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Jibachha's

Handbook of Animal
Husbandry
Dr. Jibachha Sah

B.V.Sc & A.H., M.V.Sc (T.U.)


Laboratory Training, NDDB, Gujarat, India
Director

Jibachha Veterinary Hospital Research & Training Center (P.) Ltd.


Bharatpur-5, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal

Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah

B.V.Sc & A.H. (P.U.), M.V.Sc (Medicine, AFU)


Research Co-ordinator

Jibachha Veterinary Hospital Research & Training Center (P.) Ltd.


Bharatpur-5, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal

Jibachha Publishing
Bharatpur-5, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal
Copyright material
Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

i i

Jibachha's
Handbook of Animal Husbandry
Edited by: Dr. Jibachha Sah and Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah
Copyright @ 29 September 2016, Jibachha Publishing
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in retrieval
system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
Published by Jibachha's Publishing
Bharatpur-5, Lankupul, Naryanagarh, Chitwan, Nepal.
E-mail: Jibachha@yahoo.com, vhrtc@yahoo.com

ISBN:

Price: Rs. 3,750/- (S.C.) | 85 $ (S.C.)



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Copyright material
ii ii

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

Preface
Animal Husbandry plays a major role in providing employment especially self-employment
with high participation of women in Nepal. Livestock products also play a main role in
export earnings. This sector provides full time occupation in some cases at the location
itself with better utilization of human resources. It provides balanced nutrition in the form
of milk, egg and meat besides farm power.
In Nepal, various veterinary institutions spread over the country provide veterinary health
services and play a major role in increasing the production potentialities of the livestock
and poultry. There is an increase in cross bred population and decrease of unproductive
animals with the implementation of cross breeding programs.
This concise handbook attempts to provide 23 chapters; basic information on animal
husbandry, zoological classification, anatomy and physiology, nutrition, genetics, breeding,
care and management, forage and fodder production, cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, horse,
poultry, rabbit, fish, dog, cat, dairying production and project plans.
This handbook has been compiled from the standard text book, journals and various
resources, authors do not claim all the originality of text in the book. In this book
compilation is based on syllabus of veterinary technical school and competitive exams.
So this book will be very useful for institutional students, teachers, extension workers,
veterinary undergraduate students and also for researchers.
This is our 40th book on veterinary and animal husbandry; more than 31 books are in
Nepali language. Amongst these best seller approaches more than 30,000 copies.
We would like to acknowledge Professor Dr. Shyam K. Shah (AFU, Rampur), Professor
Dr. Jagat Lal Yadav (AFU, Rampur) and Professor Ramashish Sah (AFU, Rampur) for
their contribution in their respective major subjects Animal reproduction, Animal nutrition
and LPM respectively.
The authors feel the responsibility of presenting the pioneer handbook dealing with
livestock husbandry and trusts that error, omissions and criticism will be called to his
attention in order that later edition may be improved. Of course a multitude of issues are
not covered in the book and we welcome your input regarding topics for future tips.
Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah
B.V.Sc & A.H. (P.U.), M.V.Sc (Medicine, AFU)
Research Co-ordinator
29 September, 2016

Dr. Jibachha Sah


B.V.Sc & A.H., M.V.Sc (T.U.)
Laboratory Training, NDDB, Gujarat, India
Director

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

iii iii

is
hi
ng

Abbreviations

Pu

bl

Animal Breeding Division


Asian Development Bank
Agriculture and Forestry University
Agriculture Perspective Plan
Central Bureau of Statistics
Common Property Resources
Dairy Development Corporation
Department of Food Technology and Quality Control
Department of Livestock Services
Food and Agriculture Organization
Gross Domestic Product
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
International Fund for Agricultural Development
International Non-governmental Organization
Land Management Plan
Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry
Ministry of Agriculture Development
Ministry of Finance
Nepal Agricultural Research Council
National Cooperative Development Board
National Dairy Development Board
Non-governmental organization
National Livestock Breeding Center
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
Office International des Epizooties
(World Organization for Animal Health)
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
World Trade Organization

Ji

ba

ch
ha

ABD
:
ADB
:
AFU
:
APP
:
CBS
:
CPRs
:
DDC
:
DFTQC :
DLS
:
FAO
:
GDP
:
HACCP :
IFAD
:
INGO :
LMP
:
MAF
:
MoAD :
MoF
:
NARC :
NCBD :
NDDB :
NGO
:
NLBC :
OECD :
OIE
:

UNCED :
WTO
:

iv iv

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

is
hi
ng

Table of Contents
Preface
Abbreviations

iii
iv

SECTION 1

1-134

Animal husbandry

1.8
1.9
1.10

ba

1.11
1.12

bl

1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

Pu

1.3

History and introduction of animal husbandry


Importance of animal husbandry in Nepal
1.2.1
Role and specialization of working animal
Livestock population and production in Nepal
(2009-2013/14)
Organizational structure of livestock service in Nepal
Scope of livestock production in Nepal
Role of livestock in Nepalese economy
The different native livestock breeds in Nepal
1.7.1
Characteristics of indigenous cattle breed
1.7.2
Characteristics of indigenous buffalo breed
Historical background of livestock development in Nepal
Constraints to livestock production in various-ecological
zones in Nepal
Major critical areas to improve production rate of
livestock
Economic value of livestock farming
Livestock herding system in Nepal
1.12.1
Transhumant system
1.12.2
Sedentary system
1.12.3
Stall-fed system
Types of grazing system of livestock in Nepal
Constraints for livestock improvement
Strategies for livestock improvement
Livestock feeding system in Nepal
1.16.1
Limitation associated with feeds and feeding

ch
ha

1.1
1.2

Ji

1.13
1.14
1.15
1.16

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

2
3
3
5

7
7
9
10
10
11
11
12
13
13
15
15
15
16
17
19
20
20
22
v v

1.21
1.22

1.23
1.24
1.25
1.26
1.27
1.28

is
hi
ng

ba

1.29
1.30
1.31
1.32

bl

1.20

Pu

1.19

ch
ha

1.17
1.18

1.16.1
Constraints in animal production
Economics of feeding dairy cow
Utilization of waste in animal feeding
1.18.1
Fruit waste as livestock feed
1.18.2
Vegetable wastes as livestock feed
Impact of climate change in dairy cattle
1.19.1
Steps to counteract heat stress
Factor affecting health of animals
1.20.1
Sign of good health in animal
1.20.2
Sign of illness in animal
Bio-diversity conservation in Nepal
Importance of integrated crop-livestock farming system
in Nepal
1.22.1
Advantages of integrated farming
1.22.2
Constraint of integrated farming
Constraints of livestock technology adoption in the
farmer's field
Major challenges in livestock research and development
in Nepal
National and social implications of draught animal
farming and crop production in Nepal
Advantages of local cattle over crossbreeds or exotic
cattle in mountain farming systems
National Livestock policy in Nepal
Organic livestock farming opportunity and constraint in
Nepal
Functions of national veterinary services in Nepal
Rangeland policy in Nepal
Factors influencing livestock productivity
Relation of livestock with agriculture, forestry and
environment
Animal welfare and its implication in livestock industry
in Nepal

Ji

1.33

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Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

22
22
24
24
26
28
29
31
31
33
34
36
37
37
38
39
40
42
42
45
48
49
50
53
55

1.38
1.39
1.40
1.41
1.42
1.43
1.44
1.45
1.46
1.47

ba

1.48
1.49
1.50
1.51

is
hi
ng

1.37

bl

1.36

Pu

1.35

Opportunities and constraints of increasing milk


production and productivity in Nepal
Livestock population distribution and its role in Nepalese
farming system
Role of mixed crop-livestock farming systems for soil
fertility in Nepal
Strategies for sustainable management of livestock in
mixed-crop livestock farming systems
History of dairy development and dairy related
institution in Nepal
Dairy Development Policy (DDP) in Nepal
Role of livestock as a tool for poverty reduction in Nepal
History of rangeland development in Nepal
Rangeland and their types
Livestock marketing in the context of W.T.O. in Nepal
Trend of livestock development over the last decade in
Nepal
Livestock service related act/rules in Nepal
Constraints and opportunity for commercialization of
goat and buffalo meat sector in Nepal
Policy and strategy on farm Animal Genetic Resource
(AnGR) in Nepal
Major constraint in rangeland conservation in Nepal
Indigenous grass species in Himalaya grassland of Nepal
Difference between Rangeland and Pastureland
Credit and insurance policy in livestock development in
Nepal
1.51.1
Constraint in livestock insurance policy
implementation in Nepal
Regulatory mechanism for quality improvement of the
livestock industry in Nepal
Economic value chain of goat meat production in Nepal
Scope of biogas in livestock farming
National priorities based on AnGR among animal
species, breeds in Nepal

ch
ha

1.34

1.52

Ji

1.53
1.54
1.55

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

58
60
62
64
66
68
70
71
72
73
75
79
80
83
85
86
87
88
90
92
94
96
98

viiiiv

1.60
1.61

1.62
1.63
1.64
1.65
1.66

1.67
1.68

ba

1.69

is
hi
ng

1.59

bl

1.58

Pu

1.57

Renewable energy and its application in the livestock


industry of Nepal
Pastoral practices in transition: Animal husbandry in
high mountain region in Nepal
Pastoral development and management in the himalayas
region in Nepal
1.58.1
Forage development through integrated management
planning
The roles of the public and private sectors in livestock
services delivery in Nepal
Livestock extension system in Nepal, their strength and
weakness
Animal well-being and stress management
1.61.1
Importance of shade in stress management
1.61.2
Environmental parameters and their effects on immune
function
Rule, regulation and standard to establish feed industry
in Nepal
Feed standard guide
Problems associated with buffalo farming in Nepal
Gender needs, roles, analysis, gender sensitive planning,
gender mainstreaming in livestock development
Outcomes, outputs and programs of Agriculture
Development Strategy (ADS) in Nepal
1.66.1
Indicator of ADS impact and livestock & fisheries program
Outline of the World Trade Organization (WTOs),
Sanitary and Phytosanitory (SPS) measures
Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), Trade related aspects of
Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) agreement
Introduction to OIE, its objectives, function, structure,
standard setting procedures and different standards as
set in Terrestrial Animal health code and Aquatic animal
health code
Advantages of livestock models in translational medicine
over rodent models

ch
ha

1.56

Ji

1.70

viiiviii

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

99

100
104
104
105
108
110
112
113
115
116
117
118
120
122
122
125
126

128

1.72
1.73

Precision livestock farming technologies for welfare


management in intensive livestock systems
Project design for the control of an infectious disease of
farm livestock
Breeding plan for goat increasing meat production

SECTION 2

Taxonomy of farm animals

2.4
2.5
2.6

bl

Pu

2.3

Definition of Taxonomy
Zoological classification of farm animal
2.2.1
Characteristic of Bos indicus cattle
2.2.2
Difference between Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle
Definition of domestication
2.3.1
Characteristics of domestic animals
Difference between ruminant and non-ruminant
Indigenous and exotic livestock genotypes based on
climatic region in Nepal
Glossary of farm animal terms

ch
ha

2.1
2.2

is
hi
ng

1.71

SECTION 3

Anatomy and physiology of farm animals


Anatomical position for animals
Skeleton system
3.2.1
Articular system
3.2.2
Classification of bones
3.2.3
Bone types
3.2.4
Physiology of bone formation
3.2.5
Calcium homeostasis
3.2.6
Chemical composition of bones
3.2.7
Functions of Bones
3.2.8
Bone marking
3.2.9
Difference between compact and cancellous bones
3.2.10
Dentition

Ji

ba

3.1
3.2

129
130
132

135-146
135
136
139
140
141
141
142
143
145
147-258
148
150
152
153
157
157
159
161
161
162
163
164

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

ix xi

Muscular system
3.3.1
Muscle and their main function
3.3.2
Sliding filament theory of contraction of skeletal muscles
3.3.3
Rigor mortis and muscle fatigue
3.3.4
Body cavities
3.3.5
Body fluids
3.3.6
Diffusion and osmosis
3.3.7
Membranes and their types
3.3.8
Tissue, its kinds and basic histological structure
Digestive system
3.4.1
Digestive system of ruminant
3.4.2
Digestive system of nonruminant
3.4.3
Introduction to peritoneum
3.4.4
Role of enzymes and hormones in digestive systems
Respiratory system
3.5.1
Avian respiration
Urinary system
3.6.1
Dietary electrolyte balance in cattle (DEB)
Reproductive system
3.7.1
Male reproductive organs and their function
3.7.2
Structure and function of the female reproductive system
3.7.3
Structure and function of the bovine placenta
3.7.4
Mammary gland
Endocrine system
3.8.1
Glands
3.8.2
Hormones
3.8.3
Endocrine glands of the body, hormones and their
physiological functions
Nervous system
3.9.1
Structure of Neuron
3.9.2
Functions of the nervous system
3.9.3
Central nervous system
3.9.4
Cranial nerves

3.6
3.7

ba

3.8

ch
ha

3.5

Pu

bl

3.4

is
hi
ng

3.3

Ji

3.9

x x

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

165
168
169
171
171
172
172
173
174
180
180
184
190
191
192
194
195
198
199
199
202
208
209
214
215
216
218
220
220
221
221
223

3.11

is
hi
ng

ba

3.12

ch
ha

Pu

bl

3.10

3.9.5
Physiology of nerve impulse (action potential)
3.9.6
Reflex
3.9.7
Cerebrospinal fluid
Circulatory system
3.10.1
Foetal circulation
3.10.2
Animal blood
3.10.2.1 Normal complete blood count values for cattle, sheep
and goats
3.10.3
Avian blood
3.10.4
Common sites for blood collection
3.10.5
Blood circulation (Pulmonary circulation and Systemic
circulation)
3.10.6
Blood coagulation
3.10.7
Blood pressure and pulse
3.10.8
Blood supply to the heart and conduction system
3.10.9
Blood vessels
3.10.10
Erythrocytes: formation, maturation and fate (Life span
of RBC)
3.10.11
Synthesis of hemoglobin
3.10.12
Immunity and defense mechanisms
3.10.13
Leucocytes: formation, their classification, and role of
leucocytes in immunity
3.10.14
Thrombocytes: formation and fate
Lymphatic system
3.11.1
Structure and functions of lymph nodes
Integumentary system
3.12.1
Skin and its appendages: structure and functions;
temperature regulation in animals and birds
Sensory system
3.13.1
Physiology of hearing and balance
3.13.2
Physiology of smell and taste
3.13.3
Physiology of sight

Ji

3.13

224
225
226
227
228
229
231
232
233
233
234
235
237
238
239
242
242
244
246
248
249
251
252
254
255
256
258

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

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SECTION 4

259-306

Animal genetics

4.4
4.5

4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10

ba

4.11

bl

4.3

Pu

4.2

Cell structure
4.1.1
Animal cell
4.1.2
Plant cell
4.1.3
Difference between animal cell and plant cell
Cell division
4.2.1
Mitosis
4.2.2
Meiosis
4.2.3
Difference between mitosis and meiosis
4.2.4
Difference between cell and tissue
Mutation
4.3.1
General characters of mutation
Traits
Genetic variability and its causes
4.5.1
Causes of genetic variability
4.5.2
Factors that decrease genetic variability
4.5.3
Genetic response and factors affecting genetic response
4.5.4
Different types of genetic evaluation
Phenotype
Phenotypic variation
Genotype
4.8.1
Difference between genotype and phenotype
Gene
Heredity
4.10.1
Types of heredity
Mendelian law
4.11.1
Law of Segregation (the "First Law")
4.11.2
Law of Independent Assortment (the "Second Law")
4.11.3
Law of Dominance (the "Third Law")
Lethal factor
4.12.1
Typical lethal factor associated condition in cattle
Sex chromosome

ch
ha

4.1

Ji

4.12
4.13

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Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

259
259
263
263
264
264
266
269
270
270
272
273
273
273
274
275
275
277
278
279
279
279
280
281
281
282
283
284
284
285
285

4.27
4.28
4.29
4.30

is
hi
ng

bl

ba

4.31
4.32
4.33
4.34
4.35
4.36

Pu

4.22
4.23
4.24
4.25
4.26

Heterozygous and homozygous


Difference between species and breed
Implantation
Multiple alleles
Linkage and crossing over
Sex determination system
Structural chromosomal aberrations
Difference between qualitative and quantitative
inheritance
Sex influenced and sex limited characters
Hardy-Weinberg law
Gene interaction, epistasis and multiple alleles
Cytoplasmic inheritance
Definition of Chromosomal: deletion, duplication,
inversion and translocation
Chromosomal inversion and translocation
Difference between a mutation and a mutagen
Genetic environment interactions and genetic
environment correlations
Difference between mutagenic and teratogenic
substance
Definition of monohybrid, dihybrid and polyhybrid
Factors affecting genetic change
Difference between dominant and recessive genes
Genetic aspects of reproduction traits
Undesirable recessive traits in dairy cattle
Description of Mendel's hybridization experimentsmonohybrid and dihybrid crosses
Genetic recombination and segregation
Total performance index (TPI)
Jersey performance index (JPI)
Difference between a gene, an allele and a chromosome
Comparison between an allele and a gene

ch
ha

4.14
4.15
4.16
4.17
4.18
4.19
4.20
4.21

Ji

4.37
4.38
4.39
4.40
4.41

286
286
286
286
287
287
289
291
292
292
293
293
293
293
294
294
296
296
297
297
298
298
299
302
302
303
303
304

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

xiiiiiix

4.46
4.47

SECTION 5

Animal breeding

ba

ch
ha

5.2

Animal breeding policy in Nepal


5.1.1
Breeding policy: 2055, For cattle and buffalo
5.1.2
Implementation constraint of animal breeding in Nepal
5.1.3
Traits of economic importance of cattle in Nepal
5.1.4
Economic traits of buffalo in Nepal
Selection methods
5.2.1
Performance testing
5.2.2
Pedigree selection
5.2.3
Progeny testing
5.2.3.1
Precaution needed for effective progeny testing
program
5.2.4
Show ring selection
5.2.5
Tandem selection
5.2.6
Different steps of a selection programme
5.2.7
Selection, selection response, selection limit, selection
differential
5.2.8
Methods and basis of selection
5.2.9
Factors influencing the effects of selection
5.2.10
Gene action, additive and nonadditive
Choosing traits for selection
5.3.1
Selection goals
5.3.2
Heritability

Pu

5.1

is
hi
ng

4.44
4.45

Difference between allele and locus


Difference between additive and non-additive genetic
patterns
Difference between genetic value and breeding value
Why do forensic labs analyze non-coding DNA and not
genes?
Why do DNA fingerprints analyze non-coding DNA and
not genes?
Glossary of genetic terms

bl

4.42
4.43

Ji

5.3

xivxiv

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

304
304
304
305
305
305

307-376
307
309
310
311
313
314
314
315
315
316
316
317
318
318
319
321
322
322
323
323

5.7
5.8
5.9

5.10

is
hi
ng

ba

5.11
5.12
5.13

ch
ha

5.6

Pu

bl

5.4
5.5

5.3.3
Variability of the trait
5.3.4
Correlated traits
5.3.5
Adaptation traits
Factors affecting breeding efficiency
Breeding system
5.5.1
Inbreeding
5.5.2
Outcrossing
5.5.3
Crossbreeding systems
5.5.4
Terminal crossing
5.5.5
Rotational crossing
5.5.6
Roto-terminal crossing
5.5.7
Grading up
5.5.8
Linebreeding
5.5.9
Hybrid vigor
5.5.10
Cloning
5.5.11
Formation of a gene pool
Heritability
5.6.1
Concept of repeatability
Constraint of animal genetics conservation in Nepal
5.7.1
Method of genetic resource conservation in animal
Principles of mating systems
Definition, scope and importance of biotechnology
5.9.1
Application of biotechnology tools in animal
improvement
In vitro fertilization, cloning and genetic marker
technology
Reproduction parameters in dairy cattle
Hormone and heat synchronization using hormone
Endangered livestock of Nepal, long-term plan for their
conservation
Principle of animal breeding
Measure of breeding efficiency
5.15.1
Factor affecting breeding efficiency

Ji

5.14
5.15

325
325
326
326
327
327
327
328
329
329
329
329
330
330
330
331
331
332
332
333
334
335
337
341
342
342
344
346
348
349

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

xvvx

5.25

5.26
5.27
5.28

ba

5.29
5.30

is
hi
ng

5.20
5.21
5.22
5.23
5.24

bl

5.18
5.19

Pu

5.17

ch
ha

5.16

5.15.2
Captive breeding, their purpose, importance and risk
Heritability and repeatability estimates for reproductive
trait in cow
Breeding values, measure of genetic and phenotypic
relationships
Calculating estimated breeding value
Conservation (ex-situ / in-situ) and management of
genetic resources in Nepal
Selection of elite bull through breeding plan
Open nucleus breeding scheme
Estimation of breeding values of dairy cow
Animal behaviour and its importance
Variation and causes of variation, important of heredity
and environment
Animal breeding, importance and its scope in livestock
improvement
5.25.1
Objective of animal breeding
5.25.2
Selection of breeding male for natural service
5.25.3
Management of bull
Model for upgrading of local cattle by use of frozen
semen and a nucleus breed unit
Advantages of using artificial insemination (AI) in
livestock breeding program
Genetic parameters for the selection of poultry
maintained for different purposes
Breeding plan for avoiding inbreeding in sheep/goat
Breeding plan for genetic improvement of sheep/goat
5.30.1
Individual flocks
5.30.2
Group flocks
5.30.2.1
Selection in group breeding schemes
Breeding management of sheep and goat
Terminology used in breeding program

Ji

5.31
5.32

xvixvi

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

350
351
353
353
355
358
359
360
361
363
364
365
365
367
368
368
369
369
370
370
371
371
372
373

is
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SECTION 6

377-400

Breed of cattle & buffalo

SECTION 7

bl

6.4
6.5
6.6

Nepalese indigenous cattle breeds


Yak & Chauri
Indian milk cattle breed
6.3.1
Milch breeds/Milk breeds
6.3.2
Dual purpose breeds
6.3.3
Draught breeds
Exotic dairy breeds
Nepalese indigenous buffaloes breeds
Indian buffalo breeds

Pu

6.1
6.2
6.3

Animal reproduction
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6

ba

7.7
7.8

Different types of reproductive hormones and their


functions
The Estrous cycle
Heat detection
7.3.1
Estrous synchronization
The role of the male in reproduction
Sign of heat
Heat detection efficiency equations
7.6.1
Percentage of possible heats detected
7.6.2
Percentage of breedable heats detected
Heat detection index
Ovulation
7.8.1
Ovulation period
Puberty
7.10.1
Puberty in the female
7.10.2
Puberty in the male
7.10.3
Age of Puberty
7.10.4
Factors affecting the attainment of puberty

ch
ha

7.1

Ji

7.10

377
381
383
383
385
389
391
395
397

401-480
401
409
410
411
412
413
417
417
417
418
419
419
420
421
422
422
422

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iivx

7.16

is
hi
ng

Ji

ba

7.19
7.20
7.21

bl

7.15

Pu

7.12
7.13
7.14

Spermatogenesis
7.11.1
Difference between Spermatogenesis and
Spermiogenesis
7.11.2
Morphology of spermatozoa
7.11.3
Semen abnormality related terms
7.11.4
Average semen volume in different animals
Gametogenesis
Fertilization
Gestation period
7.14.1
Abnormality during the pregnancy and prenatal period
Pregnancy diagnosis
7.15.1
Method of pregnancy diagnosis
7.15.2
Steps of rectal palpation in cattle
7.15.3
Modern technique for pregnancy diagnosis
Parturition
7.16.1
Stages of parturition
7.16.2
Role of hormone in parturition
7.16.3
Twinning
Retained placenta
Postpartum recovery
Artificial insemination
7.21.1
Advantage and disadvantage of AI
7.21.2
Artificial equipments
7.21.3
Artificial insemination technique
7.21.3.1 Thawing of semen
7.21.3.2 Loading the Al gun
7.21.3.3 Inseminating the cow
7.21.3.4 Artificial Insemination timing in cattle
7.21.3.5 Cow artificial insemination record
7.21.3.6 Advantage of AI over natural breeding
7.21.3.7 Conception rate
Semen collection
7.22.1
Artificial vagina method (AV)

ch
ha

7.11

7.22

xviii
xviii

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

424
424
425
426
427
427
427
430
432
436
436
437
440
440
441
443
446
446
447
449
449
450
451
451
451
452
454
455
455
455
456
456

is
hi
ng

7.28
7.29
7.30

bl

7.26
7.27

SECTION 8

Animal nutrition

Composition and classification of feedstuff


8.1.1
Carbohydrate
8.1.1.1
Carbohydrates classification
8.1.1.2
Properties of carbohydrates
8.1.1.3
Structure of carbohydrates
8.1.1.4
Functions of carbohydrates
8.1.1.5
Types of carbohydrates
8.1.2
Proteins
8.1.2.1
Characteristics of proteins
8.1.2.2
Properties of proteins
8.1.2.3
Protein classification
8.1.2.4
Structure of proteins
8.1.2.5
Function of proteins
8.1.2.6
Types of proteins
8.1.3
Amino acid
8.1.3.1
General properties of amino acids
8.1.3.2
Functions ofamino acids

Ji

ba

ch
ha

8.1

Pu

7.23
7.24
7.25

7.22.2
Electro-ejaculation
7.22.3
Semen evaluation method
7.22.3.1 Determining sperm numbers with a hemocytometer
Factor affecting libido and semen quality in breeding bull
Factor affecting survival of spermatozoa
Factor affecting fertility during artificial insemination in
cow
Embryo transfer (ET)
Factor affecting repeat breeding in cattle and their
remedial measure
Anoestrus in cattle, cause and remedial measure
Cystic ovarian disease (COD) in cattle
Glossary of reproductive terms

459
460
462
463
466
467
469
470
472
476
479

481-610
481
481
482
483
484
485
485
487
488
488
489
491
493
493
494
494
495

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is
hi
ng

Ji

ba

ch
ha

8.2

Pu

bl

8.1.3.3
Classification of amino acids
8.1.3.4
Structure of amino acid
8.1.4
Lipids
8.1.4.1
Characteristics of lipids
8.1.4.2
Types of lipids
8.1.4.3
Structure of lipids
8.1.4.4
Function of lipids
8.1.5
Minerals
8.1.5.1
Classification of minerals
8.1.5.2
General function
8.1.5.3
Macroelements
8.1.5.4
Microelements
8.1.6
Vitamins
8.1.6.1
Water-soluble vitamins
8.1.6.2
Fat-soluble vitamins
Formulation of ration
8.2.1
Types of ration
8.2.2
Feeding standards
8.2.3
Desirable characteristics of a good ration
8.2.4
Thumb rules of feeding cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goat
8.2.5
Principles of ration formulation for different classes of
animals
8.2.6
Method of ration formulation
8.2.6.1
Pearson square method
8.2.6.2
Trial and error method
8.2.6.3
Linear programming (LP) method
8.2.7
Formulation of milk replacer and calf starter
8.2.8
Classification of concentrate
8.2.9
Classification of roughage
8.2.10
Difference between concentrate and roughages
8.2.11
Difference between concentrate & non-roughage
8.2.12
Energy rich feed ingredients
8.2.13
Protein rich feed ingredients

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Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

496
496
501
501
502
504
504
506
506
506
507
510
515
516
527
533
533
534
535
536
537
537
537
538
539
539
541
541
542
542
543
543

Ji

ba

8.5

is
hi
ng

Pu

8.4

ch
ha

8.3

Difference between essential and non essential nutrients


Feed additive and group of feed additive used in animal
feed
8.2.16
Difference between feed supplement and feed
additives
8.2.17
Feed additives and their benefit
8.2.18
Protein sources in cattle feeding
8.2.19
Energy source in cattle feeding
8.2.20
Ration formulation for a cow weighing 450 kg and
producing 20 kg/day of milk (4% butter fat)
8.2.21
Usage molasses for livestock
Classification of nutrients
8.3.1
Water
8.3.2
Carbohydrates (CHO)
8.3.3
Fats
8.3.4
Proteins
8.3.5
Minerals
8.3.6
Vitamins
Enzyme
8.4.1
Characteristics of enzymes
8.4.2
Classification of enzyme
8.4.3
Structure of enzymes
8.4.4
Function of enzymes
Feed analysis
8.5.1
Proximate analysis
8.5.2
Crude protein determination in feed and forages
8.5.2.1
Macro-Kjeldahl method
8.5.3
Detergent fiber analysis
8.5.4
Measuring the dry matter content of forages
8.5.4.1
Hand squeeze method
8.5.4.2
Microwave method
8.5.5
Determine yield of forages
8.5.6
Classification of feed

bl

8.2.14
8.2.15

544
545
546
546
547
548
548
550
552
552
554
555
556
557
560
562
562
563
564
564
566
566
567
567
570
571
571
572
573
575

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

xxiixx

8.11
8.12
8.13
8.14
8.15
8.16
8.17

is
hi
ng

Factor affecting digestibility intake


Anti-nutritional factor in feedstuff
Digestion in nonruminant
Digestions in ruminant
Total mixed ration (TMR)
8.14.1
Guidelines for nutrient concentrations in TMRs
UMB (Urea molasses block) preparation
Difference between starch equivalence and net energy
Difference between digestible energy and metabolizable
energy
Difference between fecal energy and energy partitioning
Difference between anabolism and catabolism
Difference between calorie and heat increment
Difference between true protein and urea
Definition of TDN (Total digestive nutrition) system and
their advantage and disadvantage
Partitioning and repartitioning agents and their uses in
animal feeding

ba

8.18
8.19
8.20
8.21
8.22

bl

8.8
8.9
8.10

Pu

8.7

Energy
8.6.1
Basic units of energy
8.6.2
Measures of energy and energy utilization
Use of urea (NPN) in ruminant feed
8.7.1
Factors affecting the use of NPN sources as ruminant feed
8.7.2
Use of NPN and bypass protein in ruminant diets
8.7.3
Constraints to application of the bypass protein
technology
8.7.4
Methods to improve the nutritive value of rice straw
8.7.5
Method of urea treatment
8.7.6
Practical guidelines for use of rice straw as ruminant feed
8.7.7
NPN compound and mechanism of NPN utilization in
ruminant
Feed source available for livestock in Nepal
Feeding balance concentrate mixure for cattle

ch
ha

8.6

Ji

8.23

xxii
xxii

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

577
577
578
580
580
581
581
582
584
584
585
586
587
588
589
592
596
602
603
605
606
607
607
607
607
608
608
608

is
hi
ng

SECTION 9

611-712

Dairy farm management

Housing system management of cattle and buffalo


9.1.1
Selection of site for farm building
9.1.2
Factors to be considered while designing a livestock
farm
9.1.3
Designing the animal building for production and
product control
9.1.4
Housing system
9.1.5
Dairy cow building
9.1.5.1
Milking barn or parlour
9.1.5.2
Floor space requirements
9.1.5.3
Feeding and watering space requirements
9.1.5.4
Dimensions of feed manger
9.1.6
Cleaning and sanitation of dairy farm
Calf pen house for young stock
9.2.1
Feeding
9.2.2
Feeding dairy cattle and buffalo
9.2.3
Daily nutrient requirements for maintenance,
pregnancy and lactation for cattle and buffalo
9.2.4
Nutrient requirements of pre-ruminant cattle and
buffalo calves
9.2.5
Daily nutrient requirement for growing dairy animals
9.2.6
Feeding dairy calves
9.2.6.1
Feeding dairy calves from birth to three months
9.2.6.2
Feeding dairy calves from three months to maturity
9.2.6.3
Feeding schedule (g) for calves up to three months of age
9.2.6.4
Example of the growth production ration for a 200 kg
animal
9.2.6.5
Feeding dry calf starters and roughages
9.2.6.6
Ration schedule for dairy animals from three months to
maturity
9.2.7
Calves deworming and vaccination program
Feeding dairy cows

Ji

ba

ch
ha

9.2

Pu

bl

9.1

9.3

611
611
612
613
614
615
618
618
618
619
619
621
623
623
624
625
626
629
629
630
632
634
634
634
636
637

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

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iiixx

Feeding dry cows


Feeding for reproduction
Care and management of pregnant animals
9.6.1
Steaming up
Care and management of cow after parturition
Care and management of lactating animals
Care and management of work bullocks
Care and management of breeding bull
Care and management of calf
9.11.1
Colostrum feeding
9.11.2
Creep feeding
9.11.3
Milk replacer
9.11.4
Weaning of calf
9.11.5
Calf health
Care and management of heifer
Feeding systems of dairy cattle
Cattle age determination
9.14.1
Teeth method
9.14.2
Horn method
9.14.3
Tail brush method
Farm animal identification
9.15.1
Advantage of identification
Restraint of farm animals
9.16.1
Rope squeeze
9.16.2
Burley method
Castrations
9.17.1
Banding method
9.17.2
Burdizzo method
9.17.3
Surgical castration
BCS (Body condition score)
9.18.1
System of body condition scoring in dairy cattle
9.18.2
Economic characters in dairy cattle

9.15
9.16

ba

9.17

ch
ha

9.12
9.13
9.14

Pu

bl

9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11

is
hi
ng

9.4
9.5
9.6

Ji

9.18

xxiv
xxiv

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

639
639
640
640
641
643
644
645
646
648
650
650
651
651
652
654
657
657
663
663
663
668
669
671
672
675
675
677
679
681
681
683

Basic farm recording system


Vaccination schedule
Dehorning/disbudding
9.21.1
Electric or butane hot dehorning
9.21.2
Chemical method
Drenching
Ringing
Animal behavior
9.24.1
Feeding behavior
9.24.2
Breeding behavior
9.24.3
Behaviour during sick
9.24.4
Excite by seeing strangers
9.24.5
Abnormal behaviours
9.24.6
Maternal-offspring behaviour
9.24.7
Resting behaviour
Common vices of dairy animals
Hoof trimming
Culling of Animals
Milking method
Farm waste by-product management
Poultry waste management

ch
ha

9.25
9.26
9.27
9.28
9.29
9.30

Pu

bl

9.22
9.23
9.24

is
hi
ng

9.19
9.20
9.21

SECTION 10

Forage and fodder

Classification of grass
10.1.1
Forage
10.1.2
Fodder
10.1.3
Difference between fodder and forage crop
10.1.4
Salient features of forage crops
10.1.5
Limitations/constraints of forage crops production
10.1.6
Important characteristics of good forage crop
10.1.7
Important characteristics of good fodder crop

Ji

ba

10.1

684
687
688
688
689
690
691
692
693
693
694
694
694
694
695
695
700
704
705
708
710

713-806
713
713
714
715
715
716
716
716

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

xxvvxx

is
hi
ng

10.8
10.9
10.10

ch
ha

10.11

bl

10.7

Classification of forage crops


Importance and scope of fodder production in Nepal
Constraints/limitation of fodder production
Imortance of fibre for rumen health
Factor affecting the chemical composition of fodder/
forages
Classification of feedstuff
10.7.1
Feed resources in Nepal
Types of forage
Role of NGO's, INGOs and NARC in the pasture/range
development in Nepal
Major limitations and constraints in forage seed
production in Nepal
Fodder tree
10.11.1
Types of fodder
10.11.2
Fodder trees and their lopping cycle in Nepal
10.11.3
Estimated foliage production of fodder trees
10.11.4
Nutritive value of some species of fodder tree leaves
from the mid-hills of Nepal
10.11.5
Recommended grass/legumes for the hills
10.11.6
Importance of fodder tree species in Nepal
10.11.7
Indigenous fodder tree species
10.11.8
Exotic fodder tree species
Agroforestry and silvipasture system and its importance
in Nepal
10.12.1
Silvipasture
Conservation of fodder/forage
10.13.1
Hay
10.13.2
Silage
Plant poisoning in pasture and their management
Strategies for pasture/rangeland improvement in Nepal
10.15.1
Type of rangelands according to the ecological belt in
Nepal
10.15.2
Constraint (Problems) in improvement

Pu

10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6

10.12

ba

10.13

Ji

10.14
10.15

xxvi
xxvi

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

717
719
720
721
722
724
725
726
727
729
730
730
731
733
735
737
738
738
740
743
745
745
746
747
753
755
756
756

is
hi
ng

Ji

ba

10.23

ch
ha

10.22

Pu

bl

10.16
10.17
10.18
10.19
10.20
10.21

10.15.3
Importance of rangelands/grassland
Factors affecting the nutritive value of range forage
Factors affecting forage intake by range ruminants
Definition of annual and perennial forage
Difference between legumes and grasses
Difference between annuals, biennial and perennial grass
Common annual legumes and their cultivation
10.21.1
Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum)
10.21.2
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)
10.21.3
Lucerne (Medicago sativa)
10.21.4
Stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis)
10.21.5
Soybean (Glycine max)
10.21.6
Bean (Lablab purpureus)
10.21.7
Vetch (Vicia sativa)
10.21.8
Kudzu (Pueraria lobata)
10.21.9
Centro (Centrosema pubescens)
Common annual cereal fodder and their cultivation
10.22.1
Oat (Avena sativa)
10.22.2
Sorgum (Sorghum bicolor)
10.22.3
Maize (Zea mays)
10.22.4
Teosinte (Mexican teosinte)
10.22.5
Bajra (Pennisetum glaucum)
10.22.6
Deenanath (Pennisetum pedicellatum)
Common annual cereal grass and their cultivation
10.23.1
Napier (Pennisetum purpureum)
10.23.2
Guinea grass (Panicum maximum)
10.23.3
Para grass(Brachiaria mutica)
10.23.4
Blue buffelgrass
10.23.5
Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana)
10.23.6
Blue panic (Panicum antidotale)
10.23.7
Molasses (Melinis minutiflora)
10.23.8
Paspalum (Paspalum dilatatum)

758
759
762
763
764
764
765
765
766
766
767
767
768
769
770
771
772
772
773
773
774
774
775
776
776
776
777
778
778
779
779
780

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

xxvii
iivxx

is
hi
ng

ba

ch
ha

Pu

bl

10.24 Cultivation of fodder crops on marginal lands and


terrace risers
10.25 Role of community forest in livestock development
10.26 Factor affecting natural grassland productivity in Nepal
10.27 Method of pasture and range development
10.28 Government policy and program for pasture
development in Nepal
10.29 Scope of forage and pasture seed production in Nepal
10.30 Managing the terai grassland in Nepal
10.31 Principle of grass seed production
10.32 Tree for fodder and fuel in Nepal
10.33 Problem affecting pasture and rangeland management
in Himalayan region of Nepal
10.34 Khoriya (Shifting) cultivation and their useful in livestock
farming system in Nepal
10.35 Nursery management of fodder tree species
10.36 Quality management of seed and methods of estimation
10.37 Definition of stratification, inoculation and scarification
of seed
10.38 Method of seed inoculation
10.39 Propagation of fodder trees and its importance
10.40 Importance of fodder trees and shrubs for livestock and
farmers
10.41 Estimation of crop carrying capacity
10.42 Differences between manure and fertilizers
10.43 Differences between mixed cropping and intercropping
10.44 Major pet forage species for intensive use in Nepal

SECTION 11

Goat

Taxonomy
Economic importance of goat farming in Nepal
11.2.1
Scope of goat farming

Ji

11.1
11.2

xxviii Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry


xxviii

781
782
783
784
785
787
789
790
791
793
794
795
797
799
799
801
802
802
803
804
804

807-866
807
807
808

is
hi
ng

11.3

11.6
11.7

ba

11.8
11.9
11.10

ch
ha

Pu

11.4
11.5

Constraint of goat farming


Reasons for preference of goat over sheep or large
ruminants in Nepal
11.2.4
Points to be considered during goat farm construction
11.2.5
Advantages of goat farming/utility of goats
11.2.6
Twelve steps for starting goat farming
11.2.7
Difference between sheep and goat
Indigenous goat breeds of Nepal
11.3.1
Growth characteristics of indigenous goat breeds
11.3.2
Reproductive parameters of indigenous goat breeds
Exotic goat breed
Goat management
11.5.1
Managing a pregnant doe
11.5.2
Housing management
11.5.3
Grazing system
11.5.4
Feeding management
11.5.5
Creep ration
11.5.6
Flushing ration
Identification of goat
Castration
11.7.1
Surgical method
11.7.2
Burdizzo (Emasculatome) method
11.7.3
Elastrator method
Dipping
Vaccination
Breeding
11.10.1
Breeding method
Artificial insemination in goat
Effect of photoperiod controlling reproductive
seasonality in sheep and goats
Deworming
Goat marketing channel in different ecozone of Nepal
Internal parasites of goat & sheep

bl

11.2.2
11.2.3

11.11
11.12

Ji

11.13
11.14
11.15

810
810
810
811
812
813
813
817
817
818
824
824
824
827
829
832
832
833
836
836
836
837
838
840
840
843
847
853
854
855
856

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

xxix
xixx

is
hi
ng

Sheep

Taxonomy
12.1.1
Anatomy of Sheep
12.2 History of sheep farming in Nepal
12.3 Importance of sheep farming in Nepal
12.3.1
Advantage of sheep farming
12.3.2
Constraint of sheep farming in Nepal
12.4 Indigenous sheep breeds of Nepal
12.5 Exotic sheep breed
12.6 Feeds
12.7 Factors affecting wool quality and quantity
12.8 Physical and chemical properties of wool
12.9 Difference between fur, wool and hair
12.10 Daily water requirements
12.11 Shearing
12.12 Effect of external parasites on sheep

Ji

ba

ch
ha

12.1

Pu

SECTION 12

bl

11.16 External parasites of goat & sheep


11.16.1
Ticks
11.16.2
Lice
11.16.3
Sheep ked (ticks)
11.16.4
Mange/Mites
11.16.5
Fleas
11.17 Benefits of goat milk over cow milk
11.18 Method of body condition scoring of sheep and goats
11.18.1
Lumbar region
11.18.2
Rib cage
11.18.3
Sternum

xxxxxx

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

857
857
858
859
859
860
861
862
862
862
862

867-892
867
868
869
870
870
871
871
875
878
884
885
886
887
887
892

is
hi
ng

SECTION 13

893-918

Horse

13.12
13.13
13.14
13.15
13.16
13.17
13.18
13.19

bl

13.6
13.7
13.8
13.9
13.10
13.11

Pu

13.3
13.4
13.5

Taxonomy
Horse breed
13.2.1
Some popular breeds of horses
Identification of horse
Horse marking
Restraint of horse
13.5.1
Physical restraint
Dentition
Weight measurement
Importance of horse
Categories of horse breed
Management of pregnant mares and foals
Breeding season of horses, estrus cycle in mares and
breeding time
Feeding horses
Standards for the housing and care of horses
Method of selection of horse
Use of horse/mule in Nepal
Difference between horse and mule
Selection criteria of horse and mules
Advantages of spaying and castrating horses
Glossary of horse related terms

ch
ha

13.1
13.2

SECTION 14

ba

Poultry

Introduction and anatomy


Taxonomy
Importance of poultry and poultry products
Scope of poultry production in Nepal
Constraint in poultry production in Nepal

Ji

14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5

893
893
895
895
896
897
898
900
900
901
902
903
905
907
911
913
914
915
915
916
916

919-992
919
920
920
922
923

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Importance of chicken meat


External and internal body parts of a chicken
14.7.1
Parts of digestive system of a chicken
14.7.2
Reproductive organ of chicken
14.7.3
Formation of egg shell

14.8
14.9

Indigenous poultry breeds of Nepal


Exotic poultry breed class
14.9.1
American class
14.9.2
Asiatic class
14.9.3
English class
14.9.4
Mediterranean class
System of poultry rearing
14.10.1
Construction of chicken house
Feeding
14.11.1
Vitamins and trace minerals
14.11.2
Broiler feed
14.11.3
Layers feed
14.11.4
Feed composition
14.11.5
ISI specifications in diet for chicken
14.11.6
Practical levels of nutrients in the diet of chicken
14.11.7
Practical levels of amino acids in the diet of chicken
14.11.8
Mineral sources and their mineral contents
14.11.9
Maximum level of inclusion of feed ingredients in
poultry diets
Watering
14.12.1
Drinking-water quality
Hatchery management
Sex identification of chicks
Chicks management
14.15.1
Brooding temperature
Layers management
14.16.1
Selection of good layers
14.16.2
Egg shell deformities

ch
ha

14.11

Pu

14.10

bl

14.6
14.7

14.12

ba

14.13
14.14
14.15

Ji

14.16

xxxii
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Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

923
925
925
927
928
929
930
930
933
935
939
940
945
946
946
947
947
950
958
959
960
961
962
964
965
966
968
969
971
972
972
974

14.22

14.23

is
hi
ng

14.20
14.21

bl

14.19

Pig

Taxonomy
Advantage of pig farming
Economic importance of pig
Constraints in piggery development in Nepal
Starting pig farming in Nepal
Indigenous pig breeds of Nepal
Exotic pig breed
Comparison between native and exotic breed of pig
15.8.1
Production performance of indigenous and commercial
pig breeds
15.9 Pig rearing system in Nepal
15.10 Site selection for pig housing
15.11 Pig housing

Ji

ba

15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
15.6
15.7
15.8

975
976
980
981
982
982
983
984
984
986
987
988
988
989
990

993-1040

ch
ha

SECTION 15

Pu

14.17
14.18

14.16.3
Egg shell structure
Moulting
Artificial Insemination (AI) in bird
14.18.1
Semen collection
14.18.2
Technique of AI in bird
Effects of photoperiod on poultry performance and
immune system
Poultry farm management
Disease control
14.21.1
Biosecurity and eradication
14.21.2
Internal parasites
14.21.3
External parasites
Vaccination schedule
14.22.1
Vaccine handling and storage
14.22.2
Vaccination procedure guide
Poultry related glossary of term

993
994
995
996
997
999
1004
1007
1007
1007
1009
1010

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Ji

ba

ch
ha

Pu

bl

15.12 Feeding
15.12.1
Feed and water requirement for pigs
15.12.2
Diets for sow gestation and lactation
15.12.3
Dietary nutrient requirements of growing pigs allowed
ad lib feed (90% dry matter)
15.12.4
Formulation of swine feed rations using the Pearson
square method
15.13 Factors influencing nutrient requirements in pigs
15.14 Breeding
15.15 Selection of gilt
15.15.1
Criteria for herd replacement
15.15.2
Breeding gilt
15.15.3
Swine gestation table (115 Days), if bred Jan 1April 30
15.15.4
Swine gestation table (115 Days), if bred May 1
August 31
15.15.5
Swine gestation table (115 Days), if bred September 1
December 31
15.16 Artificial insemination
15.16.1
Identification of oestrus
15.16.2
Timing of AI & method
15.17 Pig management
15.17.1
Pig castration
15.17.2
Pig identification
15.17.2.1 Tagging
15.17.2.2 Notching
15.17.2.3 Tattooing
15.17.2.4 Recording
15.18 Health management
15.18.1
Vaccination
15.18.2
Deworming
15.19 Marketing channel of live pig and pork meat in Nepal
15.20 Pig farming terminology

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1013
1013
1014
1015
1017
1018
1020
1021
1021
1022
1022
1023
1024
1026
1026
1027
1028
1028
1029
1029
1030
1034
1036
1037
1037
1037
1039
1039

is
hi
ng

SECTION 16

1041-1062

Rabbit

ch
ha

Pu

bl

Introduction
Taxonomy
Body part of rabbit
Scope for rabbit farming and it's national importance
The advantages of rabbit farming
Limitation of rabbit farming
Major breed of rabbit
Sexing of rabbit
Handling and restraint of rabbits
Housing
Feeding
Breeding
Behavior
Estrus cycle and breeding time
Economic importance of rabbit production
Major diseases of rabbits, their prevention and
treatment
16.16.1
Snuffles
16.16.2
Overgrown teeth
16.16.3
Hairballs (Trichobezoars)
16.16.4
Uterine tumours
16.16.5
Myxomatosis
16.16.6
Calicivirus
16.16.7
Coccidiosis
16.16.8
Ear mites
16.17 Slaughtering and skinning techniques of rabbits
16.18 Techniques of preparing rabbit houses (hutch)
16.19 Techniques of preparing rabbit feed

1041
1041
1042
1043
1044
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1050
1051
1053
1054
1054
1055
1055
1056
1056
1056
1057
1057
1058
1060
1061

Ji

ba

16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4
16.5
16.6
16.7
16.8
16.9
16.10
16.11
16.12
16.13
16.14
16.15
16.16

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

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SECTION 17

1063-1094

Fisheries

bl

ch
ha

17.13
17.14
17.15

Taxonomy
Differentiation between fish culture and aquaculture
History of fish farming in Nepal
Scope of fish culture in Nepal
Economic importance of fish
Fish farming system in Nepal
Anatomy of fish and their function
Select site for fish farming
Types of fish pond
Types of water quality in fish pond
Different types of fresh water fishes
Common fish species found in Nepal
17.12.1
Indigenous fish
17.12.2
Exotic species
Characteristics of brood fish
Differentiation of male and female brood fish
Difference between monoculture and polyculture fish
farming
Calculating fertilization rate, hatching rate and fry
survival rate
Importance of water quality in fish culture
Types of net used in aquaculture
Improved fodder grass used in grass carp
Hormones used in brood fish
Liming fish pond
Harvesting methods of fish from pond
Gillnet
Integrated fish culture
Effect of pH and temperature on pond water
Methods of dead fish's preservation

Pu

17.1
17.2
17.3
17.4
17.5
17.6
17.7
17.8
17.9
17.10
17.11
17.12

17.16

Ji

ba

17.17
17.18
17.19
17.20
17.21
17.22
17.23
17.24
17.25
17.26

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1063
1063
1064
1064
1064
1065
1066
1067
1069
1070
1070
1072
1072
1074
1077
1077
1078
1078
1079
1080
1081
1081
1081
1082
1084
1084
1085
1086

is
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SECTION 18

Dairy production

18.3

ba

18.4

Pu

18.2

Milk production in Nepal


18.1.1
Scope of milk production in Nepal
18.1.2
Constraint in milk production in Nepal
18.1.3
Strategic measures to reduce dependence on imported
milk in Nepal
Clean milk production
18.2.1
Steps in clean milk production
Milk
18.3.1
The composition of milk
Dairy products preparation
18.4.1
Butter
18.4.2
Dahi (Curd)
18.4.3
Cheese
18.4.4
Ice cream
18.4.5
Khoa
18.4.6
Paneer
18.4.7
Kulfi
Nepalese standardization of milk
Factors affecting the milk composition and its quality
Theory of milk secretion
Method of pasteurization
Milk processing

ch
ha

18.1

Ji

18.5
18.6
18.7
18.8
18.9

bl

17.27 Importance of artificial breeding (AI) in aquaculture


17.28 Diseases of fish
17.28.1
Common parasitic diseases
17.28.1.1 Protistan parasites of fishes
17.28.1.2 Common metazoan parasites of fishes
17.28.2
Common fungal diseases
17.28.3
Common bacterial diseases
17.29 Fodder grasses used for fish in Nepal

1087
1088
1088
1088
1089
1092
1093
1094

1095-1152
1095
1096
1096
1097
1101
1102
1103
1103
1104
1104
1108
1109
1111
1113
1114
1116
1117
1119
1120
1120
1121

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry xxxvii


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Physicochemical properties of milk


Flavours and off flavours of milk
Sanitization of dairy plant utensils and equipments
Pasteurization and homogenization of milk, packing and
distribution of milk
Testing of milk quality
18.14.1
Platform tests
18.14.1.1 Organoleptic evaluation
18.14.1.2 Clot on boiling test (COB)
18.14.1.3 Milk Testing - Alcohol Test
18.14.1.4 Sediment test
18.14.1.5 Minutes Resazurin Test
18.14.2
Determination of activity (titrable acidity) of milk
18.14.3
Determination of fat in milking
18.14.4
Determination of S.N.F. (Solid Not Fat) and total solids
of milk
Bacterial test in milk
Commonly used dairy sanitizers in dairy plant
Use of detergents and sanitizers in dairy industry
Procedure for cleaning and sanitizing of dairy utensils
Difference between true protein and crude protein
Milk marketing definitions
Adulteration test in milk
Milk borne disease

ch
ha

18.15
18.16
18.17
18.18
18.19
18.20
18.21
18.22

Pu

bl

18.14

is
hi
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18.10
18.11
18.12
18.13

SECTION 19

ba

Dog & cat

Introduction
Dog and Cat breed
Dog and cat breeding
19.3.1
Estrus cycle and mating in dogs
19.3.2
Estrus cycle and mating in cats
19.3.3
Care of pregnant bitches and queens

Ji

19.1
19.2
19.3

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1122
1123
1127
1129
1131
1132
1132
1133
1134
1134
1137
1138
1139
1141
1143
1144
1145
1147
1148
1148
1149
1150

1153-1166
1153
1153
1155
1155
1156
1157

is
hi
ng

19.4
19.5
19.6
19.7

19.3.4
Care of puppies and kittens
Vaccination of dog & cat
Schedule of routine deworming : canines
Clinical information on dogs
Practical tips for feeding

SECTION 20

1167-1174

Miscellaneous

Longevity of various animals


Terms by species or taxon
Suggested space and housing guidelines for fully mature
farm animals
20.4 Urine volume and specific gravity
20.5 Typical composition of buffalo milk and cow milk
20.6 Weights and measures equivalents and conversions
20.7 Percentage, ppm, and ppb Conversions
20.8 Temperature equivalents and conversions
20.9 Average number of sperm per ejaculate
20.10 Time between coitus and arrival of sperm in the fallopian
tube
20.11 Fertile life of sperm

ch
ha

Pu

bl

20.1
20.2
20.3

SECTION 21

Animal Husbandry Model Question Answer


SECTION 22

1158
1159
1162
1164
1164

1171
1172
1172
1173
1173
1174
1174
1174
1175-1200

1201-1215

Ji

ba

PROJECT PROPOSAL ON DAIRY FARM

1167
1168
1170

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry xxxix


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Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry