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IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology

eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF


LOCALIZATION ALGORITHM FOR VARIETY OF TOPOLOGIES IN
WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
Anil A. Agashe1, R. S. Patil2
1

Electronics Engineering Dept. WCE, Sangli, Maharashtra, India,


Electronics Engineering Dept. D.Y. Patil COE, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India

Abstract
Wireless sensor networks have emerged from military needs and found its way into civil applications. Today wireless sensor networks
have become a key technology for different kinds of smart environments. Sensor node localization which is determining where a given
sensor node is physically or relatively located is extremely crucial for most of the applications in wireless sensor networks. The
procedure through which the sensor nodes obtain their positions is called localization. Many localization algorithms have been
proposed for wireless sensor networks. In this article, we describe our newly developed localization algorithm and performance
evaluation of this localization algorithm with square, C and L shape network topology.

Keywords- sensor network, localization algorithms


----------------------------------------------------------------------***-------------------------------------------------------------------1. INTRODUCTION
The wireless field has been experiencing exponential growth in
the past decade. We have seen great advances in network
infrastructures, rapid growth of cellular network users, the
growing availability of wireless applications, and the emergence
of omnipresent wireless devices. The mobile devices are
becoming smaller, cheaper, more convenient, and more
powerful. In addition to that of the traditional cellular networks,
an exponential growth of the wireless device that connects
wireless communication devices together to create a wireless
network is also being experienced. Many wireless devices can
be connected together to create larger network, which is ad hoc
network. A wireless ad hoc network is a collection of
autonomous nodes or terminals that communicate with each
other by forming a multi hop radio network and maintaining
connectivity in a decentralized manner. The wireless nodes
communicate over wireless links; thus, they have to compete
with the effects of radio communication, such as noise, fading,
and interference. In addition, the links typically have less
bandwidth than in a wired network. Each node in a wireless ad
hoc network functions as both a host and a router, and the
control of the network is distributed among the nodes. Lowcost, easily installed access points grew rapidly in popularity in
the late 1990s and early 2000s. They can also run more
applications on the network services. Ad hoc wireless networks,
in which a group of potentially mobile units equipped with radio
transceivers, can communicate without any fixed infrastructure.
Miniaturization of semiconductor technology has lead to the
development of small, low power and inexpensive sensor
devices often called as nodes. Network of such sensor devices is

nothing but wireless sensor network. A wireless sensor network


is a network made up of hundreds or thousands of devices using
sensors to monitor different conditions, such as temperature,
sound, vibration, pressure, motion, or pollutants, at different
locations. Usually these devices are small and inexpensive, so
that they can be produced and deployed in large numbers.
Nodes of such networks can be positioned, randomly or
following a predetermined scheme, over a given area; can both
collect data and, at the same time, act as communication
centers.
Self-localization capability is a highly desirable characteristic of
sensor network. In environmental monitoring applications,
water quality monitoring and precision agriculture, the
measurement data are meaningless without knowing the
location from where the data are obtained. Moreover, location
estimation may enable a number of applications such as
inventory management, intrusion detection, road traffic
monitoring, health monitoring, investigation and surveillance.

2.

THE

COMPONENTS

OF

LOCALIZATION

SYSTEM
Localization systems can be divided into three different
components:
Distance and/or angle estimation: This component is
accountable for estimating information about the
distances and/or angles between two nodes. This
information will be used by the other components of the
localization system.

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IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology

eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

Location computation: This component is responsible for


computing a nodes position based on available
information concerning distances/ angles and positions of
reference nodes.
Localization algorithm: This is the main component of a
localization system. It determines how the available
information will be manipulated in order to allow most or
all of the nodes of a WSN to estimate their positions.

Various methods are used to get distance and/or angle


estimation. These methods include received signal strength
indication (RSSI), time of arrival/time difference of arrival
(ToA/TDoA), angle of arrival (AoA), and communication
range.

3. SYSTEM MODEL

Fig1 Deployment of anchors and unknown nodes in Square


topology

For most applications, sensed data without spatial and temporal


coordinates is of very limited use. Sensor nodes have to be
aware of their location to be able to specify where a certain
event takes place. Therefore, the problem of localizing the
sensors is of paramount importance for many classes of sensor
network applications. Determining the physical location of the
sensors after they have been deployed is known as the problem
of localization.
The system model considered here is a wireless sensor network
which is composed of n nodes with a communication range of r,
distributed in a two dimensional sensor field. It has been
considered that communication links are symmetric; that is, for
any two nodes u and v, u reaches v if and only if v reaches u
and with the same signal strength w.

Fig2 Deployment of anchors and unknown nodes in C shape


topology

We have deployed the nodes in Square area, C shape area and L


shape area. These deployed nodes can be divided into two
categories: Anchors and unknown nodes. Anchors are the static
nodes with well-defined coordinates. They constitute a
customized ad-hoc network for wireless data communication.
Unknown nodes, on the other hand, are distributed at a random.
While an unknown node falls in the signal coverage of a
specific static node, they communicate with each other by
making wireless links. Geometry of fixed anchors for above
said three topologies is as shown by Figure1, Figure 2 and
Figure 3. The symbols used to show Anchor Node and
Unknown node is as follows
Fig3 Deployment of anchors and unknown nodes in L shape
topology
Anchor node refers to the nodes having predefined locations.
They are also known as landmarks, these are the nodes that do
not need a localization system in order to estimate their physical
positions. Their localization is obtained by manual placement or
external means such as GPS. These nodes form the base of
localization systems for WSNs. Unknown nodes refers to the
nodes of the network that do not know their localization

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IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology


information. To estimate their positions is the main goal of a
localization system.
Ad hoc anchor nodes are those nodes which were initially
unknown nodes that manage to estimate their positions by using
the localization scheme. The number of ad hoc anchor nodes
and the normalized localization error of nodes are the main
parameters for determining the quality of a localization system.

4. PROPOSED METHOD OF LOCALIZATION


The proposed localization method is as follows
1.
Initialize the sensor network which is consisting of
anchor nodes and unknown nodes.
2.
Select the required topology from Square, C and L
shape topology.
3.
Designate anchor nodes as fixed anchor nodes and
place the fixed anchor nodes according to particular
geometry.
4.
The distances of the unknown node from all the anchor
nodes are calculated.
5.
Choose the three anchor nodes which are nearest to
unknown node to form a triangle. The centroid of
triangle is determined which is the position of
unknown node.
6.
If unknown node does not lie in the range of three
anchor nodes, select two anchor nodes, which are
nearest to unknown node.
7.
If the unknown node lies in the range of two anchor
nodes its estimated position is calculated as centre of
the line joining the points of intersection of the two
circles whose centres are the anchor nodes and radii
are the radio range of these anchors.
8.
Once an unknown node gets localized, designate this
node as candidate ad hoc anchor node. This node is
now available as ad hoc anchor node.
9.
This ad hoc anchor node is now available to work as
anchor node for localization of remaining unknown
nodes.
10. Steps 4 to 9 will be repeated until all unknown nodes
get localized.
11. The performance of algorithm is measured with
following performance measures.
1. Number of Candidate Ad hoc nodes for particular radio
range,
2. Percentage of ad hoc anchor nodes and
3. Normalized localization error
Let us consider the scenario as shown in the Figure 4. It is
proposed to find out the location of node denoted as S, whose
co ordinates are

( x, y) .

As a first step the number of fixed anchor nodes lying in the


radio range of node S is determined. From these nodes three
nodes are chosen arbitrarily to form a triangle denoted in the

eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

Figure 4 as ABC. The positions of three known nodes A, B, C

( x , y ), ( x , y ), ( x , y )

2
2
3 3 respectively. In order to find out
are 1 1
the location of unknown node (beacon) denoted by S the
centroid of a triangle ABC is calculated. The co ordinates of
centroid are nothing but location of S. As a second step node S
is designated as candidate ad hoc anchor node for further
localization.

Steps 1 and 2 are repeated for all nodes, until no more nodes can
be assigned designation as candidate ad hoc anchor.

Fig 4: Trilateration paradigm to find location of node that lies in


the radio range of three anchors three or more than nodes.
The location of remaining nodes (those who are within range of
less than three anchor or ad hoc anchor nodes) is estimated as
follows.
If the unknown node lies in the range of two anchor nodes, its
estimated position is given as the Centre of the line joining the
points of intersection of the two circles whose centres are the
anchor nodes and radii are the radio range of these anchors. To
find the centre Radical Line Algorithm [5] is used

Fig 5 An example of unknown node that lies in the range of two


anchor nodes.

5. SIMULATION MODEL
A simulation model is developed in MATLAB to study the
performance of proposed ad hoc anchor nodes based
localization algorithm. Selected deployment region is of
100x100, 200x200, 300x300, 400x400, and 500x500. The
anchor nodes are placed at particular location in the deployment

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Volume: 03 Issue: 01 | Jan-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org

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IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology


region. Unknown nodes are distributed at random in the
deployment region. Here simulation area considered is Square
shape, C shape and L shape.
For rectangular area eight anchor nodes are placed at certain
location which has been determined according to geometry of
deployment region. Similarly in C shape region six anchor
nodes and in L shape region four anchor nodes are placed at
certain locations.

Figure 6 gives candidate anchor nodes generated in the 300300


Square topology network at various values of radio ranges from
60 to 75. As there is increase in radio range of sensor nodes,
number of candidate ad hoc anchor nodes increases. For the
radio range 65 with 200 node density in the network 140 nodes
are localized.

Assume the real coordinate of the unknown node i ( x, y ) and


its estimated co ordinates are ( xi , yi ) . The localization error of
node i is defined as

ei

( x xi ) 2 ( y yi ) 2
Radio Range

It is desirable to have a smaller amount of Normalized


localization error for ideal localization algorithm.

% of adhoc nodes

6. PERFORMANCE MEASURES
Performance of network is evaluated by calculating following
performance measures
A) Candidate Ad hoc Anchor Nodes: During the execution of
localization algorithm the unknown nodes which get localized
and can work as ad hoc anchor node for localization of
remaining unknown nodes are called as Candidate Ad hoc
Anchor Nodes.
B) Percentage Ad hoc anchor nodes: During the execution of
localization algorithm, the percentage of candidate ad hoc
anchor nodes those actually work as ad hoc anchors is
calculated. It is desirable to have less percentage of ad hoc
anchor nodes used for localization process.
C) Normalized localization error: It is defined as follows.

eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

Radio Range vs % of adhoc nodes for 300x300 area and Square-shaped topology
60
No. of Nodes=100
No. of Nodes=200
No. of Nodes=300
50
No. of Nodes=400
No. of Nodes=500
No. of Nodes=600
40
No. of Nodes=700
No. of Nodes=800
No. of Nodes=900
30
No. of Nodes=1000
20

10

0
60

65

70

75

Radio-range

Fig 7 Radio Range Vs % of ad hoc anchor nodes for 300300


Square topology
Figure 7 gives percentage of ad hoc anchor nodes in the
300300 Square topology network at various values of radio
ranges from 60 to 75. As radio range increases percentage of ad
hoc anchor nodes also increases. For the radio range 70 and
node density 100, 13% nodes works as ad hoc anchor nodes in
the network. Here maximum value for percentage of ad hoc
anchor nodes is 15% for radio range 75.
Radio Range vs Normalized Localization Error for 300x300 area and Square-shaped topology
0.5
0.45
0.4

Radio Range vs Candidate anchor nodes for 300x300 area and Square-shaped topology
1000
No. of Nodes=100
900
No. of Nodes=200
No. of Nodes=300
800
No. of Nodes=400
No. of Nodes=500
700
No. of Nodes=600
No. of Nodes=700
600
No. of Nodes=800
No. of Nodes=900
500
No. of Nodes=1000
400

Normalized Localization Error

No. of candidate anchor nodes

7. RESULTS

0.35
0.3
0.25
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
60

300

65

70

of Nodes=100
of Nodes=200
of Nodes=300
of Nodes=400
of Nodes=500
of Nodes=600
of Nodes=700
of Nodes=800
of Nodes=900
of Nodes=1000
75

Radio-range

200

Fig 8 Radio range Vs Normalized Localization error for


300300 Square topology

100
0
60

65

70

75

Radio-range

Fig 6 Radio Range Vs Candidate anchor nodes for 300300


Square topology

Figure 8 gives Normalized Localization error in the 300300


Square topology network at various values of radio ranges from
60 to 75. In this entire radio range Normalized Localization
error changes from 0.3 to 0.32 which is almost constant.

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Radio Range vs Candidate anchor nodes for 300x300 area and C-shaped topology
1000
No. of Nodes=100
900
No. of Nodes=200
No. of Nodes=300
800
No. of Nodes=400
No. of Nodes=500
700
No. of Nodes=600
No. of Nodes=700
600
No. of Nodes=800
No. of Nodes=900
500
No. of Nodes=1000
400
300
200

eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

Radio Range vs Normalized Localization Error for 300x300 area and C-shaped topology
0.5
0.45
0.4
Normalized Localization Error

No. of candidate anchor nodes

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology

0.35
0.3
0.25
No. of Nodes=100
No. of Nodes=200
No. of Nodes=300
No. of Nodes=400
No. of Nodes=500
No. of Nodes=600
No. of Nodes=700
No. of Nodes=800
No. of Nodes=900
No. of Nodes=1000

0.2
0.15
0.1

100

0.05
0
85

90

95

100

0
85

Radio-range

90

95

100

Radio-range

Fig 9 Radio Range Vs Candidate anchor nodes for 300300 C


shape topology
Figure 9 gives candidate anchor nodes in the 300300 C
topology network at various values of radio ranges from 85 to
100. Here minimum 85% and maximum 90% nodes are
localized.

Fig 11 Radio Range Vs Normalized Localization Error for


300300 C shape topology
Figure 11 gives Normalized Localization error in the 300300
C shape topology network at various values of radio ranges
from 85 to 100. In this entire radio range Normalized
Localization Error remains almost constant that is near to 0.35.

Radio Range vs % of adhoc nodes for 300x300 area and C-shaped topology
100

80

% of adhoc nodes

70
60
50

of Nodes=100
of Nodes=200
of Nodes=300
of Nodes=400
of Nodes=500
of Nodes=600
of Nodes=700
of Nodes=800
of Nodes=900
of Nodes=1000

No. of candidate anchor nodes

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

90

40
30
20

Radio Range vs Candidate anchor nodes for 300x300 area and L-shaped topology
1000
No. of Nodes=100
No. of Nodes=200
900
No. of Nodes=300
800
No. of Nodes=400
No. of Nodes=500
700
No. of Nodes=600
No. of Nodes=700
600
No. of Nodes=800
No. of Nodes=900
500
No. of Nodes=1000

300
200

10
0
85

400

100
90

95

100

Radio-range

0
90

95

100

105

Radio-range

Fig 10 Radio Range Vs % of ad hoc anchor nodes for 300300


C shape topology
Figure 10 shows percentage of ad hoc anchor nodes in the
300300 C shape topology network at various values of radio
ranges from 85 to 100. As radio range increases percentage of
ad hoc anchor nodes increases. For the radio range 100 and
node density 100, 20 % nodes works as ad hoc anchor nodes in
the network. It demonstrates that for this typical scenario
maximum 20% nodes act as ad hoc anchor nodes.

Fig12 Radio Range Vs Candidate anchor nodes for 300300 L


shape topology
Figure 12 gives candidate anchor nodes generated in the
300300 L topology network at various values of radio ranges
from 90 to 105. It has been observed that even if the radio range
of fixed anchor nodes increases, number of localized nodes
remains almost constant to 90%.

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IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology

eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

CONCLUSIONS

Radio Range vs % of adhoc nodes for 300x300 area and L-shaped topology
100

80
70
% of adhoc nodes

From the results to obtain better performance of localization


algorithm a typical radio range is required to be selected. For
Square shape topology radio range required is less compared to
C & L shape topology. Thus for Square topology less
amount of sensor node energy is consumed as radio range
required is less. The normalized localization error is less in
Square shape topology compared to C & L shape topology.
The developed algorithm gives less error compared to other
range free algorithms. The ad hoc sensor nodes are those nodes
which act as anchor nodes in further localization process; once
an unknown node is localized it can be used in localization
process. The developed localization algorithm distributes the
localization task to fixed anchor nodes as well as to ad hoc
anchor nodes, which will improve the overall performance of
the algorithm.

No. of Nodes=100
No. of Nodes=200
No. of Nodes=300
No. of Nodes=400
No. of Nodes=500
No. of Nodes=600
No. of Nodes=700
No. of Nodes=800
No. of Nodes=900
No. of Nodes=1000

90

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
90

95

100

105

Radio-range

Fig 13 Radio Range Vs % of ad hoc anchor nodes for 300300


L shape topology
Figure 13 gives percentage of ad hoc anchor nodes in the
300300 L shape topology network at various values of radio
ranges from 90 to 105. As radio range increases percentage of
ad hoc anchor nodes also increases up to 20%. For the radio
range 100 and node density 100, 15% nodes works as ad hoc
anchor nodes in the network.
Figure 14 gives Normalized Localization error in the 300300 L
shape topology network at various values of radio ranges from
90 to 105. In this entire radio range Normalized Localization
Error remains almost constant. It is 0.34.
Radio Range vs Normalized Localization Error for 300x300 area and L-shaped topology
0.5
0.45

Normalized Localization Error

0.4
0.35
0.3
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
90

95

100

of Nodes=100
of Nodes=200
of Nodes=300
of Nodes=400
of Nodes=500
of Nodes=600
of Nodes=700
of Nodes=800
of Nodes=900
of Nodes=1000
105

Radio-range

Fig 14 Radio Range Vs Normalized Localization Error for


300300 L shape topology

It has been observed that the percentage of ad hoc anchor nodes


required is less in Square topology. Based on a particular
localization application the given area is divided first in to
Square, then L & C shape to get better localization
performance. The suggested algorithm gives an insight
suggesting typical radio range required for sensor nodes, which
type of topology gives better performance, the percentage of ad
hoc anchor nodes required depending on no of nodes used in
network area.

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