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Mapa Institute of Technology

School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

ME136P A1
Experiment no. 4
SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND ABSORPTION OF AGGREGATES

Name: Maago, Jaya Mae T.

Date Performed: 11/09/2015

Student no.: 2012107107

Date Submitted: 11/23/2015

Engr. Jerome Lopena


Instructor

OBJECTIVE:
To determine the specific gravity and absorption of aggregates in accordance with ASTM
C127 and C128

INTRODUCTION:
An aggregate is usually a mineral mixture resembling a rock. It can also be made up of
ingredients of concrete such as broken stone, gravel, and sand used for road construction.
Aggregates are known to have three classifications based on its particle size. Dust is the first
classification of an aggregate, and known to be with the smallest particle size, less than
0.075mm. Dust is also generally harmful to work on. On safety engineering, eye protection and
masks are to be used when working on a field that produces a lot of dust. Next classification of
aggregate is the fine aggregates. This classification is known to have a particle size greater than
0.075mm but less than 5mm. One example of this is sand. The last classification is the coarse
aggregate. Coarse aggregates are with particle size greater than 5mm. One example of this is
gravel, used in making concrete.
In this experiment, we are to determine the specific gravity and the percent absorption of
the aggregates. Specific gravity is another way to label the density of a substance by dividing it
to another density of a substance as standard or also known as reference fluid.
Specific Gravity=

subtance
reference fluid

When the substance is solid or liquid, the reference fluid is usually water wherein its density is
1g/L. When the substance is in form of gas, the reference fluid used is air, wherein its density in
standard condition is 1.25g/L.

LIST OF APPARATUS:

Electronic Balance

Fine Aggregates

Coarse Aggregates

Sieve

Pitcher

PROCEDURES:
1. Prepare the necessary materials needed for the experiment.
2. With the use of an electronic balance, weigh the metal trays that will be used, one for the
coarse aggregates and one for the fine aggregates. Take note of the weights of the trays.
3. Reset the balance to zero, and add in the coarse aggregates until the balance previews an
exactly 1.0000kg. This will be the mass of the sample, W1. See Fig.[1] and Fig.[2].

Fig.[1]

Fig.[2]

4. Fill a pitcher with water until it is exactly one (1) liter. Remove the tray and reset the balance
to zero. Weigh the pitcher with water; this will be your W2. See Fig.[3].

Fig.[3]

5. Add in the coarse aggregates on the pitcher with one (1) liter of water. Weigh the mixture
using the balance; this will be your W3. See Fig.[4].

Fig.[4]

6. Pour out the water from the mixture without wasting the aggregates.
7. Place back the coarse aggregates on the metal tray and bake in the oven for at least an hour.
See Fig.[5] and Fig.[6].

Fig.[5]

Fig.[6]

8. After an hour, remove the tray from the oven, and let it cool. Weigh the tray and the
aggregates. Subtract from the total weight the noted weight of the tray on step 2. This will be the
mass of the oven-dry sample.
9. For the fine aggregates, simply repeat step 2 to 5. For step 6, use a sieve when separating out
the water from the aggregates, to prevent data inaccuracy. Proceed to step 7 and 8.
10. Compute for the other data needed on the preliminary data sheet.

FINAL DATA SHEET:


Weight in air of oven-dry
sample, g
Weight in air of saturated
surface-dry sample, g
Weight of pycnometer filled
with H2O to 500ml, g
Weight of pycnometer-H2Osample in bottle, g
Bulk Specific Gravity (dry)
Bulk Specific Gravity (SSD)
Apparent Specific Gravity
(SSD)
% Absorption

Weight in air of oven-dry


sample, g
Weight in air of saturated
surface-dry sample, g
Weight of pycnometer filled
with H2O to 500ml, g
Weight of pycnometer-H2Osample in bottle, g
Bulk Specific Gravity (dry)
Bulk Specific Gravity (SSD)
Apparent Specific Gravity
(SSD)
% Absorption

FINE AGGREGATES
Wo

992g

W1

1000g

W2

1328g

W3

1936g
2.53
2.55
2.58
0.806%

COARSE AGGREGATES
Wo

993g

W1

1000g

W2

1337g

W3

1972g
2.72
2.74
2.77
0.705%

COMPUTATIONS:
a. Fine Aggregates

W0 = 1933g -941g = 992 g


W1 = 1000g
W2 = 1328g
W3 = 1936g

BULK SPECIFIC GRAVITY (OD)


BSG =

Wo
992 g
=
=2.53
W 1+W 2W 3 1000 g+1328 g1936 g

BULK SPECIFIC GRAVITY (SSD)


BSG =

W1
1000 g
=
=2.55
W 1+W 2W 3 1000 g+1328 g1936 g

APPARENT SPECIFIC GRAVITY (SSD)


ASG =

Wo
992 g
=
=2.58
Wo+W 2W 3 992 g+1328 g1936 g

%ABSORPTION
%ABS=

W 1Wo
1000 g992 g
x 100 =
x 100 =0.806
Wo
992 g

b. Coarse Aggregates

W0 = 1929g -936g = 993 g


W1 = 1000g
W2 = 1337g
W3 = 1972g

BULK SPECIFIC GRAVITY (OD)


BSG =

Wo
993 g
=
=2.72
W 1+W 2W 3 1000 g+1337 g1972 g

BULK SPECIFIC GRAVITY (SSD)


BSG =

W1
1000 g
=
=2.74
W 1+W 2W 3 1000 g+1337 g1972 g

APPARENT SPECIFIC GRAVITY (SSD)


ASG =

Wo
993 g
=
=2.77
Wo+W 2W 3 993 g+1337 g1972 g

%ABSORPTION
%ABS=

W 1Wo
1000 g993 g
x 100 =
x 100 =0.705
Wo
993 g

DISCUSSION:
In this experiment, we are able to compare the difference of the absorption percentage of
fine aggregates and coarse aggregates. Absorption percentage refers on how the particles of these
two aggregates are able to hold water and moisture content. Percent absorption is computed by
getting the difference of W1 and Wo and dividing it to Wo, then multiply to 100%.
We are also able to see the bulk specific gravity of the oven dry and saturated surface dry
of the two aggregates, as well as, the apparent specific gravity. When the sample is oven-dry
each particle of the aggregates are free of moisture and water content. A saturated surface dry
particle however, pertains on particles which are free of moisture on the outside of the particle,
but may contain water on the inside.

CONCLUSION:
In this experiment we are able to record that the percent absorption of the fine aggregates
is at most 0.1% greater than the percent absorption of coarse aggregates. We can conclude that
fine aggregates absorb more liquid than coarse aggregates. Knowing the absorption percent of
aggregates is very important especially in dealing with construction of roads and buildings. If an
aggregate absorbs too much water it may break apart and may produce a weak construction. The
bulk specific gravity of an oven-dry sample is known as the ratio of the weight of the particle
over the weight of water given. Relating to the recorded data, we can observe that the coarse
aggregates have higher bulk specific gravity. This is true because the particle size of coarse
aggregates is relatively much bigger than fine aggregates, and this is related to the ratio of
particle to water.