Sunteți pe pagina 1din 96

nva i folosete corect

limba englez

Cuprins
Prefa...................................................................................................................................... 4
PARTEA I................................................................................................................................ 6
MORFOLOGIA VERBUL - TIMPUL ................................................................................. 6
VERB - PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE ..................................................................................... 6
VERB - PAST TENSE SIMPLE ............................................................................................. 9
VERB - FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE ..................................................................................... 11
VERB PRESENT PERFECT ............................................................................................. 13
VERB PAST PERFECT SIMPLE ...................................................................................... 16
PARTEA I.............................................................................................................................. 18
MORFOLOGIA VERBUL - ASPECTUL ..........................................................................18
VERB - PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS ........................................................................ 18
VERB - PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS ................................................................................ 19
VERB- FUTURE CONTINUOUS ........................................................................................ 21
VERB PRESENT PERFECT COTINUOUS ..................................................................... 22
VERB PAST PERFECT COTINUOUS ............................................................................. 24
VERB - FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS .................................................................... 25
PERSOANA I NUMRUL ................................................................................................. 29
ARTICOLUL I ALI DETERMINANI ........................................................................... 45
COMPLEMENTELE CIRCUMSTANIALE DE LOC, TIMP, MOD ............................... 67
TEST FINAL ......................................................................................................................... 70
Cheia exerciiilor ....................................................................................................................76
TIMPURILE LIMBII ENGLEZE - fi exemplu ..................................................................91
Verbul TO WORK -model..................................................................................................... 93
Bibliografie:........................................................................................................................... 94

Prefa

Gramatica de fa i propune s ofere mai mult dect un simplu set de reguli gramaticale
ale limbii engleze, iar prin metoda original de prezentare s ajute n crearea unui sentiment de
siguran n ceea ce privete corectitudinea gramatical n exprimare.
Numai n acest fel adulii pot scpa de un sentiment de inhibiie cu care au rmas, probabil
din coal.
Realitatea, situaiile reale de exprimare de la care se pornete confer originalitate. Se
continu cu exemple, modele i explicaii gramaticale menite s conduc la stpnirea unui
aspect gramatical al limbii engleze.
Atenie! Nimic nu se pierde!
Fiecare aspect gramatical este nsoit de cel puin un exerciiu astfel nct punerea n
practic s conduc la o finalitate pe termen lung a stpnirii acelui aspect gramatical. Cel care
studiaz are de asemenea cheia exerciiului la sfrit.
Multitudinea de exerciii comparative variate sunt menite s sprijine nelegerea
elementelor teoretice prin aplicaii practice.
Citind aceast lucrare, vei fi confruntat cu probleme de gramatic i de vocabular, vei
descoperi n ce msur putei formula idei, v putei exprima corect i coerent n limba englez i
vei afla care sunt aspectele care v creeaz dificulti. Modelul v va nsoi la tot pasul. La
sfritul crii avei un model de verb conjugat la timpurile modului indicativ. De asemenea avei
i o fi cu regulile de formare a timpurilor, la afirmativ, negativ i interogativ.
Autenticitatea exerciiilor propuse ofer o structurare a cunotinelor n seturi grupate pe
probleme gramaticale. Scurte prezentri teoretice i o serie de exemple nsoesc aceste seturi de
exerciii. Acestea vin s ilustreze tiparele structurale de baz ale limbii engleze.
Deoarece va trebui s folosii din cnd n cnd dicionarul, vei avea ocazia s v
mbogiti substanial cunotinele de vocabular.
Timpul pe care suntei dispus s l alocai este bine distribuit pe probleme gramaticale.
Nu v ia mai mult de 10 minute s parcurgei un aspect gramatical.
Intuiia dumneavostr va funciona foarte bine n stpnirea corect a gramaticii.
Contiinciozitatea

v va fi rspltit printr-un rezultat excelent la testul final propus la


sfritul crii care ofer 150 ntrebri asupra cunotinelor de gramatic i de vocabular.
Rezolvarea testului v va da cu siguran o imagine satisfctoare asupra stadiului la care ai
ajuns n nsuirea limbii engleze.
Atingerea obiectivului dumneavoastr este scopul principal al acestei cri care v pune la
dispoziie ntr-o form concis i accesibil, informaiile necesare pentru a putea folosi limba
englez corect din punct de vedere gramatical i pentru a asigura acurateea i nuanarea att de
necesare n comunicare prin intermediul oricrei limbi.

INTRODUCERE

M numesc Gramatica limbii engleze i scopul meu principal este s v informez asupra
regulilor referitoare la forma cuvintelor. Am dou fiice: Morfologia i Sintaxa. O s facei
cunotin mai ales cu prima dintre ele.
Ea este deosebit de important deoarece primul lucru care se nva n gramatica unei limbi
strine este cum se formeaz categoriile gramaticale de baz: timpurile verbului, pluralul
substantivelor, comparaia adjectivelor, pronumele, numeralul, etc.
Morfologia cuprinde regulile privitoare la forma cuvintelor i la modificrile formale ale
cuvintelor studiate pe pri de vorbire; sintaxa cuprinde regulile privitoare la mbinarea
cuvintelor n propoziii i fraze.

PARTEA I

MORFOLOGIA VERBUL - TIMPUL

VERB - PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE


VERBUL TIMPUL PREZENT SIMPLU
CITII TEXTUL DE MAI JOS :
READ THE TEXT :
I live with my husband and my children at the countryside. I am a doctor. I usually go to work in
the morning. I have many friends in the village. My friend, Louise, she is a teacher. She goes to
school in the afternoon, every day of the week: on Monday, on Tuesday, on Wednesday, on
Thursday and on Friday. She does not go to school in the week end. She teaches English. My
father, my mother, my brother and my sister live here, too. They are farmers. I like/enjoy living
in nature.
Haidei s observm cteva din cuvintele din text, apoi vom analiza verbele.
Lets have a look at some words from the text, then we will see the verbs.
a. Pronumele: (Pronouns)
Cuvintele: I, she, they sunt pronume personale.
Iat pronumele personale ale limbii engleze:
I eu
You tu
He el
She ea
It el/ea (pentru obiecte, animale)
We noi
You voi
They ei, ele
b. Zilele sptmnii (Days of the week):
Monday - Luni
Tuesday - Mar i
Wednesday - Miercuri
Thursday - Joi
Friday - Vineri
Saturday - Smbt
Sunday Duminic
7

c. Momente ale zilei (Moments of the day)


- In the morning dimineaa
- In the afternoon dup-amiaza
- In the evening seara
d. Membrii familiei (Family members)
father /dad / daddy tat
mother / mum / mummy / mom - mam
parent / parents printe, prini
child / children copil, copii
son - fiu
daughter- fiic
brother - frate
sister - sor
grandfather / granddad / grandpa - bunic
grandmother / grandma / granny - bunic
grandson - nepot
granddaughter - nepoat
uncle- unchi
aunt - mtu
cousin verior, verioar
nephew - nepot
niece - nepoat
e. Verbele la Prezent Simplu (Verbs at Present Tense Simple) :
I live, I am , I go, I have, she is, She goes, She does not go, She teaches, They live, They are, I
like
I live with my husband and my children at the countryside.
Locuiesc cu soul i copiii mei la ar.
I am a doctor.- Sunt doctor.
I usually go to work in the morning. - Eu merg de obicei la lucru dimineaa.
I have many friends in the village. - Am muli prieteni n sat.
My friend, Louise, she is a teacher. - Prietena mea, Louise, este profesor.
She goes to school in the afternoon, every day of the week: on Monday, on Tuesday, on
Wednesday, on Thursday and on Friday.- Ea merge la coal dup-amiaza, n fiecare zi a
sptmnii: luni, mari, miercuri, joi i vineri.
She does not go to school in the week end. - Ea nu merge la coal n week-end.
She teaches English. - Ea pred limba englez.
My father, my mother, my brother and my sister live here, too.-Tatl meu, mama mea, fratele
meu i sora mea locuiesc aici, de asemenea.
They are farmers. - Ei sunt fermieri (agricultori).
I like/enjoy living in nature. - mi place s triesc n natur.
Verbele accentuate sunt la Present Tense Simple.
Folosim acest timp verbal pentru a exprima:
O aciune general, repetabil: - exemplu: I read daily. Citesc zilnic.
Adevruri general valabile: The Earth spins round. Pmntul se nvrte.
8

O aciune regulat, obinuit, n perioada prezent.


What do you do? (Cu ce te ocupi?) I am a student. Sunt elev.
What time do you usually have breakfast? - La ce or iei de obicei micul dejun?
Aciuni viitoare planificate n prezent ca urmare a unui program oficial.
The plane takes off at 7:35.- Avionul decoleaz/va decola la ora 7:35.
Conjugarea unui verb la Present Tense Simple:
To work = a lucra, a munci
Afirmativ
I work
You work
He/she/it works
We work
You work
They work
Negativ
I do not (dont) work
You do not (dont) work
He/she/it does not (doesnt) work
We do not (dont) work
You do not (dont) work
They do not (dont) work
Interogativ
Do I work?
Do you work?
Does he/she/it work?
Do we work?
Do you work?
Do they work?
Cu Present Simple Tense folosim adverbe cum ar fi: always, often, sometimes, usually, seldom,
on Saturdays, rarely, never, every day, etc.
Examples:
1. Philip gets up at 6 o'clock every morning.(n fiecare diminea)
2. I go to school every day. (n fiecare zi)
3. She sometimes goes out on Friday night (vineri noaptea).
4. I usually sleep late on Sunday morning.(de obicei)
5. Peter works for 8 hours every day. (n fiecare zi)
6. My children often watch TV in the afternoon. (adesea, des)
7. He always forgets his keys. (ntotdeauna)
Exerciii Practice
Situation: My friend and I dont do things in the same way:
Example:
Affirmative
get up early/late
I get up early, but my friend gets up late
9

Interrogative
get up early/late
Do you get up early? Does he get up late?
Negative
get up early/late
I dont get up early. My friend doesnt get up
late
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

leave home at 12 oclock/1 oclock


go to work by car/by train
speak English well/badly
get home at six/seven
have two kids/three

ACUM LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!

VERB - PAST TENSE SIMPLE


TIMPUL TRECUT SIMPLU
CITII TEXTUL DE MAI JOS :
READ THE TEXT :
Last year I lived with my husband and my children at the countryside. I was a doctor. I used to
go to work in the morning. I had many friends in the village. My friend, Louise, she was a good
teacher in the village. She went to school in the afternoon every week day. She did not go to
school in the week end. She taught English. My father, my mother, my brother and my sister
lived here, too. They were farmers. I liked /enjoyed living in nature.
Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul trecut simplu:
I lived - am locuit
I was eram/am fost
I used to go obinuiam s m duc/m duceam
I had am avut
She was a fost
She went se ducea/mergea
She did not go ea nu mergea
She taught - a predat
They lived - au locuit
They were - au fost/erau
I liked mi-a plcut
Verbele la Past Tense Simple arat o aciune trecut, terminat, efectuat ntr-o perioad de
timp trecut, terminat. Este timpul naraiunii.
Se traduce, de obicei, cu perfectul compus din limba romn.
Ex. Yesterday I went for a walk. - Ieri am mers la plimbare.
Last year I traveled to England. Anul trecut am cltorit n Anglia.
10

To work (a lucra, a munci) la Past Tense Simple


Afirmativ
I/you/he/she/it/we/they worked
Negativ
I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not work
Interogativ
Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they work?
Forma prescurtat a lui did not este didnt (I didnt work).
Verbele limbii engleze pot fi regulate sau neregulate.
Past Tense Simple se formeaz prin adugarea terminaiei ed n cazul verbelor regulate.
Ex. to work worked
Dac verbul este neregulat, Past Tense trebuie nvat din tabelul de verbe neregulate care
indic cele trei forme de baza ale verbului: forma I infinitiv, forma II- Paste Tense, forma III
participiul trecut.
Ex. to speak spoke spoken
Iat o list cu formele de Past Tense pentru verbe regulate i neregulate:
Verbe regulate:
I, you, he, she, it,
we, you, they

+ verb

+-ed

Atenie le pronunie! Pay attention to the pronounciation!


{t}
a) wash washed washed (a se spla)
cook cooked cooked (a gti)
{d}
b) play played played (a se juca)
listen listened listened (a asculta)
{id}
b) need needed needed (a avea nevoie)
skate skated - skated (a patina)
Verbe neregulate:
a)
meet
leave
say
read
send
spend

b)
{e}
met
left
said
read
sent
spent

{e}
met (a ntlni)
left (a pleca)
said (a spune)
read (a citi)
sent (a trimite)
spent (a petrece)

have
sit

11

{}
had
sat

{}
had (a avea)
sat (a sta jos)

c)
write
speak
break

{}
wrote
spoke
broke

written (a scrie)
spoken (a vorbi)
broken (a sparge)

{}
ran
began
drank
sang
swam

{}
run (a alerga)
begun (a ncepe)
drunk (a bea)
sung (a cnta)
swum (a nota)

f)
do
go
eat
forget

d)
run
begin
drink
sing
swim

did
went
ate
forgot

done (a face)
gone (a merge)
eaten (a mnca)
forgotten(a uita)

got
got up
found

got (a obine, a primi)


got up (a se trezi)
found (a gsi)

{ei}
made
laid
came
gave

made (a face)
laid (a pune)
come (a veni)
given (a da)

g)
get
get up
find
h)

e)
be
see

was/were
saw

{i:n}
been (a fi)
seen (a vedea)

make
lay
come
give

Examples:
Last year I bought a car and went to Boston. I spent my holiday there.
Cele mai folosite adverbe pentru Past Tense Simple sunt:
yesterday, last (month, year,) ago, (two days ago, 2 months ago, two years ago), on...., in....(on
Monday, in 1987 )
Examples:
I saw a movie yesterday. Am vzut un film ieri.
I didn't see the play last year. Nu am vzut piesa anul trecut.
I traveled to Japan two years ago. Am cltorit n Japonia acum doi ani.
He went on holiday in August. A mers n vacan n august.
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
Situation: Daniel went on holiday in July (last month).
Tell how he spent his holiday (Use Past Tense Simple).
Example:
Daniel (go) on holiday in July.
Daniel went on holiday in July.
1. He (spend) three days in the Danube Delta last month.
2. Daniel (get up) early in the morning and (do) morning exercises.
12

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Then he (wash) and (eat/have) breakfast with his parents.


After that he (go fishing) with his friends Irina and Larry.
He (swim) in the Danube in the evening.
The weather (be) fine all the time.
Daniel (make) a lot of friends there.
He (come back) home in September to go to school.

Put the sentences into the negative and interrogative forms.


Examples:
Negative form:
Daniel (go) on holiday in July.
Daniel did not go on holiday in July.
Interrogative form:
Daniel (go) on holiday in July.
Did Daniel go on holiday in July?

VERB - FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE


VERBUL TIMPUL VIITOR SIMPLU
CITII TEXTUL DE MAI JOS:
READ THE TEXT:
Next year I will live with my husband and my children at the countryside. I will be a doctor. I
will go to work in the morning. I will have many friends in the village. My friend, Louise, she
will be a teacher in the village. She will go to school in the afternoon every week day. She will
not go to school in the week end. She will teach English. My father, my mother, my brother and
my sister will live there, too. They will be farmers. I will enjoy living in nature.
Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul viitor simplu:
I will live eu voi locui
I will be eu voi fi
I will go eu voi merge
I will have eu voi avea
She will be ea va fi
She will go ea va merge
She will not go ea nu va merge
She will teach ea va preda
They will live ei vor locui
They will be ei vor fi
I will enjoy - mi va face plcere

13

Future Tense Simple (Viitorul simplu) exprim un eveniment, o aciune care are loc ntr-un
moment viitor, apropiat de momentul vorbirii.
Example:
I will visit him tomorrow. - O s-l vizitez mine. (l voi vizita mine.)
We shall overcome. - Vom nvinge.
n engleza modern forma shall este foarte puin utilizat.
Cea mai des folosit n Engleza vorbit i scris este forma prescurtat 'll.
I'll go to the seaside next week. - Sptmna viitoare voi pleca la mare.
You'll spend the holiday in the mountains. - Voi vei petrece vacana la munte.
Forma negativ se formeaz cu will not sau forma won't n faa verbului principal la prezent.
I will not (won't) drink wine. - Nu voi bea vin.
She will not (won't) play football. - Ea nu va juca fotbal.
Forma interogativ se formeaz prin inversiunea dintre auxiliarul will i subiect.
Will you work here? - Vei lucra aici?
Will she sing beautifully? - Va cnta ea frumos?
To work ( a lucra, a munci) la Future Tense Simple:
Afirmativ
I/you/he/she/it/we/they will work
Negativ
I/you/he/she/it/we/they will not work
Interogativ
Will I/you/he/she/it/we/they work?
Adverbele cele mai utilizate pentru a exprima o aciune viitoare cu Future Tense Simple sunt:
tomorrow, next (month, year)
I'll finish this report tomorrow. - Voi termina acest raport mine.
Will he come next week? - Va veni el sptmna viitoare?
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
Situation 1: Grandpa does not hear very well what Daniel is saying. Complete his questions and
Daniels answers.
Example:
Daniel: Ill go to the Physics lab tomorrow.
Grandpa: Where will you go tomorow?
Daniel: To the Physics lab grandpa!
Daniel:
1. Ill work in the lab tomorrow.
2. Ill do an interesting experiment tomorrow.
3. Ill obtain hydrogen in the Chemistry lesson.

Grandpa:
Where.........?
What.........?
What .........?
14

4. Ill learn interesting things next week.


5. Ill study hydrogen next week.
6. Ill ask the teacher a lot of questions.

When .........?
What .........?
Who .........?

Situation 2. Daniel contradicts everything Irina says about her friend Larry.
Example:
Irina: Larry will go fishing tomorrow
Daniel: Larry wont go fishing tomrrow.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Larry will read his lesson later.


Larry will go to the cinema next Sunday.
Hell go shopping tomorrow morning.
Hell help you tomorrow evening.
Hell have an experiment in the chemistry lab next week.
Hell wash the car on Sunday morning.
Hell buy a new car next year.
Hell take a new project next month.

VERB PRESENT PERFECT


CITII TEXTUL DE MAI JOS :
READ THE TEXT:
I have lived with my husband and my children at the countryside for a long time. I have been a
doctor. I have gone to work in the morning. I have had many friends in the village. My friend,
Louise, she has been a teacher in the village. She has gone to school in the afternoon every
week day. She has not gone/hasnt gone to school in the week end. She has taught English. My
father, my mother, my brother and my sister have lived there, too. They have been farmers. I
have enjoyed living in nature.
Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Present Perfect:
I have lived eu am locuit
I have been eu am fost
I have gone eu am mers
I have had eu am avut
She has been ea a fost
She has gone ea a mers
She has not gone/hasnt gone ea nu a mers
She has taught ea a predat
They have lived ei au locuit
They have been ei au fost
I have enjoyed mi-a plcut
Present Perfect - exprim o stare care a nceput n trecut i care nc se continu.
Weve been friends for a long time. - Suntem prieteni de mult timp.
15

- exprim o stare terminat n trecut, pentru care momentul cnd a avut loc nu prezint interes;
accentul este pus pe experiena n sine trit prin aciunea respectiv
Ive never been to China. - N-am fost niciodat n China.
- exprim o aciune trecut al crei rezultat este vizibil n prezent
Hes broken his arm. - i-a rupt braul.
To work (a lucra, a munci) la Present Perfect
Afirmativ
I/you/we/they have worked
he/she/it has worked
Negativ
I/you/we/they have not worked (havent worked)
he/she/it has not worked (hasnt worked)
Interogativ
Have I/you/we/they worked?
Has he/she/it worked?
Expresii cu care se folosete adesea Prezentul Perfect Simplu:
already, just, yet
Exemple:
1. He has already finished his classes. - A terminat deja orele.
2. Tom has just spoken on the phone with Mary.-Tom tocmai a vorbit la telefon cu Maria.
3. They haven't written the exercise yet. Ei nu au scris exerciiul nc.
never, ever, often
Exemple:
1. I have never heard such a thing.- Nu am mai auzit niciodat un astfel de lucru.
2. Have you ever read this news? Ai citit vreodat tirea aceasta?
3. I have often traveled by car to the countryside. Am cltorit adesea cu maina la ar.
ever and before
Exemplu:
Have you ever heard this song before? Ai mai auzit vreodat cntecul acesta?
for and since
Exemple:
1. I've had my own car for four years. Am avut propria mea main timp de patru ani.
2. She has been ill since yesterday. Este bolnav de ieri.
until now, so far, up to now
Exemple:
1. I haven't had any Math problems up to now. Nu am mai avut probleme la matematic pn
acum.
2. So far, he hasn't complained about his wage. Pn acum nu s-a pl ns de salariul su.
3. Until now, I haven't heard about this English singer. Pn acum nu am auzit de acest cntre
englez.
Exerciii Practice
16

LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!

I. Pune verbele din parantez la Prezentul Perfect Simplu, ca n exemplul de mai jos:
Exemplu:
Tom .......... (write) .......... his homework.
Tom has just written his homework.
1. I .......... (fix) .......... my car.
2. Father .......... (leave) .......... home.
3. They .......... (arrive) .......... to the theatre.
4. We .......... (see) .......... our Math teacher.
5. He .......... (begin) .......... to cry.
II. Completeaz urmtoarele propoziii ca n exemplul de mai jos, folosind timpul Prezent
Perfect Simplu:
Exemplu:
This is the most beautiful girl I .......... (see)
This is the most beautiful girl I have ever seen.
1. That is the most interesting movie he .......... (see)
2. This is the best book she .......... (read)
3. This is the biggest mall they .......... (visit)
4. These are the most attractive souvenirs they .......... (buy)
5. Those are the most wonderful monuments they .......... (see)

VERB PAST PERFECT SIMPLE


CITII TEXTUL DE MAI JOS :
READ THE TEXT:
I had lived with my husband and my children at the countryside for a long time before I moved
in Piteti. I had been a doctor. I had gone to work in the morning. I had had many friends in the
village. My friend, Louise, she had been a teacher in the village. She had gone to school in the
afternoon every week day. She had not gone/hadnt gone to school in the week end. She had
taught English. My father, my mother, my brother and my sister had lived there, too. They had
been farmers. I had enjoyed living in nature. Now everything is over. I have moved in town.
Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Past Perfect, corespondentul timpului mai mult ca perfect din
limba romn:
I had lived eu locuisem
I had been eu fusesem
I had gone eu mersesem
I had had eu avusesem
She had been ea fusese
She had gone ea mersese
She had not gone/hadnt gone ea nu mersese
17

She has taught ea predase


They had lived ei locuiser
They had been ei fuseser
I had enjoyed mi plcuse
Past Perfect - exprim o aciune anterioar altei aciuni din trecut sau anterioar unui moment
din trecut
The little boy said that he had seen a fairy in the garden. Bieelul a spus c vzuse o zn n grdin.
The little spoke as if he had seen a fairy. Bieelul vorbea de parc vzuse o zn.
- exprim o dorin nerealizat
I wish/ wished I hadn't missed the flight. mi doresc s nu fi pierdut avionul.
- exprim o aciune anterioar unei aciuni
Tom said that he would go to France after he had learned French a little bit.- Tom a spus c se va
duce n Frana dup ce va fi nvat puin francez.
Verbul to work (a lucra, a munci ) la Past Perfect:
Afirmativ
I/you he/she/it /we/you/they had worked
Negativ
I/you he/she/it /we/you/they hadnt worked
Interogativ
Had I/you/ he/she/it /we/you/they worked?
Expresii cu care se folosete adesea Past Perfect Simplu:
Before, never, ever
You had studied English before you moved to New York. Studiasei engleza nainte s te mui n NY.
I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Crete. Nu vzusem niciodat o plaj
aa de frumoas pn nu am mers n Creta.
Had Susan ever studied Chinese before she moved to China? Studiase Susan vreodat chineza
pn s se mute n China?
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
Situation:
Daniel and Irina spent their last summer holiday at the seaside. Irina went there for the first time,
Daniel had been there before. Ask and answer questions about them:
Example:
be to the beach
Had Daniel been to the beach before?
Yes, he had.
Had Irina been to the beach before?
No, she hadnt.
18

1.
2.
3.
4.

see the Black Sea


swim in the sea
sunbathe on the beach
go fishing in the sea

5. walk down the beach


6. stay at a hotel
7. make the tour of Constana
8. visit Eforie Nord

19

PARTEA I

MORFOLOGIA VERBUL - ASPECTUL


VERB - PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS
CITII TEXTUL DE MAI JOS :
READ THE TEXT:
In this moment I am living with my husband and my children at the countryside. My friend,
Louise, she is at school now. She is teaching English. My father, my mother, my brother and my
sister are in the field now. They are woking in this moment.
Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Present Continuous
I am living eu locuiesc
She is teaching - ea pred
They are woking ei lucreaz
Present Tense Continuous exprim o aciune desfurat ce are loc n momentul vorbirii.
Example: I am writing now.
I am studying English now- in this moment
o aciune temporar ce are loc n prezent ca o excepie de la regul.
Example: I usually wake up early but today I am waking up late.
o aciune obinuit care enerveaz.
Example: She is always telling lies.
Verbul to work (a lucra, a munci) la Present Tense Continuous:
Afirmativ
I am working
You/we/you/they are working
he/she/it is working
Negativ
I am not working
You/we/you/they are not working
he/she/it is not working
Interogativ
Am I working?
Are you/we/you/they working?
Is he/she/it working?
20

Adverbele cele mai des utilizate cu prezentul continuu:


now, in this moment, always,
She is sending emails right now to all her friends. Ea trimite emailuri acum tuturor prietenilor
si.
We are not working in this moment, we are on strike. Nu lucrm n acest moment. Suntem n
grev.
She's always coming in when we talk something important. ntotdeauna trebuie s intre n
camer fix cnd vorbim noi lucruri importante.
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII
Situation: Today is Monday. All the employees are at work, in various rooms of the building. It is
nine oclock in the morning. Say what they are doing at the moment.
Example:
Irina is in the directors office. (give information)
She is giving information at this moment/now.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Larry is in his office (work)


Daniel is in the secretariate (type a letter)
Ioana is in the conference room (present a project)
Maria is in the hall (speak on the phone)
Matei is in the guests room (meet some clients)

VERB - PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS


CITII TEXTUL DE MAI JOS :
READ THE TEXT:
I was living with my husband and my children at the countryside while my father, my mother,
my brother and my sister were living in town. I was going to work in the morning. I was having
many friends in the village. My friend, Louise was going to school in the afternoon every week
day but my sister was going in the afternoon. They were not going to school in the week end.
Louise was teaching English while my sister was teaching History.
Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Past Tense Continuous (echivalentul imperfectului din limba
romn):
I was living eu locuiam
They were living ei locuiau
I was going eu mergeam
I was having eu aveam
21

Louise was going Louise mergea


My sister was going sora mea mergea
They were not going ei nu mergeau
Louise was teaching Louise preda
My sister was teaching sora mea preda
Past Tense Continuous se folosete pentru a exprima o aciune care se desfura ntr-un
moment bine definit n trecut.
While she was watching TV yesterday, her friend came to see her.
Verbul to work (a lucra, a munci) la Past Tense Continuous:
Afirmativ
I was working
You/we/you/they were working
he/she/it was working
Negativ
I was not working
You/we/you/they were not working
he/she/it was not working
Interogativ
was I working?
were you/we/you/they working?
was he/she/it working?
Adverbele cele mai des utilizate cu past continuous:
At this time yesterday, this time last week,

Examples:
At seven oclock yesterday morning, I was in the bathroom. I was washing my face. La ora
apte ieri diminea, eram n baie, mi splam faa.
This time last week you were reading the magazine. Pe vremea asta sptmna trecut tu citeai
revista.
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
Situation: Yesterday afternoon all the employees were at work. Say what they were doing when
Mr Smith, the boss, came in.
Example:
Larry and Irina/discuss about a marketing project
Larry and Irina were discussing about a marketing project when Mr Smith came in.
22

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Daniel and John / work in the office


Matei and Maria / speak on the phone
Ioana /write a report
Martha / water the flowers
Victor / talk to his colleague
Angela/open the windows
Mark and Chris /look at some pictures
Fiona/read the newspapers

VERB- FUTURE CONTINUOUS


CITII TEXTUL DE MAI JOS :
READ THE TEXT:
I will be living with my husband and my children at the countryside at this time next year when
my father, my mother, my brother and my sister will be living in town. I will be working in the
morning, my friend, Louise will be going to school in the afternoon every week day but my
sister will be going in the evening. They will not be going to school in the week end. Louise will
be teaching English while my sister will be teaching History.
Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Future Continuous:
I will be living voi locui
They will be living vor locui
I will be working voi lucra
Louise will be going Louise va merge
They will not be going - ei nu vor merge
Louise will be teaching Louise va preda
My sister will be teaching sora mea va preda
Verbul to work (a lucra, a munci) la Future Tense Continuous:
Afirmativ
I /we shall/will be working
You he/she/it /they will be working
Negativ
I /we shall/will not be working
You he/she/it /they will not be working
Interogativ
Shall/will I /we be working?
Will you he/she/it /they be working?
Future Tense Continuous exprim o aciune n desfurare ntr-un moment viitor, posterior
momentului vorbirii.
Exemplu: I shall/will be walking at two oclock tomorrow.
at this time next week.
23

M voi plimba mine la ora dou.


sptmna viitoare la ora asta.
- exprim o aciune n desfurare ntrerupt de o aciune momentan.
Exemplu: When he comes, I will be eating. Cnd va veni, eu voi fi n mijlocul mesei.
- exprim o aciune n desfurare n viitor n paralel cu o alt aciune n desfurare, de
asemenea n viitor.
Exemplu: She will be walking while I am sleeping.- Ea se va plimba n timp ce eu voi dormi.
Adverbele cele mai des utilizate cu Future Continuous:
when, while, at his time next week, month, year, etc
Examples: You will be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight. Tu o vei atepta cnd
sosete avionul disear.
I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight. Cnd ea va sosi disear, eu voi fi la televizor.
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
Punei verbele din parantez la Future Continuous.
Example: Mark ______________ on the computer when his mother arrives home. (to play)
Answer: Mark will be playing on the computer when his mother arrives home.
1) She ______________ him next week. (to meet)
2) We ______________ in Piteti just about now. (to arrive)
3) At 8 o'clock on Tuesday they ______________ the new song. (to sing)
4) He ______________when you call her. (to sleep)
5) It ______________ when I reach Madrid. (to rain, probably)
6) Mary ______________ a video when I arrive tonight. (to watch)
7) You ______________ spaghetti soon. (to eat)
8) This time next week he ______________ to Africa. (to fly)
9) Mary ______________to the party on Sunday. (to come)
10) Tomorrow at nine I ______________a test paper. (to write)

VERB PRESENT PERFECT COTINUOUS


CITII TEXTUL DE MAI JOS :
READ THE TEXT:
I have been living with my husband and my children at the countryside for 5 years. I have been
going to work in the morning but my friend, Louise, has been going to school in the afternoon
every week day. She has been teaching English for 5 years at the same village school and she is
24

still enjoying this. My father, my mother, my brother and my sister have been living there, too.
They are farmers. We like living in nature.
Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Present Perfect Continuous:
I have been living eu locuiesc
I have been going eu merg
Louise has been going Louise merge
She has been teaching ea pred
They have been living ei locuiesc
Present Perfect Continuous - exprim o aciune care s-a desfurat pn acum i va continua
probabil i n viitor.
I have been working in the garden all day long. Am muncit n grdin toat ziua.
They have been playing tennis for half an hour Joac tenis de jumtate de or.
- exprim o aciune repetat frecvent, ntr-o perioad de timp care se ntinde din trecut pn n
prezent
He has been writing poems since he was a child.- Scrie poezii de cnd era copil.
- exprim o aciune trecut, ncheiat recent, care este cauza unui efect simit n prezent
A: Why are your hands dirty?
B: Ive been repairing my bike.
To work (a lucra, a munci) la Present Perfect Continuous
Afirmativ
I/you/we/they have been working
he/she/it has been working
Negativ
I/you/we/they have not been working (havent been working)
he/she/it has not been working (hasnt been working)
Interogativ
Have I/you/we/they been working?
Has he/she/it been working?
Expresii cu care se folosete adesea Present Perfect Continuous:
since
Exemplu: You have been living in Paris since 1996. Locuieti n Paris din 1996.
for
Exemplu: They have been watching TV for 3 hours. Se uit la televizor de 3 ore.
so far
Exemplu: So far, there have been arriving 10 passengers from London. Pn acum au sosit 10
pasageri din Londra.

25

ever
Exemplu: Have you ever been listening to the radio? Ai ascultat vreodat la radio?
never
Exemplu: I have never been travelling to France until now.- Nu am cltorit n Frana pn
acum.
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
Completeaz spaiile goale cu "FOR"( de) i "SINCE"(din, de la). Pune verbele din parantez la
Prezentul Perfect Continuu:
Exemplu:
Helen (study) English .......... last summer.
Helen has been studying English since last summer.
1. We (talk) about that horrible accident .......... half an hour.
2. She (cook) a chicken soup .......... 1 hour.
3. They (phone) the manager .......... the last five minutes.
4. Mary (live) in Manhattan .......... June 1998.
5. It (rain) .......... morning.

VERB PAST PERFECT COTINUOUS


CITII TEXTUL DE MAI JOS :
READ THE TEXT:
I had been living with my husband and my children at the countryside before I came in town. I
had been going to work in the morning. My friend, Louise, she had been going to school in the
afternoon every week day before leaving the countryside, too. She had been teaching English.
My father, my mother, my brother and my sister had been living there, too. Now everything is
over. I have moved in town.
Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Past Perfect Contionuous:
I had been living eu locuisem
I had been going eu mersesem
She had been going ea mersese
She had been teaching ea predase
They had been living ei locuiser
Past Perfect Continuous - exprim o aciune n curs pn la un moment dat trecut cnd a fost
oprit de o alt aciune a crei urmri continu i azi.

26

They had been working on the new house before the fire destroyed it.
(Ei) lucrau la casa cea nou nainte s fie distrus de foc.
Verbul to work (a lucra, a munci ) la Past Perfect Continuous:
Afirmativ
I/you he/she/it /we/you/they had been working
Negativ
I/you he/she/it /we/you/they hadnt been working
Interogativ
Had I/you/ he/she/it /we/you/they been working
Expresii cu care se folosete adesea Past Perfect Continuous:
For five minutes" , "for two weeks", etc
You had not been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived.
Ai ateptat-o cel mult dou ore cnd n final a sosit.
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
Put the verbs into the correct form (past perfect continuous).
She (sleep) for 10 hours when he woke us up.
We (wait) at the station for 60 minutes when the train finally arrived.
They (look for) her ring for three hours and then we found it in the bathroom.
I (not / walk) for a long time, when it suddenly began to rain.
How long (learn / she) English before she went to London?
She (drive) less than an hour when he ran out of gas.
They were very tired in the evening because they (help) on the farm all day.
I (not / work) all day; so I wasn't tired and went to the disco at night.
They (cycle) all day so their legs were sore in the evening.

VERB - FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS


CITII TEXTUL DE MAI JOS :
READ THE TEXT:
When my friends will come to live at the countryside I will have been living with my husband
and my children there for 5 years. I will have already been working for a couple of years as a
doctor, Louise will have been teaching English in the afternoon for 5 years, too. Until next year,
we will have been staying there for 6 years.

27

Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Future Perfect Continuous:


I will have been living voi fi locuit
I will have been working eu voi fi lucrat
Louise will have been teaching Louise va fi predat
We will have been staying noi vom fi stat
Verbul to work (a lucra, a munci) la Future Perfect Continuous :
Afirmativ
I / you he/she/it /we /they will have been working
Negativ
I / you he/she/it /we /they will not have been working
Interogativ
Will I / you/ he/she/it /we /they have been working?
Future Perfect Continuous - acest timp se folosete rar n vorbire, fiind o form caracteristic
limbii scrise i pune mai mult accentul pe perioada lung de timp dect Future Continuous
Se traduce tot prin "voi fi lucrat", i ca toate formele de timpuri continue implic o aciune n
derulare.
Exemplu: By 2010 he will have been working for 40 years.- n 2010 el va fi lucrat de 40 de ani
Adverbul cel mai des utilizat cu Future Perfect Continuous: for
Example: By six oclock p.m., she will have been selling blouses for eight hours.- Pn la ora 18
ea va fi vndut bluze timp de opt ore.
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
Punei verbele din parantez la Future Perfect Continuous sau la Future Perfect
Mike: Helen has been in the kitchen all day long.
Ross: It doesn't sound like she's having a very good birthday party.
Mike: She (cook) for over five hours by the time everyone arrives for dinner. Hopefully, she
(finish) everything by then.
Ross: Maybe we should give her a helping hand.

28

29

PARTEA I

MORFOLOGIA VERBUL - DIATEZA


I DIATEZA ACTIV
II DIATEZA PASIV
I Verbul este la diateza activ cnd subiectul gramatical svrete aciunea, care se rsfrnge
asupra subiectului (n cazul verbelor tranzitive).
Exemplu: Lucy has written a letter.- Lucia a scris o scrisoare.
II Verbul este la diateza pasiv cnd subiectul gramatical sufer aciunea svrit de obiect.
Exemplu: This letter has been written by Lucy. Aceast scrisoare a fost scris de Lucia.
Diateza pasiv se remarc prin:
- utilizarea verbului be sau get
- complementul de agent introdus de prepoziia by
exemplu: She was met at the station by my brother. Ea a fost ateptat la gar de fratele meu.
Conjugarea unui verb la diateza pasiv:
Aspectul simplu:
Present simple:
Past Simple:
Present Perfect
Past Perfect:
Future
Future Perfect

I am seen. He is seen. We are seen.


I was seen. We were seen.
I have been seen. He has been seen
I had been seen.
I shall be seen. We will be seen.
I shall have been seen. He will have been seen.

Aspectul continuu:
Present Continuous:
Past Continuous:

The classrooms are being cleaned now.


The school was being cleaned when we wanted to visit it.

Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
1. Trecei urmtoarele propoziii la diateza pasiv, transformnd complementul persoanei n
subiect.

30

Exemplu:
The guide is showing them the museum.
They are being shown the museum.
They have appointed him president.
She has given me a good dictionary.
They will tell you what time the bus leaves.
Ill pay the carpenter for his work.
He promised them new bicycles.
2. Traducei urmtoarele propoziii n limba englez, folosind verbe la diateza pasiv:
Exemplu:
Aceast problem trebuie analizat.
This matter must be looked into.
Nu s-a dormit n acest pat.
Copiii au fost bine ngrijii.
Cinele a fost clcat de un autobuz.
Vor rde de tine dac vei purta rochia asta.

PERSOANA I NUMRUL
Spre deosebire de verbul romnesc, verbul englez are puini indici formali care s marcheze
persoana i numrul. Singura desinen specific este s/es pentru persoana a III-a singular,
indicativ prezent.
I play, you play, he plays, she plays, we play, you play, they play.
I wash, you wash, he washes, she washes, we wash, you wash, they wash.
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
Folosii pronumele personal corect.
Exemplu: ___ often reads books. (Lisa)
She often reads books.
1) ___is dreaming. (George)
2) ___is green. (the blackboard)
3) ___are on the wall. (the posters)
4) ___is running. (the cat)
5) ___are watching TV. (my mother and I)
6) ___are in the garden. (the flowers)
7) ___is riding his horse. (Marc)
8) ___is from Bucharest. (Victoria)
9) ___has got a sister. (Diana)
10) Have ___ got a computer, Tom?
31

MODUL THE MOOD


I. MODUL INDICATIV (The Indicative Mood)
I.

Modul indicativ prezint aciunea, starea, etc. exprimat de verb ca real , ndeplinit
chiar.

Exemplu:
- He returned the book to the library after he had read it.- A napoiat cartea la bibliotec
dup ce a citit-o.
- I can return the book now. I have read it. Pot s napoiez cartea la bibliotec acum. Am
citit-o.
- He will return the book to the library next Monday. He will have read it by then.- Va
napoia cartea la bibliotec lunea viitoare. O va fi citit pn atunci.

II MODUL SUBJONCTIV (The Subjunctive Mood)


Modul subjonctiv prezint aciunea ca posibil cnd aciunea este proiectat n viitor , sau
ireal, cnd aciunea trebuia s aib loc n trecut.
SUBJONCTIVUL PREZENT
exprim o aciune considerat posibil, deci nu contrar realitii.
Exemplu: It is necessary that he be here.- Este necesar ca el s fie aici.
come in time.- s vin la timp.
SUBJONCTIVUL TRECUT
coincide ca form cu Past Tense Simple.
Exemplu: I wish he/they told the truth.- A dori s spun adevrul.
Observaie: Verbul be are form unic pentru toate persoanele: were
Exemplu: I wish he/they were here.
SUBJONCTIVUL ANALITIC
exprim o aciune posibil, presupus, pentru a sublinia ideea de aciune i nu aciunea
propriu-zis sau ndeplinirea ei, care sunt redate cu indicativul.
Exemplu: The idea is that sport facilities should be improved. (subjonctiv)
The fact is that sport facilities will be improved. (indicativ)
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
1. It is very important that all employees _______________ in their proper uniforms before 6:30
a.m.
A. are dressed
B. will be dressed
C. be dressed
2. I wish my sister _________ here.
A. were
B. was
32

3. The coach insisted that Mario _______ the center position, even though he's much too short
for that position..
A. plays
B. play
4. Mary hoped that the meeting _______________.
A. was adjourned
B. be adjourned
5. My mother would know what to do. Oh, would that she _______ here with us now!
A. were
B. was
6. If only Mark ______ a little more responsible in his choice of courses!
A. was
B. were
7. If Mrs. Smith ________ ill that night, the Smiths would not have gone to the cinema.
A. were
B. had been
8. Her employees treated Mrs. Smith as though she _______ a queen.
A. was
B. were
9. I wish I _________ better today.
A. feel
B. felt

INFINITIVUL - THE INFINITIVE


to + verb = infinitive
Infinitivul are doua forme: infinitivul lung (The Long Infinitive), marcat de particula to i
infinitivul scurt (The Short Infinitive) fr particula to. Acesta se folosete de obicei dup verbe
de percepie : hear, see, watch, notice, observe, perceive, sau dup have, let, make.
Exemplu: To err is human. A grei este omenesc.
I made her work harder. Am fcut-o s munceasc mai mult.

GERUNZIUL - THE GERUND


Gerunziul, adesea cunoscut sub denumirea de form n ing reprezint un substantiv format
dintr- un verb la care se adaug terminaia ing.
Exemplu: I adore reading your books.
I detest going to supermarkets.
I quit smoking.
I cant remember doing/having done this exercise before.
- are categoriile gramaticale de timp i diatez:
- Diateza activ:
Gerund:
I enjoy learning English.- mi place s nv engleza.
Perfect Gerund
He denies having taken the books. Neag c a luat crile.
-Diateza pasiv:
Gerund:
He cant stand being interrupted.- Nu suport s fie ntrerupt.
Perfect Gerund
He denies having been invited. Neag c a fost invitat.
- caracteristici substantivale:
Exemplu: The sound of a loud knocking at the door interrupted us.
her coming in interrupted us.
a babys crying interrupted us.

33

Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
Pune verbul din paranteze la gerunziu sau la infinitivul lung (to-).
Exemplu:

They go on _______ (read) the book.


They go on reading the book.

1) I can't imagine Peter (go) by bike.


2) He agreed (buy) a new washing machine.
3) The question is easy (answer).
4) The man asked me how (get) to the railway station.
5) I look forward to (see) you at the weekend.
6) Are you thinking of (visit) Paris?
7) We decided (run) through the dark forest.
8) The teacher expected Sarah (study) hard.
9) She doesn't mind (work) the night shift.
10) I learned (ride) the bike at the age of 3.

PARTICIPIUL TRECUT - PAST PARTICIPLE


-

Este forma nepersonal a verbului care denumete aciunea ca rezultat. Se formeaz de la


infinitiv la care se adaug terminaia ed (n cazul verbelor regulate), i forma a III-a n
cazul verbelor neregulate.
Exemple: He is an aged man. Este un om n vrst.
He is a learned man Este un om nvat.
A drunken man is unpleasant to look at. Un om beat este neplcut la vedere.
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
1. Completai corect formele de participiu trecut.
the (lose) son
an (interest) audience
a (break) leg
an (empty) bottle
a (close) door
a (decorate) room
two (pack) bags
the (write) letters
the (sell) car
the (buy) apples

34

VERBELE AUXILIARE - AUXILIARY VERBS


Au urmtoarele caracteristici:
sunt golite de sens lexical: I shall leave after he comes.- Voi pleca dup ce vine el.
nlociuesc verbele noionale n rspunsuri scurte i ntrebri disjunctive:
Do you like this book? Yes, I do.
He has written a good composition, hasnt he?
apar adesea sub forme reduse:
Ive got a book.- I have got a book.
I havent got a book. I have not got a book.
Hes come.- He has come
Hes here.- He is here.
Verbele auxiliare:
1. be/was/were/been
2. have/had/had
3. shall/should
4. will/would
5. may/might
6. let
7. do/does
Exemple:
1. Infinitive: be reading
Present: He is reading
Past: He was reading
Future: He will be reading
Conditional: He would be reading
Infinitive Perfect: have been reading
Present Perfect: He has been reading
Past Perfect: He had been reading
Future Perfect: He will have been reading
Conditional Perfect: He would have been reading
2. Perfect Infinitive: have read
Perfect Gerund: having read
Present Perfect: He has read
Past Perfect: He had read
Future Perfect: He will have read
Conditional Perfect: He would have read
3. Future: I shall give
Future Perfect:I shall have given
Conditional: I should give
Conditional Perfect: I should have given
4. Future: I will give
Future Perfect: I will have given
Conditional: I would give
Conditional Perfect: I would have given
5. Hurry up, so that we may arrive in time.- Grbete-te ca s ajungem la timp.
They hurried so that we might arrive in time.- S-au grbit ca s ajungem la timp.
6. Let me think! Las-m s m gndesc.
7. Do you live in this town?- Locuieti n acest ora?
35

Does he work here? Lucreaz aici?


Did he attend this school? A urmat aceast coal?
I dont like it. Nu-mi place.
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
Alegei auxiliarul potrivit:
What ________ you done?
I ________ not like this song.
________ she know that you are here?
The lesson ________not started yet.
________you drink milk?
Who ________ eaten my biscuits?
It ________ not matter.
They ________ not want to play outside.
We ________ not seen you for a long time.
My friend ________sent me some photos.
The train ________ just arrived.
________ you understand?
They ________been learning English for two years.
________ you heard that?
My uncle ________ not eat fish.
I ________ not live here.
________anybody rung up for me?
She ________ not play the piano.
How ________ we get there?
Where ________ he live?

VERBELE MODALE - MODAL VERBS


Verbele: can, may, must, ought to, shall, will i parial need i dare formeaz grupul de verbe
modale. Aceste verbe nu formeaz infinitivul cu particula 'to'.
can - a putea, cu nelesul de a fi n stare. n vorbirea curent mai ales n ntrebri se folosete n
locul lui 'may' (nseamn i conserv i 'to can' = a face conserv)
may - a putea, cu ntelesul de a avea voie. (nseamn i luna mai). n plus se folosete n urri, de
exemplu poate fi tradus prin 'fie' .
must - a trebui, a fi necesar (nseamn i must- suc de struguri), poate fi tradus uneori i prin
probabil (sau 'trebuie ca')
ought to- ar trebui, ar fi cazul
shall - este o ntrire a unui ordin dac este spus apsat. Altfel formeaz viitorul persoanei nti.
n acest ultim caz de obicei se nlocuiete cu 'will'.
will - formeaz viitorul, particula 'voi' din romnete. I will come = Voi veni. Se folosete i la
formarea viitorului. (nseamn i testament i voin).
need - a trebui, cu nelesul de a avea nevoie
dare - a ndrazni, a provoca pe cineva

36

Exemple:
I know I can.- tiu c pot.
May I have this dance? (Pot s am acest dans) - mi acordai acest dans?
May the force be with you! - Fie ca fora s te nsoeasc! din filmul StarWars, adic s ai noroc.
If you must, you must - Dac trebuie, trebuie.
I must be dreaming - Trebuie c visez (probabil c visez).
You ought to stop smoking. Ar fi cazul/ar trebui/i recomand s nu mai fumezi.
You shall not kill = Nu vei omor (s nu omori).
I will survive = Voi supravieui.
Need I go on? - E nevoie s continui?
How dare you talk like this! - Cum ndrzneti s vorbeti aa!
Caracteristicile generale ale verbelor modale
Nu accept particula to pentru infinitiv, nu au participiu i nici forma cu -ing. Din aceast
cauz multe timpuri lipsesc acestor verbe.
Foarte important: Verbul care urmeaz unui verb modal nu are to n fa. Adic, n limba romn
se spune: Trebuie s mnnc. n limba englez se spune: I must eat.
Atenie: I need to eat - need aici nu e verb modal).
Din exemplele de mai sus vedem c aceast regul a verbelor modale e respectat: I know I can
(fr 'to'), May I have this dance? (fr 'to') etc.
Forma negativ nu cere do. Adic n cazul celorlalte verbe se pune un do not sau does not
pentru negaie.
I eat meat - Mnnc carne.
I do not eat meat - Nu mnnc carne.
I can not eat meat - Nu pot s mnnc carne. (particula do cade)
Forma interogativ nu cere do.
Do you eat meat? - Mnnci carne?
Can you eat meat? - Poi s mnnci carne?
Must you eat meat? - Trebuie s mnnci carne?
Aceste verbe nu se schimb dup persoan: I can, you can, he/she can etc. Adic persoana a
treia singular nu primete 's'.
Aceste verbe se pot contracta cu particula not din propoziii negative.
can't = can not, mustn't = must not, won't = will not sunt verbele modale care folosesc cel mai
mult aceast regul.
Pentru formarea celebrului 'nu-i aa' din englez e necesar folosirea acestor verbe. Forma 'nu-i
aa' depinde de verbul modal folosit n prima parte a ntrebrii. I can go, can't I? - Pot s m duc,
nu-i aa? sau He will go, won't he? - Va merge, nu-i aa?
CAN/COULD exprim
capacitatea fizic sau intelectual
Daniel can speak three foreign languages. Daniel tie trei limbi strine.
Irina could run faster than you last year. Irina putea s alerge mai repede dect tine anul trecut.
Viitor: Ill be able to skate next year.
Condiional: Would you be able to manage by yourself if it was necessary ?
Could you manage by yourself if it was necessary ?
Te-ai putea descurca singur dac ar fi nevoie ?
Observaie ! Diferena de sens ntre could i was/were able to se pierde la negativ sau cu verbe
de percepie:
I couldnt swim yesterday as the weather was very bad.
37

I wasnt able to swim yesterday as the weather was very bad.


I couldnt see him in the dark.
I wasnt able to see him in the dark.
permisiunea
A: Can I borrow your pen ? B: Of course you can.
permisiunea n trecut
On Sundays we could stay in bed until ten oclock.- Duminic aveam voie s stm n pat pn la
ora 10. n acest sens, can/could poate fi nlocuit de be allowed to, be permitted to: On Sundays
we were allowed to stay in bed until ten oclock.
MAY/MIGHT
folosit pentru a cere (a) sau a acorda (b) permisiunea (mai oficial dect can):
a) May I go ? Pot s plec ?
b) You may go. Poi s pleci.
exprim o cerere, o rugminte politicoas (may este mai politicos i oficial dect can/could):
May I use your phone ? mi dai voie s dau telefon ?
exprim o posibilitate prezent sau viitoare
He may come today- Se poate s vin azi.
might este folosit n cereri insistente sau atunci cnd vorbitorul este iritat de nendeplinirea
unei aciuni
You might give me an answer. (Please, give me an answer)
MUST / HAVE TO / NEED
MUST
Must se folosete pentru a exprima:
1) obligaia: They must stop because the traffic light is red now.
Must exprimnd obligaia poate fi nlocuit de have to sau ve got to.
2. deducia logic: She must be at home. She left two hours ago.
HAVE TO. ntre must i have to exist urmtoarele diferene de sens:
a) Must exprim o obligaie impus de ctre vorbitor, pe cnd have to exprim o obligaie impus
din exterior:
I must go. (Its my decision).
We have to go. (The shop is closing).
b) Must exprim o obligaie important, urgent:
I must be at the hospital at two. Its most important.
Have to exprim o obligaie obinuit, repetat (habitual obligation):
I have to be at the hospital at seven oclock every morning. I begin work at seven.
Prezent:
You must stay home for a few days. Youve got flu.
You have to stay home when you have flu.
Past Tense:
He had to stay home last week. He was quite ill.
Viitor:
You must stay home tomorrow if you dont feel better.
Youll have to stay home when you feel feverish again.
HAVE GOT TO
n vorbirea familiar, se adaug got la have to, iar have se contrage obinndu-se
Ive got/I havent got to phone her.
NEED/NEEDNT
folosit pentru a exprima lipsa obligativitii
You neednt come early to work= You dont have to come early. (nu era nevoie)
SHALL/SHOULD.
38

Shall este folosit: pentru a exprima obligaie, n stil oficial (acte, regulamente, etc. la persoana
a II-a i a III-a)
The employer shall supply the necessary documents in due time.
Angajatorul va furniza documentele necesare n timp util.
Shall este folosit n propoziii interogative, la persoana I singular sau plural:
a)- pentru a cere un sfat, o sugestie, un ordin:
Where shall we put the flowers ? Unde s punem florile ?
Shall we go to the cinema tonight ? (Ce spui), mergem la cinema disear ?
What shall we do ? Ce trebuie s facem ?
b)- pentru a face o ofert: Shall I help you ? S te ajut ?
Should este folosit pentru a exprima:
a) obligaia, necesitatea logic de nfptuire a unei aciuni, de obicei sub form de sfat de ctre
vorbitor:
The novel is very interesting. You should read it.
Romanul este foarte interesant. Ar trebui s-l citeti.
He shouldnt tell lies. N-ar trebui s mint.
b) o presupunere: He should be there by now. Ar trebui s fi ajuns acolo deja.
OUGHT TO
La fel ca i should, ought to exprim obligaia sau datoria, de obicei sub forma unui sfat dat de
ctre vorbitor:
You ought to start packing before 12 oclock to make the check out.
WILL/WOULD
exprim o comand:You will do that immediately!
exprim insistena: He will work as a doctor no matter what!
o invitaie:Will you have another slice of pizza?
o cerere, o rugminte: Will you sign the papers, please?
o rugminte foarte politicoas- cu would: Would you do me a favor?
insistena, hotrrea de a efectua ceva n trecut:
He would continue writing for hours, no matter what I said.
probabilitatea: That would be his pen.- Probabil c acela este stiloul lui.
USED TO exprim
o aciune repetat, un obicei trecut care nu mai este repetat n prezent:
I used to call him when I was a student, I dont do this anymore.
Obinuiam s l sun cnd erma student, nu mai fac asta acum.
o aciune repetat, un obicei trecut care nc mai este repetat n prezent:
They used to go there every year and it is likely to find them there, too.
Obinuiau s se duc acolo n fiecare an i e posibil s i gseti acolo.
BE TO folosit pentru a exprima
o comand sau instruciuni ntr-un mod impersonal:
He is to stay in the building till midnight.
Trebuie/va sta /urmeaz s stea n cldire pn la miezul nopii.
o aciune planificat: The meeting is to start at 7:30.- ntlnirea urmeaz s nceap la 7:30.
DARE
este folosit cu sensul de a ndrzni, a avea curajul, mai ales n propoziii interogative:
How dare you say that? Cum ndrzneti s spui asta?
Exerciii Practice

39

LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!


EX. 1. Alegei varianta corect de rspuns.
1.We ______________ go to the party. We're going to a wedding.
A
won't be able to
B
will can't
C
couldn't
D
want be able to
2. He __________ pass the exam if he studied harder.
A
can
B
will be able to
C
would be able to
3.
I __________ remember his name.
A
'm not able to
B
can't
C
fish
4.
They ____________ go. The weather was too bad.
A
weren't able to
B
can't
C
couldn't
5.
Sorry, Teacher. I ____________ do it yet.
A
wasn't able to
B
couldn't
C
haven't been able to
EX.2. Alegei ntre must i have to:
1. I _______be at the meeting by 10:00. I will probably have to take a taxi if I want to be on
time.
2. You _______submit the application if it has not been completely filled out. If the form is not
complete, you will be rejected and you _______reapply at a later date.
3. Tina: Look at these flowers - they're beautiful! But, there's no card. Who could have sent
them?
Stephanie: It _______David. He's the only one who would send you flowers, you know.
4. You _______forget to pay the rent. Mr Daniel is very strict about paying on time.
5. You _______be like this! Why don't you try saying "please" once in a while.
EX 3. Alegei verbul modal potrivit situaiilor de mai jos:
1. Mike's flight from Paris took more than 7 hours.
He _________ quite exhausted after such a long flight.
2. The books are optional. My teacher said we _________ read them if we needed extra credit.
But we _________read them if we don't want to.
3. Daniel _________ hear a word because the crowd was cheering so loudly.
4. The refrigerator isn't working. It _________damaged during the move.
5. Mike: _________you hold your breath for more than a minute?
Jack: No, _________.
6. You _________be rich to be famous. Some of the most successful people I know haven't got a
penny.
40

7. I've redone this math problem at least ten times, but my answer is wrong according to the
answer key. So, the answer in the book _________wrong!
8. You _________do the job if you didn't speak three languages fluently.
9. You _________worry so much. It doesn't do you any good. Either you get the promotion, or
you don't. If you don't, just apply for another job.
10. You _________ leave the table once you have finished your dinner and politely excused
yourself.
11. Jenny's engagement ring is speechless! It _________cost a fortune.
12. _________we move into the living room? There's a beautiful view of the forest from there.
13. You had better take along some cash. The shop _________accept credit cards.
14. The machine _________start moving by pressing the left button.
15. I _________stand these people - I don t understand their priciples, so you get rid of them!
16. Do you always have to say the first thing that pops into your head.
_________ you think once in a while before you open your mouth?
17. Daniel and Mathew said they would come over right after work, so they _________be here
by 5:00.
18. You _________ no longer suffer this injustice! Freedom shall be yours!
19. If I had gone to an University in England, I _________participated in their English
immersion program.
20. The lamp _________be broken. Maybe the light bulb just burned out or something.

41

PARTEA I

MORFOLOGIA - SUBSTANTIVUL
Definiie: Substantivul:
a) denumete obiecte n sens foarte larg, adic fiine, lucruri, fenomene (woman, desk, rain, go,
happiness);
b) are categorii gramaticale de gen, numr i caz;
c) poate ndeplini n propoziie funciile de subiect, nume predicativ, atribut, apoziie,
complement, element predicativ suplimentar, sau poate fi echivalentul unei propoziii sau fraze.
Clasificare:
a) substantive simple: boy, meal, day;
b) substantive formate din derivare cu sufixe sau prefixe: childhood, disgust, unhappiness;
c) substantive formate prin compunere (substantivele compuse): schoolboy
d) substantive formate prin conversiune, din alte pri de vorbire:
- adjective: the good, the evil, the rich, the poor;
- verbe la infinitiv: cook, fall;
- verbe la Gerund: reading, boxing;
- verbe la participiul trecut: the injured;
e) substantive formate prin contragere: ad (advertisement), fridge (refrigerator), gym
(gymnasium), lab (laboratory), liv (livingroom), poly (polytechnic), pub (public house);
f) abrevieri: MP (Member of Parliament), Dr (doctor), Mr Brown (Dl. Brown), Mrs Brown (dna
Brown), Miss Brown (dra Brown), Ms Brown (apelativ pentru femei, cstorite sau
necstorite)
g) substantive comune i substantive proprii
- Substantivele comune pot fi:
- substantive colective, care denumesc obiecte constnd din mai multe elemente de acelai fel:
family, people;
- substantive concrete, care denumesc obiecte sau substana constitutiv a unor obiecte: table,
wood, steel;
- substantive abstracte, care denumesc abstraciuni: difficulty, worry, peace
Substantivele (numele) proprii au capacitatea de a individualiza un obiect dintr-o categorie de
obiecte de acelai fel, denumind n principiu un singur element dintr-o categorie. n limba
englez, substantivele proprii denumesc:
- nume de persoane: John, Larry, Daniel;
- denumiri geografice
- nume de localiti: London, Paris
- nume de ri i continente: Romania, France, Europe
- nume de ape i muni: London River, Carpathians
- diviziuni temporale
- lunile anului: January, February, March, April, June, July, August, September, October,
November, December
- zilele sptmnii: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday
- srbtori: Halloween
d) nume de cri, ziare, reviste: The English Magazine, Nine o Clock
e) nume de instituii
42

Numrul substantivelor :
I. Substantive numrabile (Count nouns)
II. Substantive nenumrabile (Mass nouns).
I. Substantivele numrabile denumesc noiunile ca uniti separate, care pot fi numrate: a
boy, two boys, a few boys, etc. Au urmtoarele caracteristici:
a) sunt variabile ca form, avnd att numrul singular, ct i numrul plural:
museum - museums, child - children;
b) pot fi precedate de numerale cardinale sau cuantificatori:
one book, three books, several apples, a lot of brushes;
c) la numrul singular se acord cu verbe la singular:
The book is on the table. /The apples are in the basket.
Formarea pluralului substantivelor numrabile:
Formele de plural sunt de dou feluri:
A. regulate, cnd pluralul se formeaz prin adugarea desinenei -s la forma de singular: book - books.
B. Neregulate, cnd pluralul se formeaz n alte moduri:
- Substantivele terminate n -s, -z, -x, -ch, -sh adaug es: bus - buses; glass - glasses; buzz buzzes; box - boxes; watch - watches; brush brushes
- cnd -o e precedat de o vocal: cuckoos; kangaroos; radios; scenarios; studios, zoos;
- adaug -es la substantive ca: echoes, heroes, mosquitoes, Negroes, potatoes, tomatoes
- Substantivele terminate n -y precedat de o consoan transform pe y n i i adaug -es: city cities; factory - factories. Transformarea nu are loc dup vocale: boy - boys, play - plays;
1) -th ths: bath - baths; mouth - mouths; path - paths;
2) -f(e) [f] ves [vz]: calf - calves; elf - elves; half - halves; knife - knives; leaf - leaves; life lives; loaf - loaves; self - selves; shelf - shelves;
3) -se [s] ses [ziz]: house - houses
II.
Substantivele nenumrabile
- denumesc noiuni vzute ca un ntreg.
- pot fi concrete: sugar, coal, steel sau abstracte: beauty, kindness.
Substantivele nenumrabile au urmtoarele caracteristici:
a) sunt invariabile ca form: tea, information, cattle.
b) neavnd contrastul singular - plural, ele nu pot fi numrate cu ajutorul numeralelor sau al
altor cuantificatori: I need (some) tea. I need (some) information. I need (some) scissors.
c) Se acord cu verbul singular: Chinese tea is very good. Ceaiul chinezesc este foarte bun,
sau la plural: The scissors are on the table. Foarfeca este pe mas.
d) Unele substantive englezeti fac parte att din clasa substantivelor numrabile, ct i din a
celor nenumrabile, cu diferene de sens:
She is a beauty. (Ea) este o frumusee.
Beauty is to be admired. Frumuseea trebuie admirat.
She has got a new iron. Are un nou fier de clcat.
This tool is made of iron. Aceast unealt este din fier.
n limba englez fac parte din clasa substantivelor invariabile la singular unele substantive
care sunt numrabile sau invariabile la plural n limba romn:
- advice, business, furniture, homework, income, information, knowledge, luggage,
merchandise, money etc
He always gives me good advice. Totdeauna mi d sfaturi bune.
You must do your homework carefully. Trebuie s-i faci cu atenie leciile.
43

I need further information. Am nevoie de informaii suplimentare.


His knowledge of English is poor. Cunotinele lui de englez sunt slabe.
Numrul substantivelor invariabile
Substantivele invariabile nu au opoziia singular - plural. Ele au numai singular: gold, sau
numai plural the police, cattle etc.
Cuantificarea substantivelor invariabile la singular se poate realiza cu ajutorul unor
cuvinte ca: a piece of, an item of, a bar of, a bag of etc.
Substantive concrete:
a piece of bacon
a slice of cake
a piece of bread
a loaf of bread
a piece of land
a strip of land
a piece of furniture
an article of furniture
a bit of grass
a blade of grass
a piece of paper
a sheet of paper

Substantive abstracte:
a piece of advice
a word of advice
a piece of information
an item of news
an item of business
a bit of business
a piece of work
a bit of work
a word of abuse
a fit of passion
an attack of fever

Genul substantivelor (Gender of Nouns)


- genul este marcat formal: boy - girl, lion - lioness,
- se poate identifica de obicei cu ajutorul pronumelor care se refer la substantive i care au
forme diferite dup gen:
The librarian is at his desk. He is writing something. (el)
The librarian is at her desk. She is writing something. (ea)
Clasificare:
A. substantive nume de persoane
B. substantive nume de animale
C. substantive nume de obiecte
A.
brother/sister
earl/countess
father/mother
king/queen
lord/lady
man/woman
uncle/aunt
- ess: actor/actress
count/countess
god/goddess
master/mistress
waiter/waitress
-ine: hero/heroine;
-er: widow/widower
-groom: bride/bridegroom
44

alte substantive nume de persoane au o singur form att pentru masculin ct i pentru
feminin. Ele aparin genului comun: artist, chairman, cook, cousin, doctor, foreigner, friend,
quest, musician, parent, teacher, writer. Apartenena la genul masculin sau feminin se
precizeaz n context.

B: horse: stallion/mare
ox: bull/cow
sheep: ram/ewe
pig: boar/sow
deer: stag/hind
lion/lioness
tiger/tigress
cock/hen
dog/bitch
drake/duck
cock sparrow/hen sparrow
he goat/she goat
Tom cat/she cat
C: Sunt masculine substantivele care denumesc:
a) pasiuni intense i aciuni violente: anger, fear, murder.
b) fenomene naturale puternice: ocean, river, sun.
c) nume de fluvii: the Danube, the Thames.
d) nume de muni: the Carpathians, the Cheviot.
Sunt feminine:
a) substantivele care sugereaz o caracteristic feminin, un caracter blnd, afectuos, cele care
indic fertilitatea: affection, devotion, faith, hope, justice;
b) substantivele care denumesc trsturi negative de caracter: ambition, folly, jealousy, revenge,
vanity;
c) substantive abstracte ca: fortune, liberty, mercy, nature, peace, science
Cazul substantivelor:
n limba englez, categoria gramatical a cazului este marcat prin:
- desinen: the childs book- cartea copilului
- topic: The man (N) opened the window (Ac).- Brbatul a deschis fereastra.
- prepoziii: I bought it for Mary.- Am cumprat-o pentru Mary.
Cazul nominativ (The Nominative Case)
The girl is waiting for her friend.- Fata i ateapt prietenul.
Cazul acuzativ (The Acusative Case)
I ate a pizza an hour ago.- Am mncat o pizza acum o or.
Cazul dativ (The Dative Case)
n limba englez, cazul dativ este marcat de prepoziia to sau for sau prin topic:
She gave some sweets to the children. Le-a dat nite dulciuri copiilor.
I bought a present for my mother.- Am cumprat un cadou pentru fratele meu.
I lent her (D) a book (Ac).- I-am mprumutat o carte.
Cazul genitiv (The Genitive Case). Substantivul n cazul genitiv exprim n principal ideea de
posesiune:
Marcs car is new.- Maina lui Marc este nou.
the girls dress; the pupils question rochia fetei, ntrebarea elevului
for goodness sake; for convenience sake pentru numele lui Dumnezeu, de dragul comoditii
Observaie: Apostroful nu este obligatoriu n acest caz.
45

Apostroful singur, fr desinena -s se adaug:


- la forma de plural a substantivelor regulate: the boys bicycles (bicicletele bieilor);
the drivers attention (atenia oferilor)
- la substantivele nume de persoane terminate n -s: Dickens life (viaa lui Dickens);
Charles books (crile lui Charles).
Obs: 1. La numele proprii terminate n -s se poate ntlni i genitivul cu s:
Dickenss novels
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
EX 1. Scrie forma de genitiv n spaiile libere:
Example: I met _______ sister yesterday. (Mary)
Answer: I met Mary's sister yesterday.
1) This is _______ book. (Peter)
2) Let's go to the _______. (Smiths)
3) The room is upstairs. (children)
4) _______sister is twelve years old. (John)
5) _______and _______ bags have blue stickers. (Susan - Steve)
6) _______ shoes are on the second floor. (men)
7) My _______ car was not expensive. (parents)
8) _______CD player is new. (Charles)
9) This is the _______ bike. (boy)
10) These are the _______ pencils. (boys)
EX 2. Punei forma de plural corespunztoare substantivelor:
Put in the correct form of the plural of the given nouns.
Example: car - ___ Answer: car - cars
1) half - 2) kilo -3) woman - 4) mouth - 5) foot - 6) sheep - 7) penny - 8) bus - 9) day - 10) fish
EX. 3.
Completai spaiile cu urmtoarele cuvinte:
advice, chocolate, jam, lemonade, meat, milk, oil, rice, tea, tennis
Example: a cube of _____
Answer: a cube of sugar
1) a piece of _____2) a packet of _____3) a bar of _____4) a glass of _____
5) a cup of _____6) a bottle of _____7) a slice of _____8) a barrel of _____
9) a game of _____10) a jar of _____
EX 4.
Creai substantive nenumrabile din literele de mai jos.
Exemplu: ira = air
aet

ikn

ilo

fgo

eber

einw

doow acek
46

aclo

ahir

ARTICOLUL I ALI DETERMINANI


Determinanii propriu-zii ai substantivului
Articolul hotrt
the child
Articolul nehotrt
a child, an elephant
Articolul zero
men, books, schools
Adjectivul demonstrativ
this tree, that tree, these trees, those trees
Adjectivul posesiv
my, your, his, her, our, your, their car, its tail
Adjectivul interogativ
what/which/whose car do you want?
Adjectivul nehotrt
each, person every, person, either side, some notebooks, any idea ,
no idea, neither student
Articolul nu poate fi o parte de vorbire independent, el contribuind doar la determinarea unic
sau individual a substantivului pe care l nsoete.
Articolul este redat prin articolul hotrt the, articolul nehotrt a sau an sau prin articolul zero.
Aceste articole se folosesc pentru a realiza:
1) referina unic (unique reference) i 2) referina individual (individual reference)
1) The girl was running very fast. - Fata alerga foarte repede.
2) Where are the books I gave you? Unde sunt crile pe care i le-am dat?
There is a pen on the table. There is an orange on the table.
There are (some) books on the table
Observaie: a) articolul hotrt the, articolul nehotrt a( n) sau articolul zero pentru
substantivele numrabile:
The cow gives us milk.
A cow gives us milk.
Cows give us milk.
b) articolul zero pentru substantivele nenumrabile:
Milk is good for our health.
Articolul hotrt (The Definite Article)
Articolul hotrt are forma unic the
Ex:the door, the window, the table, etc
The United Kingdom, the United States, the Art Gallery, The Sahara, etc.
Articolul nehotrt (The Indefinite Article)
Articolul nehotrt are dou forme: a i an
Ex: a story, a magazine; a water-melon, a year
an architect, an egg, an orange, an hour, an heir, an honest man
Articolul zero (The Zero Article)
n unele cazuri, substantivele nenumrabile, substantivele numrabile la plural i numele proprii
par nensoite de articol:
She drinks tea every day. Clothes do not make the man.
n astfel de cazuri, absena articolului echivaleaz ca funcie cu prezena unui articol. Acesta este
de obicei numit articolul zero.
Omisiunea articolului (The Elypsis of the Article)
Ex: a) I like honey. mi place mierea. (articolul zero = funcia generic)
I like the honey they sell here. mi place mierea care se vinde aici. (articolul hotrt the)
47

Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
A, an, the sau articolul zero. Pune rspunsul corect:
This coat was designed by ___ famous New York artist.
Can you tell me how to get to ___ bank from here?
___ city museum is closed today.
He is one of ___ smartest people I know.
I recommend you eat ___ apple pie at this restaurant.
___ milk is good for you.
Would you like to see ___ movie?
___ apple a day keeps ___ doctor away.
I can't believe I failed ___ yesterday's test!
Do you have ___ dictionary that I can borrow?
ALI DETERMINANI :
Adjectivul demonstrativ (The Demonstrative Adjective)
This acesta, aceasta
That acela, aceea
These acetia, acestea
Those aceia, acelea
This house is more expensive than that one. Aceast cas este mai scump dect aceea.
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
Completai cu this/that/ these/ those
1. _______beach was quite empty last year.
2. _______exhibition will be open until the end of May.
3. _______people come from that hotel over there.
4. What does_______ notice say?
5. _______exhibition closed a month ago.
6. He was dismissed on the 13th. _______ night the factory went on fire.
7. Do you see _______birds at the top of the tree?
8. _______are the old classrooms. Those are the new ones.
9. _______is my cousin, Jessica.
10. Wasn't _______ a horrible thing to say?
Adjectivul posesiv (The Posesive Adjective)
nlocuiete posesorul i determin numele obiectului posedat:
Peters bike is excellent for him to keep fit.
His bike is excellent ...
Adjectivul posesiv se acord n gen i numr cu numele obiectului posedat:
Her book - cartea ei;
48

His bike - bicicleta lui;


Their toys - jucriile lor.
Comparai:
Adjectiv posesiv
This is my book.
That is your book.
That is her/his/its food.
This is our classroom.
That is their classroom.

Pronume posesiv
This book is mine.
That book is yours.
That food is hers/his.
This classroom is ours.
That classroom is theirs.

Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
Completai propoziiile cu adjective posesive:
1 He's from Spain. ____name's Alberto.
2 They're married. ____ children's names are Lauren and Daniel.
3 We're brothers. ____ parents are French.
4 She's eight. ____ brother's nine.
5 I'm British. ____ name's Peter.
6 You're students. ____ books are in the classroom.
Adjectivul interogativ (The Interrogative Adjective)
determin numele obiectului asupra cruia se cer informaii:
who are forme flexionare pentru caz,
which i what sunt invariabile.
Caz
Pronume
who what which
Nominativ
who what which
Genitiv
whose what which
Dativ to whom (form literar) who ... to (vorbire curent) what which
Acuzativ
whom (form literar) who (vorbire curent) what which
Exemplu: What film did you see last night ?- Ce film ai vzut asear?
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
Completai spaiile cu adjectivul interogativpotrivit.
1. _________________ time is the flight ?
2. _________________ girl has a red bag ?
3. _________________ mother is a nurse ?
4. _________________ subject do you like ?
5. _________________ books are these ?

49

Adjectivul nehotrt (The Indefinite Adjective)


determin substantivul ntr-un mod global (all the pens, every child) sau parial (each pupil,
either side)
Some = ceva, nite, puin, unii, unele, civa, cteva, vreun, vreo, se ntrebuineaz n propoziii
afirmative i indic existena unui numr restrns de lucruri, fiine, a unei cantiti restrnse.
There are some books on his desk.
Any = vreun, vreo, nici un(ul), nici o, nici una, se ntrebuineaz:
- n propoziii afirmative cu sensul: oricare, orice: Any student in your class could answer the
question.
- n propoziii interogative i negative: There isnt any milk in the cup.
Every = fiecare (se refer la membrii unui grup fr a-i individualiza)
Every woman in the room has the right to speak.
Each = fiecare (se refer la membrii unui grup luai individual)
Each pupil must bring some plants to school.
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
Completai cu "any", "some", "no" or "none":
Exemplu:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Are there any onions?


No, there aren't any.
Do ______ black people work in your company?
Yes, there are ______.
She hasn't ______ clothes to wear to the party.
No problem, I can give her ______.
Mary, there is ______ gas in the car.
Oh, no. We had better get ______.
Are there ______ good movies this weekend?
No, there are ______.
I want to take a shower; is there ______ hot water?
I'm sorry, there is ______ hot water.

50

NUMERALUL THE NUMERAL


este partea de vorbire care exprim un numr, determinarea numeric a obiectelor (numeralul
cardinal) sau ordinea obiectelor prin numrare (numeralul ordinal)
a. Numeralul cardinal: one, two, three etc.
b. Numeralul ordinal: the first, the second etc.
a. Numeralul cardinal:
0
zero (nought)
1
one
11
eleven
2
two
12
twelve
3
three 13
thirteen
4
four 14
fourteen
5
five 15
fifteen
6
six
16
sixteen
7
seven 17
seventeen
8
eight 18
eighteen
9
nine 19
nineteen
100
200

900
1,000

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

ten
twenty
thirty
forty (no "u")
fifty (note "f", not "v")
sixty
seventy
eighty (only one "t")
ninety (note the "e")

10th

tenth

20th
30th
40th
50th
60th
70th
80th
90th

twentieth
thirtieth
fortieth
fiftieth
sixtieth
seventieth
eightieth
ninetieth

one hundred
two hundred

nine hundred
one thousand

b. Numeralul ordinal:
0th
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th
9th

zeroth or noughth
first 11th eleventh
second 12th twelfth
third 13th thirteenth
fourth 14th fourteenth
fifth 15th fifteenth
sixth 16th sixteenth
seventh17th seventeenth
eighth 18th eighteenth
ninth 19th nineteenth

c. Numeralul fracionar (The Fractional Numeral)


sunt redate sub forma unor fracii. Numrul fraciei este exprimat printr-un numeral cardinal,
iar numitorul printr-un numeral ordinal:
1/2 = a/one half = o jumtate, o doime;
1/3/ = a/one third = o treime
1.5 = one point nought five
d. Numeralul colectiv (The Collective Numeral)
arat c obiectele sunt considerate n grup i nu izolat
Numeralele colective sunt: couple, pair, team, dozen, score, yoke
Ex: two dozen of eggs, several pair(s) of shoes
51

e.Numeralul multiplicativ (The Multiplicative Numeral)


once - odat; twice - de dou ori; three times - de trei ori, four times, five times, etc.
Numeralul distributiv (The Distributive Numeral)
f. Numeralul distributiv (The Distributive Numeral)
exprim gruparea numeric a obiectelor.
exemplu: two at a time; two by two; by twos; two and two; in tows (in pairs):
The pupils left the classroom two by two/in twos. Elevii au prsit clasa cte doi.
g. Numeralul adverbial (The Adverbial Numeral)
arat: de cte ori are loc o aciune: once, twice, three times (thrice); ten times, a hundred
times; once more; once again; twice as fast etc.
They have French twice a week. Au franceza de dou ori pe sptmn.
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
1. ________ of people sat quietly in the hall.
? Hundred ? Hundreds ? Five hundreds ? Five hundred ?
2. Eggs are cheap. I bought __________.
? two dozens ? two dozen ? two a dozen ? two dozens of them?
3. He wrote a __________ report.
? five-thousand-words ? five-thousands-word
? five-thousands-words ? five-thousand-word
4. Next week, we are going to study __________.
? Lesson Nine ? Lesson Ninth ? Lesson Nineth ? the nineth lesson
5. About ________ of the workers are young people.
? third-fifths ? three-fifth ? three-fifths ? third-fifth
6. About ___________ old people died of the flu last winter.
? two thousand of ? two thousand ? two thousands ? two thousands of
7. The scientist is in his _________.
? thirties ? thirtys ? thirty's ? thirtieths
8. "C" is _______ letter of the English alphabet.
? a third ? third ? the third ? the third of the
9. He's been in the United States for __________.
? one year and a half ? one year and half
? one year and an half ? one and half years
10. The experiment will last for one hundred fifty days. Today is __________ day.
? the one hundred fourty-ninth ? the one hundred forty-nineth
? one hundred forty ninth
? the one hundred forty-ninth

PRONUMELE -THE PRONOUN


poate nlocui substantive: The man is here; He is here
desemneaz direct vorbitorul i asculttorul (I, you) sau desemneaz global sau parial obiecte
sau fenomene (all, each);
are categoriile gramaticale de persoan, gen, numr i caz;
Clasificarea pronumelor:
52

Pronumele personal
Pronumele reflexiv
Pronumele posesiv
Pronumele relativ
Pronumele interogativ
Pronumele demonstrativ
Pronumele nehotrt pozitiv universal :each, all, every
afirmativ: many, much, few, little, several, enough, one, seria some
neafirmativ: seria any, either,
negativ: seria no, neither
Pronumele personal:
Nominativ
Dativ/Acuzativ
I
me
you
you
he
him
she
her
it
it
we
us
they
them
Exemple: You like me and I like you.- ie i place de mine i mie mi place de tine.
Pronumele reflexiv
are terminaia -self la singular i -selves la plural
Persoana
Singular
Plural
I
myself
ourselves
a II-a
yourself
yourselves
a III-a
himself (masc.)
herself (fem.)
themselves
itself (neutru)
Exemple: He looked at himself in the mirror.
Pronumele posesiv
nlocuiete att numele obiectului posedat ct i al posesorului
Formele pronumelui posesiv sunt:
Persoana
I singular
mine
I plural
ours
a II-a singular/plural
yours
a III-a masculin singular
his
plural
theirs
feminin singular
hers
plural
theirs
Exemplu:
Is this his pen? No, its not ours. Ask Irina if is hers. Is it yours, Irina?
Adjective posesive
It's my food
It's your food
It's his food
It's her food
It's its food

Pronume posesive
It's mine
It's yours
It's his
It's hers
--

Pronume personal
It belongs to me
It belongs to you
It belongs to him
It belongs to her
It belongs to it
53

It's our food


It's ours
It belongs to us
It's your food
It's yours
It belongs to you
It's their food
It's theirs
It belongs to them
Pronumele interogativ
who este folosit pentru fiine
what pentru lucruri
which pentru fiine i lucruri
how much pentru cantiti
how many pentru numr
what kind of pentru caliti, etc
Exemple:
Who are they waiting for?- Pe cine ateapt ei?
What did he tell you? Ce i-a spus?
What time is it? Ct este ceasul?
Which of these books do you prefer ? Pe care din aceste cri o preferi?
From what country does he come from? Din ce ar vine?
Pronumele relativ
se refer la un substantiv sau nlocuitor al acestuia menionat anterior i face legtura ntre
propoziia n care se afl i cea pe care o nsoete:
I know people who dont like this kind of food.
I know people that dont like this kind of food.
Pronumele relative sunt: who, which i that
Nominativ
Dativ/Acuzativ
Genitiv
Who
Who(m)
Whose
Exemplu: I dont know whose car is this one.- Nu tiu a cui este maina aceasta.
whoever -oricine. Whoever speaks must translate. Oricine vorbete trebuie s traduc.
Whichever- oricare. He will take whichever is his. O/l va lua pe oricare este a/al lui.
Pronumele nehotrt
desemneaz global (all) sau parial (each, either) obiecte sau fenomene
Some = ceva, nite, puin, puin, unii, unele, civa, cteva, vreun, vreo, se ntrebuineaz n
propoziii afirmative, interogative (ptr a pune accentul pe ceva)
Exemplu:
She bought some. (vegetables, items, etc)
Did you visit some of the museums the tourist guide recommended ?
Any = vreun, vreo, niciun(ul), nicio, niciuna se ntrebuineaz:
n propoziii afirmative cu sensul: oricare, orice: Any of you could answer this question.
n propoziii interogative i negative: Have you got any ? I havent got any.
Compuii lui some, any i no:
somebody/someone - anybody/anyone - nobody/no one none
something - anything - nothing
Exemple:
I saw somebody in your room.
I saw something in your room.
I saw nobody in your room.
I saw nothing in your room.
Each = fiecare: Each of them - Fiecare (dintre ei)
Either (forma negativ neither) = fiecare: Have you seen either of them ? L-ai vzut pe vreunul
dintre ei (doi) ?
54

Every =fiecare: Every pupil must do his homework.


All = tot, toat, toi, toate: Ive seen them all. Le-am vzut pe toate.
One = un, unul, una cineva:There were two children in the room: one was good and one was bad.
Pronumele negativ
nobody, no one (nimeni), none (nici unul), neither (nici unul din doi), nothing (nimic): Exemple:
Neither of them is right. Nici unul dintre ei (doi) nu are dreptate.
What have you bought ? Nothing. Ce-ai cumprat ? Nimic.
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
EX1. Folosii pronumele personale potrivite.Atenie la cuvintele din parantez.
Example: ___ often reads books. (Lisa)- She often reads books.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

___is dreaming. (George)


___is green. (the blackboard)
___are on the wall. (the posters)
___is running. (the dog)
___are watching TV. (my mother and I)

EX.2.Alegei pronumele posesiv corect


Example: I have got a pet. ___ name is Cookie.- I have got a pet. Its name is Cookie.
Hi Daniel,
___ name is John. This is ___ friend Jason. He's 32. ___ sister is 34 and ___ workplace is very
near. Jason and I work in the same office. There are 150 employees in ___ company.
EX.3. Alegei pronumele reflexiv corect din lista de mai jos:
myself - yourself - himself - herself - itself - ourselves - yourselves - themselves
1) Robert made this T-shirt ___ .
2) Lisa did the homework ___
3) We helped ___ to some cola at the party.
4) Emma, did you take the photo all by ___ ?
5) I wrote this poem ___ .
6) He cut ___ with the knife while he was doing the dishes.
7) The lion can defend ___ .
8) My mother often talks to ___ .
9) Tim and Gerry, if you want more milk, help ___ .
10) Alice and Doris collected the stickers ___ .
EX.4. Alegei pronumele relativ corect: who, which or whose:
1) I talked to the boy ____ car had broken down in front of the building.
2) Mr John, ____ is a taxi driver, lives in the neighbourhood.
3) We often visit our aunt in Bucharest ____ is in the south of Romania.
4) This is the boy ____ comes from France.
5) That's Irina, the girl ____ has just arrived at the airport.
6) Thank you very much for your e-mail____ was very interesting.
7) The man, ____ father is a professor, forgot his umbrella.
55

8) The children, ____ shouted in the street, are not from our school.
9) The car, ____ driver is a young man, is from England.
10) What did you do with the money ____ your parents lent you?
EX 5. Alegei pronumele corecte din lista de mai jos:
myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves or each other.
Example: Daniel and Irina have known __________ since 2007.
Answer: Daniel and Irina have known each other since 2000.
1) John and Angela haven't met ____ for a very long time.
2) My friends enjoyed ____ at the party.
3) Daniel repaired computer car ____.
4) We helped ____ with our written task.
5) People often give ____ presents at Christmas.
6) I bought ____ a new record player.
7) Katie, did you do the homework ____?
8) They looked at ____ and smiled.
9) They often write e-mails to ____ because they're best friends.
10) She only thinks of ____. She's a little bit selfish.

ADJECTIVUL- THE ADJECTIVE


este partea de vorbire care:
a) exprim o calitate a unui obiect (an interesting class, a young man)
b) are categoria gramatical a comparaiei: He is taller than his sister.
Comparaia adjectivelor (The Comparison of Adjectives)
1. Adjectivele monosilabice primesc -(e)r la comparativ i the -(e)st la superlativ:
small - smaller - the smallest ( mic-mai mic-cel mai mic)
short - shorter - the shortest (scurt- mai scurt-cel mai scurt)
Observaie: La ortografiere pot aprea unele modificri:
big - bigger - the biggest (mare-mai mare- cel mai mare)
hot - hotter - the hottest (fierbinte- mai fierbinte-cel mai fierbinte)
fat - fatter - the fattest (gras-mai gras-cel mai gras)
thin - thinner - the thinnest (subire-mai subire-cel mai subire)
happy - happier - the happiest (fericit-mai fericit- cel mai fericit)
angry - angrier - the angriest (nervos- mai nervos- cel mai nervos)
2. Adjectivele formate din dou sau mai multe silabe formeaz comparativul i superlativul cu
ajutorul lui more i the most:
careful - more careful - the most careful (grijuliu- mai grijuliu- cel mai grijuliu)
difficult - more difficult - the most difficult (dificil- mai dificil- cel mai dificil)
3. Adjectvele compuse formeaz gradele de comparaie n felul urmtor:
a) cnd primul element este un adjectiv care i pstreaz sensul, acesta se schimb la comparativ
i superlativ:
well-known better-known - the best-known (binecunoscut)
ill-paid - worse-paid - the worst-paid (prost pltit)
intelligent-looking, - more intelligent-looking - the most intelligent-looking (privire inteligent)
56

b) cnd cele dou elemente formeaz un tot din punct de vedere al sensului comparaia se
realizeaz cu ajutorul lui more i the most:
heart-broken - more heart-broken - the most heart-broken (inima frnt)
comparativului de egalitate i inferioritate:
My room is as large as hers (la fel de mare ca)
My homework is not as easy as yours.
This film is less interesting than the previous one. (mai puin interesant dect)
superlativul absolut se construiete cu ajutorul adverbelor
very, too, highly, extremely, utterly:
The film was very amusing. It is extremelly difficult to make such a film.
4.Adjective neregulate
good - better - the best ( bun- mai bun- cel mai bun)
bad - worse - the worst (ru- mai ru- cel mai ru)
much- more- the most (mult- mai mult- cel mai mult)
old- older- the oldest (btrn, vechi- mai btrn, vechi- cel mai btrn, vechi)
old elder- the eldest (n vrst- mai n vrst- cel mai n vrst)
little -less - the least (puin, mai puin- cel mai puin)
far - farther - the farthest (deprtat mai deprtat- cel mai deprtat) sau further - the furthest
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
Fill in the correct form of the words in brackets (comparative or superlative).
My house is ____ than yours.
This red flower is ____ than that yellow one.
This is ____ magazine I have ever read.
Non-smokers usually live ____ than smokers.
Which is ____ insect in the world?
A holiday by the sea is ____ than a holiday in the mountains.
It is strange but often a coke is ____ than a beer.
Who is ____ man on earth?
The weather is even ____ than last summer.
He was ____ student of all.

ADVERBUL THE ADVERB


a)arat o caracteristic a unei aciuni, a unei stri sau a unei caliti;
b) poate avea categoria gramatical a comparaiei;
c) ndeplinete funcia sintactic de complement circumstanial
Exemplu: Is this idea really good?
Locuiuni adverbiale:
as a rule = de obicei; by the way = apropo; as a matter-of-fact = de fapt; at once = imediat; once
in while, now and then = din cnd n cnd; to-and fro = ncoace i ncolo...
Adverbele de mod sau timp se formeaz prin adugarea sufixului -ly la forma adjectivului:
slow- slowly, week- weekly
Excepii: true - truly; due - duly; whole wholly, beautifully, etc.
Adverbele de mod (Adverbs of manner). Adverbele de mod indic modalitatea propriu-zis:
well, badly, quickly, slowly etc.
Ele mai pot fi adverbe:
- de ntrire: actually, certainly, obviously, really;
57

- de amplificare: absolutely, completely, greatly, barely, hardly;


- de afirmaie sau negaie: yes, no, of course, not at all;
- de probabilitate: maybe, perhaps, probally.
Adverbele de loc (Adverbs of Place)
Unele adverbe de loc indic locul propriu-zis: here, there, somewhere.
Altele indic direcia: aside, foward(s), backward(s), righ, left.
Majoritatea adverbelor de loc pot fi folosite pentru a exprima att locul ct i direcia:
Loc: He doesnt live far (Nu locuiete departe).
Direcie: He didnt go far (Nu s-a dus departe).
Adverbele de timp (Adverbs of Time). Adverbele de timp indic:
- momentul aciunii: now, nowadays, today, then;
- succesiunea n timp: afterwards, before, eventually, formerly, previosly, soon;
- durata: lately, recently, since, still, yet;
- frecvena: definit: weekly, three times a day;
nedefinit: often, usually, seldom, once in a while.
Comparaia adverbelor:
Comparativ: fast - faster; early earlier
quickly - more quickly; carefully - more carefully
Comparativul de egalitate: She dances on ice as quickly as her brother.
Comparativul de inferioritate: She dances on ice less carefully than her brother.
Superlativul absolut: se formeaz cu ajutorul unor adverbe ca very, quite, most care preced
adverbul respectiv.
Superlativul relativ: (the) most intelligently (of all).
(the) least + adverb
Comparaia neregulat a adverbelor:
Gradul pozitiv
Gradul comparativ
well (bine)
better (mai bine)
badly (ru)
worse (mai ru)
much (mult)
more (mai mult)

Gradul superlativ
(the) best (cel mai bine)
(the) worst (cel mai ru)
(the) most (cel mai mult)

Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
Gsii adjectivul din prima propoziie i completai spaiile libere cu adverbul corespunztor:
Joanne is happy. She smiles____ .
The boy is loud. He shouts ____.
Her English is fluent. She speaks English ____.
Our mum was angry. She spoke to____ us .
My neighbour is a careless driver. He drives____ .
The painter is awful. He paints____ .
Jim is a wonderful piano player. He plays the piano____ .
This girl is very quiet. She often sneaks out of the house ____.
She is a good dancer. She dances really ____.
This exercise is simple. You ____ have to put one word in each space.

58

PREPOZIIA - PREPOSITION
leag pri de vorbire diferite: substantive, adjective, verbe sau adverbe de substantive sau
substitute ale acestora:
In the picture, I can see a woman who is sitting at a table. She is sitting on a chair.
There is another chair next to the woman.
Unele cuvinte sunt urmate n mod obligatoriu de anumite prepoziii:
a) Substantive:
- interest, progress, satisfaction + in;
- cause, chance, opportunity + of;
- exception, invitation, kindness + to;
b) Adjective:
- anxious, enthusiastic + about;
- alarmed, amazed, astonished, clever, good + at;
- bound, eager, famous, fit, sorry + for;
- disappointed, rich, successful + in;
- afraid, ashamed, aware, characteristic, fond, full, jealous, proud, sure, tired, typical, worthy +
of;
- affectionate, appropiate, attentive, contrary, cruel, deaf, indifferent, kind, parallel, polite, rude,
thankful + to;
- angry, busy, charmed, consistent, delighted, dizzy, faint, identical, pale, satisfied, stiff, wet +
with;
c) Verbe:
- aim, arrive, fire, gaze, glance, look + at;
- account, ask, blame, care, leave long + for;
- conceal, die, differ, escape, hide, prevent, protect + from;
- abound, believe, end, fail, originate, succeed (+-ing), + in;
- accuse, boast, cure, deprive, die, remind take care + of;
- agree, comment, concentrate, congratulate, mediate + on;
- adapt, adjust, apply, attribute, belong, cling, conform, consent, link, listen, prefer, reduce, refer,
report, sell, sail, subscribe, turn + to;
- complete, flush, glow, shake, shiver, side, subscribe, supply, threaten, tremble + with.
Prepositions

Example

In
At
On
by, next to, beside
Under
Below
Over
Above
Across
Through
To
Into
Towards
Onto
From
Of

in the kitchen, in London, in the book,in the car, in a taxi


at the door, at the station, at the table, at a concert, at 45
on the table, on the left, on the first floor, on the bus,
Jane is standing by / next to / beside the car.
the bag is under the table
the fish are below the surface
put a jacket over your shirt, over 16 years of age,
a path above the lake
walk across the bridge, swim across the lake
drive through the tunnel
go to the cinema, go to London ,go to bed
go into the kitchen / the house
go 5 steps towards the house
jump onto the table
a flower from the garden, a present from Jane
a page of the book, the picture of a palace
59

By
Off
Out of
By
About

a book by Mark Twain


get off the train
get out of the taxi
by car, by bus
talking about you

Prepositions of place: at, in, within, by, beside, next to, near, close to, against, over, above, on,
top of; under, beneath, below, underneath, in front of, before; behind, after, between, among
Prepositions of time at, on, in, by, before, after from... to, till/until, during, for, (all)
through/throughout, over
Prepositions of manner With (cu), without (fr), in... manner/way
Prepositions of direction: to, into, onto, towards, through, across, over, up, down, along, past, by,
about, around, off, out of, from
Prepositions of reference: as to, as for, regarding, in regard to, concerning (formal), About, on
(despre):
Prepositions of cause: because of, on account of (formal), from, out of, for, through (din cauz
de)
Prepositions of concession: in spite, despite (formal), for all, with all (familiar) ( n ciuda, cu
toat / toate...
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
EX.1. Alege prepoziia de loc corect:
We live ____ London.
Would you like to go ____ the cinema tonight?
No, thanks. I was ____ the cinema yesterday.
We are going ____ holiday next week.
There is a bridge ____ the river.
The flight ____Bucharest ____ Lecce was ____ Berlin.
____ my wall, there are many picture postcards.
Who is the person ____ this picture?
Come ____ the sitting room, we want to watch TV.
The town lies 530 meters ____sea level.
EX.2. Alege prepoziia de timp corect:
1. What are you doing ____ the weekend?
2. I don't know yet. Maybe I'll go to the cinema ____ Saturday.
3. That's interesting. I haven't been to the cinema ____ so many years.
4. We could go there together ____ the afternoon.
5. That would be great. But I would prefer to go there ____ the evening. I am visiting my
grandma ____Saturday.
6. That's okay. The film starts ____ eight o'clock.
7. I can pick you up ____ half ____ seven. How long does the film last?
8. It lasts ____ two hours and forty-five minutes.
9. ____eight ____ a quarter to eleven.
10.That's right. But I must hurry home ____ the film. I have to be home ____ eleven o'clock.

60

CONJUNCTIA - THE CONJUNCTION


(lat.: conjunctio, con = impreuna; junctio = legatura)
Conjunciile coordonatoare :
a) copulative: and - i; as well as - precum; both... and - att... ct i; not only... but also - nu
numai...dar i;
b) disjunctive: or - sau; ori; either...or - sau... sau; neither...nor - nici...nici;
c) adversative: but - dar, ci;
exemple: I see a boy and a girl. = Vd un biat i o fat.
He speaks English as well as German. = El vorbete engleza precum i germana.
Conjunciile subordonatoare
- universale: that - c; if, whether dac
- specializate: de loc: where - unde; wherever - oriunde;
b) de timp: when - cnd; since - de cnd; till/until - pn cnd; while/as - n timp ce; before nainte ca; after - dup ce;
c) de mod: (exactly) as; (just) as - (aa) cum; (exact) cum;
d) de cauz: as, since, because - deoarece, fiindc;
e) de scop: so that, in order that/so (that) (mai formal) - (pentru) ca, cu scopul ca.
f) condiionale: if - dac; provided (that) / on condition (that) as long as/so longs as - cu condiia;
unless - afar dac, numai dac nu;
g) consecutive: so that - nct; so (familiar) - nct; so/such... (that) - aa/astfel... nct;
h) concesive: though, although (mai formal), while, whereas (formal), even if.though - dei, cu
toate c,
chiar dac;
i) comparative: as...as - mai (mult)... dect; as if/as though - ca i cum, de parc.
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
EX.1. Alegei conjuncia coordonatoare potrivit din urmtoarele: and, but, or, so
1. Daniel was cold, _____he put on a coat.
2. Maria tried to translate the text, _____ it was too difficult.
3. To get from Piteti to Bucharest, you can take a bus, _____ you can go by car.
4. I bought a bottle of wine, _____ we drank it together.
5. The teacher was not very nice, _____ the mark was good.
6. I went to buy my favorite CD, _____the shop didn't have it.
7. Irina needed some money, _____ she took a part-time job.
8. There's so much noise in the building lately! Maybe it's because of the new family who has
just moved in , _____ maybe it's just coincidence.
9. Julie has a guitar, _____ she plays it really well.
10. The concert was cancelled, _____ we went to a disco instead.
EX.2 Alegei conjuncia subordonatoare potrivit:
Daniel couldn't buy any presents ________ he didn't have any money.
a. even though b because
I don't drink coffee ________ it makes me nervous.
a. as b. although
________ it was snowing, I wasnt cold.
a. Although b. Because
________ She doesn't speak English, she can't translate that text.
61

a. Whereas b. Since
Daniel passed the exam first time ________ his brother had to retake it four times.
a. as b. while
Paula got the job she wanted ________ she had no experience.
a. even though b. as
I will be late today ________ my car has broken down.
a. because b. though
________ my wife likes to travel abroad, I prefer to stay at the countryside for my vacations.
a. Whereas b. Since

INTERJECIA- INTERJECTION
Clasificare:
Cu ajutorul interjeciilor se exteriorizeaz:
1) senzaii i sentimente:
a) bucurie: Ah ! Ooh ! Jippee ! Hurray ! (a, ah, ura!).
b) surpriz: Oh ! Wow ! (a, ah, oh!). Oh, what a nice dress !
c) mirare: Oh, dear ! Dear me ! Indeed ! (vai drag, vai de mine, ntr-adevr) Oh, dear, I cant
find my purse. Dear me ! What are you doing over there ?
d) admiraie: Whew !(ah, doamne): Whew, how beautiful she is !
e) nelegere: Aha ! (a, aha!): Aha, these gloves are exactly what I was looking for.
f) dispre: Fie ! Pshaw ! What a shame! (Ptiu, pah, ce ruine!): Fie upon you ! You ought to be
ashamed at what you have done.
g) dezgust: Ugh! (h!): Ugh, how dirty your hands are !
h) aprobare: Well done ! Congratulations ! (Foarte bine! Felicitri!) Well done, Peter ! Youve
passed all your exams brilliantly.
i) dezaprobare: Nonsense! What a nuisance! (Prostii ! Ce pacoste!): What a nuisance! Now Ill
have to do it all over again!
j) regret: Ah! Oh! What a pity! (a!, oh! ce pcat!): What a pity you couldnt come! It was a good
play.
k) durere: Ouch! Ow! (vai, ah, aoleu!): ouch, it hurts!
2) manifestri de voin:
a) o rugminte, un ndemn: Oh! Help! (oh! Ajutor!); Ssh! Hush! Silence! (Sst, linite!): Hush!
The babys sleeping!
b) o ncurajare: Cheer up! Come on! (Curaj! Haide!): Come on, dont be afraid! Youll be fine.
c) o avertizare: Look Out! Fire! (Atenie! Foc!): Fire ! The house is on fire!
3) se reproduc sunete i zgomote din mediul nconjurtor: Bow - wow !
Miaow! Baa! Buzz! (Ham - ham ! Miau! Beh! Bzzz!): Bang! Click! Crash!
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
Alegei interjecia potrivit situaiilor de mai jos. Putei folosi interjecii ca: ah, hello, dear, eh,
allas, hmm, oh, well, er, uh-huh, ouch, etc.
1. " ____, that feels good"
2. " ____, she's dead now"
3. " Oh ____ ! Does it hurt ?"
62

4. "What do you think of that, ____ ?"


5. "Lima is the capital of.... ____...Peru"
6. " ____ John, How are you today ?"
7. " ____, I'm not so sure"
8. " ____ , please say 'yes' !"
9. " ____, what did he say "
10. " 85 divided by 5 is... ____...17"
11. "Shall we go ? " " ____"
12. " ____ ! That hurts !"

63

PARTEA A II-A

PRILE DE PROPOZIIE (The Parts of the Sentence)


Prile de propoziie se clasific n:
1) pri principale de propoziie: subiectul i predicatul;
2) pri secundare de propoziie: complementul direct, indirect, prepoziional, elementul
predicativ suplimentar, complemente circumstaniale (de timp, loc, mod, cauz etc.) i atributul.

SUBIECTUL THE SUBJECT


Subiectul este partea principal de propoziie despre care se spune ceva cu ajutorul
predicatului.
Exemple:He is a really nice guy.
My dog attacked the burglar.
David plays the piano
The police interviewed all the witnesses.
The man who had followed us inside walked over to the telephone.
Subiectul simplu: man
Subiectul complex: the man who had followed us inside
Subiectul compus: The man and the woman walked over to the telephone.

PREDICATUL - THE PREDICATE


Predicatul este partea principal de propoziie care atribuie subiectului o aciune, o stare sau o
nsuire.
Predicatul nominal este alctuit din: un verb copulativ + un nume predicativ.
Verbe copulative:
a. verbul be: He is clever. El este detept
b. verbe ale devenirii: become, get, grow, turn: Her hair has turned grey. A ncrunit. She is
getting old. mbtrnete.
c. Verbe ale continurii n aceeai stare : continue, keep, remain, hold, stay.
He kept silent. Tcea.
d. verbe ale aparenei: appear, look, seem: She seemed ill. Prea bolnav. He looks pale. Este
palid.
Numele predicativ este exprimat:
a) printr-un substantiv sau echivalent al acestuia:
My nephew has become a doctor.
b) printr-un adjectiv, singur sau cu o complinire: She was happy. She was eager to come.
c) printr-un participiu trecut: The village seemed deserted.

64

Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
EX.1.ncercuii subiectele i subliniai predicatele din propoziiile de mai jos.
1. Yesterday, Ross and Monica took their children to the zoo.
2. The elephants, the lions, and all of the other animals were outside.
3. The president of the bank looked everywhere for the papers.
4. They listened quietly.
5. The yellow race car with red stripes finished the first in the race.
6. After his speech, the president of the meeting shook hands with all members of the crowd.
EX.2. Potrivii subiectul cu predicatul. Mai multe variante sunt posibile. Un exemplu este fcut
pentru a v ajuta:
Subjects
The dirty yellow cat
We
Tom and his brother
The taxi driver
Anna's elderly mother
The green tree snake
The detective in the gray raincoat
Seven rats

Predicates
stood outside the hotel all night.
prowled through the dark alley.
lived in the attic last winter.
baked delicious apple pies.
were late yesterday.
sold used cars.
was from the Middle East.
waited patiently for his victim.

COMPLEMENTUL DIRECT -THE DIRECT OBJECT


I havent seen him for a long tim. Nu l-am vzut de mult.
I drink milk every day. Beau lapte n fiecare zi.
We enjoyed ourselves at the cinema. Ne-am distrat la cinematograf.
We sing a song every day.- Interpretm un cntec n fiecare zi.
Did she ask you any questions ? i-a pus vreo ntrebare ?
Cuvintele subliniate sunt complemente directe. Rspund la una din ntrebrile pe cine?, ce?
O alt metod pentru a afla dac un cuvnt este sau nu complement direct, este aceea de a
transforma fraza respectiv la diateza pasiv. Complementul direct va trebui sa devin subiectul
propoziiei la diateza pasiv.
Exemplu:
1. Todd sang a song.
=> Passive: A song was sung by Todd.
2. Ashley became a rock star.
" a rock star " nu este complement direct i deci nu poate deveni subiectul propoziiei la diateza
pasiv.
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
Identificai complementul direct, apoi traducei propoziiile.
1. The computer programmer is testing his new software.
2. We suddenly realized that someone was listening.
65

3. Amy has decided to go to university.


4. They can't read what you've just written.
5. This exercise involves clicking on the screen.

COMPLEMENTUL INDIRECT- THE INDIRECT OBJECT


Please, send an email to me. Te rog trimite-mi un email.
He sold his car to his best friend. i-a vndut maina celui mai bun prieten.
She bought a new shirt for her husband. A cumprat o cma nou soul ei.
Cuvintele subliniate sunt complemente indirecte. Rspund la ntrebarea cui? sau pentru cine?
Acestea pot fi precedate sau nu de prepoziii:
Exemplu: Tom sold us his old house. She bought her brother a new shirt.
Complementul indirect este exprimat de regul printr-un substantiv sau echivalent al acestuia,
precedat de prepoziia to sau for:
We offered presents to our teacher.
We offered flowers to her.
She bought books for her children.
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
Identificai att complementele directe ct i indirecte din propoziiile de mai jos:
1. I owe you some money.
2. The students read English writers in their literature class.
3. Tell them the news now.
4. Will you give Mary the candy? (Hint: change it to a statement)
5. Mrs. Jones gave the students a difficult homework.
6. The principal excused the boys early last Wednesday.
7. Who taught them about the Civil War?
8. Mr. Smith gave us a long speech about science.
9. Have you written many letters this summer?
10. Mr. John gave his son the keys to his car.
11. I like rain.
12. Traffic controllers in the towers at the airport control air traffic.

COMPLEMENTUL PREPOZIIONAL - THE PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT


Complementul prepoziional este exprimat prin:
a) un substantiv sau echivalent al acestuia precedat de o prepoziie: He is looking for his suit. i
caut costumul. I ran after her. Am fugit dup ea.
b) o construcie infinitival sau gerundial, precedat de o prepoziie:
Would they agree to leave at once? Ar fi de acord s plecm imediat?
He boasts of being the best football player in the school. Se laud c este cel mai bun juctor de
fotbal din coal.
c) o propoziie subordonat: He boasts that he is the best football player in the school.
Complementul prepoziional este ntrebuinat dup:
66

a) verbe intranzitive cu prepoziie obligatorie: care for, complain of, depend on, hint
at, insist on, long for, look at, pass for, warn of, wonder at, worry about :
The success of the meeting will depend on the speaker s inspiration.
b) verbe intranzitive cu dou prepoziii: agree with smb about smth, argue with
smb about smth.
He agreed with me about the plan.
c) verbe tranzitive cu prepoziie obligatorie: acquaint smb with smth, advise smb.
about smth, assure smb of smth, blame smb for smth, bother smb. with smth,
convince smb, of smth, entrust smb with smth, mistake smb. for smth, warn smb
about smth:
I convinced him about the plan.
d) adjective sau participii care ndeplinesc funcia de nume predicativ ntr-un
predicat nominal, urmate de o prepoziie obligatorie:
about: He was reasonable about her decision.
at: She is good at chemistry.
in: He is interested in astronomy.
of: Romanias foreign trade is based on co-operation and equal rights.
with: He is angry with your behaviour.
Alte adjective i participii urmate de aceste prepoziii sunt:
- angry, glad, happy, mad, annoyed, pleased worried + about;
- angry, clever, hopeless, terrible, alarmed, amused, annoyed, delighted, pleased + at;
- efficient, fortunate, lucky, persistent, (un)successful + in;
- afraid, certain, conscious, fond, glad, convinced, scared + of;
- dependent, insistent, keen, lent, set + on;
- busy, (un)comfortable, (in)compatible, content, furious, (un)happy, impatient, sick, uneasy,
annoyed, bored, concerned, delighted, disaplointed, excited, exhausted, horrified, obsessed,
occupied, overcome, pleased, satisfied, upset + with.
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
Completai spaiile libere cu prepoziia potrivit:
He reminds me _____ your brother in some ways. You have similar temperaments.
The must not message is designed to prevent people _____entering.
The judge banned him _____ driving for six months.
This new software enables the user _____ get lots of reports for the management.
I don't smoke at home; I don't want to encourage the children _____ smoke.
The team manager wouldn't allow the press _____ interview his players.
The police wouldn't provide the press _____ any details about the crime.
The salesman failed to interest me _____ any of his products.

CONSTRUCIILE COMPLEXE - COMPLEX CONSTRUCTIONS


Acuzativ cu

- infinitiv
- participiu prezent
- participiu trecut
Nominativ cu - infinitiv
- participiu prezent
Infinitiv cu for - to
67

Nominativul absolut cu

-infinitivul
- participiu prezent
- participiu trecut

Construciile gerundiale
a) n construciile infinitivale ne intereseaz aciunea n sine, faptul petrecut, care este vzut ca
ncheiat:
We saw him sleep (= that he fell asleep). Am vzut c a adormit.
b) n construciile cu participiul n -ing, aciunea este vzut n desfurare: We saw him dancing
(= that he was dancing). L-am vzut dansnd.
c) n construciile cu participiul trecut, aciunea este privit ca un rezultat: We found the dog
dead. Am gsit celul mort.
cu acuzativul

cu nominativul

nominativul absolut

Ac + infinitiv
I saw him cross the street.

N+ infinitiv
Daniel seems to speak
English fluently.

N + infinitiv
He sent the tests first, the
comments to come later.

Ac + part. prez.
She could hear her friend
laughing.

N+ part. prez
He was seen smoking in the
living.

N absolut + part. prezent


The investigation being
done, the policemen headed
to the station.
N absolut + part.trecut:
The game finished, the
players left the football
ground.

Acuzativ cu participiu
trecut:
I want this homework done
immediately.
Exerciii Practice

LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!


EX.1.Recunoatei construciile folosite n exemplele de mai jos:
1. The day being rainy, we didnt go out.
2. The two women, their business concluded, retired to the bar.
3. The Prime Minister happened to be in Greece at the time.
4. I would like him to come.
5. The letter being written, he left to the post office.
EX.2. Transferai construciile Acuzativ cu infinitiv n construcii Nominativ cu infinitiv.
Exemplu:
They knew her to be a good teacher.
She was known to be a good teacher.
1. We expected the manager to speak first. 2. They thought him to be gifted in singing. 3. I heard
him walk slowly in the dark. 4. We advised him to go to the hospital as soon as possible 5. They
told us not to worry. 6. The manager asked him to explain the semester report. 7. They saw him
steal the money. 8. You consider his thoughts to be very weird.

68

COMPLEMENTELE CIRCUMSTANIALE DE LOC, TIMP, MOD


ADVERBIALS
Complementul circumstanial de loc indic locul, punctul de plecare, direcia sau limita
unei aciuni sau stri.
Complementul circumstanial de timp indic:
a) momentul aciunii: now, nowadays, today, then;
b) succesiunea de timp: afterwards, before, eventually, formerly, previously, soon.
c) durata: lately, recently, since, still, yet;
d) frecvena: weekly, three times a day, often, usually, seldom, once in a while.
Complementul circumstanial de mod indic modul n care se ndeplinete o aciune
sau apare o nsuire.
Complementul circumstanial de loc (The Adverbial of Place) este exprimat prin:
a) un adverb sau o perifraz advebial de loc: He is here. He was walking to and fro.
b) un substantiv cu sau fr prepoziie:
Helen is in town for the moment./ They went home.
c) un substantiv n cazul genitiv precedat de o prepoziie: We buy vegetables at the greengrocer's
.
d) o propoziie circumstanial de loc: We do our shopping where everybody else does.
Complementul circumstanial de timp (The Adverbial of Time) este exprimat prin:
a) un adverb de timp: My parents arrived yesterday.
b) o perifraz adverbial de timp: They visit their relatives from time to time.
c) o construcie adverbial: Tom was born in 1965.
d) nominativul absolut cu participiul trecut: His homework written the boy went out to play.
e) un participiu prezent sau trecut, precedat de o conjuncie temporal:
He doesnt feel quite well when sailing by their ship.
f) un gerund precedat de o prepoziie: On leaving the house, she asked me to make certain the
lights were off..
g) un substantiv introdus ntr-o conjuncie temporal: While in Romania he learned to manage by
himself.
3) o propoziie circumstanial de timp: He is always air sick when he travels by plane.
Complementul circumstanial de mod (The Adverbial of Manner)
- indic felul, modalitatea n care decurge aciunea sau starea: well, badly, quikly, slowly.
Ele mai pot reda i alte sensuri:
- cantitatea: enough, much, a little;
- ntrire: actually, certainly, really;
- amplificare: absolutely, completely, greatly, highly, barely, scarcely;
- de afirmaie sau negaie: yes, no, of course, not at all;
- probabilitate: maybe, perhaps, possibly.
Exemplu: The merchandise was slowly moved into the warehouse.
Complementul circumstanial de mod comparativ (The Adverbial of Comparison) este
exprimat:
a) printr-un substantiv sau pronume precedat de prepoziia like: I slept like a baby..
b) printr-un substantiv cu prepoziie, un adjectiv, un verb la infinitiv sau participiu prezent/trecut
introduse prin as if, as though: She cried as if in a terrible danger.
69

c) un substantiv, un adjectiv, pronume sau numeral, o construcie infinitival sau gerundial


introduse prin conjunciile as, not so/as, than: She is as smart as her parents.
d) o propoziie circumstanial de mod comparativ:
She smiled as if she were extremely happy, but....
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
Rewrite the sentences and put the adverbs in correctly.
Rescriei propoziiile i punei adverbul la locul potrivit. Menionai felul adverbelor.
We were in London. (last week)
He walks his dog. (rarely)
She waited. (patiently)
My father goes fishing. (always)
Your bedroom is. (upstairs)
We don't go skiing. (in summer)
Cats can hear. (well)
I saw him. (there)
The girl speaks English. (fluently)
I have seen that film. (never) / (before)

ATRIBUTUL - THE ATRIBUTE


Atributul modific sau determin un substntiv sau pronume care ndeplinete n propoziie
funcia de:
1) subiect: The tall girl is my sister-in-law.
2) o parte secundar de prepoziie:
a) complement direct sau indirect: They made an extraordinary attempt.
b) complement circumstanial (de loc, timp etc.): They often go out quiet evenings.
Atributul prepus: this exercise, my youngest brother,etc
Atributul postpus: Did you find anything new ? Ai gsit ceva nou ?
Exerciii Practice
LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!
1. Those are probably _______ boys in the school.
Fanciest/ fanciest/ most fanciest
2. Uncle Daniel is really _______ man.
an old sweet/a sweet, old/ a sweet old
3. Dacia used to be _______ car.
a fine German / a German, fine/ a fine, German
4. All the family was home for the holidays. What could make for _______ Christmas?
a merrier/ the merriest/ a merrier
5. They were raised in _______ house in Bucharest.
a comfortable, little/ a little, comfortable/ a comfortable little
6. Four weddings and a funeral is the _______ movie I've ever seen.
most excited/most exciting/most exciteable
7. She wanted to take a course with _______professor.
70

that interesting new Japanese economics / that Japanese interesting, new economics
that interesting,new, Japanese, economics
8. Of all the mechanics in the shop, he is surely _______ .
the less competent/ the least competent/ the competentest.
9. In the fall, the valleys tend to be _______than the hilltops.
foggy/more foggier/foggier
10. My cold is definitely _______ this morning.
worse/ worst/worser

71

TEST FINAL
1.Q: What ____________ you ____________ (do)? I'm working.
do you do
are you doing
did you do
2. Q: ____________ you always ____________ (get up) at 6 o'clock?
Do you always get up
Are you always getting up
Do always you get up
3. Q: ____________ Daniel ____________ (have, got) a motorbike?
Does John have got
Has John got
Have John got
4. Q: At the moment he ____________ (have) dinner.
is having
having
has
5. Q: John doesn't like playing basketball, but he ____________ (love) playing tennis.
is loving
love
loves
6. Q: Last winter he ____________ (go) by train from Rome to London.
goed
has gone
went
7. Q: Mary ____________ (not, be) at work at the moment. She's at home.
isn't being
isn't
doesn't be
8. Q: Next Wednesday my sister ____________ (go) to Paris.
went
goes
is going
9. Q: They ____________ (take) their children to Italy last year.
did take
took
taked
10. Q: What time ____________ he ____________ (arrive) home last Thursday?
did he arrives
did he arrive
does he arrive
11. Q: What ____________ they ____________ (do)? They're studying.
is they doing
are they doing
do they do
12. Q: When ____________ you ____________ (go) to France last year?
you went
did you go
did you went
13. Q: ____________ you ____________ (have, got) any brothers or sisters?
Has you got
Do you have got
Have you got
14. Q: John doesn't like going to the beach, but he ____________ (love) going to the mountains.
loves
doesn't love
is loving
15. Q: Next Sunday John ____________ (come) to visit his family.
comes
is coming
will come
16. Q: Peter ____________ (be) on holiday now. He isn't at home.
will be
is
is going to be
17. Q: She ____________ (teach) her husband cooking last summer.
did teach
teached
taught
18. Q: ____________ he always ____________ (have) breakfast at 7 o'clock?
Is he always having
Does he always has
Does he always have
19. Q: Last winter she ____________ (drive) to Bulgaria.
drove
drived
did drive
20. Q: ____________ you ____________ (have, got) a good summer job?
Do you got
Have you got
Has you got
21. Q: Where ____________ she ____________ (study) french last year?
did she study
did she studied
has she studied
22. Q: Mary likes visiting relatives, but she ____________ (like) talking on the telephone.
doesn't like
likes
isn't liking
23. Q: She ____________ (watch) a documentay at the moment.
watched
watches
is watching
24. Q: He ____________ (take) his friend to the theater last week.
tooked
has taken
took
25. Q: Mary ____________ (not, be) on holiday now. She's at home.
isn't
won't be
isn't being

72

26. Q: What ____________ you ____________ (do)? I'm playing the guitar.
is you doing
do you do
are you doing
27. Q: Next Saturday my brother ____________ (visit) the new museum.
will visit
visits
is going to visit
28. Q: ____________ you always ____________ (finish) work at 8 o'clock?
Do you always finish
Are you always finishing
Did you always finished
29. Q: They ____________ (ride) the train to England last spring.
did ride
rode
have ridden
30. Q: What ____________ you ____________ (do) this evening? I'm doing my English homework.
will you do
do you do
are you doing
31. Q: ____________ she often ____________ (telephone) in the evening?
Does she often telephone
Is she often telephoning
Will she often telephones
32. Q: ____________ they ____________ (have, got) a van?
Have they got
Do they have got
Has they got
33. Q: At the moment they ____________ (read) a magazine.
are going to read
reads
are reading
34. Q: I ____________ (teach) my students about the mammals yesterday.
taughted
taught
have taught
35. Q: Maria doesn't like working in the office, but she ____________ (love) working at home.
loves
doesn't love
isn't loving
36. Q: Next Tuesday my sister ____________ (have) dinner at that new restaurant.
is going to have
will have
has
37. Q: She ____________ (fly) to the USA last summer.
flied
has flown
flew
38. Q: Irina ____________ (not, be) at the office tomorrow. He's on holiday.
isn't going to be
won't been
isn't
39. Q: What ____________ she ____________ (do) yesterday evening?
did she do
does she do
is she doing
40. Q: ____________ Daniel ____________ (have, got) a television?
Have Daniel got
Has Daniel got
Does Daniel has got
41. Q: Where ____________ they ____________ (go) on holiday last winter?
did they went
have they gone
did they go
42. Q: Alice loves walking in the countryside, and she ____________ (like) going to the swimming
pool.
doesn't like
like
likes
43. Q: At the moment she ____________ (listen) to some music.
listens
is listening
has listened
44. Q: ____________ he always ____________ (play) tennis on Sundays?
Do he always play
Does he always plays
Does he always play
45. Q: I __________________ TV when the telephone rang.
watched
was watching
are watching
have watched
46. Q: I'm afraid I'm not hungry. I've _______ eaten breakfast.
Yet
still
already
ever
47. Q: My father let me ____________ late when I was a child.
to stay out
stayed out
stay out
staying out
48. Q: Would you like ___________ chicken?
any
a
some
one
49. Q: He has _______ friends in London.
Few
few of
a lot
much
50. Q: She _________________ dinner by the time we arrived.
had finished
finished
have finished
finishing
51. Q: What shall we do tonight? How about ___________ a film?
to see
see
seeing
going

73

52. Q: _______ you ever ________ to Paris?


Did ... go
Have .... go
Have ... gone
Shall .... go
53. Q: Have you finished your work ______?
Yet
already
still
just
54. Q: Jack is really ______________ geography, especially Japanese history.
interested at
interesting in
interested in
interested for
55. Q: These images ______________ by an artist named John Smith.
are photographed
were photoed
photographed
were photographed
56. Q: He'll give you a call as soon as he __________.
will arrive
arrives
is arriving
is going to arrive.
57. Q: He found his watch ___________ the papers on the table.
In
among
between
through
58. Q: Would you mind ______________ me a hand?
to give
give
giving
given
59. Q: I think Piteti is ____ exciting ____ Bucharest.
as ... as
so ... than
as ... than
so ... as
60. Q: He _________ he wanted to come.
told
said me
said
told to me
61. Q: What ______________ at work?
do you have to do
must you do have you to do do you
62. Q: How is he? - Daniel? He __________.
's fine
s tall with blond hair 's quite a shy person actually 's twenty three
63. Q: He will meet you _________ the station at 9 o'clock sharp.
in front
ahead
in front of
behind of
64. Q: If you want to be healthy, you _______ smoke or drink alcohol.
needn't couldn't
shouldn't
mustn't to
65. Q: He's _____________ politics.
interested
interesting
interested to interested in
66. Q: Where was Dany yesterday? - I don't know. He ________________ seeing the doctor.
might has been
might have been
couldn't have been
mustn't have been
67. Q: Yes, that is the woman _________ horse almost trampled her!
which
whose
who
that
68. Q: Would you like me to ______________ the kids next week?
look to look at
look after
look into
69. Q: I missed the bus, so I _________ take the next one.
musted must
had to
had
70. Q: Why are your hands so dirty? - Well, I __________________ in the garden for the last two
hours.
have worked
worked
am working
have been working
71. Q: Fiestas ______________ in an old city in Germany for many years now.
have been making
have made
have been made
are made
72. Q: Let me ___________! I didn't really want to eat all the cakes, I just couldn't help myself.
to say you
say you
explain me
explain
73. Q: Yes, we have bought the tickets to the concert and we _______________ next Saturday. I'm so
excited.
will go won't go
shall be going
are going
74. Q: Most people like rugby, but ____ my opinion it's too chaotic.
Of
from
in
with
75. Q: Are you travelling to Prague ____ business or ____ holiday?
For
on
to
in
76. Q: Have you read the article _____ Time magazine ____ Google?
on on
to on in on from on
77. Q: What's that book _____?

74

about to
from of
78. Q: I stayed ____ the Ritz Hotel ________ my stay in New York.
in to
to while
at while
at during
79. Q: I looked this word ____ in the dictionary, but I still don't understand its meaning.
from
on
up
over
80. Q: We need some sugar. We're almost completely ____ it.
out
out of
over
through
81. Q: Luckily, I made it to the station ___ time to catch the last train.
in
for
at
to
82. Q: My house is ___ the end of the street ___ the left.
in on
at in
in at
at on
83. Q: The post office doesn't open _____ 9 a.m.
For
until
still
just
84. Q: Are you ___ or ___ the prime minister?
pro con
for against
with against
proto contra
85. Q: Were you ____ time for your appointment? Or were you late?
to
on
at
of
86. Q: Throw the ball ___ Daniel, please.
next
beneath
to
against
87. Q: I got ____ home late last night.
To
at
_
in
88. Q: Please talk __ the manager and don't shout __ me!
to to
at to
to at
with to
89. Q: You can start the computer ___ pressing that button.
with
to
by
from
90. Q: She was born ____ Spain ___ March 16, 1992.
in in
in to
in on
to in
91. Q: He was born ___ Germany ___ April.
in to
on in
in in
in at
92. Q: Be careful! You're going to set the paper ___ fire!
to
on
in
with
93. Q: I need to learn these verbs ___ heart ___ tomorrow.
by on
by to
from by
by by
94. Q: She'll be finished ____ the end of the week.
By
from
to
in
95. Q: You must take the medicine _____ the next five minutes.
Since
until
within
at
96. Q: I haven't seen Larry ___ ages!
At
in
since
until
97. Q: It is years ____ I last played tennis.
For
when
since
at
98. Q: Jack will be out _____ 3.30.
Since at
from until
99. Q: Daniel _____ (live) in New York for the past 15 years.
has lived
lives
lived
100. Q: Jane ____ (work) for H&M before she came to work for us.
Works
worked
has worked
101. Q: Are there ______ peaches in the kitchen?
Much
any
some
a
102. Q: That is _____ interesting book.
The
a
an
103. Q: I went ______ church last Sunday.
At
in
to
on

75

104. Q: What _____ he like? - He is very friendly.


Does
did
is
has
105. Q: I ________ a new car last month.
bought
have bought
buyed
did bought
106. Q: How ________ money do you have in your wallet?
many
few
much
some
107. Q: She came ______ home late last night.
at
to
in
108. Q: Daniel is a nice boy, and I like _____.
him
his
it
109. Q: I get up ______ eight o'clock every day.
In
on
at
to
110. Q: I like __________ music.
Listen
listen to
listening to
to listening to
111. Q: What __________ in your free time?
you do do you do
are you doing
does you do
112. Q: My father _______ in a software company.
Works
work
is working
is worked
113. Q: Would you like _______ coffee?
Any
an
some
to
114. Q: I _____ drive a car.
can't to
can
want
have
115. Q: He likes watching TV ______ evening.
in the
at
during
in
116. Q: I drove my car _____ the garage.
In
at
into
onto
117. Q: _________. Is there a bank near here?
Please
Excuse me
Pardon
Hey
118. Q: I live in ______.
italy
Italy
Italian
italian
119. Q: The bank is at the end of this street _____ the left.
at
in
on
over
120. Q: The bank is _______ the post office.
near of next to
next
close
121. Q: There are ______ magazines on the table.
any
an
some
a
122. Q: I would like _____ rice.
a
one
some
any
123. Q: I went to London three years _____.
last
ago
time past
yet
124. Q: I would love to visit Prague sometime. Unfortunately, I ____ (be/never) there.
have never been
was never
will never be
125. Q: Daniel _____ (play) tennis for five years when he _____ (be) at school.
has played was
played was
has played - has been
126. Q: : Do you like ______ Chinese food?
an
some
the
127. Q: I _____ (work) in Spain for 5 years. I ____ (begin) work as soon as I arrived.
work began
have worked - have begun
have worked began
128. Q: I'm afraid I'm not hungry. I _____ (eat/already).
didn't eat already
have already eaten
haven't already eaten
129. Q: When Daniel was at school, he _____ (learn) to play the piano. He _____ (play) it ever since.
has learned - has played
learned - has played
learned played

76

130. Q: Could you give me some advice? I _____ (buy) this sweater yesterday. Do you think I should
take it back?
Bought
have bought
buyed
131. Q: George lives in New York. Before she _____ (move) here, she ____ (live) in Seattle for 3
years.
moved - has lived
moved lived
has moved lived
132. Q: Peter ____ (go) to Paris last year. That means that he ____ (be) to Paris 3 times!
went - has been
went was
has gone was
133. Q: Just a moment! I _____ (not think) of a good idea yet!
haven't thought
didn't think
don't think
134. Q: Irina _____ (believe) that for ages!
believes
has believed
was believed
135. Q: How long _____ (you/live) there before coming here?
have you lived
did you live
do you live
136. Q: She _____ (write) the email but doesn't know how to send it.
has written
writes
written
137. Q: I ____ (just/have) something done to my hair. Do you like it?
have just had
just have had
just have
138. Q: Hurry up! The concert _____ (begin) and we are late.
Begins
has begun
began
139. Q: Andra _____ (record) many albums and will probably make many more.
records
has recorded
recorded
140. Q: Nat King Cole _____ (record) many albums during his great career.
records
has recorded
recorded
141. Q: How many magazines ____ (read) this year?
did you read
do you read
have you read
142. Q: How many books ____ (read) last year?
do you read
have you read
did you read
143. Q: ____ (newspaper/arrive)? Yes, Daniel is reading it at the moment.
Did the newspaper arrived
Does the newspaper arrive
Has the newspaper arrived
144. Q: Where ____ (you/find) that book? - I _____(find) it in the library.
have you found - have found
did you find found
did you find - have found
145. Q: ____ (you/smoke) a lot before becoming a non-smoker?
Have you smoked
Did you smoked
Did you smoke
146. Q: He _____ (leave) the shop a few minutes ago.
was left
left
has left
147. Q: She ____ (not leave) the house yet.
has left
hasn't left
didn't leave
148. Q: I _____ (not know) you ____ (be) here! _____ (you/be) here long?
haven't known - were - Have you been
didn't know - were - Have you been
didn't know - have been - Have you been
149. Q: _____ (you/see) today's paper?
Do you see
Have you seen
Are you seeing
150. Q: I'm tired. I _____ (not get) much sleep last night.
haven't got
didn't get
wasn't get

77

Cheia exerciiilor
Present Tense Simple
Afirmativ:
I leave home at 12 oclock but my friend leaves home at 1 oclock.
I go to work by car but my friend goes to work by train.
I speak English well but my friend speaks English badly.
I get home at six but my friend gets home at seven.
I have two kids but my friend has three.
Interogativ:
Do you leave home at 12 oclock? Does he leave home at 1 oclock?
Do you go to work by car? Does he go to work by train?
Do you speak English well? Does he speak English badly?
Do you get home at six?
Does he get home at seven?
Do you have two kids?
Does he have three kids?
Negativ:
I dont leave home at 12 oclock. My friend doesnt leave home at 1 oclock.
I dont go to work by car. My friend doesnt go to work by train.
I dont speak English. My friend doesnt speak English badly.
I dont get home at six. My friend doesnt get home at seven.
I dont have two kids. My friend doesnt have three kids.
Past Tense Simple
Afirmativ
He spent three days in the Danube Delta last month.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Daniel got up early in the morning and (do) morning exercises.


Then he washed and ate/had breakfast with his parents.
After that he went fishing with his friends Irina and Larry.
He swam in the Danube in the evening.
The weather was fine all the time.
Daniel made a lot of friends there.
He came back home in September to go to school.

Interogativ
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Did he spend three days in the Danube Delta last month?


Did Daniel get up early in the morning and do morning exercises?
Did he wash and eat/have breakfast with his parents?
After that did he go fishing with his friends Irina and Larry?
Did he swim in the Danube in the evening?
Was the weather fine all the time?
Did Daniel make a lot of friends there?
Did he come back home in September to go to school?
78

Future Tense Simple


Situation 1
Daniel:
1. Ill work in the lab tomorrow.
2. Ill do an interesting experiment tomorrow.
3. Ill obtain hydrogen in the Chemistry lesson.
4. Ill learn interesting things next week.
5. Ill study hydrogen next week.
6. Ill ask the teacher a lot of questions.

Grandpa:
Where will you work?
What will you do?
What will you obtain?
When will you learn?
What will you study?
Who will you ask ?

Situation 2 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Larry will not /wont read his lesson later.


Larry will not /wont go to the cinema next Sunday.
He will not /wont go shopping tomorrow morning.
He will not /wont help you tomorrow evening.
He will not /wont have an experiment in the chemistry lab next week.
He will not /wont wash the car on Sunday morning.
He will not /wont buy a new car next year.
He will not /wont take a new project next month.

Present Perfect
I. Pune verbele din parantez la Prezentul Perfect Simplu:
1. I have just fixed my car.
2. Father has just left home.
3. They have just arrived to the theatre.
4. We have just seen our Math teacher.
5. He has just begun to cry.
II. Completeaz urmatoarele propoziii folosind timpul Prezent Perfect Simplu:
1. That is the most interesting movie he has ever seen.
2. This is the best book she has ever read.
3. This is the biggest mall they have ever visited.
4. These are the most attractive souvenirs they have ever bought.
5. Those are the most wonderful monuments they have ever seen.
Past Perfect
1. Had Daniel seen the Black Sea before?
Yes, he had.
Had Irina seen the Black Sea before?
No, she hadnt.
2. Had Daniel swum in the sea before?
Yes, he had.
Had Irina swum in the sea before?
No, she hadnt.
79

3. Had Daniel sunbathed on the beach before?


Yes, he had.
Had Irina sunbathed on the beach before?
No, she hadnt.
4. Had Daniel gone fishing in the sea before?
Yes, he had.
Had Irina gone fishing in the sea before?
No, she hadnt.
5. Had Daniel walked down the beach before?
Yes, he had.
Had Irina walked down the beach before?
No, she hadnt.
6. Had Daniel stayed at a hotel before?
Yes, he had.
Had Irina stayed at a hotel before?
No, she hadnt.
7. Had Daniel made the tour of Constana before?
Yes, he had.
Had Irina made the tour of Constana before?
No, she hadnt.
8. Had Daniel visited Eforie Nord before?
Yes, he had.
Had Irina visited Eforie Nord before?
No, she hadnt.
Present Continuous
1. Larry is working in his office now.
2. Daniel is typing a letter in the secretariate
3. Ioana is presenting a project in the conference room.
4. Maria is speaking on the phone in the hall now.
5. Matei is meeting some clients in the guests room.
Past Tense Continuous
1. Daniel and John were working in the office when Mr Smith came in.
2. Matei and Maria were speaking on the phone when Mr Smith came in.
3. Ioana was writing a report when Mr Smith came in.
4. Martha was watering the flowers when Mr Smith came in.
5. Victor was talking to his coleague when Mr Smith came in.
6. Angela was opening the windows when Mr Smith came in.
7. Mark and Chris were looking at some pictures when Mr Smith came in.
8. Fiona was reading the newspapers when Mr Smith came in.
Future Continuous
1) She will be meeting him next week. (to meet)
2) We will be arriving in Pitesti just about now. (to arrive)
80

3) At 7 o'clock on Monday they will be singing the new song. (to sing)
4) He will be sleeping when you call her. (to sleep)
5) It will probably be raining when I reach Madrid. (to rain)
6) Mary will be watching a video when I arrive tonight. (to watch)
7) You will be eating spaghetti soon. (to eat)
8) This time next week he will be flying to Africa. (to fly)
9) Peggy will be coming to the party on Sunday. (to come)
10) Tomorrow at nine I will be writing a test paper. (to write)
Present Perfect Continuous
1. We have been talking about that horrible accident for half an hour.
2. She has been cooking a chicken soup for 1 hour.
3. They have been phoning the manager for the last five minutes.
4. Mary has been living in Manhattan since June 1998.
5. It has been raining since morning.
Past Perfect Continuous
She had been sleeping for 10 hours when he woke us up.
We had been waiting at the station for 60 minutes when the train finally arrived.
They had been looking her ring for three hours and then we found it in the bathroom.
I had not been walking for a long time, when it suddenly began to rain.
How long had she been learning English before she went to London?
She had been driving less than an hour when he ran out of gas.
They were very tired in the evening because they had been helping on the farm all day.
I had not been working all day; so I wasn't tired and went to the disco at night.
They had been cycling all day so their legs were sore in the evening.
Future Perfect Continuous
Mike: Helen has been in the kitchen all day long.
Ross: It doesn't sound like she's having a very good birthday party.
Mike: She will have been cooking for over five hours by the time everyone arrives for
dinner.Hopefully, she will have finished everything by then.
Ross: Maybe we should give her a helping hand.
Diateza:
1. He has been appointed president.
I have been given a good dictionary.
You will be told what time the bus leaves.
The carpender will be paid for his work.
They were promised new bicycles.
2. This bed has not been slept in.
The children were well looked after.
The dog was run over by a bus.
You will be laughed at if you wear this dress.

81

Persoana i numrul
1) He is dreaming.
2) It is green.
3) They are on the wall.
4) It is running.
5) We are watching TV.
6) They are in the garden.
7) He is riding his bike.
8) She is from Bristol.
9) She has got a brother.
10) Have you got a computer, Mandy?
Subjonctivul
1. It is very important that all employees be dressed in their proper uniforms before 6:30 a.m.
2. I wish my sister were here.
3. The coach insisted that Mario play the center position, even though he's much too short for
that position..
4. Mary hoped that the meeting be adjourned.
5. My mother would know what to do. Oh, would that she were here with us now!
6. If only Mark were a little more responsible in his choice of courses!
7. If Mrs. Smith had been ill that night, the Smiths would not have gone to the cinema.
8. Her employees treated Mrs. Smith as though she were a queen.
9. I wish I felt better today.
Infinitivul i gerunziul
1) I can't imagine Peter going by bike.
2) He agreed to buy a new car.
3) The question is easy to answer.
4) The man asked me how to get to the airport.
5) I look forward to seeing you at the weekend.
6) Are you thinking of visiting London?
7) We decided to run through the forest.
8) The teacher expected Sarah to study hard.
9) She doesn't mind working the night shift.
10) I learned to ride the bike at the age of 5.
Participiul trecut:
the lost son
an interested audience
a broken leg
an emptied bottle
a closed door
a decorated room
two packed bags
the written letters
the sold car
the bought apples
82

Verbele auxiliare
What have you done?
I do not like this song.
Does she know that you are here?
The lesson has not started yet.
Do you drink milk?
Who has eaten my biscuits?
It does not matter.
They do not want to play outside.
We have not seen you for a long time.
My friend has sent me some photos.
The train has just arrived.
Do you understand?
They have been learning English for two years.
Have you heard that?
My uncle does not eat fish.
I do not live here.
Has anybody rung up for me?
She does not play the piano.
How do we get there?
Where does he live?
Verbele modale
Ex.1.
1.We couldn't go to the party. We're going to a wedding.
2. He would be able to pass the exam if he studied harder.
3. I can't remember his name.
4. They weren't able to go. The weather was too bad.
5. Sorry, Teacher. I haven't been able to do it yet.
Ex. 2
1. I must be at the meeting by 10:00. I will probably have to take a taxi if I want to be on time.
2. You mustn't submit the application if it has not been completely filled out. If the form is not
complete, you will be rejected and you will have to reapply at a later date.
3. Tina: Look at these flowers - they're beautiful! But, there's no card. Who could have sent
them?
Stephanie: It must have been David. He's the only one who would send you flowers, you know.
4. You mustn't forget to pay the rent. Mr Daniel is very strict about paying on time.
5. You don't have to be like this! Why don't you try saying "please" once in a while.
Ex 3.
1. Mike's flight from Paris took more than 7 hours.
He must be quite exhausted after such a long flight.
2. The books are optional. My teacher said we could read them if we needed extra credit. But we
don't have to read them if we don't want to.
3. Daniel couldn't hear a word because the crowd was cheering so loudly.
4. The refrigerator isn't working. It must have been damaged during the move.
5. Mike: Can you hold your breath for more than a minute?
Jack: No, I can't.
83

6. You don't have to be rich to be famous. Some of the most successful people I know haven't got
a penny.
7. I've redone this math problem at least ten times, but my answer is wrong according to the
answer key. So, the answer in the book must be wrong!
8. You couldn't do the job if you didn't speak three languages fluently.
9. You shouldn't worry so much. It doesn't do you any good. Either you get the promotion, or
you don't. If you don't, just apply for another job.
10. You may leave the table once you have finished your dinner and politely excused yourself.
11. Jenny's engagement ring is speechless! It must have cost a fortune.
12. Shall we move into the living room? There's a beautiful view of the forest from there.
13. You had better take along some cash. The shop may not accept credit cards.
14. The machine can start moving by pressing the left button.
15. I can't stand these people - I dont understand their priciples, so you get rid of them!
16. Do you always have to say the first thing that pops into your head.
Can't you think once in a while before you open your mouth?
17. Daniel and Mathew said they would come over right after work, so they should be here by
5:00.
18. You shall no longer suffer this injustice! Freedom shall be yours!
19. If I had gone to an University in England, I could have participated in their English
immersion program.
20. The lamp might not be broken. Maybe the light bulb just burned out or something.
Substantivul:
Ex 1.
1) This is Peter's book.
2) Let's go to the Smiths'.
3) The children's room is upstairs.
4) John's sister is twelve years old.
5) Susan and Steve's bags have blue stickers.
6) Men's shoes are on the second floor.
7) My parents' car was not expensive.
8) Charles's CD player is new.
9) This is the boy's bike.
10) These are the boys' pencils.
Ex. 2.
1) half halves 2) kilo kilos 3) woman women 4) mouth mouths 5) foot feet
6) sheep sheep 7) penny pence 8) bus buses 9) day days10) fish fish
Ex 3.
1) a piece of advice
4) a glass of milk
7) a slice of meat
10) a jar of jam
Ex.4.
ira = air
eber = beer

2) a packet of rice
5) a cup of tea
8) a barrel of oil

aet = tea
einw = wine

3) a bar of chocolate
6) a bottle of lemonade
9) a game of tennis

ikn = ink
ilo = oil
doow = wood acek = cake

84

fgo = fog
aclo = coal

ahir = hair

Articolul
This coat was designed by a famous New York artist.
Can you tell me how to get to a bank from here?
The city museum is closed today.
He is one of the smartest people I know.
I recommend you eat the apple pie at this restaurant.
___ milk is good for you.
Would you like to see the/a movie?
An apple a day keeps the doctor away.
I can't believe I failed the yesterday's test!
Do you have a dictionary that I can borrow?
Adjectivul demonstrativ
1. THIS beach was quite empty last year.
2. THIS exhibition will be open until the end of May.
3. THESE people come from that hotel over there.
4. What does thatnotice say?
5. THAT exhibition closed a month ago.
6. He was dismissed on the 13th. THAT night the factory went on fire.
7. Do you see THOSE birds at the top of the tree?
8. THESE are the old classrooms.Those are the new ones.
9. THIS is my cousin, Jessica.
10. Wasn't THAT a horrible thing to say?
Adjectivul posesiv
1 He's from Spain. His name's Alberto.
2 They're married. Their children's names are Lauren and Daniel.
3 We're brothers. Our parents are French.
4 She's eight. Her brother's nine.
5 I'm British. My name's Peter.
6 You're students. Your books are in the classroom.
Adjectivul interogativ
1. What time is the flight ?
2. Which girl has a red bag ?
3. Whose mother is a nurse ?
4. What subject do you like ?
5. Whose books are these ?
Adjectivul nehotrt
1.
Do any black people work in your company?
Yes, there are some.
2.
She hasn't any clothes to wear to the party.
No problem, I can give her some.
3.
Mary, there is no gas in the car.
Oh, no. We had better get some.
4.
Are there any good movies this weekend?
No, there are none.
85

5.

I want to take a shower; is there any hot water?


I'm sorry, there is no hot water.

Numeralul
1. hundreds
2. two dozen
3. five-thousand-word
4. Lesson Nine
5. three-fifths

6. two thousand
7. thirties
8. the third
9. one year and a half
10 the one hundred forty-ninth

Pronumele
EX. 1.
1) He is dreaming.
2) It is green.
3) They are on the wall.
4) It is running.
5) We are watching TV.
EX.2.
My name is John. This is my friend Jason. He's 32. His sister is 34 and her workplace is very
near. Jason and I work in the same office. There are 150 employees in our company.
EX.3.
1) Robert made this T-shirt himself.
2) Lisa did the homework herself
3) We helped ourselves to some cola at the party.
4) Emma, did you take the photo all by yourself?
5) I wrote this poem myself.
6) He cut himself with the knife while he was doing the dishes.
7) The lion can defend itself.
8) My mother often talks to herself.
9) Tim and Gerry, if you want more milk, help yourselves.
10) Alice and Doris collected the stickers themselves.
EX. 4. 1) I talked to the boy whose car had broken down in front of the building.
2) Mr John, who is a taxi driver, lives in the neighbourhood.
3) We often visit our aunt in Bucharest which is in the south of Romania.
4) This is the boy who comes from France.
5) That's Irina, the girl who has just arrived at the airport.
6) Thank you very much for your e-mail which was very interesting.
7) The man, whose father is a professor, forgot his umbrella.
8) The children, who shouted in the street, are not from our school.
9) The car, whose driver is a young man, is from England.
10) What did you do with the money which your parents lent you?
EX.5. 1) John and Angela haven't met each other for a very long time.
2) My friends enjoyed themselves at the party.
3) Daniel repaired computer car himself.
4) We helped each other with our written task.
86

5) People often give each other presents at Christmas.


6) I bought myself a new record player.
7) Katie, did you do the homework yourself?
8) They looked at each other and smiled.
9) They often write e-mails to each other because they're best friends.
10) She only thinks of herself. She's a little bit selfish.
Adjectivul
My house is bigger than yours.
This red flower is more beautiful than that yellow one.
This is the most interesting magazine I have ever read.
Non-smokers usually live longer than smokers.
Which is the most dangerous insect in the world?
A holiday by the sea is better than a holiday in the mountains.
It is strange but often a coke is more expensive than a beer.
Who is the richest man on earth?
The weather is even worse than last summer.
He was the cleverest student of all.
Adverbul
Joanne is happy. She smiles happily .
The boy is loud. He shouts loudly.
Her English is fluent. She speaks English fluently.
Our mum was angry. She spoke to us angrily .
My neighbour is a careless driver. He drives carelessly.
The painter is awful. He paints awfully.
Jim is a wonderful piano player. He plays the piano wonderfully.
This girl is very quiet. She often sneaks out of the house quietly.
She is a good dancer. She dances really well.
This exercise is simple. You simply have to put one word in each space.
Prepoziia
EX. 1.
We live in London.
Would you like to go to the cinema tonight?
No, thanks. I was at the cinema yesterday.
We are going on holiday next week.
There is a bridge across the river.
The flight from Bucharest to Lecce was via Berlin.
On my wall, there are many picture postcards.
Who is the person in this picture?
Come into the sitting room, we want to watch TV.
The town lies 530 meters above sea level.
EX.2.
1. What are you doing at the weekend?
2. I don't know yet. Maybe I'll go to the cinema on Saturday.
3. That's interesting. I haven't been to the cinema for so many years.
4. We could go there together in the afternoon.
87

5. That would be great. But I would prefer to go there in the evening. I am visiting my grandma
on Saturday.
6. That's okay. The film starts at eight o'clock.
7. I can pick you up at half past seven. How long does the film last?
8. It lasts for two hours and forty-five minutes.
9. From eight till a quarter to eleven.
10.That's right. But I must hurry home after the film. I have to be home by eleven o'clock.
Conjuncia
EX.1.
1. Daniel was cold, so he put on a coat.
2. Maria tried to translate the text, but it was too difficult.
3. To get from Piteti to Bucharest, you can take a bus, or you can go by car.
4. I bought a bottle of wine, and we drank it together.
5. The teacher was not very nice, but the mark was good.
6. I went to buy my favorite CD, but the shop didn't have it.
7. Irina needed some money, so she took a part-time job.
8. There's so much noise in the building lately! Maybe it's because of the new familz who has
just moved in ,or maybe it's just coincidence.
9. Julie has a guitar, and she plays it really well.
10. The concert was cancelled, so we went to a disco instead.
EX.2.
Daniel couldn't buy any presents because he didn't have any money.
I don't drink coffee as it makes me nervous.
Although it was snowing, I wasnt cold.
Since she doesn't speak English, she can't translate that text.
Daniel passed the exam first time while his brother had to retake it four times.
Paula got the job she wanted even though she had no experience.
I will be late today because my car has broken down.
Whereas my wife likes to travel abroad, I prefer to stay at the countryside for my vacations.
Interjecia
1. " AH , that feels good"
2. " ALAS, she's dead now"
3. " Oh DEAR ! Does it hurt ?"
4. "What do you think of that, EH ?"
5. "Lima is the capital of.... ER....Peru"
6. " HELLO John, How are you today ?"
7. " HMM, I'm not so sure"
8. " OH , please say 'yes' !"
9. " WELL, what did he say "
10. " 85 divided by 5 is... UM...17"
11. "Shall we go ? " " UH-HUH "
12. " OUCH ! That hurts !"
Subiectul i predicatul
EX.1.
1. Yesterday, (Ross and Monica )took their children to the zoo.
2. (The elephants, the lions, and all of the other animals) were outside.
88

3. (The president of the bank )looked everywhere for the papers .


4. (They) listened quietly.
5. (The yellow race car with red stripes) finished the first in the race.
6. After his speech,( the president of the meeting) shook hands with all members of the crowd .
EX.2.
1. The dirty yellow cat prowled through the dark alley/ lived in the attic last winter.
2. We stood outside the hotel all night./ baked delicious apple pies./ were late yesterday.
3. Tom and his brother stood outside the hotel all night./ baked delicious apple pies./ were late
yesterday./ sold used cars.
4. The taxi driver stood outside the hotel all night./ was from the Middle East.
5. Anna's elderly mother baked delicious apple pies./ was from the Middle East.
6. The green tree snake was from the Middle East.
7. The detective in the gray raincoat stood outside the hotel all night./ waited patiently for his
victim.
8. Seven rats lived in the attic last winter.
Complementul direct
1. The computer programmer is testing his new software.
Programatorul i testeaz noul soft.
2. We suddenly realized that someone was listening.
Deodat ne-am dat seama c cineva asculta.
3. Amy has decided to go to university.
Amy s-a hotrt s mearg la facultate.
4. They can't read what you've just written.
Ei nu pot citi ceea ce tocmai ai scris.
5.This exercise involves clicking on the screen.
Acest exerciiu implic a da click pe ecran.
Complementul indirect
1. Indirect object: you. Direct object: some money
2. Direct object: English writers (no indirect object)
3. Indirect object: them. Direct object: news
4. Indirect object: Mary. Direct object: candy
5. Indirect object: students. Direct object: homework
6. Direct object: boys (no indirect object)
7. Direct object: them (no indirect object)
8. Indirect object: us. Direct object: speech
9. Direct object: letters (no indirect object)
10. Indirect object: son. Direct object: keys
11. Direct object: rain (no indirect object)
12. Direct object: traffic (or air traffic)

89

Complementul prepoziional
He reminds me of your brother in some ways. You have similar temperaments.
The must not message is designed to prevent people from entering.
The judge banned him from driving for six months.
This new software enables the user to get lots of reports for the management.
I don't smoke at home; I don't want to encourage the children to smoke.
The team manager wouldn't allow the press to interview his players.
The police wouldn't provide the press with any details about the crime.
The salesman failed to interest me in any of his products.
Construcii complexe:
EX.1.
a. nominativul absolut
b. nominativul absolut
3- N+ infinitiv
4- Ac + infinitive
5- N absolut + part. prezent
EX.2.
1. The manager was expected to speak first. 2. He was thought to be gifted in singing. 3. He was
heard walking slowly in the dark. 4. He was advised him to go to the hospital as soon as possible
5. We were told not to worry. 6. He was asked him by the manager to explain the semester
report. 7. He was seen stealing the money. 8. His thoughts are considered to be very weird.
Complementul circumstanial de loc,timp, mod
They were in Paris. (last week) They were in Paris last week.- adverbial of time
She walks his dog. (rarely) She rarely walks his dog. - adverbial of manner
She waited. (patiently) She waited patiently. - adverbial of manner
My father goes fishing. (always) My father always goes fishing. - adverbial of time
Your bedroom is. (upstairs) Your bedroom is upstairs. - adverbial of place
We don't go skiing. (in summer) We don't go skiing in summer. - adverbial of time
Cats can hear. (well) Cats can hear well. - adverbial of manner
I saw him. (there) I saw him there.- adverbial of place
The boy speaks English. (fluently) The boy speaks English fluently. - adverbial of manner
I have seen that movie. (never) / (before) I have never seen that movie before. - adverbial of
time
Atributul
1. Those are probably the fanciest boys in the school.
2. Uncle Daniel is really a sweet old man.
3. Dacia used to be a fine Romanian car.
4. All the family was home for the holidays. What could make for a merrier Christmas?
5. They were raised in a comfortable little house in Bucharest.
6. Four weddings and a funeral is the most exciting movie I've ever seen.
7. She wanted to take a course with that interesting new Japanese economics
professor.
8. Of all the mechanics in the shop, he is surely the least competent .
9. In the fall, the valleys tend to be foggier than the hilltops.
10. My cold is definitely worse this morning.
90

TEST FINAL
1. are you doing
2. Do you always get up
3. Has John got
4. is having
5. loves
6. went
7. isn't
8. is going
9. took
10. did he arrive
11. are they doing
12. did you go
13. Have you got
14. loves
15. is coming
16. is
17. taught
18. Does he always have
19. drove
20. Have you got
21. did she study
22. doesn't like
23. is watching
24. took
25. isn't
26. are you doing
27. is going to visit
28. Do you always finish
29. rode
30. are you doing
31. Does she often telephone
32. Have they got
33. are reading
34. taught
35. loves
36. is going to have
37. flew
38. isn't going to be
39. did she do
40. Has Thomas got

41. did they go


42. likes
43. is listening
44. Does he always play
45. was watching
46. already
47. stay out
48. some
49. Few
50. had finished
51. seeing
52. Have ... gone
53. Yet
54. interested in
55. were photographed
56. arrives
57. among
58. giving
59. as ... as
60. said
61. do you have to do
62. 's fine
63. in front of
64. shouldn't
65. interested in
66. might have been
67. whose
68. look after
69. had to
70. have been working
71. have been made
72. explain
73. are going
74. in
75. on
76. in on
77. about
78. at during
79. up
80. out of

91

81. in
82. at on
83. until
84. for against
85. on
86. to
87. _
88. to at
89. by
90. in on
91. in in
92. on
93. by by
94. by
95. within
96. in
97. since
98. until
99. has lived
100. has worked
101. any
102. an
103. to
104. is
105. bought
106. much
107. 108. him
109. at
110. listening to
111. do you do
112. works
113. some
114. can
115. in the
116. into
117. Excuse me
118. Italy
119. on
120. next to

121. some
122. some
123. ago
124. have never been
125. played was
126. 127. have worked began
128. have already eaten
129. learned - has played
130. bought
131. moved lived
132. went - has been
133. haven't thought
134. has believed
135. did you live
136. has written
137. have just had
138. has begun
139. has recorded
140. recorded
141. have you read
142. did you read
143. Has the newspaper arrived
144. have you found - have found
145. Did you smoke
146. left
147. hasn't left
148.didn't know - were - Have you been
149. Have you seen
150. didn't get

92

TIMPURILE LIMBII ENGLEZE - fi exemplu


PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE
Affirmative: S + V (s/es for IIIrd
person sg):
He goes to school everyday.
She drinks milk everyday.
Interrogative: Do/Does + S +V
Do I go to school everyday?
Does she go to school everyday?
Negative: S + Do/Does + Not + V
I do not go to school everyday.
He doesnt read this novel
everyday.
- Aciune general, repetabil: I
read daily.
- Adevruri general valabile: The
Earth spins round.
- Aciuni viitoare planificate n
prezent ca urmare a unui program
oficial

PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS


Affirmative: S + Be (present) + V ing:
I am eating now.
Interrogative: Be (present) + S + V ing:
Am I eating now?
Negative: S + Be (present) + Not + V ing:
I am not eating now
- Aciune care se petrece n momentul
vorbirii: I am reading.
- Aciune temporar: This week, I am doing
the homework, you are doing the cleaning
and he is going shopping.
- Aciune viitoare planificat n prezent
(neoficial):
We are spending the week end in the
country.

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE


Affirmative: S + Have/Has (IIIrd
person sg) + V3
I have met Mr. Brown.
She has met Mrs. Brown.
Interrogative: Have/Has + S + V3
Have you met my girlfriend?
Has he met his cousin?
Negative: S + Have/Has + Not +
V3
I havent read his last novel.
She hasnt left already.
- Aciune nceput n trecut,
terminat n trecut, (neprecizat
timpul): I have eaten. (am
mncat)
- Aciune terminat n perioada de
timp neterminat :
I have already read the
newspaper today.
- Aciune nceput n trecut care
se continu i n prezent: I have
met her.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS


Affirmative: S + Have/Has + Been + Ving
You have been waiting here for two hours.
She has been waiting here for two hours.
Interrogative: Have you been waiting here for
two hours?
Negative: S + Have/Has + not + Been + Ving
You have not been waiting here for two
hours.
- Aciune nceput n trecut care se continu
i n prezent:
DIFERENA DINTRE PRESENT
CONTINUOUS
I PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS:
1. Plou= It is raining
2. Plou de mult / de= It has been rainig
for

PAST TENSE SIMPLE


Affirmative: S + V2
You went to your friend yesterday.
Interrogative: Did + S + V

PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS (imperfect)


Affirmative: S + Be (past) + V ing
I was watching TV when she came.
Interrogative: Be (past) + S + V ing
93

Did you go to work yesterday?


Negative: S + Did + Not + V
They didnt go to work yesterday?
Aciune trecut terminat n
moment precizat: (ago, last,
yesterday, in 2004): I met her in
1981.

Were you reading when I entered the room?


Negative: S + Be (past) + Not + V ing
He wasnt eating when she phoned.
Aciune trecut n desfurare n prezent:
When you entered my room, I was watching
TV.

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE


(m.m.c.p.)
Affirmative: S + Had + V3
They had watched TV for half an
hour.
Interrogative: Had + S + V3
Had they watched TV for half an
hour?
Negative: S + Had + Not + V3
They hadnt watched TV for half
an hour.
Aciune trecut terminat naintea
altei aciuni trecute:ex: I had
already eaten for long when you
came.
FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE
Affirmative: S + Will/Shall + V
They will go to the seaside
tomorrow.
Interrogative: Will/Shall + S + V
Shall we go to the mountains next
week?
Negative: S + Will/Shall + Not +
V
They will not read this novel
tomorrow.

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS


Affirmative: S + Had + Been + V ing
She had been living in that house since 1993.
Interrogative: Had + S + Been + V ing
Had she been living in that house since 1993?
Negative: S + Had + Not + Been + V ing
She had not been living in that house since
1993.
Aciune trecut nceput naintea altei aciuni
trecute
i continundu-se i n momentul nceperii
celei de-a doua:
I had been watching TV for 2 hours when
you came.

FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE


Affirmative: S + shall/will + have
+ V3
They will have gone by now.
Interrogative: Shall/will + S +
have + V3
Will you have gone by now?
Negative: S + shall/will+ Not +
have + V3
They will not have gone by now.

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS


Affirmative: S + shall/will + have been + Ving
They will have been building that house for 2
years next Christmas.
Interrogative shall/will + S + have been + Ving
Will they have been building that house for 2
years next Christmas?
Negative: S + shall/will + not + have been +
V-ing
They will have been building that house for 2
years next Christmas.
Exprim faptul c o aciune se va afla nca n
desfurare la un anumit moment n viitor.

FUTURE CONTINUOUS
Affirmative: S + Will/Shall + Be + V ing
They will be going to the mountains.
Interrogative: Will/Shall + S + Be + V ing
Shall we be reading this novel tomorrow?
Negative: S + Will/Shall + Not + Be + V ing
You will not be reading this poem.

94

Verbul TO WORK -model


Indicative
Present
I work
you work
he/she/it works
we work
you work
they work
Present continuous
I am working
you are working
he/she/it is working
we are working
you are working
they are working
Past perfect continuous
I had been working
you had been working
he/she/it had been working
we had been working
you had been working
they had been working
Past perfect
I had worked
you had worked
he/she/it had worked
we had worked
you had worked
they had worked
Future perfect
I will have worked
you will have worked
he/she/it will have worked
we will have worked
you will have worked
they will have worked
Future perfect continuous
I will have been working
you will have been working
he/she/it will have been working
we will have been working
you will have been working
they will have been working
Infinitive
to work

Past Tense
I worked
you worked
he/she/it worked
we worked
you worked
they worked
Past continuous
I was working
you were working
he/she/it was working
we were working
you were working
they were working
Present perfect
I have worked
you have worked
he/she/it has worked
we have worked
you have worked
they have worked
Future
I will work
you will work
he/she/it will work
we will work
you will work
they will work
Future continuous
I will be working
you will be working
he/she/it will be working
we will be working
you will be working
they will be working
Present perfect continuous
I have been working
you have been working
he/she/it has been working
we have been working
you have been working
they have been working
Participle
Present
Past
working
worked

95

Bibliografie:
Leon Levichi, Ioan Preda - Gramatica limbii engleze, Ed. tiinific 1967;
Alice Bdescu - Gramatica limbii engleze, Ed.tiinific, 1963;
Georgiana Gleanu, Ecaterina Comiel, - Gramatica limbii engleze, pentru uz colar, Editura
didactic i pedagogic Bucureti,1982
Catedra de limb i literatur englez. Universitatea din Bucureti - Gramatica limbii
engleze, Ed. tiinific, 1962;
Ioana tefnescu - Lectures in English Morphology, Univ. din Buc., 1978.

96