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Suramadu Bridge, Indonesia

Approach Bridge

CALCULATIONS
Vol II: Earthquake Response Analysis

Consortium of Chinese Contractors


CCCC Highway & Bridge Consultants Co., Ltd
November, 2006

CCCC HIGHWAY & BRIDGE CONSULTANTS CO., LTD


F6, Botai Mansion, Wangjing Xi Yuan No. 221, Chaoyang District, Beijing, China
http://www.ccgbt.com
Tel: 86-10-64789480
Fax: 86-10-64789499

Calculations

CONTENTS
1

General................................................................................................................1

Earthquake-resistance Criteria of Approach Bridge.....................................5

Dynamic Calculation Model .............................................................................6

Dynamic Calculation Model .............................................................................7

3.1

Simulation of the Part above Foundation ...............................................................................7

3.2

Simulation of Pile Group Foundation ....................................................................................8

Analysis of Dynamic Property........................................................................ 11

4.1

Analysis of Dynamic Property at Surabaya Side ................................................................. 11

4.2

Analysis of Dynamic Property at Madura side ....................................................................13

Seismic Input....................................................................................................16

Nonlinear Time-History Analysis...................................................................23

Check of Structure Earthquake-resistance Performance............................42

7.1

Earthquake-resistance Performance of Main Girder ............................................................42

7.2

Earthquake-resistance Performance of Pier .........................................................................43

7.3

Check of Earthquake-response and Resistance of Pier ........................................................48

Conclusion ........................................................................................................55

Reference ................................................................................................................56

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Volume II: Earthquake Response Analysis

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Calculations
1

General
Suramadu Bridge is an especially large bridge in Indonesia. Its approach bridges transverse

direction is formed by the eastern and western bridges. Its structure style is pre-stressed concrete
continuous box bridge and has V-style pile. The arrangement of the continuous beam is
40+780+40m,. Its the largest continuous length is 640m, and links with the main bridge by
V-style pier. The end of the continuous beam is 32m far away from the main bridges beam end.
The start pile number at Surabaya side is K1+457.5, and the end number is K2+129.5. At
Madura side, the start pile number is K2+947.5, and the end number is K3+619.5. The total
length at both sides is 1344m (see Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). In the transverse direction, the bridge has
bi-directional four-lane road, and its total width is 30m (see Fig. 3).
The approach bridge is formed by two pre-stressed concrete continuous box girders in
eastern and western side. Each box is 14.7m in width, and there is a 0.6m-width structure joint
between the two boxes flange girths. The box is a straight web plate and single-cell structure.
The width of the upper plate is 14.7m, and the floor plates width is 7.5m. The floor plate of box
is horizontal, but there is a 2% transverse slope in the floor plate. The web plates of the box are
different in height, and the height of box means the height of the boxs center. The height of span
center of two end and mid-span is 2.4m; in the root segment of the piers, the box is 4.4m high,
the other height of the main girder change with the 2nd parabola. In the closure segment of box,
the floor plate is 26cm thick, but in the root segment of the pier, the floor plate is 55cm thick; the
thickness of other segments floor plate change with the 2nd parabola. The thickness of the web
plate is 45cm or 60cm, and the concrete grade of the box is C50. The main girder of continuous
beam is single-cell with variable cross-sections. Fig.1 to Fig.3 are the plan view, side view and
the section of main girder.
The substructure of continuous beam is thin-wall hollow pier. The eastern and western piers
are independent, but the caps are integral. The transverse section of thin-wall hollow pier is
rectangular hollow section. Its width is 4m with 0.7m-thick wall along the bridge, and 7.5m with
0.6m-thick wall in transverse direction. In both directions, it has a 5050cm chamfer. The caps
of the approach bridge are rectangular style with the thickness of 3m or 3.5m. The foundation of
the approach is bored pile group with 1.8m in diameter. Each pier has 9 piles in both single

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bridges, and the pile plane is arranged in rectangle with 3 piles in both transverse and
longitudinal direction. The minimum distance among piles center is 4.5m.
No.45 and No.48 piers are V-style. The carriageway and the deck act on the cross beam of
the V-style pier directly. The V-style pier is integral with beam and formed by eastern and
western parts in transverse direction. The cantilevered edge of the upper box is the same as
continuous beam with 0.6m. The caps of V-style in eastern and western parts are integral with
solid rectangular section. The section is 25.8m (transverse) 36.8m (longitudinal) in plane. The
elevation of the caps bottom is 1.00m, and 5.5m in the top, so the height of the cap is 4.5m. The
foundation of the V-style pier is large diameter bored pile foundation. The No.45 and No.48 piers
have 35 piles with 2.2m in diameter respectively. The piles are rectangular in plane with 7 piles
in transverse direction and 5 piles in longitudinal direction. The distance among the piles is 5.5m.

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Volume II: Earthquake Response Analysis

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Fig.1 General arrangement of Suramadu approach bridge

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Fig. 2 Side view of Suramadu approach bridge

Fig. 3 1/2 Transverse arrangement of main girder in Suramadu approach bridge

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Calculations
2

Earthquake-resistance Criteria of Approach Bridge


According to the current development of earthquake-resistance methods, two-level

earthquake-resistance method is applied on the earthquake-resistance research of Suramadu


Approach bridge. The premise of earthquake-resistance research is to clarify the protected
criteria.
Earthquake-resistance criteria of bridge engineering comprise not only the probability level
of earthquake action in site, but also the requirement and check objects of structural
performance.
The object of bridge earthquake-resistance is to decrease the seismic failure of bridge
engineering, to ensure the security of people lives and properties, and to reduce the economic
losses. On one hand, the economic investment used for earthquake-resistance of preseismic
shouldnt exceed the economic capability of development organization. On the other hand, the
damage extent of bridge designed with earthquake-resistance methods should limited into the
extent accepted by development organization during occurrence of earthquake. In other words, it
should be a reasonable balance between economy and security, which is a reasonable degree of
security principle for bridge earthquake-resistance design. Based on this principle, when
determining the earthquake-resistance protected criteria of bridge engineering, the following
three factors are mainly be considered:
(i) The significance of bridge;
(ii) After seismic failure, the loss of bridge structural performance may cause the secondary
harmful loss;
(iii)

The

maximum

economic

capability

of

development

organization

for

earthquake-resistance and hazard protection;


The basic earthquake intensity in the bridge foundation is VII degree. Suramadu Approach
Bridge, which is the key project in the transportation net, has much significance in politics and
economy. It will play a more important role in earthquake-resistance and hazard protection, so
the higher protected criteria is selected in earthquake-resistance design.
The earthquake-resistance criteria used in Suramadu Approach Bridge is represented in
Table 2.1 during the construction document design phase.

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Table 2.1 The earthquake-resistance criteria of Suramadu Approach Bridge
Bridge

Approach
bridge

Probability level of
protected
earthquake-resistance

Requirements of structural
performance

P1: 475 years return


period

The main structures are in limited


state of normal service.

Checking the stress of main


structures.

P2: 2500 years return


period

The main structures are in limited


state of bearing capability;
controlling the displacement or
deformation.

Checking the limited bearing


capability or considering
ductility of main structures;
checking the displacement or
deformation.

Structural checking object

According to characteristic of Suramadu Approach Bridge, the calculation procedure of


earthquake-resistance is shown in Fig. 2.1.

Fig. 2.1 the calculation procedure of

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structure earthquake-resistance

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Calculations
3
3.1

Dynamic Calculation Model


Simulation of the Part above Foundation
The calculation establishes a three-dimensional finite element model to analyze its dynamic

characteristics and seismic response. Select the whole bridge model of 40+780+40m
prestressed continuous beam situated at Surabaya side P36 ~ P45, the main bridge and
40+780+40m prestressed continuous beam situated at Madura side P48 ~ P57. The pile height
of continuous beams changes from 9.837m to 29.837m. The continuous beams of two bridges
share the same Pile cap and pile foundation, and set cross beam at the coping of two ends of
V-pier. So choose two bridges to establish model, as shown in Fig.3.1.

Fig.3.1 Dynamic calculation Graph of the whole bridge

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Table 3.1 Material characteristics of main beam
Component

Elastic modulus
(kN/m2)

Conversion density of the first


stage dead load (T/m)

Line density of the second stage


dead load (T/m)

Main beam

3.50107

2.5

6.0

2.5

Pier

3.3010

Pile cap
and pile

3.0107

2.5

Table 3.2 Section characteristics of main beam and pier


Component

Area A (m2)

Torsion inertia
moment J (m4)

Bending resistance
inertia moment I2 (m4)

Bending resistance
inertia moment I3 (m4)

Continuous main beam 0

25.1417

91.2698

217.2582

54.9089

Continuous main beam 1

17.0905

67.7837

179.0444

37.8999

Continuous main beam 2

16.0542

55.0912

170.1522

29.2401

Continuous main beam 3

15.1447

44.9516

162.3902

22.7772

Continuous main beam 4

14.0299

36.4714

153.2506

17.7445

Continuous main beam 5

13.0500

29.8187

145.3002

13.9888

Continuous main beam 6

12.5482

25.4374

141.1572

11.5822

Continuous main beam 7

12.1925

22.6770

138.3361

10.1109

Continuous main beam 8

11.9833

21.3214

136.8416

9.3978

Continuous main beam 9

11.9155

20.9714

136.4284

9.2154

V-pier main beam

12.096

19.9366

141.1182

9.3376

P37-P44

12.92

66.0307

87.6628

28.8411

P45

12.0000

58.2606

113.7600

22.0000

P48

12.0000

58.2606

113.7600

22.0000

P49-56

12.92

66.0307

87.6628

28.8411

Diameter 1.8m pile

2.5422

1.0306

0.5153

0.5153

Diameter 2.2m pile

3.8013

2.2998

1.1499

1.1499

Pier

3.2

Simulation of Pile Group Foundation


The pile foundation action of approach bridge is simulated by six springs; in the seismic

response analysis of long-span bridge, another common simulation method of pile foundation is:
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add springs of six directions on pile cap to simulate the action of pile foundation (such as
Fig.3.3), and through internal force of Pile cap bottom, inversely calculate the worst stress of
single pile by static method. The spring stiffness is confirmed by conditions of soil layers and
arrangement of piles through static equivalent principle, and the soil characteristics datum are
confirmed by m method. This method is very convenient.

(a) Elevation view

(b) Plan view

Fig.3.3 Six-spring model


The equivalent stiffness values of pile foundation are in Table 3.3, and the calculation
model is in Fig.3.3.

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Table 3.3 Equivalent stiffness values of pile foundation (consider scour)
Corresponding
pier number

Longitudinal
direction 1
(kN/m)

Lateral
direction
2 (kN/m)

Vertical
direction
3 (kN/m)

Wind 1
(kN/rad)

Wind 2
(kN/rad)

Wind 3
(kN/rad)

P37

187645

195176

2.03E+07

3.38E+08

1.46E+09

2.85E+10

P38

105834

110032

2.03E+07

2.90E+08

1.25E+09

2.85E+10

P39

82648

85684

2.03E+07

2.90E+08

1.25E+09

2.85E+10

P40

80286

83529

2.03E+07

2.63E+08

1.13E+09

2.85E+10

P41

62842

62003

2.08E+07

5.05E+08

1.03E+09

2.85E+10

P42

62355

61584

2.08E+07

4.74E+08

9.68E+08

2.85E+10

P43

65481

68143

2.03E+07

2.46E+08

1.06E+09

2.85E+10

P44

66520

69320

2.03E+07

2.40E+08

1.03E+09

2.85E+10

P45

190185

192661

2.21E+07

2.43E+09

6.33E+09

3.87E+10

P48

296581

301458

2.21E+07

2.28E+09

6.22E+09

3.87E+10

P49

110849

116001

2.03E+07

2.52E+08

1.08E+09

2.85E+10

P50

105789

110821

2.03E+07

2.38E+08

1.02E+09

2.85E+10

P51

109770

106909

2.08E+07

4.76E+08

9.33E+08

2.85E+10

P52

125326

122566

2.08E+07

5.00E+08

1.01E+09

2.85E+10

P53

121061

126937

2.03E+07

2.43E+08

1.04E+09

2.85E+10

P54

135691

141947

2.03E+07

2.66E+08

1.14E+09

2.85E+10

P55

146599

153451

2.03E+07

2.68E+08

1.15E+09

2.85E+10

P56

168108

175841

2.03E+07

2.84E+08

1.22E+09

2.85E+10

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4
4.1

Analysis of Dynamic Property


Analysis of Dynamic Property at Surabaya Side
In this section, we analyze the dynamic property at Surabaya side using ahead dynamic

analysis model. Table 4.1 gives t ahead 20 frequencies and periods of the structure. Fig. 4.1 and
Fig. 4.2 show the vibration modes of the longitudinal and transverse direction.
Table 4.1 Ahead 20 frequencies and periods at Surabaya side
Order

Frequency (Hz)

Period (sec)

Order

Frequency (Hz)

Period (sec)

0.17471

5.72380

11

0.64678

1.54613

0.32954

3.03455

12

0.69000

1.44928

0.33033

3.02730

13

0.75216

1.32951

0.40320

2.48014

14

0.78459

1.27455

0.46681

2.14219

15

0.83483

1.19785

0.48061

2.08070

16

0.83819

1.19304

0.51689

1.93464

17

0.86361

1.15793

0.52429

1.90734

18

0.88343

1.13195

0.53373

1.87362

19

0.99190

1.00817

10

0.62341

1.60409

20

1.00170

0.99830

The first order vibration mode makes the most important contribution to the longitudinal
earthquake-response. The following figure shows its vibration mode.

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Fig. 4.1 The first vibration mode


The second vibration mode makes the most important contribution to the transverse
earthquake-response. The following figure shows its vibration mode.

Fig. 4.2 The second vibration mode

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4.2

Analysis of Dynamic Property at Madura side


In this section, we analyze the dynamic property at Madura side using ahead dynamic

analysis model. Table 4.2 shows ahead 20 frequencies and periods of the structure. Fig. 4.3 and
Fig. 4.4 show the vibration modes of the longitudinal and transverse direction.
Table 4.2

Ahead 20 frequencies and periods of the approach bridge at Madura side


Periodsec

11

Frequency
Hz
0.78460

3.02730

12

0.83686

1.19494

0.44310

2.25685

13

0.83827

1.19294

0.51276

1.95024

14

0.84875

1.17821

0.57596

1.73624

15

0.89201

1.12106

0.57905

1.72697

16

0.92445

1.08173

0.63450

1.57605

17

0.95739

1.04451

0.68615

1.45740

18

0.99432

1.00571

0.72843

1.37281

19

1.00219

0.99781

10

0.76231

1.31181

20

1.03339

0.96769

Periodsec

Order

Frequency
Hz
0.22474

4.44968

0.33033

Order

1.27454

The first order vibration mode makes the most important contribution to the longitudinal
earthquake-response. The following figure shows its vibration mode.

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Fig. 4.3 The first vibration mode


The third vibration mode makes the most important contribution to the transverse
earthquake-response. The following figure shows its vibration mode.

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Fig. 4.4 The third vibration mode

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5

Seismic Input
The seismic parameters of Approach Bridge are provided by China Earthquake

Administration Institute of Geophysics. China Earthquake Administration Institute of


Geophysics has provided two probability-level, return periods of earthquake are 475 years and
2500years respectively, which are seismic parameters at locations of two pylons maximum
scouring line. The seismic parameters of two probability levels are represented in table5.1.
Twelve seismic acceleration histories are provided to each input point. The two return periods
earthquake of 475 years and 2500years are selected as earthquake input according to the
protected standard selected by the proprietor in this report.
The response spectrum of seismic acceleration is selected as follows:
S a (T ) = Amax (T )

max = Amax M
Where, Amax is the peak value of seismic acceleration response spectrum, (T) is the
coefficient of response spectrum of seismic acceleration and max the maximum value of
seismic influence coefficient.
The formulation of response spectrum curve is represented as follows:
1

T T0
1 + ( m 1)
T1 T0

(T ) =
m

T2
m

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T 0.04 s
0.04 sT T1
T1T Tg
Tg T 12 s

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Table5.1 Corresponding parameters of two probability levels
Item
Amax

Return period of 475 years (exceeding


probability of 50 years 10%)

Return period of 2500 years (exceeding


probability of 50 years 2%)

0.15

0.24

(g)

T1

(s)

0.15

0.15

Tg

(s)

0.35

0.40

2.5

2.5

1.1

1.1

0.38

0.6

max

(g)

NotesThe date in the table is the parameters of horizontal response spectrum, while the value of vertical
response spectrum is 2/3 of these values.

In this report, the acceleration response spectrum curves of two probability levels at the
location of P46 and P47 are given out, in which the damping ratio is 5%. Fig. 5.1 and Fig. 5.2 are
acceleration response spectrum of long periodicity of the corresponding ground.
exceeding probability of 10% within 50 years

Horizon

Sa(T)

0.1

Vertical

0.01

0.1

10

T(s)

Fig. 5.1 horizontal and vertical design acceleration response spectrum at engineering
ground (return period 475 years, exceeding probability 10%, and damping ratio 5%)

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exceeding probability of 10% within 50 years

Horizon

Sa(T)

0.1

Vertical

0.01

0.1

10

T(s)

Fig. 5.2 horizontal and vertical design acceleration response spectrum at engineering
ground (return period 2500 years, exceeding probability 2%, and damping ratio 5%)
In addition, China Earthquake Administration Institute of Geophysics also provided twelve
fitted seismic acceleration history curves for the object of response spectrum. In this report, the
first group of horizontal and vertical acceleration history curves of two probability levels is also
provided in Fig. 5.3 to Fig. 5.6.

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0 .1 5

h o r iz o n 1

Acceleration (g)

0 .1 0

0 .0 5

0 .0 0

-0 .0 5

-0 .1 0

-0 .1 5
0

10

20

30

40

(s )

0 .1 5

h o r iz o n 2

Acceleration (g)

0 .1 0

0 .0 5

0 .0 0

-0 .0 5

-0 .1 0

-0 .1 5
0

10

20

30

40

(s )

0 .1 5

v e r tic a l

Acceleration (g)

0 .1 0

0 .0 5

0 .0 0

-0 .0 5

-0 .1 0

-0 .1 5
0

10

20

30

40

(s )

Fig. 5.3 Lateral and vertical design acceleration history curve at engineering ground
(return period 475 years, the first group)
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Calculations
0 .1 5

h o r iz o n 2

Acceleration (g)

0 .1 0

0 .0 5

0 .0 0

-0 .0 5

-0 .1 0

-0 .1 5
0

1 0

2 0

3 0

4 0

(s )

0 .1 5

h o r iz o n 2

Acceleration (g)

0 .1 0

0 .0 5

0 .0 0

-0 .0 5

-0 .1 0

-0 .1 5
0

1 0

2 0

3 0

4 0

(s )

0 .1 5

v e r tic a l

Acceleration (g)

0 .1 0

0 .0 5

0 .0 0

-0 .0 5

-0 .1 0

-0 .1 5
0

10

20

30

40

(s )

Fig. 5.4 Lateral and vertical design acceleration history curve at engineering ground
(return period 475 years, the second group)

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Calculations
0 .2 5
0 .2 0

h o r iz o n 1 - 1

Acceleration (g)

0 .1 5
0 .1 0
0 .0 5
0 .0 0
-0 .0 5
-0 .1 0
-0 .1 5
-0 .2 0
-0 .2 5
0

10

20

30

40

(s )

0 .2 5
0 .2 0

h o r iz o n 1 - 2

Acceleration (g)

0 .1 5
0 .1 0
0 .0 5
0 .0 0
-0 .0 5
-0 .1 0
-0 .1 5
-0 .2 0
-0 .2 5
0

10

20

30

40

(s )

0 .2 5
0 .2 0

v e r tic a l 1

Acceleration (g)

0 .1 5
0 .1 0
0 .0 5
0 .0 0
-0 .0 5
-0 .1 0
-0 .1 5
-0 .2 0
-0 .2 5
0

10

20

30

40

(s )

Fig. 5.5 Lateral and vertical design acceleration history curve at engineering ground
(return period 2500 years, the first group)
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Calculations
0 .2 5
0 .2 0

h o r iz o n

2 -1

Acceleration (g)

0 .1 5
0 .1 0
0 .0 5
0 .0 0
-0 .0 5
-0 .1 0
-0 .1 5
-0 .2 0
-0 .2 5
0

1 0

2 0

3 0

4 0

(s )

0 .2 5
0 .2 0

h o r iz o n 2

Acceleration (g)

0 .1 5
0 .1 0
0 .0 5
0 .0 0
-0 .0 5
-0 .1 0
-0 .1 5
-0 .2 0
-0 .2 5
0

10

20

30

40

(s )

0 .2 5
0 .2 0

v e r tic a l 2

Acceleration (g)

0 .1 5
0 .1 0
0 .0 5
0 .0 0
-0 .0 5
-0 .1 0
-0 .1 5
-0 .2 0
-0 .2 5
0

1 0

2 0

3 0

4 0

(s )

Fig. 5.6 Lateral and vertical design acceleration history curve at engineering ground
(return period 2500 years, the second group)
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Calculations
6

Nonlinear Time-History Analysis


The architecture of construction documents design of this bridge is:
The longitudinal direction:
There are dampers between V-pier and continuous beam (parameter: C=3500 (2x1750),

=0.3, the unit: damping force: kN, acceleration: m/s2), the selection of dampers parameters are
finally due to optimized comparison;
The lateral direction:
There are lateral stoppers between V-pier and beam.
The nonlinear performance of longitudinal sliding supports is considered in the analysis of
time history analysis. The following Fig. 6.1 shows the lateral elastic stiffness is: (mobilizable
direction)
F(x)

(sh ear foce)

F max
-x y

K=

xy
-F m ax

f N
xy

( r el a t iv e di s p la c em e n t)

Fig.6.1 Restoring force model of sliding support


(f is the coefficient of sliding friction, N is the dead load of superstructure which the supports bear,, and
xy is yielding displacement)

In dynamic analysis model, the main beam is handled as spine beam, the beam and pier are
connected with the nonlinear support element, as a result, we merge the actual supports of pier
top into one, and adopt its paralleling form, that is to say, the yielding displacement is still 1mm,
N is the sum of vertical counterforce which multiple supports bearings.
The calculation of approach bridge aiming at the architecture of limiting scour and
construction documents design adopt the nonlinear time history method to analyze their seismic
response. The seismic input form is: longitudinal direction + vertical direction, lateral direction +
vertical direction, and consider the power-wasting effect of dampers and stoppers. To the two
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Calculations
probability levels, all of 6 groups of seismic acceleration time histories in each level are used in
seismic response analysis. According to the principle of earthquake motions randomness and
controlling calculations, we choose the maximum value of 6 groups of seismic response. The
results are in Table 6.1 ~ 6.18.
Table 6.1 In 475-year return period, the maximum value of internal force in each
controlling section which are controlled by maximum shear force (longitudinal direction +
vertical direction, 50-year exceeding probability is 10%)
Pier number Section position

Axial force P (kN)

Shear force Q2max (kN)

Moment M3 (kN-m)

P37

Pier bottom

-762

-1449

-9629

P38

Pier bottom

-1709

-1082

-8974

P39

Pier bottom

3598

1144

11497

P40

Pier bottom

3254

3214

54697

P41

Pier bottom

-4256

-1648

-42953

P42

Pier bottom

-889

-3821

-23275

P43

Pier bottom

2208

2095

52672

P44

Pier bottom

-1896

-3661

-51182

V- pier root

-2846

-1924

-43380

V-Pile cap top

-3624

-3220

-110500

V- pier root

-2869

-1804

-29828

V-Pile cap top

-3288

-3024

-72282

P49

Pier bottom

-2492

-2040

-57321

P50

Pier bottom

-2331

-2297

-60049

P51

Pier bottom

-3158

-1660

-51674

P52

Pier bottom

-3701

-2091

-61386

P53

Pier bottom

-3766

-2920

-50373

P54

Pier bottom

-2903

-1138

-11355

P55

Pier bottom

-2012

-1099

-9122

P56

Pier bottom

-896

-895

-5946

P45

P48

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Calculations
Table 6.2 In 475-year return period, the maximum value of internal force in each
controlling section which are controlled by maximum shear force (lateral direction +
vertical direction, 50-year exceeding probability is 10%)
Pier number Section position

Axial force P (kN)

Shear force Q3max (kN)

Moment M2 (kN-m)

P37

Pier bottom

-1229

-1258

-13040

P38

Pier bottom

-2937

-2022

-23776

P39

Pier bottom

-2701

-1868

-33621

P40

Pier bottom

-3262

-1731

-37180

P41

Pier bottom

-3022

-1643

-41072

P42

Pier bottom

-2689

-2039

-58965

P43

Pier bottom

-2038

-2270

-63191

P44

Pier bottom

-2467

-1853

-50777

V- pier root

-3006

-2520

-43715

V- Pile cap top

-4174

-3371

-67526

V- pier root

-2741

-2812

-44527

V-Pile cap top

-3613

-3839

-71913

P49

Pier bottom

-2439

-1519

-43124

P50

Pier bottom

-3215

-1974

-49718

P51

Pier bottom

-3667

-1942

-52977

P52

Pier bottom

-3155

-1984

-49013

P53

Pier bottom

-3119

-2293

-44948

P54

Pier bottom

-2595

-2834

-54679

P55

Pier bottom

-2701

-2430

-37311

P56

Pier bottom

-1161

-1198

-14937

P45

P48

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Tel: 86-10-64789480
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Calculations
Table 6.3 In 475-year return period, the seismic response of Pile cap center controlled by
maximum shear force (longitudinal direction + vertical direction, 50-year exceeding
probability is 10%)
Pier number

Axial force P (kN)

Shear force Q2max (kN)

Moment M3 (kN-m)

P37

-2549

-10311

-19258

P38

-4550

-6823

-17948

P39

7103

6333

22067

P40

7898

5445

103854

P41

-8074

-4269

-88470

P42

7686

4072

79624

P43

5443

3308

105066

P44

6046

3125

104170

P45

15369

10946

214830

P48

-12695

-10605

-207337

P49

-5242

-3561

-114492

P50

-6174

-3528

-119929

P51

-7106

-4037

-103165

P52

-6088

-4598

-122651

P53

-6448

-4581

-100739

P54

-5429

-6455

-22698

P55

-5515

-6908

-18243

P56

-3304

-6375

-11892

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Volume II: Earthquake Response Analysis

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Calculations
Table 6.4 In 475-year return period, the seismic response of Pile cap center controlled by
maximum shear force (lateral direction + vertical direction, 50-year exceeding probability
is 10%)
Pier number

Axial force P (kN)

Shear force Q3max (kN)

Moment M2 (kN-m)

P37

2972

3430

24838

P38

-7075

-3830

-44525

P39

-5387

-3618

-45919

P40

7997

3804

66051

P41

-5491

-4470

-81421

P42

-6067

-5950

-111296

P43

5247

5267

141876

P44

6534

4051

106390

P45

-13246

-11704

-231314

P48

14502

13407

227594

P49

-5042

-3564

-74393

P50

5242

4698

122806

P51

-6101

-5741

-110364

P52

-5493

-5388

-93172

P53

-5578

-5852

-93393

P54

5780

6235

96195

P55

5190

5460

58680

P56

-2742

-2916

-25128

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Volume II: Earthquake Response Analysis

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Calculations
Table 6.5 In 475-year return period, the maximum value of internal force in each
controlled section which are controlled by maximum moment (longitudinal direction +
vertical direction, 50-year exceeding probability is 10%)
Pier number Section position

Axial force P (kN)

Shear force Q2max (kN)

Moment M3 (kN-m)

P37

Pier bottom

-762

-1449

-9629

P38

Pier bottom

-1709

-1082

-8974

P39

Pier bottom

3598

1144

11497

P40

Pier bottom

3254

3214

54697

P41

Pier bottom

3011

1581

46255

P42

Pier bottom

1386

2931

41300

P43

Pier bottom

2208

2095

52672

P44

Pier bottom

1928

2488

52227

V- pier root

-2773

-1904

-43396

V- Pile cap top

-3521

-3216

-110543

V- pier root

-2308

-1755

-35675

V- Pile cap top

-3195

-2934

-90366

P49

Pier bottom

-2492

-2040

-57321

P50

Pier bottom

-2331

-2297

-60049

P51

Pier bottom

-3158

-1660

-51674

P52

Pier bottom

-3701

-2091

-61386

P53

Pier bottom

-3766

-2920

-50373

P54

Pier bottom

-2903

-1138

-11355

P55

Pier bottom

-2012

-1099

-9122

P56

Pier bottom

-896

-895

-5946

P45

P48

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Calculations
Table 6.6 In 475-year return period, the maximum value of internal force in each
controlling section which are controlled by maximum moment (lateral direction + vertical
direction, 50-year exceeding probability is 10%)
Pier No.

Section position

Axial force P (kN)

Shear force Q3max (kN)

Moment M2 (kN-m)

P37

Pier bottom

1260

904

18199

P38

Pier bottom

-2942

-1462

-37442

P39

Pier bottom

3829

1546

39330

P40

Pier bottom

3231

1575

41282

P41

Pier bottom

-3089

-1579

-44040

P42

Pier bottom

3252

1989

62036

P43

Pier bottom

2317

2025

71081

P44

Pier bottom

-2606

-1658

-62114

V- pier root

3310

2249

48891

V- Pile cap top

-4532

-3195

-80228

V- pier root

-2943

-2354

-54087

V- Pile cap top

-4806

-3330

-88796

P49

Pier bottom

-2481

-1436

-52510

P50

Pier bottom

2321

1872

61543

P51

Pier bottom

-3320

-1559

-58034

P52

Pier bottom

2985

1779

55527

P53

Pier bottom

3988

2152

54807

P54

Pier bottom

3798

2513

59838

P55

Pier bottom

-2829

-2260

-44603

P56

Pier bottom

-1290

-1113

-17483

P45

P48

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Calculations
Table 6.7 In 475-year return period, the seismic response of Pile cap center controlled by
maximum moment (longitudinal direction + vertical direction, 50-year exceeding
probability is 10%)
Pier number

Axial force P (kN)

Shear force Q2max (kN)

Moment M3 (kN-m)

P37

-2549

-10311

-19258

P38

-4550

-6823

-17948

P39

7103

6333

22067

P40

6219

4988

109331

P41

7571

4068

91789

P42

6173

3795

81921

P43

5443

3308

105066

P44

6046

3125

104170

P45

-18323

-10870

-250927

P48

-12695

-10605

-207337

P49

-5242

-3561

-114492

P50

-6174

-3528

-119929

P51

-7106

-4037

-103165

P52

-6088

-4598

-122651

P53

-6448

-4581

-100739

P54

-5429

-6455

-22698

P55

-5515

-6908

-18243

P56

-3304

-6375

-11892

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Volume II: Earthquake Response Analysis

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Calculations
Table 6.8 In 475-year return period, the seismic response of Pile cap center controlled by
maximum moment (lateral direction + vertical direction, 50-year exceeding probability is
10%)
Pier number

Axial force P (kN)

Shear force Q3max (kN)

Moment M2 (kN-m)

P37

-2761

-2638

-30245

P38

6788

2455

50256

P39

5839

3484

59639

P40

6332

3406

81996

P41

-5491

-4470

-81421

P42

6296

5023

119232

P43

5247

5267

141876

P44

-5073

-3820

-123454

P45

-13246

-11704

-231314

P48

-13192

-12714

-261857

P49

-5030

-3517

-105063

P50

5242

4698

122806

P51

-7601

-4646

-111175

P52

7582

4741

110342

P53

6320

4779

108296

P54

5783

5943

102044

P55

-4777

-3879

-75115

P56

-2745

-2577

-32010

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Calculations
Table 6.9 In 475-year return period, the maximum relative displacement between beam
and pier top (longitudinal direction + vertical direction, 50-year exceeding probability is
10%)
Pier number

Longitudinal displacement (m)

Pier number

Longitudinal displacement (m)

P36

8.370E-02

P48

1.450E-02

P37

3.320E-02

P49

7.730E-03

P38

1.900E-02

P50

8.550E-03

P39

1.840E-02

P53

2.120E-02

P40

1.500E-02

P54

2.160E-02

P43

6.770E-03

P55

2.370E-02

P44

7.540E-03

P55

3.050E-02

P45

2.500E-02

P56

6.820E-02

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Calculations
Table 6.10 In 2500-year return period, the maximum value of internal force in each
controlling section which are controlled by maximum shear force (longitudinal direction +
vertical direction, 50-year exceeding probability is 2%)
Pier number Section position

Axial force P (kN)

Shear force Q2max (kN)

Moment M3 (kN-m)

P37

Pier bottom

-1727

-1659

-11025

P38

Pier bottom

-3441

-1599

-13263

P39

Pier bottom

-3799

-1722

-17660

P40

Pier bottom

-3898

-4104

-81379

P41

Pier bottom

5270

3863

114211

P42

Pier bottom

-2005

-5657

-60488

P43

Pier bottom

3940

3326

81272

P44

Pier bottom

-2860

-4975

-70246

V- pier root

-3342

-3357

-70530

V- Pile cap top

-3457

-5379

-180493

V- pier root

-3810

-3761

-89099

V- Pile cap top

-3987

-6102

-229530

P49

Pier bottom

-4408

-3433

-89948

P50

Pier bottom

3741

3551

89347

P51

Pier bottom

-5405

-3844

-117217

P52

Pier bottom

-3400

-5352

-91410

P53

Pier bottom

-5133

-4044

-57393

P54

Pier bottom

-5009

-1923

-16303

P55

Pier bottom

-4276

-1675

-13906

P56

Pier bottom

-1806

-1638

-8423

P45

P48

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Fax: 86-10-64789499

Calculations
Table 6.11 In 2500-year return period, the maximum value of internal force in each
controlling section which are controlled by maximum shear force (lateral direction +
vertical direction, 50-year exceeding probability is 2%)
Pier number Section position

Axial force P (kN)

Shear force Q3max (kN)

Moment M2 (kN-m)

P37

Pier bottom

-1726

-2432

-21129

P38

Pier bottom

-3159

-3794

-50191

P39

Pier bottom

-5016

-3674

-71393

P40

Pier bottom

-5131

-3994

-84317

P41

Pier bottom

-4977

-3431

-67008

P42

Pier bottom

-5623

-3797

-86278

P43

Pier bottom

-3885

-4167

-105142

P44

Pier bottom

-3818

-3028

-90731

V- pier root

-5290

-4511

-73546

V- Pile cap top

-7610

-6769

-130812

V- pier root

-6117

-5042

-67291

V- Pile cap top

-7298

-7440

-126006

P49

Pier bottom

-4561

-3430

-98790

P50

Pier bottom

-4200

-4802

-133096

P51

Pier bottom

-4195

-5049

-101135

P52

Pier bottom

-5281

-4944

-122046

P53

Pier bottom

-5641

-4730

-102921

P54

Pier bottom

-5128

-4986

-90492

P55

Pier bottom

-3343

-4545

-70207

P56

Pier bottom

-1818

-2070

-21794

P45

P48

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Calculations
Table 6.12 In 2500-year return period, the seismic response of Pile cap center controlled
by maximum shear force (longitudinal direction + vertical direction, 50-year exceeding
probability is 2%)
Pier number

Axial force P (kN)

Shear force Q2max (kN)

Moment M3 (kN-m)

P37

-11806

-22050

-11806

P38

-10083

-26526

-10083

P39

-8989

-31323

-8989

P40

-8430

-162720

-8430

P41

8190

227255

8190

P42

7326

224875

7326

P43

6931

152105

6931

P44

6496

149620

6496

P45

19828

427157

19828

P48

21727

381252

21727

P49

7449

163443

7449

P50

7165

164739

7165

P51

-10209

-252655

-10209

P52

-11223

-307114

-11223

P53

9475

126323

9475

P54

10890

38290

10890

P55

-10532

-27813

-10532

P56

11666

21761

11666

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Calculations
Table 6.13 In 2500-year return period, the seismic response of Pile cap center controlled
by maximum shear force (lateral direction + vertical direction, 50-year exceeding
probability is 2%)
Pier number

Axial force P (kN)

Shear force Q3max (kN)

Moment M2 (kN-m)

P37

-5647

-6245

-38381

P38

-6686

-8417

-88374

P39

-9272

-9202

-141071

P40

-9828

-9795

-165797

P41

-11297

-9679

-139091

P42

11048

10728

188739

P43

-7608

-10144

-241840

P44

9158

7929

161843

P45

21780

22566

413427

P48

-19117

-25794

-451065

P49

-10757

-8226

-186729

P50

8677

10689

308642

P51

10941

13294

215532

P52

-11199

-12344

-244407

P53

10971

11834

202090

P54

-9364

-12045

-170345

P55

-6710

-10037

-130989

P56

-4294

-5760

-40291

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Calculations
Table 6.14 In 2500-year return period, the maximum value of internal force in each
controlling section which are controlled by maximum moment (longitudinal direction +
vertical direction, 50-year exceeding probability is 2%)
Pier number Section position

Axial force P (kN)

Shear force Q2max (kN)

Moment M3 (kN-m)

P37

Pier bottom

-1727

-1659

-11025

P38

Pier bottom

-3441

-1599

-13263

P39

Pier bottom

-3799

-1722

-17660

P40

Pier bottom

-3898

-4104

-81379

P41

Pier bottom

5270

3863

114211

P42

Pier bottom

3532

4200

112833

P43

Pier bottom

3940

3326

81272

P44

Pier bottom

2970

4032

77634

V- pier root

3334

3334

73948

V- Pile cap top

3457

5379

190337

V- pier root

-3810

-3761

-89099

V- Pile cap top

-4012

-6101

-229586

P49

Pier bottom

-4408

-3433

-89948

P50

Pier bottom

3741

3551

89347

P51

Pier bottom

-4303

-3791

-126511

P52

Pier bottom

-4884

-5131

-153742

P53

Pier bottom

-3841

-3655

-67898

P54

Pier bottom

5009

1923

19187

P55

Pier bottom

-4276

-1675

-13906

P56

Pier bottom

1806

1638

10881

P45

P48

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Calculations
Table 6.15 In 2500-year return period, the maximum value of internal force in each
controlling section which are controlled by maximum moment (lateral direction + vertical
direction, 50-year exceeding probability is 2%)
Pier number Section position

Axial force P (kN)

Shear force Q3max (kN)

Moment M2 (kN-m)

P37

Pier bottom

1479

1482

36476

P38

Pier bottom

3160

2735

69152

P39

Pier bottom

-4717

-3672

-77094

P40

Pier bottom

5254

3738

90191

P41

Pier bottom

-4033

-2708

-94267

P42

Pier bottom

-5226

-3146

-115311

P43

Pier bottom

-3479

-3674

-131417

P44

Pier bottom

-4480

-2929

-105946

V- pier root

-4422

-4031

-86983

V- Pile cap top

-6597

-6013

-158940

V- pier root

4930

3464

97427

V- Pile cap top

6968

5282

174447

P49

Pier bottom

3663

2812

115376

P50

Pier bottom

4419

4170

155503

P51

Pier bottom

-4093

-3639

-148706

P52

Pier bottom

5262

4444

134716

P53

Pier bottom

5311

4518

110357

P54

Pier bottom

4360

4857

104478

P55

Pier bottom

3431

3740

82085

P56

Pier bottom

1527

1525

30665

P45

P48

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Calculations
Table 6.16 In 2500-year return period, the seismic response of Pile cap center controlled
by maximum moment (longitudinal direction + vertical direction, 50-year exceeding
probability is 2%)
Pier number

Axial force P (kN)

Shear force Q2max (kN)

Moment M3 (kN-m)

P37

-4206

-11806

-22050

P38

-6464

-10083

-26526

P39

-6893

-8989

-31323

P40

-8712

-8430

-162720

P41

10990

8190

227255

P42

9822

7326

224875

P43

8730

6017

160579

P44

9958

5695

154424

P45

-20854

-15580

-372621

P48

-20030

-19142

-514133

P49

-9596

-6550

-179755

P50

7868

6910

178537

P51

-9014

-10209

-252655

P52

-10445

-11223

-307114

P53

-6679

-6084

-135710

P54

10924

10890

38290

P55

-8511

-10532

-27813

P56

5220

11666

21761

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Calculations
Table 6.17 In 2500-year return period, the seismic response of Pile cap center controlled
by maximum moment (lateral direction + vertical direction, 50-year exceeding probability
is 2%)
Pier number

Axial force P (kN)

Shear force Q3max (kN)

Moment M2 (kN-m)

P37

6105

4413

61101

P38

7724

5495

117203

P39

-9272

-9202

-141071

P40

-9828

-9795

-165797

P41

-9410

-8184

-172880

P42

-8894

-10332

-212387

P43

-9446

-9498

-256836

P44

-10732

-6705

-199108

P45

-20958

-18199

-458434

P48

21716

18303

508286

P49

9182

5954

229063

P50

8661

8413

286962

P51

11441

12789

263635

P52

11260

11367

248485

P53

9920

9590

208171

P54

-7749

-11532

-197410

P55

7827

8660

140373

P56

6268

4589

50953

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Calculations
Table 6.18 In 2500-year return period, the maximum relative displacement between beam
and pier top (longitudinal direction + vertical direction, 50-year exceeding probability is
2%)
Pier number

Longitudinal displacement (m)

Pier number

Longitudinal displacement (m)

P36

1.580E-01

P48

6.900E-02

P37

7.650E-02

P49

4.560E-02

P38

6.540E-02

P50

4.940E-02

P39

4.610E-02

P53

6.680E-02

P40

3.780E-02

P54

7.580E-02

P43

2.820E-02

P55

7.480E-02

P44

2.720E-02

P55

8.160E-02

P45

6.020E-02

P56

1.480E-01

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Calculations
7

Check of Structure Earthquake-resistance Performance


The requirement of the Suramadu approach bridge: checking the stress of the main bearing

structures with 475-year return period earthquake; checking the bearing capacity of main bearing
structure with 2500-year return period earthquake. In this section, the earthquake-resistance
performance of the main girder, the piers and their piles foundation are especially discussed.

7.1

Earthquake-resistance Performance of Main Girder


Fig. 7.1 and Fig.7.2 show the stress under 2500-year return period earthquake and static

load respectively.

Fig. 7.1 Main girders envelope diagram under 2500-year return period earthquake

Fig. 7.2 Main girders envelope diagram under static load

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Calculations
Through the initial checking, we can see: the stress in the 2500-year return period
earthquake is much lower than that under the static load. So the design is not controlled by the
2500-year return period earthquake load.

7.2

Earthquake-resistance Performance of Pier


The initial checking shows that the design is controlled by the bearing capacity under the

2500-year return period earthquake load but not the piers shear strength. So only the
bending-resistance capacity of the main structures under 2500-year return period earthquake load
is checked in this report.

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Calculations
Table 7.2.1 Combination Results of the worst-case section (2500-year return period
longitudinal input+ vertical input)
Internal force under Dead
load

Pier
number

Section

P37

Internal force under


earthquake load

Combination results

Axial load
kN

Moment
kN-m

Axilal load
kN

Moment
kN-m

Axilal load
kN

Moment
kN-m

bottom

33069

1383

-1727

-11025

34796

12408

P38

bottom

36243

1486

-3441

-13263

39684

14749

P39

bottom

37240

1480

-3799

-17660

41039

19140

P40

bottom

38280

1476

-3898

-81379

42178

82855

P41

bottom

39439

1487

5270

114211

44709

115698

P42

bottom

40267

1473

-2005

-60488

42272

61961

P43

bottom

41635

1491

3940

81272

45575

82763

P44

bottom

39988

1381

-2860

-70246

42848

71627

Root of
V-pier

19146

50015

-3342

-70530

22488

120545

Top of
V-piers Pile
cap

49934

230397

-3457

-180493

53391

410890

Root of
V-pier

19146

50015

-3810

-89099

22956

139114

Top of
V-piers Pile
cap

49934

230397

-3987

-229530

53921

459927

P49

bottom

39988

1381

-4408

-89948

44396

91329

P50

bottom

41635

1491

3741

89347

45376

90838

P51

bottom

40267

1473

-5405

-117217

45672

118690

P52

bottom

39439

1487

-3400

-91410

42839

92897

P53

bottom

38280

1476

-5133

-57393

43413

58869

P54

bottom

37240

1480

-5009

-16303

42249

17783

P55

bottom

36243

1486

-4276

-13906

40519

15392

P56

bottom

33069

1383

-1806

-8423

34875

9806

P45

P48

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Calculations
Table 7.2.2 Checking of intensity in the worst-case section (2500-year return period
longitudinal input+ vertical input)
Pier
Number

section

Axial
kN

Moment
kN-m

Resistance
kN

Resistance/Axial

P37

bottom

34796

12408

5.04E+05

14.48

P38

bottom

39684

14749

5.00E+05

12.59

P39

bottom

41039

19140

4.71E+05

11.48

P40

bottom

42178

82855

1.01E+05

2.39

P41

bottom

44709

115698

4.70E+04

1.05

P42

bottom

42272

61961

2.00E+05

4.74

P43

bottom

45575

82763

1.25E+05

2.75

P44

bottom

42848

71627

1.54E+05

3.58

Root of V-pier

22488

120545

4.51E+04

2.01

Top of
V-piers Pile
cap

53391

410890

2.16E+05

4.05

Root of V-pier

22956

139114

4.51E+04

1.96

Top of
V-piers Pile
cap

53921

459927

2.16E+05

4.01

P49

bottom

44396

91329

8.77E+04

1.97

P50

bottom

45376

90838

9.53E+04

2.10

P51

bottom

45672

118690

4.64E+04

1.02

P52

bottom

42839

92897

8.06E+04

1.88

P53

bottom

43413

58869

2.41E+05

5.55

P54

bottom

42249

17783

5.01E+05

11.85

P55

bottom

40519

15392

5.13E+05

12.66

P56

bottom

34875

9806

5.43E+05

15.56

P45

P48

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Calculations
Table 7.2.3 Combination Results of the worst-case section (transverse input+ vertical input)
Internal force under Dead
load

Pier
number

Section

P37

Internal force under


earthquake load

Combination results

Axial load
kN

Moment
kN-m

Axilal load
kN

Moment
kN-m

Axilal load
kN

Moment
kN-m

bottom

33069

1383

-1726

-21129

34795

22512

P38

bottom

36243

1486

-3159

-50191

39402

51677

P39

bottom

37240

1480

-5016

-71393

42256

72873

P40

bottom

38280

1476

-5131

-84317

43411

85793

P41

bottom

39439

1487

-4977

-67008

44416

68495

P42

bottom

40267

1473

-5623

-86278

45890

87751

P43

bottom

41635

1491

-3885

-105142

45520

106633

P44

bottom

39988

1381

-3818

-90731

43806

92112

Root of
V-pier

19146

50015

-5290

-73546

24436

123561

Top of
V-piers Pile
cap

49934

15429

-7610

-130812

57544

146241

Root of
V-pier

19146

50015

-6117

-67291

25263

117306

Top of
V-piers Pile
cap

49934

15429

-7298

-126006

57232

141435

P49

bottom

39988

1381

-4561

-98790

44549

100171

P50

bottom

41635

1491

-4200

-133096

45835

134587

P51

bottom

40267

1473

-4195

-101135

44462

102608

P52

bottom

39439

1487

-5281

-122046

44720

123533

P53

bottom

38280

1476

-5641

-102921

43921

104397

P54

bottom

37240

1480

-5128

-90492

42368

91972

P55

bottom

36243

1486

-3343

-70207

39586

71693

P56

bottom

33069

1383

-1818

-21794

34887

23177

P45

P48

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Fax: 86-10-64789499

Calculations
Table 7.2.4 Checking of intensity in worst-case section (2500-year return period
transverse input + vertical input)
Pier
Number

section

Axial
kN

Moment
kN-m

Resistance
kN

Resistance / Axial

P37

bottom

34795

22512

5.07E+05

14.58

P38

bottom

39402

51677

4.02E+05

10.12

P39

bottom

42256

72873

3.39E+05

8.27

P40

bottom

43411

85793

3.01E+05

7.14

P41

bottom

44416

68495

3.67E+05

8.20

P42

bottom

45890

87751

3.11E+05

7.36

P43

bottom

45520

106633

2.46E+05

5.41

P44

bottom

43806

92112

2.82E+05

6.59

Root of V-pier

24436

123561

3.98E+05

17.70

Top of
V-piers Pile
cap

57544

146241

1.47E+05

2.76

Root of V-pier

25263

117306

3.98E+05

17.34

Top of
V-piers Pile
cap

57232

141435

1.47E+05

2.73

P49

bottom

44549

100171

2.60E+05

5.86

P50

bottom

45835

134587

1.63E+05

3.59

P51

bottom

44462

102608

2.52E+05

5.51

P52

bottom

44720

123533

1.87E+05

4.35

P53

bottom

43921

104397

2.41E+05

5.56

P54

bottom

42368

91972

2.72E+05

6.44

P55

bottom

39586

71693

3.27E+05

8.06

P56

bottom

34887

23177

5.05E+05

14.47

P45

P48

Table 7.2.1 and 7.2.3 show the results of internal force combination of piers the worst-case
section respectively under 2500-year return period earthquake load in longitudinal and vertical
direction load. The bearing capacity is also checked. The resistance in the table is calculated by
current design code for highway bridges. Table 7.2.2 and 7.2.4 show the results of internal force

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Calculations
combination of piers the worst-case section respectively under 2500-year return period
earthquake load and Dead load. And the bearing capacity is also checked. The results in the
tables show all piers resistance are much larger than the section internal force except that No. 41
and 51 piers resistance are little larger under the 2500-year return period earthquake load in
longitudinal and vertical direction; all piers resistance of the worst-case section is larger than the
internal force under the 2500-year return period earthquake load in transverse and vertical
direction. So the piers are working under the elastic period. The earthquake-resistance
performance is already met.
The

checking

shows

that

each

piers working

performance

meets

with

the

earthquake-resistance requirement.

7.3

Check of Earthquake-response and Resistance of Pier


According to the earthquake-resistance requirement, the section stress of each pier needs to

be checked under 475-year return period earthquake load; and the bending-resistance capacity of
each piles section needs to be checked under the 2500-year return period earthquake load.
Table 7.3.1 and 7.3.4 show the results of internal force combination in the bottom of the
Pile cap under the 475-year return period earthquake load in longitudinal and vertical directions
(dead load + earthquake load). The section stress of single pile is also given out. The stress in
tables is calculated by the current design code for highway bridges. Table 7.3.2 and 7.3.5 show
the results of internal force combination in the bottom of Pile cap under 475-year return period
earthquake load in transverse and vertical directions (dead load + earthquake load). The single
piles section stress result is also given out. The material of each pile is C30 concrete and
HRB335 steel bar. According to the code, the allowable stress of concrete under earthquake load
is 1.516.10=24.15MPa; and the allowable stress of steel bar under earthquake is
1.5325=487.5MPa. The results in tables show the piles working performance meet with
earthquake-resistance requirement.

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Calculations
Table 7.3.1 Results of internal force combination in the bottom of Pile cap (475-year return
period, longitudinal input + vertical input)
Dead load

Foundation

Dead load + earthquake + 50% live load

P (kN)

Q3 (kN)

M2 (kN-m)

P (kN)

Q3 (kN)

M2 (kN-m)

P37

47929

2396

52641

10864

29197

P38

51103

2555

57927

7417

30507

P39

52100

2605

61520

6925

36533

P40

53140

2657

63396

6036

120233

P41

61787

3089

72227

4847

106830

P42

62615

3131

72617

5068

112175

P43

56495

2825

64197

3904

126986

P44

54848

2742

63047

3677

125481

P45

264959

13248

286884

11249

239612

P48

264959

13248

284209

10909

232118

P49

71844

3592

79238

4113

136652

P50

74120

3706

82553

4124

142729

P51

81622

4081

91044

5578

152705

P52

80771

4039

89225

5573

152390

P53

70372

3519

79178

5172

117980

P54

69006

3450

76751

7047

38008

P55

67691

3385

75480

7502

31631

P56

63570

3179

69037

6929

22614

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Calculations
Table 7.3.2 Results of internal force combination in the bottom of Pile cap (475-year return
period, transverse input + vertical input)
Dead load

Foundation

Dead load + earthquake + 50% live load

P (kN)

Q2 (kN)

M3 (kN-m)

P (kN)

Q2 (kN)

M3 (kN-m)

P37

47929

2396

53064

3984

34777

P38

51103

2555

60452

4424

57083

P39

52100

2605

59804

4210

60384

P40

53140

2657

63495

4395

82430

P41

61787

3089

69645

5047

99782

P42

62615

3131

70998

6945

143847

P43

56495

2825

64001

5863

163796

P44

54848

2742

63534

4604

127700

P45

264959

13248

284760

12008

256095

P48

264959

13248

286016

13711

252376

P49

71844

3592

79038

4116

96553

P50

74120

3706

81621

5294

145607

P51

81622

4081

90038

7281

159904

P52

80771

4039

88630

6363

122911

P53

70372

3519

78308

6442

110634

P54

69006

3450

77102

6827

111505

P55

67691

3385

75156

6054

72069

P56

63570

3179

68475

3470

35849

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Calculations
Table 7.3.3 Stress results of the worst-case load in single pile (475-year return period
earthquake load)
Section internal force

Foundation

Stress

Nmax (kN)

Nmin (kN)

M (kN-m)

h (MPa)

gl (MPa)

P37

9263.60

2584.35

5073.59

17.30

296.12

P38

9347.51

3334.23

4223.97

13.79

193.52

P39

9679.11

3561.58

3721.66

11.77

144.81

P40

10005.33

3426.25

3665.66

11.65

145.87

P41

10447.11

5070.77

4470.88

13.60

144.10

P42

10421.71

5156.46

4369.28

13.20

133.80

P43

7962.22

4924.72

3169.49

8.90

62.30

P44

9535.80

4292.71

2642.57

7.32

47.59

P45

10482.08

6355.93

4892.31

7.61

53.66

P48

10303.35

6317.47

6195.05

10.37

103.64

P49

8424.17

5174.61

3113.89

8.57

53.60

P50

8671.54

5222.40

3232.28

8.97

58.90

P51

10082.05

5296.04

4888.82

15.08

166.59

P52

10775.82

4318.95

3989.91

12.31

136.09

P53

8630.76

4855.28

3906.36

11.65

111.37

P54

8682.90

4501.93

4284.17

13.30

151.13

P55

9074.70

3525.41

3417.74

10.65

123.08

P56

8523.54

3332.05

3531.65

11.21

139.33

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Calculations
Table 7.3.4 Internal force combination result of each piles Pile cap (2500-year return
period, longitudinal input + vertical input)
Dead load

Foundation

Dead load + earthquake load

P (kN)

Q3 (kN)

M2 (kN-m)

P (kN)

Q3 (kN)

M2 (kN-m)

P37

47929

2396

59561

11280

116906

P38

51103

2555

62112

8576

92423

P39

52100

2605

64583

7693

118008

P40

53140

2657

65964

7646

141837

P41

61787

3089

78768

7446

203881

P42

62615

3131

80533

6498

198763

P43

56495

2825

70195

6039

149918

P44

54848

2742

67695

5686

149053

P45

264959

13248

292283

16687

309341

P48

264959

13248

292034

19713

326366

P49

71844

3592

82802

7321

164914

P50

74120

3706

88031

8091

178811

P51

81622

4081

96300

8566

223103

P52

80771

4039

93312

11374

323633

P53

70372

3519

82024

10331

123613

P54

69006

3450

79511

10743

140145

P55

67691

3385

78959

11750

119066

P56

63570

3179

72089

12332

85187

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Calculations
Table 7.3.4 Internal force combination result of each piles Pile cap (2500-year return
period transverse input + vertical input)
Dead load

Foundation

Dead load + earthquake load

P (kN)

Q2 (kN)

M3 (kN-m)

P (kN)

Q2 (kN)

M3 (kN-m)

P37

47929

2396

57715

6564

35308

P38

51103

2555

62611

7922

81589

P39

52100

2605

63286

8304

125540

P40

53140

2657

66134

8469

138806

P41

61787

3089

75993

9052

137450

P42

62615

3131

80464

10760

187165

P43

56495

2825

70327

7451

178385

P44

54848

2742

65625

6541

132911

P45

264959

13248

292393

21833

353317

P48

264959

13248

297187

26125

423031

P49

71844

3592

84998

8999

172822

P50

74120

3706

88508

10911

279088

P51

81622

4081

99421

15032

255958

P52

80771

4039

94138

11644

231832

P53

70372

3519

83564

11784

203098

P54

69006

3450

82491

12966

187323

P55

67691

3385

79085

10317

134340

P56

63570

3179

71967

5893

50080

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Calculations
Table 7.3.6 Checking of bending-resistance capacity of single pile under the worst-case load
(2500-year return period earthquake load)
Foundation

Axial load (kN)

Moment (kN.m)

Bending-resistance
capacity (kN-m)

Bending-resistance
capacity / Moment

P37

2710.63

3912.94

8147.06

2.08

P38

3746.92

6516.12

9380.99

1.45

P39

2143.79

5639.16

10128.96

1.79

P40

3746.92

6516.12

9380.99

1.45

P41

3563.41

6126.55

11437.54

1.85

P42

3449.05

7666.14

8607.10

1.12

P43

3519.03

6207.95

9327.55

1.49

P44

4130.44

5341.62

12712.27

2.38

P45

5320.27

10710.56

16326.56

1.52

P48

5123.20

10885.50

15423.50

1.41

P49

3667.52

6083.97

11578.88

1.89

P50

2558.75

7156.53

8074.31

1.12

P51

3017.85

10021.37

10109.25

1.01

P52

1723.12

7188.65

7443.33

1.03

P53

2865.95

7398.21

10175.44

1.37

P54

2795.23

8027.18

8020.63

1.24

P55

1720.37

6775.47

7516.77

1.11

P56

1777.22

6899.62

9390.73

1.37

Table 7.3.4 and 7.3.5 show the internal force combination result of each piles Pile caps
bottom (dead load + earthquake load) under the 2500-year return period earthquake load in
conditions of longitudinal + vertical direction and transverse + vertical direction. The
bending-resistance capacity of single pile is also given out. The results in tables show that the
pile foundations working performance meet with the earthquake-resistance requirement.

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Calculations
8

Conclusion
(1) According to above analysis, the structure is working in elastic period under 475-year

recurrence interval (10% in 50 year) earthquake load with longitudinal and vertical input or
transverse and vertical input.
(2) To the 2500-year recurrence interval (2% in 50year) earthquake load, in the longitudinal
direction, all the piers are working in elastic period with longitudinal and vertical input; with the
transverse and vertical input, the piers and structure are also all working in elastic period in the
transverse direction.
(3) To the 475-year recurrence interval (10% in 50year) earthquake load, with the
longitudinal and vertical input, the piles resistance is large than the requirement; with the
transverse and vertical input, the piles resistance is also large than the requirement. To the
2500-year recurrence interval (2% in 50year) earthquake load, the piles resistance is also large
than the requirement; and with the transverse and vertical input, the piles resistance is also large
than the requirement. On in all, the pile is all working in elastic period.

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Reference
[1] Fan Lichu: Earthquake-resistance of bridge. Peoples communications press, November 1997
[2] Fan Lichu, Hu Shide, Ye Aijun: Earthquake-resistance design of large span bridge. Peoples
communications press, July 2001
[3] Fan Lichu, Zhuo Weidong: Ductility earthquake-resistance design of bridge. Peoples
communications press, July 2001
[4] Fan Lichu, Wang Zhiqiang: Earthquake isolation design of bridge. Peoples communications
press, July 2001
[5] Priestley, M.J.N., Selble, F. and Calvi, G.M.: Seismic design and retrofit of bridges. New
York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996
[6] Lu Rui: Simplified calculation method and comparative analysis of pile group in bridges.
Thesis for applying engineering masters degree of Tongji University, March 2001
[7] Ye Aijun: Earthquake-resistance design of large span bridge. Thesis for applying engineering
Ph.D degree of Tongji University, April 1998
[8] Wang Fei: Earthquake-response analysis of large span bridge. Thesis for applying
engineering masters degree of Tsinghua University, July 2001

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