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A Critical Study on the Functionalism of Alakrastra (Science of

Figurative speech)
Ven. Mahawela Rathanapala
Poetry which generally defines as a combination or unity of sense and sound 1 is accepted
as extraordinary turn of expression. But assigning equal value or importance to both sense and
sound alone was not enough to distinguish poetry form ordinary expression. On the other hand
poetry does not represent a use of language at all but a service of language to an extrinsic end.
In order to the early Indian poeticians, poetry can be taken as the exploitation of language for its
own sake and poetics as the investigation of language as it escapes the immediate limitations of
utility and achieves a condition of self-illumination which we might call beauty. 2 So Alakra
(figure of speech) which can impart beauty to poetry was considered as an essential element for
poetic expression. This made the path to develop Alakra, from a poetic element to a science of
literal embellishment.
Through the application of Alakra poets have been tried to scrutinize poetic expression
which impresses and leaves memorable expression onto literary readers. On the other hand
ordinary langue is too limited to convey all wishes and ideas arise in human mind. So while in
conveying wishes and ideas in a charming and sweet manner, it was necessary to follow a special
method to distinct poetic expression from ordinary expression.
Definition of Alakra
Etymologically the term Alakra can be separated into two parts as ala + kra preposition
Ala is used in the sense of sufficient, enough for, adequate to. 3 As illustrated by famous
lexicographer Amarasimha, the word Ala has three different shades of meanings as,
a. Bha
a i.e to adorn in this sense it is always associated as a nominal suffix with
the kr
b. Vra a i.e to forbid use as an adverb with instrumental case and

c. Parypta i.e to be sufficient4
Alakra is a participle. ala+kr+ a (Ala karotti Alakra - that which gives
beauty or charm or make adorning ) here Ala is a preposition, kr is verbal root and a is
present participle suffix, which originally means that which makes suitable or that which makes
sufficient or makes adorn something, ornamenting something or beautifies something. Precisely
etymological roots of the term runs into the gvedic era.
In observing the definitions given on the term Alakra, the obvious traceable fact is that,
all of those have been spread in wide area, Da d says in his Kvydara, Characteristics that
decorate poetry or lend charm to poems are called Alakra.5
Alakra is defined in the Kvylakra as, the science of that particular element which
adorns the poetry in some way or the other (by speech or word). Speech clearness in word and
clearness in meaning have been identified as Alakra.

Which means Alakra consist

something over and above the fundamental sticking of expression.

Two fundamental sense of the term Alakra have been pointed out by Vaa in his
Kvylakra travrtti
1. Alakra means a thing of beauty7
2. Beauty or charm of poetry as Alakra8
But Vaa' states on the fact that, poetry is one of the fine art which has the
expression of beauty as their goal.9 He further supports that embellished (Alakrya) as
embellishment (Alakra).
The term is defined in the Shityadarpa a, by Vivatha with certain modifications as,
those non permanent attributes of a word and its sense that add to their beauty and aid the flavor
like bracelets and the life that adorn the human form. 10 In reference with the commentary of the
Shityadarpa a, as a bracelet and the like by prompting the beauty of the person, advantage the
man, so alliteration simile and other figure which by adding to the beauty of word and sense
serve to aid the flavor or the like are termed ornament.11

However evidently in its fundament sense Alakra can be entitled as a mean of
producing beauty which solely deals with sense and expression of poetic body.

The Functionalism of Alakrastra

The adherents of the Alakra School were, poetry has body (kvyaarra) which
required to be adorned. This body on the one hand, and the set of poetic figures on the other,
were two main separate entities of poetry. The body consisted of a group of words which was not
devoid of an agreeable idea. Hence the body constituted of two basic elements, sound and sense
should be adorned in the form of poetic figures. So through the application of Alakra or figure
of speech it has tried to achieve the particular purpose in a more efficient way.
As has been pointed out by Bharatamuni, Bh a a or ornamenting is the purpose of
Alakra.12 In accordance with his description of poetic characteristics, mentioned in the
seventeenth chapter of the Ntyatra,
all of those 36 characters can be recognized as Kvya

a (adornments to Kvya).

First character of his Laka

a paddhati is Bhu a a

(ornetaness) which means characterized by the specialty of having profuse adornments of Gu a

and Alakra. 13
Bhaaha says in his Kvylakra poetry must be embellished by figure of speech.
This indicates that, Alakra- are used for the purpose of embellishing poetry as its fundamental
objective. It is mentioned that, sound and sense are together constituted as Kvya which also can
be recognized as its body. This body of poetry (sense and sound) never shines without proper
adornment in the form of poetic figures and hence they are essential to be adorned. Just as the
face of damsel though beautiful, lacks luster if unadorned, so is poetry. 14 On this connection
Prof. H. Wijewardhana idea is, Objective of Alakra literature can be clarified much through its
categorization. Sense (artha) and sound (abda) are recognized as two main entities of poetry
just as Alakra are also divided into two. Some went to adorn the sound aspect and were
called abdlakra (verbal figures) E.g. Yaaka, Aupra and such. Their function was to
make, the sound aspect of the composition agreeable to the ear. The other kind of Alakr was
that which adorned the sense aspect and were called Arthlakr- (ideational figures) E.g.
Upa, paka and so on, the function of which was to produce the appealing turn of speech.15

However verbal figures such as Yamaka, Anuprsa etc. primarily deal with rhythm and
metre. But Alakra School has paid much attention on the ideational part of the poetic
composition rather than sound aspect.
Employment of Alakra is regarded as the characteristic feature of poetry, the factor that
converts prosaic speech into poetic speech, and the criterion for judging its worth. While
ordinary speech is straight and lacks ornamentation, poetry is marked by a turn of expression.
The emphasis was always on the poetic figure, and received the most attention. So that figure of
speech or Alakra has so much of gist of bestowing striking and attention to poetry. Thus in its
every aspect Alakra can be considered as an element which use to enhance the appeal of
poetry. In the Subodhlakra also it is explained that with the account of Alakra poetry
become very stylish and interesting.16
In the Kvydaraa, Da d has made an obvious stamen that, Alakra- are the
elements which give necessary charm to poetry.17 Here he has extended the scope of the subject
field with a different approach. As has been illustrated, anything that lends beauty to poetry can
be recognized as Alakra whether it is simile, metaphor, poetic qualities, Rhythm, Dhvani, or
whatever thing. In order to this interpolation all 36 laka
mentioned by Bharata can be
acquainted as Alakra.
At the hand of Vaa, Alakra gained great proportion, it expanded to deep scope of
significance. He realized beauty as the flashing diverse hues of this element. 18 It further denoted
in his Kvylakratravrtti
that, embellishing is the embellishment.19 Which means that basic
function of Alakra is ornamenting poetry. Gu a pertaining both sound and sense add beauty to
the poetry20. The ornaments on the other hand are such characters as serve to enhance the charm
which already produced by the qualities.21 He has designated that charming elegance or the
beauty of poetry as Alakra or Alakrya as beauty itself.22 To achieve this beauty, it should
come through not only verbal and ideal figures but also absence of all flaws, incorporation of all
excellences.23 In terms with his treatment, without Gu a, Alakr cannot produce the beauty
of poetry, which the Gu a can do that without Alakra. It elaborates that, the Gu a being the
dharma of the collection of word and sense as a whole and Alakra of abda and Artha. So the
view was also proposed that the Gu a was obhtiayahetu and Nitya while the Alakra was

useful for extra beauty, Sobhatiayahetu or aitya.24 However both Gu a and Alakra impart
beauty to poetic expression. For instance quality full poetry is just like a beautiful damsel. Here
beauty has been added by her qualities.
So thus figure of speech (Alakra) performs just like jewelries or ornaments which she
worn. Jewelries have used in the purpose on enhancing the natural beauty just as figure of
speech.25 Thus whatever remaining in a functionary place aids to embellished and add to the
main themes beauty can acquaint as Alakra.
Subodhlakra the only Pli rhetoric text also describes that; characteristic of ornament
is that enhancing the charm which already has produced by qualities.26
In the Dhvayloka, Alakra is defined in a broad context, and says objectivity of the
employment of figure of speech is not only adding charm to poetry, but also hoping the chief
purport of sentiments and so forth.27 It further says that, the sole consideration it is only a
means to the delineation of sentiment and that is never and end in itself, the necessity of
employing it at the right time and of abandoning it at the right time, the absence of over
enthusiasm on the poets part in pressing it too far, and finally, his keen watchfulness in making
sure that it remains a secondary element only, these are the various means by which figures like
metaphor become accessories (of suggested sentiment).28 It has given the caution that, if the
Alakra an adornment here aa is adorned by Alakra. nandavardhana gives the
perceptive clarification that even as the ordinary ornaments, the jewels, putting, them on or
laying them down, suggest to us the mental state of the person. So also does figure suggest the
Bhva (poetic emotion and mood.)29 Thus whatever remaining in a functionary place, aids to
embellish and add to the main themes beauty can be considered as the Alakra. Thus aa
also can employ as a decorative devise.
Suggested Figure also is accepted as an important functionalism of Alakra. As
adavardhaa states, When figures are suggested only by the idea itself, then they are
invariably participants of suggestions, for the very procedure of poetry is dependent upon it. 30
If other figures are suggested, they will become participants of suggestions in case the principle
importance of the suggested is discernible in respect or extraordinary charm. 31 So Alakra are

only the arra or the outer body of poetry. But when Alakra are not expressed only suggested
in such occasions Alakr can be made the soul of poetry. Abhinavagupta extend its scope
further, as a matter of fact, Alakra are external ornaments on the body but can sometimes be
like the Kukua smeared for beauty on the body, when they are organic and structural. Far, far
away is the hope to make this Alakra the very soul. For instance, just as in the mere play of
children, there is some temporary greatness for the child who plays the role of the king, so also
when this Alakra is suggested it attains great beauty and partakes of the nature of the soul.
In the tenth chapter the Shityadarpa a the objectivity of the application of Alakra has
been described by Vivatha Kavirja with its all aspects as,

Adding beauty

Aiding to flavor or sentiment32

So the fundamental function of Alakra is adding or giving necessary charm to poetry

which helps to increase its excellence or which need to transform ordinary speech into literal
speech. In scrutinizing how figure of speech beautify poetry or differentiate literal or poetic
speech from ordinary speech, obviously it performs as a decorative devise,
Ordinary speech =
Your face is beautiful.
Poetic speech
= Your face is like the moon.

Your moon face

The moon is like your face

Is this moon or your face

Having seen moon I remembered your face

Your face is the second

The moon reigns in haven and your face reigns on the earth

The moon is pale before your face.

Here poet wants to praise the beauty of face, Your face is beautiful which is the basic
massage he wants to convey. But here with the usage of simile, meaning and excellence of object
has been increased. On the one hand it is very easy to comprehend the massage which poet tries
to convey. At the same time figure of speech has an ability to convey a fresh idea to reader about
an object which we have already known in a form of unknown. However it appears from their
treatment that term Alakra suggests extraordinary turn bestowed to ordinary expression. As
well as it implies that how Alakra literature tries to systematized art of poetry by a method of
positive science.
In the Citraa, Appayadkita
it is explained as thus, imparting beauty as the
significant function of Alakara. 33 In the Vakroktijvita, Kuntaka remarks, Alakra- (figure of
speech) are used to delineate transcendental beauty and charm to poetry.


To indicate this

beauty or the necessary charm to poetry in course of time they have used so many different
indications such as Vicitti, Cru, Caatkra, Saudarya, Hrdayatva
etc. In the Dhvayloka,

nandavardhana uses the term chru to indicate the special charm of poetry. Alakrohi
carutvahetu praiddh35 the quotation causes to assume that, Alakra itself is not the beauty,
beauty is the primary factor claims that as Alakra. While commenting on the Dhvayloka
Abhinavagupta says, the special charm or peculiar to each composition, which rests ultimately
on the conception of the poet makes up Alakra and gives it its distinguishing characteristic.
Kuntaka also expresses that, in his Vakkroktijvita a mode of expression becomes a poetic figure
it the fertile imagination of a poet lends a peculiar charm to it. But a mere figurative expression
does not cause beauty in poetry. Figure of speech must possess two essential characteristics.
Firstly it must possess charm or striking and secondly the charm must be arisen through the
genius of the poet.36
In the Kvyapraka vartik which is the commentary of Kvyapraka, it has been
denoted that, Vaicitrya Alakrh Alakra is striking itself.37 In terms with forgoing
discussions, a special charm which is diversified as Vicitti, Vaicitrya, Caatkra, Saudarya,
Cru etc is necessary to constitute a poetic figure.

On account of Bhmahas opinion roundabout turn of expression (vakrokti) which
opposed to the ordinary speech is the basement of all Alakr. That is the major fact of making
difference between poetic speech and ordinary speech. Without deviant expression (vakrokti) no
figure can be existed. Therefore as has been emphasized by Bhmaha, poets should always
strive to achieve Vakrokti in their composition.38

Vaidagdha = poetic institution

Bhagi = charm or the beauty of meaning

Bhaiti = word

Definition of the Vakrokti also delineates that charm or beauty of poetry and power of
poetic institution and the real poeticism severely based on the Vakrokti or roundabout expression.
In the opinion of Bhmaha, all poetic speech is marked by a roundabout turn of expression
(Vakrokti) as opposed to the ordinary speech which is straight forward expression 39 By mere
verbal expression beauty in speech is not achieved, and that type of expression is called Vakrokti
is the factor that adorns speech.40 Hence Vakrokti marks the differences between ordinary speech
and poetic speech and what converts former into latter.
In Examining the whole field of poetic expression, Bhmaha finds the Alakra or poetic
figure omnipresent as a means of realizing the deviation and Vakrokti becomes the essential
principle of an Alakra, and necessarily of poetry itself.41 nandavardhana also has pointed
out that figure would be found appealing only if the poet, through his imagination, establish
in it. Otherwise it is mere extraneous ornament serving no purpose. Ati ayokti is hence

regarded as the life running through the bulk of poetic figures.42

This can be considered as the reason of identifying meaning as the soul of poetry by all
poetic critics.

Meaning has threefold nature through their being, expressed, indicate and

Suggested sense is not different from Alakra because the functionalism of Alakra
has mainly connected with production of the suggested sense. Abhinava also remarks three kinds
of suggestions or Dhvai, as

Vatu Dhvai


Alakra Dhvai


aa Dhvai

This delineates that Alakra also can be considered as a part of Dhvai which means
suggesting something beyond the ordinary sense. Here Alakra itself has become Dhvai. So to
be Kvya or poetry Suggested sense or the Vyagrtha should be embodied in a composition
along poetic qualities and figure of speech. This should be comprehended through the complete
indication of latter.

Hamlet on the Gangues - Vcyartha

There is a hamlet on the shores of the river Ganges. Lak yrtha

There is Beautiful, marvelous, charming hamlet situated on the bank of Gangues Vyagrtha

With the suggestive sense, the meaning of the particular composition differs from the
grammatical meaning and the scholarly interpretations. This meaning is understood only by
minds that are capable of establishing harmony and a concord. This may be mood generated in
us, may be beyond the capacity of words to convey, but then there is no doubt that there is
something that is felt keenly as captivating, enhancing, expanding.43
Poetry requires not only fact and feeling but a beautiful form also. Primarily it should be
attractive too. Bn a says that poetry has to leap to our heart on even the mere hearing of it. But
the application of Alakra should be proper or ideal with poetic object (kvya vatu) otherwise
application will be complicated to connoisseur. In the Kvydara, Dan d has emphasized that,

proper application of figures help to increase literal sentiments and delectableness but if not it
cause to deteriorate the relish and delectableness.44
The principle of the proper application of figure of speech has been emphasized very
much through the theory of Aucitya in Aucitya Vicracarc of Ks emendra.45 Just as a pearl
garland can beautify only a full bosom and otherwise cannot be a beautifying factor. The figure
thus is the concretization of relish. Separate endeavor or effort is not required to realize that,
effortlessly feeling moves towards its expression. Perusal of figures may give an impression
that they are somewhat artificial elaborates and intellectual exercises requiring some effort in
turning them out precisely. But they are not so difficult of effecting for a master poet. With him
as emotion increases, expression swells and figures foam forth. Only then the figurative
expression becomes significant.46 Here caution is given that, when Alakra use with this
appropriateness it always enriches the idea of the poet and adds charm to the diction. If the
vatu (object) which is to be decorated should be equally striking as the Alakra, otherwise the
composition will be like a ghost without having a soul though decorated with Alakra, and such
a poetry will not please the critics. 47 With this objective correlativeness figure can effortlessly
get accession into feeling. So figure we use should serve the feeling and become the means of its
realization. The application of the verbal or ideational figure depends on the competence and
intuition of poets. nandavardhana insists that the poet should be intuitively aware of the
principle of the assimilation and avoidance of figures according to the context of the feeling
(kleca graha athygu).48He also points out that ornaments make sense when there is
something of which it is the ornament (Alakrya).49 Otherwise, it is just like decorating a dead
body. Abhinavagupta also adds up what is embellished is the feeling and therefore poetic figures
are functionally justified only when they help in the evocation of feeling. Thus nandavardhana
has laid down some principles in the Dhvayloka.
1. the figure should suggest the feeling (raa)

It should be born along with the poets revelation and delineation of the feelings (raa)
3. It should be naturally and easily introducible

4. The poet should not have to pause to make a special effort to effect
The figure which can be a promoter of sentiment usually bodies itself forth in all it is
completeness without any extra effort on the part of the poet. Hence if one were to find that the
figure indicates and extra effort of the poet in its employment, rather than his concentration in the
sole delineation of sentiment though this latter alone is his avowed object can conclude that, it
cannot serve as a promoter of sentiment. 51
As a concept Alakra is based on four essential elements like thought, language,
expressiveness and the connection between sound and sense. It can be designated as a criterion
for distinguishing poetic speech form mere expression. So the purpose of Alakra is inevitable
like the purpose of poetry which in whatever way eventually carries to the emotional motivation.
Therefore even Alakra consider as an external element, it is indispensible to poetry.
According to Kuntaka, Alakr are not separate from Alakraya. Ala kr essentially exist
in poetic abda and Artha and are not added externally to the poetic composition. They are
distinguished and discussed to reveal and explain their nature.52 He stresses that, there will be
no beauty in poetry without the striking of Alakra. Alakra are mean to enhance the beauty
of poetry (lokottaracaatkra and vaicitra)53
This elaboration emphasizes the underlying principle of the application of the Alakra is
fundamentally distinguish poetic language from everyday speech and on the other hand, it shades
beauty on all over the poetry with suitable engagement. As well as has already been pointed out
functionally Alakra adorn sound and sense also subordinate to aa or aid to realization of

Eventually it can be concluded that, Alakra has been used to give an extraordinary
turn to ordinary speech or to transform ordinary speech into poetic speech or as a beautifying
principle which sin qua non for poetic expression.

It at once does strike a chord of sympathy in

experience and reveals us something unperceived hitherto. The more we think on it, the more it

expand and it content assumes universally and depth. Figure of speech or Alakra was the
magical charm of accomplishing this purpose. Thus the utmost upshot can be made here is poetry
itself is not beautiful. a beautiful idea must appropriately incarnate itself in a beautiful
expression. This defines Alakra and its place of function. The function of Alakra is to
heighten the effect; it is to aid the poet to say more pointedly. Whether the poet exalts or does the
opposite, Alakra is to help him. This idealism forms the basis of the Alakra thought can be
well apprehended from the word of the Dhvaikra. In the infinite world of literature the poet is
the creator and whatever appears to him to be valid, the world also changes accordingly.54
Thus be it a abdlakra or Arthlakra, be it a sound effect or striking turn of the
idea, it not Bhiraga for aa, so long as it is useful for aa, effective expression, the
embodiment of the poets idea is Alakra. It is not as if it were in some separate place, like
jewels in a box, to be taken and added. So it is the several ways of expressing ideas which are to
convey the aa that are called Alakra.

SA Subhodhlakra
DL- Dvanyaloka Locana
NS Ntyastra
OSP Outline of sanskrit poetics
KAL - kuvalaylakra
KLS 1 - kuvalaylakra sutravr tti (ed., Kulasuriya, Ananda)
KLS 2 - kuvalaylakra sutravr tti (ed., Jha, Ganganatha)
DAL- Dhvayloka (Ed., Sastri,vasudev)

DAL I - Dhvayloka (Ed., English translation with critical notes, ed.,Homes,D.H)
KP Kvyapraka
SD - Shityadarpan a
End Notes

Selected Bibliography
Primary sources.

Laknand himi, Labugama, ed., 1937. Subodhlakra. Horana: Vidydeskara Printers

Batuknthsarma, ed., 1981. Kavyalakara of Bhaaha, Varanasi: The Chawkhambha
Sanskrit Series office.

Ayyar. N., 1952. Kvydar a. Delhi: Vavillavenkatesvara publication.

Jha,G. ed., 1928. Kvylakra sutravr tti. Poona: Oriental Book Agency.
Kane, P.V. Ed., 1923. The Shityadarpa a of Vihvaatha. Bombay: Nirnayasagara Press.
Krishnamoorthy, K. ed., 1955. Aadavardhaa' Dhvayaloka or Theory of Suggtio
i Poetry. Poona: Oriental Book Agency.

Holmes, H. D, ed., 1990. Dvanyloka of Anadavaradhana with the Locana of

Abhianavagupta. America: Harvard oriental series.

Krishnamoorthy, K. ed., 1968. Abhiavagupta' Dhvayaloka Locaa. New Delhi:

Meharchand Lachmandas Publishers.

Sastri, K.S. ed., 1926. The Dhvayaloka Of Sri Aadavadhaacarya. Varanasi: The

Chawkhambha Sanskrit Series office.

Sastri, N. 1928. Kvylakra. Tanjore: Wallace Printing House.
Sharma,B. etc. Ed., 1929. The Ntya Satra of Bharata. Varanasi: The Chawkhambha

Sanskrit Series office.

De,S.K, ed., 1961. Vakroktijivita. Calcutta: Firma K.L Mukhopadyay
Dwivedi, R.C. ed., 1966. Kavyaprakaa of Maata, Vol l, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass
Sarma, J.M, ed., 1977. Auctiyavicracarc. Kerala : University of Kerala.
Rawaprasada. D, ed., 1943.Viktiviveka. Varanasi: Ki Sanskrit Series

Secondary sources.

Gerow. E., 1971. Gloary of Idia figure of peech. Netherland: N.V. Publishers.
Kane, P.V., 1951. Hitory of Sakrit Poetic. Delhi: Motilal Banrsidass.
Raghavan, V., 1942. Studie o oe cocept of Alakra. Adyar: The Adyar Library.
De, S. K.,1963. Sakrit poetic a a tudy of aethetic. California : University of
California press.

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias.

Dutt, A, ed., 1987. Ecyclopedia of Idia literature (vol I). sahitya Akadami.
Dutt, A, ed., 1987. Ecyclopedia of Idia literature (vol I). sahitya Akadami.
Wehmeier, S. ed., 2005. Oxford advace learer dictioary 7th edition. Oxford : Oxford

University press.
Nagendara., 1987. Dictioary of Sakrit poetic. Delhi: B.R Publishing corporation.
Wehmeier, S. ed., 2005. Oxford advace learer dictioary 7th edition. Oxford : Oxford

University press.
Shivaramana, A.R, ed., 1998. Practical Sakrit Eglih dictioary, Motilal Benarsidas


Tripati, G.C., 1969. An Etymological Note on the word Alakra: Priciple of literary

critici i Sakrit.
De,S.K., 1959. Some Problems of Sanskrit Poetics. Culcutta: Frama K.L Mukhopadyay.
Mainkar. T.G.,1969. some observation on the definition of poetry: Priciple of literary

Tripatai, H., 1969. Vakkrokti and literary criticism, Priciple of literary critici i

1 Sabdrthau ahita kvya. - KL 2. p.6.

2 Gerow. E., 1971. Gloary of Idia figure of peech. Netherland: N.V. Publishers. p.14.

3 Shivaramana, A.R, ed., 1998. Practical Sakrit Eglih dictioary, Motilal Benarsidas
publishers,India. p.233.

4 Tripati, G.C., 1969. An Etymological Note on the word Alakra: Priciple of literary critici i
Sakrit. p.29.

5 Kvyaobhkardhar Alakra pracakate.

- Ayyar. N., 1952. Kvydar a. Delhi: Vavilla

venkatesvara publication. p.57.

6 Na ittitrea jyate crut gir, Vakrbhidheyya abdokti rit

- KL. p.12.

7 Kvyarughyaalakrt. - KLS 1. p.2.

8 Saudryaalakra. - Ibid. p.2.

9 Kane, P.V., 1951. Hitory of Sakrit Poetic. Delhi: Motilal Banrsidass. p.356.

10 abhrthayortitya ye dharh obhtiyiah,adiupakurvato lakrte gaddivat. - SD I. p.199.

11 SD 2. p.333.

12 NS. p. 300.

13 Alakaraiguaiciva bahaubhih aalakruta bhuairiva citrrthaibhuaaiti ruta. - NS. p.301.

14 KL 2. p.4.

15 OSP. p.28.

16 Tatuppetalakrvidayatarattaa. - SA. p.51.

17 Kvyaobhkar dhara alakra pracakate. - KD. p.57.

18 saudaryaalakrah. - KLS 2. p. 2.

19 Alakrutiralakrah. - Ibid. p. 3.

20 Kvyaobhykarthro dhar guh. - Ibid. p.104.

21 Tadaiyahetavatvalakr. Tayh kvyaobhy atiyadatiyataya hetavah. - Ibid. p. 104.

22 Saudaryaala
krah. - Ibid. p. 3.

23 S doagulakrahdbhya
. - Ibid. p.105.

24 SPS. p. 15.

25 Yuvateriva rpaegha kvya vadate uddhaguaa tadayatva vihitah praaya iratarbhih

adalakravikalpakalpabhi. - KLS I. p.104.

26 Atthlakraahit agubadhapaddat, Accatakat katva vuccate te tatodu. - Laknand himi, Labugama,

ed., 1937. Subodhlakra. Horana: Vidydeskara Printers. p. 66.

27 aabhvditatparyritya viiveaa, Alakruti arvalakratvadhaa. - DL I. p.180.

28 Ibid. pp. 223 - 224.

29 Raghavan, V., 1942. Studie o oe cocept of Alakra. Adyar: The Adyar Library. p. 57.

30 DL I. p. 270.

31 Ibid. p . 280.

32 SD. p. 333.

33 Sarvopi alakrh kaviaayapraiddhyurodhea drutay kvyaobh kra eva Alakrat

bhajate. VJ. p.97.

34 Lokkottarachaatkravaictryaiddyaye ,Kvyaalakrah kopyapurvo vidiyate. - De,S.K, ed., 1961.

Vakroktijivita. Calcutta: Firma K.L Mukhopadyaya. p. 2.

35 vcya-vcaka-crutva-het vividhta ,radi-parat yatra a dhvaer viayo

atah . DL I. p.180.

36 De,S.K, ed., 1961. Vakroktijivita. Calcutta: Firma K.L Mukhopadyaya.. p.xix.

37 Dwivedi, R.C. ed., 1966. Kavyaprakaa of Maata, Vol l, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. p.562.

38 Sei arveva Vakkroktiraayrtho vibhvyate , Yatoy kav kryah kolakraoay vi. - KL I. p.122.

39 OSP. p. 29.

40 KL II. p. 10.

41 De, S. K.,1963. Sakrit poetic a a tudy of aethetic. California : University of California press.

42 OSP. p. 32.

43 Mainkar. T.G.,1969. some observation on the definition of poetry: Priciple of literary critici.
pp. 126 -127.

44 Kaarvopala
kro raaarthe

iicati, Tathpyagryataiveia bhra vahat bhuya. - Ayyar. N., 1952.

Kvydar a. Delhi: Vavilla venkatesvara publication . p. 33.

45 Ucitataviyadalakrutiralakrutih. - Sarma, J.M, ed., 1977. Auctiyavicracarc. Kerala :

University of Kerala. p. 80.

46 Dutt, A, ed., 1987. Ecyclopedia of Idia literature (vol I). sahitya Akadami. p. 127.

47 Tripatai, H., 1969. Vakkrokti and literary criticism, Priciple of literary critici i Sakrit. p. 85.

48 vivak tatparatvea gitvea kadcaa,

kle ca graha a-tygau tiirvaha aiit.
- DL I. p. 223.

dhvay-ta-bhte r gre akya
viiveitah ,
rpakdir alakra-varga eti yathrthat. - DL I. p .223.

yaya badhah akya-kriyo bhavet


o 'lakro dhvaau atah . - DL I. p. 219.


ragatve ca taya laka

iti yo raa badhu-adhya-vaitaya kaver alakra t

a aprthag-yata-irvartyatva
va atyhya yattara thitaya ipadyate
a a raga iti. - DL, p.219.

Alakrutiralakrayaupadrutya vivecyate,Tadupyatay tatva lakraya kvyat. - De,S.K, ed., 1961.
Vakroktijivita. Calcutta: Firma K.L Mukhopadyaya. p. 3.


Ibid. p. 3.
Apre kyaare kavirekah prajpatih. Yataaih rocayate viva tadeta parivatate. - DL. p. 494.