitch solenoid coil being ENERGIZED and
the TILT LEFT pilot valve solenoid being ENERGIZED. The pitch solenoid valve directs pilot
oil to the bottom of the dual tilt spool, moving it up.
When the operator has commanded a PITCH FORWARD function, pump supply oil from the
head end passage of the blade tilt control valve flows to the head end of the left tilt cylinder.
The left tilt cylinder rod extends and forces the left tilt cylinder rod end oil to the dual tilt valve.
The left cylinder rod end oil flows around the dual tilt spool. The oil flows through the passage
to the head end of the right tilt cylinder with the spool shifted up. The right tilt cylinder rod
extends also, forcing the right tilt cylinder rod end oil to the dual tilt valve. The right tilt
cylinder rod end oil then flows through the blade tilt control valve and returns to the tank.
Since the volume of rod end oil in the left tilt cylinder is less than the capacity of the head end of
the right tilt cylinder, the left cylinder rod will fully extend before the right tilt cylinder head is
filled with oil. The bypass valve will open and oil will continue to flow to the head end of the
right tilt cylinder when the left tilt cylinder reaches its full extension. This results in the left tilt
cylinder reaching its full extension slightly before the right tilt cylinder.

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When the left and the right tilt cylinder rods extend, the blade will PITCH FORWARD.
To RACK BACK the blade, the operator must move the thumb rocker switch on the dozer
control lever to the left (toward the operator). The flow of oil through the tilt circuit is reversed.
Both the left and the right tilt cylinder rods retract in the RACK BACK condition.
When the left and the right tilt cylinder rods retract, the blade will RACK BACK.
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: When the thumb rocker switch on the dozer control lever is
moved to the PITCH FORWARD position, the TILT RIGHT solenoid controlled pilot
valve on the blade lift control valve is ENERGIZED to send pump supply oil to the dual
tilt valve. When the thumb rocker switch on the dozer control lever is moved to the
RACK BACK position, the TILT LEFT solenoid controlled pilot valve on the blade lift
control valve is ENERGIZED to send pump supply oil to the dual tilt valve.
NOTE: Machines equipped with dual tilt are also equipped with the Auto Blade Assist
(ABA) feature. Blade positions for ABA are LOAD, CARRY, and SPREAD (or DUMP).
All three of these functions automatically activate the dual tilt valve and the tilt control
valve and will PITCH FORWARD or RACK BACK the blade to preset positions. These
positions can be adjusted using Cat Advisor. Briefly, these three blade positions are
defined as:
- LOAD position is when the dozer blade is pitched slightly forward for an aggressive
cutting edge angle to LOAD the blade.
- CARRY position is when the dozer blade is racked back in a fully retracted,
non-aggressive cutting edge angle so that the blade tends to CARRY material.
- SPREAD position is when the dozer blade is pitched fully forward to quickly and cleanly
empty the dozer blade and SPREAD the material.
The blade may be raised and lowered manually during these automatic cycles without
interrupting the cycles.

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Text Reference

D10T QUICK-DROP VALVE

To Blade
From Blade
Lift Control Lift Control
Valve
Valve
Head End
Rod End

130

Quick-Drop Valve Operation


Two quick-drop valves are used on the D10T. One quick-drop valve is installed on top of each
blade lift cylinder. The quick-drop valves allow the bulldozer blade to drop rapidly to the ground
when the dozer control lever is moved forward to approximately 80% of the control lever
movement. The quick-drop valves help prevent cavitation in the head-ends of the blade lift
cylinders by directing rod end return oil into the head ends of the cylinders during quick-drop
mode. The quick-drop valves also help to minimize the pause time after the blade hits the ground
and before full down pressure is exerted. All oil flow to and from the blade lift cylinders must go
through the quick-drop valves.
The quick-drop valves are activated when a sufficient pressure difference occurs between the
cylinder rod end oil and the oil in the spring cavity. This pressure difference is caused by rod end
oil flow through an orifice in the quick-drop valve. The quick-drop valve is de-activated by high
pressure in the head end felt through a slot in the spool. The quick-drop valves help control four
functions of the bulldozer: RAISE, LOWER at slow speeds, rapid LOWER (quick-drop), and
LOWER with down pressure.
These are the same type of quick-drop valves used on the D10R machine.

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Text Reference

QUICK-DROP VALVE
RAISE

Rod End
Inlet Passage
Small
Orifice

Head End
Inlet Passage

Spring
Chamber

Large
Orifice

Head End
Oil

Valve
Spool

Rod End
Oil

To Blade
Lift Control
Valve

Plunger

From Blade
Lift Control
Valve

131

Supply oil from the dozer control valve enters the quick-drop valve through the rod end inlet
passage when the dozer control lever is moved from HOLD to a RAISE position. The oil flows
through the large orifice and is then directed to the rod end of the lift cylinder. A small amount
of oil also flows through the small orifice and fills the spring chamber behind the plunger. Oil
also flows through a small passage in the spool and fills the chamber at the right end of the
spool.
The pressure of the oil in the spring chamber adds to the force of the spring. The combined
pressure and spring force pushes the plunger to the right, against the valve spool. The force of
the plunger is greater than the oil pressure at the right end of the valve spool, so the spool
remains shifted to the right. This condition causes all the of oil entering the quick-drop valve to
be directed to the rod ends of the lift cylinders and all the of oil from the head ends of the lift
cylinders to return to the tank through the head end passage of the quick drop valve and then
through the dozer control valve.

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Text Reference

QUICK-DROP VALVE
LOWER

Rod End
Inlet Passage
Small
Orifice

Head End
Inlet Passage

Large
Orifice

Valve
Spool

Rod End
Oil

From Blade
Lift Control
Valve

Spring Head End Plunger


Oil
Chamber

To Blade
Lift Control
Valve

132
Blade lowering is controlled when the dozer control lever is moved to a BLADE LOWER
position that is less than approximately 80% of full lever travel. The flow of oil that can pass
through the dozer control valve at any given spool position is a function of the pressure
difference across the spool and the temperature of the oil.
As stated earlier, the quick-drop valve is activated by high oil flow from the lift cylinder rod end
in combination with low lift cylinder head end pressure. For this reason, the actual position of
the control lever when the quick-drop valve is actuated can vary based on oil temperature and
the weight of the blade.
When the dozer control lever is moved to a controlled LOWER position, supply oil from the
dozer control valve enters the quick-drop valve through the head end inlet and flows through the
passage to the head end of the lift cylinders.
The oil being forced from the rod end of the cylinders returns through the quick-drop valve and
then through the dozer control valve to the tank. Because of the weight of the blade and the
resistance to oil flow through the quick-drop valve and the control valve, the pressure of the rod
end oil may be higher than that of the head end oil.

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Text Reference

The flow of cylinder rod end oil through the quick-drop valve's large orifice and also through its
small orifice (into the spring chamber) is not high enough to create a large pressure difference
between the oil in the rod end inlet passage and the oil behind the plunger. The spring force and
oil pressure in the spring chamber is still greater than the oil pressure at the right of the spool.
This keeps the plunger and the valve spool shifted to the right and all of the oil leaving the rod
end of the lift cylinder returns through the dozer control valve to the hydraulic tank.

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Text Reference

QUICK-DROP VALVE
QUICK-DROP

Rod End
Inlet Passage
Small
Orifice

Large
Orifice

Valve
Spool

Rod End
Oil

From Blade To Blade


Lift Control Lift Control
Valve
Valve

Spring Head End Plunger


Chamber
Oil

Head End
Inlet Passage

133

When the dozer control lever is moved forward to a position that exceeds approximately 80% of
lever travel and the blade is raised above the ground, the cylinder head end pressure is lower
than the rod end pressure, and the quick-drop valve is activated. The blade will drop very
rapidly until it contacts the ground. The oil flow for a quick-drop is the same as the controlled
lower except that some of the oil leaving the rod end of the lift cylinder is directed into the head
end of the cylinder.
When the flow of rod end oil through the large orifice is high enough, the large orifice restricts
the oil flow to the dozer control valve. The pressure of the oil flowing through the small orifice
into the spring chamber is the same pressure as the oil returning to the dozer control valve. This
creates a large pressure differential between the rod end oil at the right end of the valve spool
and the combined oil pressure and spring force at the left end of the plunger. The valve spool
and plunger will shift to the left and permit oil leaving the rod end to supplement the supply oil
filling the head end of the lift cylinders.
During a rapid blade drop, the rod end pressure will be higher than the head end pressure due to
the blade weight. The resulting pressure differential and valve movement allows the rod end oil
to flow to the head end of the cylinder and helps minimize cylinder voiding.

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Text Reference

QUICK-DROP VALVE

LOWER WITH DOWN PRESSURE


Rod End
Inlet Passage
Small
Orifice

Head End
Inlet Passage

Large
Orifice

Spring
Head End
Chamber
Oil

Valve Rod End


Spool
Oil

From Blade
Lift Control
Valve

Plunger

To Blade
Lift Control
Valve

134
When down pressure must be applied to the blade, the operator moves the dozer control lever
forward to the LOWER position. High pressure supply oil from the dozer control valve flows
into the quick-drop valve through the head end inlet passage and is sent to the head end of the
lift cylinders.
Simultaneously, this high pressure supply oil fills the chamber at the left end of valve spools.
The head end pressure of the supply oil increases as the resistance to downward movement
increases. The flow of oil from the rod end of the lift cylinder is near tank pressure, as is the
pressure of the oil at the right end of the valve spool. The flow of oil returning through the large
orifice and the oil returning to the dozer control valve are also near tank pressure. This causes
the oil pressure in the spring chamber at the left end of the plunger to also be near tank pressure.
Since the pressure in the chamber at the left end of the valve spool is greater than the pressure at
the right end, the valve spool shifts to the right. The pressure at the right end of the plunger is
less than the combined pressure and spring force at the left end of the plunger, so the plunger is
shifted to the left against the force of the spring. All of the oil from the dozer control valve is
then sent to the head end of the lift cylinders and all the rod end oil is returned through the dozer
control valve to the tank.

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Text Reference

135
AutoCarry
For machines equipped with AutoCarry (an option), there are three major components included
in the implement system (not including software and wiring harnesses). These components are:
- dozer lift cylinder position sensor (right lift cylinder only)
- dynamic inclination sensor
- ground speed radar
The illustration above shows the lift cylinder position sensor (1) installed on the top of the right
dozer lift cylinder. This sensor provides a feedback signal to the Implement ECM. The
Implement ECM uses this information to determine how much the lift cylinder piston moves
when cylinder movement is automatically commanded by the Implement ECM during the
CARRY segment of the AutoCarry cycle.
The wiring harness for the position sensor is attached at the connector (2). The lift cylinder
position sensor replaces the right quick-drop valve. The oil from both lift cylinders passes
through the quick-drop valve when the quick-drop mode is invoked.
There is a calibration routine for the lift cylinder position sensor. It may be performed by
accessing the Blade Calibrations within the Service option of Cat Advisor, or by using Cat ET.

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Text Reference

136

137

A dynamic inclination sensor (1) is another component present on machines equipped with
AutoCarry. The dynamic inclination sensor (illustration No. 136) is installed to the left of the
EH pilot manifold, on top of the main case. The dynamic inclination sensor determines the
angle of incline on which the machine is operating. It transmits that information to the
Implement ECM. This data is used when determining blade height adjustments during the Carry
segment of the AutoCarry cycle.
Also present on machines with AutoCarry is the Ground Speed Radar (2), as shown in
illustration No. 137. This component is mounted to a bracket that is attached to the bottom of
the drive shaft guard. The radar senses actual ground speed through an opening in the bottom
guard (3).

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Text Reference

The ground speed signal is sent to the Implement ECM. Actual ground speed is compared to the
target ground speed (considering torque converter output speed and the slope on which the
machine is operating). This information is used by the Implement ECM when making blade
height adjustments during the "Carry" segment of the AutoCarry cycle, ensuring maximum
dozing cycle efficiency. Ground speed is compared to the "target speed" to determine the
amount of track slippage during the CARRY segment of the AutoCarry cycle.
The Implement ECM calculates "Target speed" by considering the following variables:
- the torque converter output speed sensor (from the Power Train ECM);
- the angle of inclination on which the machine is operating (from the dynamic inclination
sensor); and
- the Load Factor setting (which is an "offset" setting that the operator can adjust using Cat
Advisor).
All of this information is used by the Implement ECM (which contains the AutoCarry software)
to make automatic adjustments to blade height during the CARRY segment of the AutoCarry
cycle.
If the Implement ECM determines that the tracks are slipping too much (considering all
variables), the Implement ECM will automatically operate the blade lift control valve to raise
and/or lower the blade until the target speed is once again attained. This strategy ensures that
the optimum amount of material is kept in the blade during the CARRY segment. This results in
improved efficiency when pushing material over long distances, and ensuring maximum dozing
cycle efficiency. (Dozing cycle efficiency refers to the amount of material moved per gallon of
fuel consumed.)
NOTE: During the AutoCarry cycle, the transmission operation will be limited to
FIRST GEAR FORWARD and FIRST GEAR REVERSE.

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Text Reference

138

The diverter valve (1) is a component that is present on the D10T if the machine is equipped
with AutoCarry. It is mounted to the front of the main case, to the right of the drive shaft.
The diverter valve is solenoid operated. Its purpose is to divert all of the pump flow from the
large (front) section of the implement pump (lift pump) back to the tank during the CARRY
segment of the AutoCarry cycle. The purpose of this strategy is to prevent overheating the
hydraulic oil when using AutoCarry.
The Implement ECM constantly makes automatic adjustments to the blade height during the
CARRY segment. The combined flow of both the lift pump and the tilt pump creates too much
heat in the hydraulic system when the dozer valve is being constantly manipulated during the
CARRY segment of the AutoCarry cycle. Only the tilt pump is supplying oil to the dozer valve,
with all the flow from the lift pump diverted to the tank. The reduced flow through the dozer
valve during automatic valve manipulation creates less heat in the hydraulic oil system.
The diverter valve solenoid (2) and a pressure test port (3) for HPD3 are located on the front of
the diverter valve. The HPD3 pressure test port will allow the serviceman to test the hydraulic
oil pressure in the lift pump circuit when the solenoid is either energized or de-energized. When
the diverter valve solenoid is DE-ENERGIZED, HPD3 pressure should be equal to HPD1.

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Text Reference

D10T IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


BLADE RAISE - AUTO CARRY DIVERTER VALVE ACTIVE
Left Lift
Cylinder

Left Tilt
Cylinder

Quick-drop
Valve

Typical
for All

Right Lift
Cylinder

Right Tilt
Cylinder

Dual Tilt Valve

RE

Pilot Filter

HE

Lift and Tilt


Cylinders

Lift Cylinder
Position Sensor

Single Tilt
(S2)

Dead Electric
Lower Valve

To Case Drain
Pitch
(S1)
Resolver
Network

Dump
Valve

HPRV

HPS

EH Pilot Manifold

PCO
Valve

HPDR
Blade
Raise

Lift
Relief
Valve

HPDL
Tilt
Left

Dozer
Valve

Pressure Reducing
Manifold

Blade
Raise

Blade
Lower/Float

HPTL

Shuttle
Valve

HPTR
Dump
Valve

Ripper
Valve

Tilt
Relief
Valve

Tilt Left

Tilt Right

HPRR

Ripper
Raise

HPSO

Shank
Out

Ripper
Lower

Shank
In

HPRL

HPSI

HFPD
Ripper
Warming
Valve

HPD2
HPD1

Ripper
Lift

Diverter
Valve

HPD3

Return from
Hydraulic
Oil Cooler

Demand
Fan
Supply

Ripper
Tip
Vacuum
Valve
Group

Ripper Lift
Cylinder

Ripper Tip
Cylinders

SOS

Ripper Lift
Cylinder

139
The AutoCarry cycle has six distinctive segments that position the blade height and blade pitch
automatically. The segments are invoked by pushing the left yellow button on the dozer control
lever and/or by shifting the transmission from FORWARD to REVERSE and back to
FORWARD. These six AutoCarry segments are:
- READY TO CARRY (blade is pitched to the LOAD position - aggressive cutting angle)
- CARRY (blade is racked back to the CARRY position - less aggressive cutting angle)
- SPREAD (blade automatically pitches all the way forward to DUMP the blade contents)
- READY TO RETURN (blade pitch all the way forward and is at the end of stroke)
- RESETTING (blade raises to top of lift cylinder stroke during REVERSE direction)
- RETURN (blade height returns to ground level and pitches forward to LOAD position)
During the CARRY segment, the Implement ECM constantly makes numerous automatic
adjustments to the blade height due to changes in the operating incline and variations in ground
speed. The combined flow of both the lift pump (front section) and the tilt pump (middle
section) creates too much heat in the hydraulic system when the dozer valve is being constantly
manipulated. This is due to the high volume of oil that flows through the dozer lift circuit, the
orifice effect of the blade lift spool when it opens and closes, and the flow of oil through
passages to the dump valve and other components in the dozer control valve.

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Text Reference

The diverter valve helps reduce heat by dumping the entire flow from the lift pump directly back
to the hydraulic oil tank.
Illustration No. 139 shows the implement hydraulic system in a condition during the CARRY
segment when the Implement ECM is commanding an automatic BLADE RAISE function.
When the blade is in the LOAD position and the operator determines that the blade is full of
material, the operator must push the left yellow button on the dozer control lever to invoke the
CARRY segment of the AutoCarry cycle. The Implement ECM will then automatically rack the
blade back to the preset CARRY position. In this position, the cutting angle of the blade is less
aggressive and will serve to push the material already in the blade. The Implement ECM will
then automatically make adjustments to the blade height in order to compensate for changes in
ground slope and when the actual ground speed falls below the target ground speed.
When the Implement ECM initiates the CARRY segment of an AutoCarry cycle, it also
energizes the solenoid operated pilot valve on the diverter valve. The pilot valve directs pilot oil
to the bottom of the pilot operated diverter valve spool, shifting it up against the spring. In this
position, the diverter valve spool directs the flow of high pressure oil from the lift pump back to
the hydraulic oil tank. The diverter valve spool also blocks the flow of oil from the dozer lift
circuit that is now filled with oil exclusively by the tilt pump, through the open-center tilt valve
spool.
When the next segment in the AutoCarry cycle is invoked, the pilot valve solenoid on the
diverter valve is DE-ENERGIZED and normal pump flow and operation of the dozer lift circuit
is resumed.

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Text Reference

CATERPILLAR MONITORING AND DISPLAY SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Implement
ECM

J2

J1

Power
Train
ECM

Key Start
Switch
J2

J1

Engine
ECM

J2

J1

CAN A
Data Link

CAES
Attachments

Product
Link

CAN A Data Link


CAT Data Link
15

20

AUTO

25

10

X100

n/min

Dynamic
Inclination
Sensor

CAN B
Data Link

Advisor

CAN C
Data Link

30

35

2.3

1F

132.1

Instrument
Cluster

Comm
Adapter II

Fuel Level Sensor

Rear
Action Lamp

Action Alarm

ET

Alternator
(R-Terminal)

140
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
The illustration above shows a graphical representation of the The Caterpillar Monitoring and
Display System for the D10T Track-type Tractor. The hardware components in the system
include Cat Advisor, the instrument cluster, the Engine ECM, the Implement ECM, the Power
Train ECM, the Action Alarm, the rear Action Lamp, and various switches, sensors and senders.
The illustrations on the following pages show the engine, the power train, and the implement
electrical systems. They also identify all of the switches, the sensors, the senders, and the
solenoids that are the input and the output devices used in each system. Depending on how the
machine is equipped, some or all of these devices may be present. Also shown in these
illustrations is the means by which these components and systems communicate with each other
and how the information from the input and output devices is shared between systems.
Communication of information on standard machines occurs through the following data links:
- Cat Data Link
- CAN A Data Link (high speed)
- CAN C Data Link (high speed)
With AutoCarry or other automated earthmoving attachments, the D10T will also include a
CAN B Data Link (shown in dashed lines, above) and a CAN D Data Link (not shown). These
data links are used to connect components of the CAES system or other automated earthmoving
systems.

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Text Reference

TTT ENGINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM


C27 ACERT Engine

Key St art Swit ch


Engine
ECM

J2 J1

CAN A Dat a Link

CAN A Dat a Link

Pre-lube
Relay

CAT Dat a Link

Advisor

CAT Dat a Link

Right Int ake Air


Pressure Sensor
Left Int ake Air
Pressure Sensor
Int ake Manifold
Air Temp. Sensor
Engine Oil
Pressure Sensor

Decelerat or
Posit ion Sensor

Secondary Fuel Filt er


Pressure Swit ch

Inject or No. 7

Inject or No. 1

Coolant
Flow Swit ch

Inject or No. 8

Inject or No. 2

Coolant
Temp. Sensor

Inject or No. 9

Inject or No. 3

Fuel Pressure Sensor

Inject or No. 1 0

Inject or No. 4

High / Low
Idle Swit ch

Inject or No. 1 1

Inject or No. 5

Inject or No. 1 2

Inject or No. 6

Fuel Temp. Sensor

Cam Speed / Timing


Sensor

Fan Pump
Cont rol Solenoid

Turbo Inlet
Pressure Sensor

Crank Speed / Timing


Sensor

Et her Aid Solenoid

Demand Fan
Pump Pressure Sensor

Crank wit hout Inject Plug

Fan Bypass Solenoid


( At t achment )

At mospheric
Pressure Sensor

Fan Reversing
Valve Solenoid
( At t achment )

Reversing Fan Swit ch


( At t achment )

Timing Calibrat ion


Probe

OUTPUT COMPONENTS

INPUT COMPONENTS

141

Shown above is an illustration of the electrical system for the C27 ACERT engine used in the
D10T Track-type Tractor.
The Engine ECM considers only the engine coolant temperature as an input for controlling the
hydraulic demand fan.
To view the status of all the engine components shown above using Cat Advisor:
- select the "Service" option from the Home Menu to display the Service Menu
- select "System Status" from the Service Menu to display the System Status Menu
- select "Engine" from the System Status Menu
- use the ARROW buttons to page through the list of components
Cat ET may also be used to view the status of these components.

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Text Reference

D10T TTT POWER TRAIN ELECTRICAL SYSTEM


Key Start Switch

Engine
ECM

J2

J1

J2

Power Train
ECM

J1

CAN A Data Link


CAT Data Link

Advisor

CAT Data Link


Trans. Charge Filter
Bypass Switch

Torque Converter
Oil Temp. Sensor

Trans. Controls
Temp. Sensor (Filter)

Service Brake
Position Sensor

Transmission
Output Speed
Sensor No. 1

Secondary
Brake Switch

Transmission
Output Speed
Sensor No. 2

AutoShift Switch

Torque Converter
Output Speed Sensor

Auto Kickdown
Switch

Left FTC Lever


Position Sensor

Right FTC Lever


Position Sensor

Forward Switch

F-N-R
Position Sensor

Reverse Switch
Upshift Switch
Parking Brake Switch
Crank
Speed /Timing
Sensor

Finger Tip Control

Downshift
Switch

Harness Code Plug


Location Code

Transmission Reverse Clutch


(Solenoid No. 1)
Transmission Forward Clutch
(Solenoid No. 2)
Transmission Third Gear Clutch
(Solenoid No. 3)
Transmission Second Gear Clutch
(Solenoid No. 4)
Transmission First Gear Clutch
(Solenoid No. 5)
Left Steering Clutch
Solenoid Valve
Left Brake Solenoid Valve
Right Steering Clutch
Solenoid Valve
Right Brake Solenoid Valve
Secondary Brake
Solenoid Valve
Parking Brake Solenoid Valve
Back-up Alarm
OUTPUT COMPONENTS

INPUT COMPONENTS

142

Shown above is an illustration of the electrical system for the D10T Track-type Tractor power
train system.
The Power Train ECM determines engine lug and torque curves by comparing engine speed data
to the torque converter output speed data. The Power Train ECM uses this information to
determine when to automatically downshift the transmission for the Auto KickDown feature.
The D10T does not have an engine output speed sensor. The primary (crankshaft) speed/timing
sensor provides engine speed data to the Engine ECM, which shares that data with the Power
Train ECM through the CAN A Data Link.
To view the status of all the power train components shown above using Cat Advisor:
- select the "Service" option from the Home Menu to display the Service Menu
- select "System Status" from the Service Menu to display the System Status Menu
- select "Powertrain" from the System Status Menu
- use the ARROW buttons to page through the list of components
Cat ET may also be used to view the status of these components. Calibrations for the power
train system (transmission, brakes, etc.) may be performed through the Advisor panel, or by
using Cat ET.

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Text Reference

D10T IMPLEMENT HYDRAULICS ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

Key Start Switch

Implement
Hydraulics
ECM

Power Train
ECM

Engine
ECM

J2 J1

Advisor

CAT Data Link


CAN A Data Link

Blade Raise /Lower


Position Sensor
(Forward /Rearward)
Blade Tilt
Position Sensor
(Left /Right)

Crank Speed
Sensor

Torque Converter
Output Speed Sensor

INPUT COMPONENTS

Blade Mode
Select Switch
(Left Push-Button)
Blade Manual
Select Switch
(Right Push-Button)
Dual/Single Tilt Toggle
Trigger Switch
Blade Pitch /Angle
Position Sensor
(Thumb Switch)
Blade Control
Lever

Lift Pump
Pressure Sensor

Tilt Pump
Pressure Sensor

Implement
Lockout Switch

Hydraulic Oil
Temp. Sensor

Auto Blade
Assist Switch
(Attachment)

Harness Code Plug


Location Code

Auto Carry Switch


(Attachment)

Hydraulic Oil Filter


Bypass Switch
Ripper Tip
In /Out
Position Sensor
(Control Handle)
Ripper
Raise /Lower
Position Sensor
(Control Handle)

PCO Valve
Solenoid

Blade Raise
Solenoid

Blade Tilt Right


Solenoid

Blade Lower
Solenoid

Blade Tilt Left


Solenoid

Shank In
Solenoid

Dual Tilt
Solenoid
(Attachment)

Shank Out
Solenoid

Diverter Valve
Solenoid

Ripper Raise
Solenoid

Implement
Lockout
Solenoid

Ripper Lower
Solenoid

Ground Speed
Radar
Right Lift Cylinder
Position Sensor
(Attachment)
Ripper Auto Stow
Switch

Ripper Control
Handle

INPUT COMPONENTS

OUTPUT COMPONENTS

143
Shown above is an illustration of the electrical system for the D10T Track-type Tractor
implement hydraulic system.
The Implement ECM requires torque converter output speed data to determine track speed, if the
machine is equipped with AutoCarry. Track speed is determined by a calculation using torque
converter output speed sensor data. The Power Train ECM monitors this sensor and shares this
information with the Implement ECM through the CAN A Data Link. The Implement Lockout
switch is automatically DE-ENERGIZED by the Implement ECM when engine speed is below
900 rpm. The Engine ECM shares the engine speed information (from the crank speed/timing
sensor) with the Implement ECM to accomplish this strategy.
To view the status of all the implement hydraulic system components shown above using Cat
Advisor:
- select the "Service" option from the Home Menu to display the Service Menu
- select "System Status" from the Service Menu to display the System Status Menu
- select "Implement" from the System Status Menu
- use the ARROW buttons to page through the list of components
Cat ET may also be used to view the status of these components.

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Text Reference

144

CONCLUSION
This presentation has discussed locations of components and the systems operation of the
engine, the cooling system, the power train, the implement hydraulics, the electrical system, and
the Caterpillar Monitoring and Display System (Advisor) for the D10T Track-type Tractor.
The information in this package will help the service person analyze problems in any of the
major systems of the D10T Track-type Tractor when used in conjunction with the Service
Manual and the STMG 790, "Caterpillar Monitoring and Display System with Advisor for
Track-type Tractors."

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Text Reference

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC COLOR CODE


Black - Mechanical Connection. Seal

Red - High Pressure Oil

Dark Gray - Cutaway Section

Red / White Stripes - 1st Pressure Reduction

Light Gray - Surface Color

Red Crosshatch - 2nd Reduction in Pressure

White - Atmosphere or Air (No Pressure)

Pink - 3rd Reduction in Pressure

Purple - Pneumatic Pressure

Red / Pink Stripes - Secondary Source Oil Pressure

Yellow - Moving or Activated Components

Orange - Pilot, Charge or Torque Converter Oil

Cat Yellow - (Restricted Usage)


Identification of Components
within a Moving Group

Orange / White Stripes - Reduced Pilot, Charge, or


TC Oil Pressure

Brown - Lubricating Oil

Orange / Crosshatch - 2nd Reduction in Pilot,


Charge, or TC Oil Pressure

Green - Tank, Sump, o r Return Oil

Blue - Trapped Oil

Green / White Stripes Scavenge / Suction Oil or Hydraulic Void

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC COLOR CODE


This illustration identifies the meanings of the colors used in the hydraulic schematics and
cross-sectional views shown throughout this presentation.

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Visual List

VISUAL LIST
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.

Title slide
Operator compartment view
Left console controls - front view
Left console controls - overhead view
Right console
Dozer control lever
Ripper control handle
Machine function switches - right console
Fuse panel and Cat ET comm port
HVAC and wiper/washer controls
Dash
Brake pedal and decelerator pedal
Power Train and Implement ECMs
Monitoring system components view
Monitoring system components ID
Instrument cluster ID
Advisor panel
Advisor panel components ID
Advisor Start-Up screen
Advisor warning screen
Advisor Performance 1 of 2 screen
Advisor Performance 2 of 2 screen
C27 ACERT engine section title slide
C27 left side engine view
C27 right side engine view
Primary fuel filter
Fuel transfer pump and pressure regulator
Secondary fuel filter components ID
Engine oil filters
Engine sensors - overhead engine view
Primary (crank) speed/timing sensor
Starter (left side) and block heater element
Engine oil ecology drain valve
Engine pre-lube pump
Electrical disconnects
Ether aid and solenoid
C27 engine front view
Engine coolant SOS valve
A4 Engine ECM
Engine oil pressure sensor - cam sensor
Turbo inlet pressure sensor
Crank Without Inject connector/plugs

43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.

Oil coolers and coolant flow switch


Timing calibration probe
Front gear train - cover removed
Rear gear train - cover removed
Turbo oil and coolant lines
Fuel heater
Fuel level sensor
Fuel system schematic
Engine air system components
Cooling system schematic
Cooling system components
Hydraulic oil cooler
Fan and hydraulic demand fan motor
Coolant fill tube/cap and sight glass
Standard fan system schematic - Max speed
Standard fan system schematic - Min speed
Fan pump color cutaway - Max fan speed
Fan pump color cutaway - Min fan speed
Fan system schematic - fan reverse/bypass
Fan system schematic- fan reverse active
Fan system schematic- fan bypass active
Fan pump components ID and location
Fan motor components ID and location
Fan reversing/bypass valve location and ID
Power train component location diagram
Power Train Electronic Control System
Power train hydraulic schematic
Power train major components location
Power train oil pump
Power train filters, brake valve location
Transmission charge filter components
Torque converter charge filter components
Rear power train pressure test ports
TC inlet relief valve/lube distribution man.
Torque converter inlet relief valve operation
Torque divider and components ID/location

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Visual List

VISUAL LIST
79.
80.
81.
82.
83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.
96.
97.
98.
99.
100.
101.
102.
103.
104.
105.
106.
107.
108.
109.
110.
111.
112.
113.
114.
115.
116.
117.
118.
119.

Torque divider cutaway


Torque converter outlet relief valve
Torque converter outlet relief valve operation
Power train oil coolers
Power shift trans. - removed from case
Transmission output speed sensors
Transmission modulating valve operation
Transmission main relief valve operation
Transmission main relief valve
Power shift transmission cutaway
Electronic steering/brake control valve
Steering/brake control valve cutaway
Steer/brake valve operation - released
Steer/brake valve operation - engaged
Steer/brake valve operation - park engaged
Steer/brake valve operation - grad. rt. turn
Steer/brake valve operation - sharp rt. turn
Power train oil fill tube and dipstick
Power train breather location
Brake lube/brake pressure taps (final drive)
Brake pedal position sensor
High-Speed power train oil change port
Ripper pin puller solenoid and valve
Imp. hydraulic system component location
Implement hydr. - major components ID
Hydraulic oil tank component ID
Implement pump component ID
Dozer valve components ID
Ripper valve components ID
Hydraulic oil cooler bypass valve location
Pressure reducing manifold component ID
Pressure reducing manifold schematic
Pilot oil filter location and ID
EH pilot manifold location and ID
EH pilot manifold operation
Dozer control valve cutaway - front view
Dozer control valve cutaway - side view
Hydraulic schematic - blade raise
Hydraulic schematic - blade float
Dozer control valve cutaway - front float
Hydraulic schematic - tilt left/single tilt

120.
121.
122.
123.
124.
125.
126.
127.
128.
129.
130.
131.
132.
133.
134.
135.
136.
137.
138.
139.
140.
141.
142.
143.
144.

Tilt control valve cutaway - tilt left


Hydraulic schematic - tilt left/dual tilt
Ripper valve cutaway - ripper raise
Hydraulic schematic - ripper raise
Hydraulic schematic - ripper shank in
Ripper valve cutaway - shank in
Dual tilt valve component ID
Dual tilt valve cutaway (dual tilt right)
Dual tilt valve cutaway (single tilt right)
Dual tilt valve cutaway (blade pitch fwd.)
Quick-drop valve circuit (schematic)
Quick-drop valve cutaway (dozer raise)
Quick-drop valve cutaway (dozer lower)
Quick-drop valve cutaway (quick-drop)
Quick-drop valve cutaway (down pressure)
Lift cylinder position sensor
Dynamic inclination sensor
Ground speed radar
AutoCarry diverter valve
Hydraulic schematic - AutoCarry activeblade raise
Monitoring system/electrical schematic
C27 engine electrical components
Power train electrical components
Implement hydraulics electrical components
D10T rear view - conclusion

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Handout No. 1

Engine System Components Identification


Directions: Use this sheet to take notes during the presentation. During the lab exercise, use
this sheet as a checklist when locating and identifying the components.
Engine Components
____ Primary and Secondary fuel filters

____ Alternator

____ Electric fuel priming pump and switch

____ Ether injection control solenoid

____ Fuel transfer pump

____ Intake manifold air pressure sensors (2)

____ Engine oil fill tube and dipstick

____ Atmospheric air pressure sensor

____ Engine oil filters

____ Intake manifold air temperature sensor

____ Engine oil SOS test port

____ Fuel temperature sensor

____ Engine oil pressure test port

____ Fuel pressure sensor

____ Engine oil pressure sensor

____ Fuel filter differential pressure switch

____ Engine pre-lube motor and pump

____ Turbo inlet pressure sensor

____ Engine oil cooler

____ "Crank-without-Inject" connector/plug

____ Air filters

____ Primary (crank) speed/timing sensor

____ Turbochargers

____ Secondary (cam) speed/timing sensor

____ AMOCS radiator and shunt tank

____ Starter

____ Engine coolant SOS test port

____ Coolant temperature sensor

____ Jacket water pump

____ Coolant flow switch

____ Temperature regulator housing

____ Timing calibration probe

____ Main electrical disconnect switch

____ Block heater element

____ Starter Disconnect switch

____ Block heater AC power receptacle

____ A4 Engine ECM

____ Auxiliary start receptacle

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Handout No. 2

Cooling System and Demand Fan System Components Identification


Directions: Use this sheet to take notes during the presentation. During a lab exercise, use this
sheet as a checklist when locating and identifying the components.
Cooling System Components

Demand Fan System Components

____ Engine oil cooler

____ Hydraulic demand fan pump

____ Power train oil coolers

____ Fan pump control valve

____ Jacket water pump

____ Fan pump pressure control solenoid

____ AMOCS radiator cores

____ Fan pump discharge pressure sensor

____ Water temperature regulator housing

____ Hydraulic Fan Pump Discharge pressure


test port (HDFP)

____ Coolant shunt tank


____ Fan motor
____ Coolant fill tube and cap
____ Fan reversing/bypass valve (if equipped)
____ Coolant level sight glass
____ Manual fan reversing switch (if equipped)
____ Cooling system drain valve
____ Engine coolant temperature sensor
____ ATAAC cores
____ A4 Engine ECM
____ Hydraulic Pilot Pump Discharge pressure
test port (HFPD)

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Handout No. 3

Power Train Components Identification


Directions: Use this sheet to take notes during the presentation. During a lab exercise, use this
sheet as a checklist when locating and identifying the components.
Power Train Components

Power Train Pressure Test Ports

____ Power Train ECM

____ Torque converter outlet relief pressure


test port (N)

____ Power train oil pump


____ Cooler Lube pressure test port (CL)
____ Power train oil fill tube and dipstick
____ Power train system lube pressure (L1)
____ Power train lube distribution manifold
____ Lube distribution manifold pressure (L2)
____ Torque converter inlet relief valve
____ Torque converter outlet relief valve
____ Torque converter outlet temp. sensor

____ Torque converter inlet relief (supply)


pressure test port (M)
____ Transmission main relief pressure test
port (P)

____ Power train oil coolers


____ Transmission pump pressure test port (TP)
____ Transmission charging filter
____ Power train oil SOS port
____ Torque converter charging filter
____ Right brake lube pressure test port (LB2)
____ Power train oil temperature sensor (sump)
____ Left brake lube pressure test port (LB1)
____ Power train oil filter bypass switch
____ Torque converter output speed sensor
____ Electronic steering/brake control valve

____ Brake and steering clutch pressure test ports


(B1/B2/C1/C2)
____ Right brake pressure test port (B2 - at
final drive)

____ Service brake pedal position sensor


____ Parking brake switch

____ Right clutch pressure test port (C2 - at


final drive)

____ Left and right steering lever position


sensors (FTC control lever sensors)

____ Left brake pressure test port (B1 - at


final drive)
____ Left clutch pressure test port (C1 - at
final drive)

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Handout No. 4

Hydraulic System Components Identification


Directions: Use this sheet to take notes during the presentation. During a lab exercise, use this
sheet as a checklist when locating and identifying the components.
Implement Hydraulic Components

Implement Hydraulic Pressure Test Ports

____ Hydraulic oil tank

____ Lift pump pressure test port (HPD1)

____ Hydraulic oil fill tube and sight glass

____ Tilt pump pressure test port (HPD2)

____ Implement return oil filters (2)

____ Hydraulic Pilot Pump Discharge pressure


test port (HFPD)

____ Implement pump


____ Pressure reducing manifold

____ Pilot pressure test ports (9 ports, at EH


pilot manifold)

____ EH pilot manifold

____ Hydraulic oil SOS (fluid sampling) port

____ Implement lockout solenoid valve

____ Hydraulic Pilot Supply pressure test port


(HPS)

____ "Dead Electric" lower valve


____ Pilot oil filter
____ Dozer control valve
____ Ripper control valve
____ Lift pump pressure sensor
____ Tilt pump pressure sensor
____ Quick-drop valves
____ Dual tilt valve (if equipped)
____ Fan reversing valve (if equipped)
____ Implement ECM
____ Hydraulic oil cooler and bypass valve
____ Hydraulic oil temperature sensor

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Handout No. 5A

MACHINE SYSTEMS POSTTEST


Using any of the provided classroom materials, demonstrate your knowledge of the various
machine systems by circling the BEST ANSWER for each of following questions.
The C27 ACERT Engine
1. The atmospheric pressure sensor is used:
A. to calculate boost pressure and air filter restriction
B. to determine ambient air pressure and as a reference for all other engine pressure sensors
C. to calculate gauge pressure for engine oil and fuel
D. all of the above answers (A, B, and C)
E. answers A and C
2. The intake manifold air pressure sensor is used to:
A. calculate boost pressure
B. determine air filter restriction
C. determine ATAAC restriction
D. all of the above
3. The turbo inlet air pressure sensor is used to:
A. calculate boost pressure
B. determine air filter restriction
C. determine turbocharger failure
D. answers A and B
4. The fuel transfer pump:
A. draws fuel from the secondary fuel filter
B. draws fuel from the primary fuel filter
C. maintains fuel system pressure
D. provides fuel flow through the entire fuel system
E. answers A, C, and D
F. answers B and D
5. The fuel pressure regulator:
A. maintains fuel system pressure
B. is positioned between the fuel injectors and the fuel tank
C. is positioned between the fuel injectors and the fuel transfer pump
D. answers A and B
E. answers A and C
6. The primary (crank) speed/timing sensor:
A. provides engine speed information to the Engine ECM
B. provides engine speed information to the Power Train ECM
C. is used to calculate shifting points for the Auto KickDown shifting strategy
D. all of the above answers (A, B, and C)
E. answers A and B

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Handout No. 5B

MACHINE SYSTEMS POSTTEST (continued)


Using any of the provided classroom materials, demonstrate your knowledge of the various
machine systems by circling the BEST ANSWER for each of following questions.
The Hydraulic Demand Fan System
7. The sensors (inputs) used to control the hydraulic demand fan are:
A. intake manifold air temperature, coolant temperature, and fan pump discharge pressure
B. intake air temperature and fan pump discharge pressure
C. coolant temperature and fan pump discharge pressure
D. hydraulic oil temperature, intake air temperature, coolant temperature, and fan pump
discharge pressure
8. When controlling the hydraulic demand fan, the Engine ECM:
A. sends maximum current to the fan pump control solenoid to produce minimum speed
B. sends minimum current to the fan pump control solenoid to produce maximum speed
C. sends maximum current to the fan pump control solenoid to produce maximum speed
D. sends minimum current to the fan pump control solenoid to produce minimum speed
E. answers A and B
F. answers C and D
9. The hydraulic demand fan may be shut OFF by:
A. disconnecting the fan pump control solenoid
B. using the Cat Advisor Configuration screen to turn fan control OFF
C. using the Cat ET Configuration screen to turn fan control OFF
D. answers B and C
E. answers A and C
F. none of the above
10. Maximum fan speed (high pressure cutoff) can be attained by:
A. disconnecting the fan pump control solenoid
B. using the Cat Advisor Configuration screen to turn fan control OFF
C. using the Cat ET Configuration screen to turn fan control OFF
D. answers A and B
E. answers A and C
F. none of the above

SERV1816
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Handout No. 5C

MACHINE SYSTEMS POSTTEST (continued)


Using any of the provided classroom materials, demonstrate your knowledge of the various
machine systems by circling the BEST ANSWER for each of following questions.
The Power Train System
11. The Torque Converter Inlet Relief Valve:
A. limits the maximum oil pressure to the torque converter
B. limits the maximum oil pressure in the torque converter
C. protects the components in the torque converter when the oil is cold
D. answers A and C
E. answers B and C
12. The Torque Converter Outlet Relief Valve:
A. ensures a constant oil pressure to the torque converter
B. maintains a constant maximum oil pressure inside the torque converter
C. maintains a constant minimum oil pressure inside the torque converter
D. limits the maximum temperature inside the torque converter
E. answers C and D
13. The Transmission Main Relief Valve maintains the oil pressure:
A. for the operation of the transmission
B. for the operation of the torque converter
C. for the operation of the steering clutches and the brakes
D. all of the above answers
E. answers A and C
14. The steering clutches are:
A. spring applied and hydraulically released
B. hydraulically applied and spring released
C. hydraulically applied and hydraulically released
15. The brakes are:
A. spring applied and hydraulically released
B. hydraulically applied and spring released
C. hydraulically applied and hydraulically released
16. When the service brakes are FULLY APPLIED (ENGAGED) using the service brake pedal:
A. the proportional brake valve solenoids are DE-ENERGIZED and the secondary brake
valve solenoid is ENERGIZED
B. the proportional brake valve solenoids are ENERGIZED and the secondary brake valve
solenoid is DE-ENERGIZED
C. the proportional brake valve solenoids are DE-ENERGIZED and the secondary brake
valve solenoid is DE-ENERGIZED
D. the proportional brake valve solenoids are ENERGIZED and the secondary brake valve
solenoid is ENERGIZED
E. none of the above answers

SERV1816
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Handout No. 5D

MACHINE SYSTEMS POSTTEST (continued)


Using any of the provided classroom materials, demonstrate your knowledge of the implement
system by entering the letter of the BEST ANSWER for each of the implement system
components listed at the left.
The Implement Hydraulic System
____ Hydraulic oil tank
____ Implement pump
____ Pressure reducing manifold
____ Implement lockout solenoid valve
____ Pilot oil filter
____ Dozer and ripper control valves
____ Lift dump valve
____ Tilt dump valve
____ Shuttle valve
____ Solenoid controlled pilot valve
____ Quick-drop valve
____ Implement ECM
____ Hydraulic oil cooler bypass valve

A. Direct the flow of high pressure pump supply


oil to the implement cylinders.
B. Ensures that clean oil is delivered to the
solenoid controlled pilot valves.
C. Opens to bypass the cooler when the hydraulic
oil is cold and closes when the hydraulic oil is
warm to direct oil through the cooler.
D. Provides oil flow through the entire hydraulic
system for the operation of the implements.
E. ENERGIZED by the Implement ECM to direct
pilot pressure oil to move an implement control
valve spool.
F. Receives signals from implement control lever
sensors and sends corresponding currents to the
appropriate solenoid controlled pilot valves.
G. Blocks the flow of pilot pressure oil to the EH
pilot manifold when DE-ENERGIZED.
H. Directs rod-end oil from the blade lift cylinders
into the head-ends when the blade falls rapidly
to the ground.
I. Serves as a reservoir for the hydraulic oil.
J. Is closed by high pressure supply oil to shut off
oil flow to tank when a blade lift or a ripper
function is active.
K. Contains the pressure reducing valve and the
Dead Electric Lower valve.
L. Directs high pressure supply oil to the lift dump
valve and the lift relief valve when a blade lift
function is active.
M. Is closed by high pressure supply oil to shut off
oil flow to tank when a blade tilt function is
active.

DIRECTIONS

Implement
Pump

Torque
Divider

Torque
Converter

Fan
Pump

POWER TRAIN COMPONENTS

____ Transmission Controls Temp. Sensor

____ Torque Converter Charging Filter

____ Power Train Oil Coolers

____ Torque Converter Inlet Relief Valve

____ Electronic Steering Clutch and


Brake Control Valve

____ Transmission Charging Filter

____ Main Relief Valve

____ Torque Converter Outlet Relief Valve

____ Torque Converter Outlet Temp. Sensor

____ Power Train Breather

____ Lube Distribution Manifold

____ Torque Converter Scavenge Section


Power Train Oil Pump

____ Transmission Scavenge Section


Power Train Oil Pump

____ Torque Converter Charging Section


Power Train Oil Pump

____ Transmission & TC Charging Section


Power Train Oil Pump

Torque Converter Inlet Relief


Pressure (M1)

Torque Converter Supply Pressure (M)

Lube Manifold Pressure (L2)

Power Train Oil Sampling (SOS)

Transmission Main Relief Pressure (P)

Transmission Pump Pressure (TP)

Torque Converter Outlet


Relief Pressure (N)

Cooler Lube Pressure (CL)

POWER TRAIN PRESSURE PORTS

C27
Engine

Transmission Lube Pressure (L1)

Flywheel
Housing

FIRST GEAR FORWARD

D10T POWER TRAIN SCHEMATIC

- 201 -

COMPONENTS IDENTIFICATION: Write the letter of the Power


Train component or service point next to the name of the
component or service point listed in the right hand box and/or
the bottom box.

U
A

SERV1816
03/06
Handout No. 6

SERV1816
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Handout No. 5A
Posttest Answers

MACHINE SYSTEMS POSTTEST ANSWERS


Using any of the provided classroom materials, demonstrate your knowledge of the various
machine systems by circling the BEST ANSWER for each of following questions.
The C27 ACERT Engine
1. The atmospheric pressure sensor is used:
A. to calculate boost pressure and air filter restriction
B. to determine ambient air pressure and as a reference for all other engine pressure sensors
C. to calculate gauge pressure for engine oil and fuel
D. all of the above answers (A, B, and C)
E. answers A and C
2. The intake manifold air pressure sensor is used to:
A. calculate boost pressure
B. determine air filter restriction
C. determine ATAAC restriction
D. all of the above
3. The turbo inlet air pressure sensor is used to:
A. calculate boost pressure
B. determine air filter restriction
C. determine turbocharger failure
D. answers A and B
4. The fuel transfer pump:
A. draws fuel from the secondary fuel filter
B. draws fuel from the primary fuel filter
C. maintains fuel system pressure
D. provides fuel flow through the entire fuel system
E. answers A, C, and D
F. answers B and D
5. The fuel pressure regulator:
A. maintains fuel system pressure
B. is positioned between the fuel injectors and the fuel tank
C. is positioned between the fuel injectors and the fuel transfer pump
D. answers A and B
E. answers A and C
6. The primary (crank) speed/timing sensor:
A. provides engine speed information to the Engine ECM
B. provides engine speed information to the Power Train ECM
C. is used to calculate shifting points for the Auto KickDown shifting strategy
D. all of the above answers (A, B, and C)
E. answers A and B

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Handout No. 5B
Posttest Answers

MACHINE SYSTEMS POSTTEST ANSWERS (continued)


Using any of the provided classroom materials, demonstrate your knowledge of the various
machine systems by circling the BEST ANSWER for each of following questions.
The Hydraulic Demand Fan System
7. The sensors (inputs) used to control the hydraulic demand fan are:
A. intake manifold air temperature, coolant temperature, and fan pump discharge
pressure
B. intake air temperature and fan pump discharge pressure
C. coolant temperature and fan pump discharge pressure
D. hydraulic oil temperature, intake air temperature, coolant temperature, and fan pump
discharge pressure
8. When controlling the hydraulic demand fan, the Engine ECM:
A. sends maximum current to the fan pump control solenoid to produce minimum speed
B. sends minimum current to the fan pump control solenoid to produce maximum speed
C. sends maximum current to the fan pump control solenoid to produce maximum speed
D. sends minimum current to the fan pump control solenoid to produce minimum speed
E. answers A and B
F. answers C and D
9. The hydraulic demand fan may be shut OFF by:
A. disconnecting the fan pump control solenoid
B. using the Cat Advisor Configuration screen to turn fan control OFF
C. using the Cat ET Configuration screen to turn fan control OFF
D. answers B and C
E. answers A and C
F. none of the above
10. Maximum fan speed (high pressure cutoff) can be attained by:
A. disconnecting the fan pump control solenoid
B. using the Cat Advisor Configuration screen to turn fan control OFF
C. using the Cat ET Configuration screen to turn fan control OFF
D. answers A and B
E. answers A and C
F. none of the above

SERV1816
03/06

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Handout No. 5C
Posttest Answers

MACHINE SYSTEMS POSTTEST ANSWERS (continued)


Using any of the provided classroom materials, demonstrate your knowledge of the various
machine systems by circling the BEST ANSWER for each of following questions.
11. The Torque Converter Inlet Relief Valve:
A. limits the maximum oil pressure to the torque converter
B. limits the maximum oil pressure in the torque converter
C. protects the components in the torque converter when the oil is cold
D. answers A and C
E. answers B and C
12. The Torque Converter Outlet Relief Valve:
A. ensures a constant oil pressure to the torque converter
B. maintains a constant maximum oil pressure inside the torque converter
C. maintains a constant minimum oil pressure inside the torque converter
D. limits the maximum temperature inside the torque converter
E. answers C and D
13. The Transmission Main Relief Valve maintains the oil pressure:
A. for the operation of the transmission
B. for the operation of the torque converter
C. for the operation of the steering clutches and the brakes
D. all of the above answers
E. answers A and C
14. The steering clutches are:
A. spring applied and hydraulically released
B. hydraulically applied and spring released
C. hydraulically applied and hydraulically released
15. The brakes are:
A. spring applied and hydraulically released
B. hydraulically applied and spring released
C. hydraulically applied and hydraulically released
16. When the service brakes are FULLY APPLIED (ENGAGED) using the service brake pedal:
A. the proportional brake valve solenoids are DE-ENERGIZED and the secondary brake
valve solenoid is ENERGIZED
B. the proportional brake valve solenoids are ENERGIZED and the secondary brake valve
solenoid is DE-ENERGIZED
C. the proportional brake valve solenoids are DE-ENERGIZED and the secondary brake
valve solenoid is DE-ENERGIZED
D. the proportional brake valve solenoids are ENERGIZED and the secondary brake valve
solenoid is ENERGIZED
E. none of the above answers

SERV1816
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Handout No. 5D
Posttest Answers

MACHINE SYSTEMS POSTTEST ANSWERS (continued)


Using any of the provided classroom materials, demonstrate your knowledge of the implement
system by entering the letter of the BEST ANSWER for each of the implement system
components listed at the left.
The Implement Hydraulic System
I Hydraulic oil tank
D

Implement pump

K Pressure reducing manifold


G

Implement lockout solenoid valve

B Pilot oil filter


A Dozer and ripper control valves
J
M

Lift dump valve


Tilt dump valve

L Shuttle valve
E Solenoid controlled pilot valve
H Quick-drop valve
F Implement ECM
C Hydraulic oil cooler bypass valve

A. Direct the flow of high pressure pump supply oil


to the implement cylinders.
B. Ensures that clean oil is delivered to the solenoid
controlled pilot valves.
C. Opens to bypass the cooler when the hydraulic
oil is cold and closes when the hydraulic oil is
warm to direct oil through the cooler.
D. Provides oil flow through the entire hydraulic
system for the operation of the implements.
E. ENERGIZED by the Implement ECM to direct
pilot pressure oil to move an implement control
valve spool.
F. Receives signals from implement control lever
sensors and sends corresponding currents to the
appropriate solenoid controlled pilot valves.
G. Blocks the flow of pilot pressure oil to the EH
pilot manifold when DE-ENERGIZED.
H. Directs rod-end oil from the blade lift cylinders
into the head-ends when the blade falls rapidly
to the ground.
I. Serves as a reservoir for the hydraulic oil.
J. Is closed by high pressure supply oil to shut off
oil flow to tank when a blade lift or a ripper
function is active.
K. Contains the pressure reducing valve and the
Dead Electric Lower valve.
L. Directs high pressure supply oil to the lift dump
valve and the lift relief valve when a blade lift
function is active.
M. Is closed by high pressure supply oil to shut off
oil flow to tank when a blade tilt function is
active.

DIRECTIONS

Lube Distribution Manifold

Power Train Oil Coolers


Torque Converter Charging Filter
Transmission Controls Temp. Sensor

C
Z

Torque Converter Inlet Relief Valve

Electronic Steering Clutch and


Brake Control Valve

Transmission Charging Filter

Main Relief Valve

Torque Converter Outlet Relief Valve

Torque Converter Outlet Temp. Sensor

Torque Converter Scavenge Section


Power Train Oil Pump

Transmission Scavenge Section


Power Train Oil Pump

Power Train Breather

Torque Converter Charging Section


Power Train Oil Pump

Transmission & TC Charging Section


Power Train Oil Pump

POWER TRAIN COMPONENTS


N

Torque Converter Supply Pressure (M)


Torque Converter Inlet Relief
Pressure (M1)

Lube Manifold Pressure (L2)


U

Power Train Oil Sampling (SOS)

Torque Converter Outlet


Relief Pressure (N)
Transmission Pump Pressure (TP)
Transmission Main Relief Pressure (P)

S
T

Cooler Lube Pressure (CL)


E

POWER TRAIN PRESSURE PORTS

C27
Engine

Transmission Lube Pressure (L1)

Flywheel
Housing

Implement
Pump

Torque
Divider

Torque
Converter

Fan
Pump

FIRST GEAR FORWARD

D10T POWER TRAIN SCHEMATIC

- 206 -

COMPONENTS IDENTIFICATION: Write the letter of the Power


Train component or service point next to the name of the
component or service point listed in the right hand box and/or
the bottom box.

U
A

SERV1816
03/06
Handout No. 6
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