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3.1 Milling manufacturing process

3.1.1) Identify the machining environment
A life-cycle energy consumption analysis of a Bridgeport manual
mill and a Mori Seiki DuraVertical 5060 has been conducted. The
use phase incorporated three manufacturing environments: a
community shop, a job shop, and a commercial facility. The CO2equivalent emissions were presented per machined part. While the
use phase comprised the majority of the overall emissions, the
manufacturing phase emissions were significant especially for the
job shop, which is not as efficient as the other facilities due to its
inherent need for flexibility. Since the Mori Seiki is heavier, the
manufacturing phase of this machine tool had a greater impact on
emissions than the Bridgeport. Transportation was small relative to
the use phase, which was dominated by cutting, HVAC, and
lighting. These results highlight areas for energy reductions in
machine tool design as well as the importance of facility type to
the manufacture of any product.

3.1.2) Machining process planning

Milling machine is one of the most versatile conventional machine
tools with a wide range of metal cutting capability. Many
complicated operations such as indexing, gang milling, and
straddle milling etc. can be carried out on a milling machine.

This training module is intended to give you a good appreciation

on the type of milling machines and the various types of milling
processes. Emphasis is placed on its industrial applications,
operations, and the selection of appropriate cutting tools.On
completion of this module, you will acquire some of these
techniques from the training exercises as illustrated in figure 1.
However, to gain maximum benefit, you are strongly advised to
make yourself familiar with the following notes before undertaking
the training activities, and to have a good interaction between
yourself and the staff in charge of your training.Assessment of
your training will be based on a combination of your skill and
attitude in getting the work done.

Horizontal Milling Machine

a. Column
The column houses the spindle, the bearings, the gear box, the
clutches, the shafts, the pumps, and the shifting mechanisms for
transmitting power from the electric motor to the spindle at a
selected speed.

b. Knee
The knee mounted in front of the column is for supporting the table
and to provide an up or down motion along the Z axis.

c. Saddle
The saddle consists of two slideways, one on the top and one at the
bottom located at 90 to each other, for providing motions in the X
or Y axes by means of lead screws.

d. Table
The table is mounted on top of the saddle and can be moved along
the X axis. On top of the table are some T-slots for the mounting of
workpiece or clamping fixtures.

e. Arbor
The arbor is an extension of the spindle for mounting cutters.
Usually, the thread end of an arbor is of left hand helix.

Vertical Milling Machine

a vertical milling machine which is of similar construction to a

horizontal milling machine except that the spindle is mounted in
the vertical position.

Its additional features are :a. Milling head

The milling head consisting the spindle, the motor, and the feed
control unit is mounted on a swivel base such that it can be set at
any angle to the table.
b. Ram
The ram on which the milling head is attached can be positioned
forward and backward along the slideway on the top of the

Cutting Tools for Horizontal Milling

Slab Mills for or heavy cutting of large and flat surfaces.

Side and Face Cutters.This type of cutters has cutting edges

on the periphery and sides of the teeth for cutting shoulders
and slots.

c. Slitting Saws.For cutting deep slots or for parting off.

Cutting tools for Vertical Milling

End Mills. Commonly used for facing, slotting and profile

Rough Cut End Mills. For rapid metal removal.

Slot Drills.For producing pockets without drilling a hole

before hand.

Face Milling CuttersFor heavy cutting.

Direction of Cutter Rotation

Up Cut Milling
In up cut milling, the cutter rotates in a direction opposite to the
table feed as illustrated in figure 14. It is conventionally used in
most milling operations because the backlash between the
leadscrew and the nut of the machine table can be eliminated.

Down Cut Milling

In down cut milling, the cutter rotates in the same direction as the
table feed as illustrated in figure 15. This method is also known as
Climb Milling and can only be used on machines equipped with a
backlash eliminator or on a CNC milling machine. This method,
when properly treated, will require less power in feeding the table
and give a better surface finish on the workpiece.

If you move the wrong direction, you may break the cutter as


Typical Milling Operations

Plain Milling
Plain milling is the milling of a flat surface with the axis of the
cutter parallel to the machining surface. It can be carried out either
on a horizontal machine or a vertical machine as shown in figure.

End Milling
End Milling is the milling of a flat surface with the axis of the
cutter perpendicular to the machining surface as shown in figure.

Gang Milling
Gang milling is a horizontal milling operation that utilises three or
more milling cutters grouped together for the milling of a complex
surface in one pass. As illustrated in figure 18, different type and
size of cutters should be selected for achieving the desire profile on
the workpiece.

Straddle Milling
In straddle milling, a group of spacers is mounted in between two
side and face milling cutters on the spindle arbor as shown in
figure 19. for the milling of two surfaces parallel to each other at a
given distance.

Milling Set Up
Correct use of holding device and a good set up are of crucial
importance in achieving a safe, accurate, and efficient operation of
the machine. Large workpiece can be mounted directly onto the
machine table by means of tenons and screws while small
workpieces are usually held by machine vice as shown in figure
20. In either case, a dial indicator is used for alignment checking.

Vice Alignment
In the setting up of the vice onto the machine table, the fix jaw of
the vice must be set parallel to the machine table using a Parallel
Bar and a Dial Indicator as illustrated in figure 21. Adjustments
can only be made by using a hide face hammer to correct its
position such that a near zero indicator movement is achieved at all
positions along the parallel bar.

Work Holding Method

In the machining of a complex component, it is usually started off
with the milling of a rectangular block. To ensure that each surface
of the rectangular block is perpendicular to its neighbouring
surfaces, the following points should be noted:The vice jaws and the workpiece must be free from burrs, chips,
and cutting fluid.
Smaller workpiece should be supported by parallel bars to provide
the supporting datum.
Round bar must be placed between the workpiece and the movable
jaw to ensure that the workpiece is in perfect contact with the fix
The vice handle should be tightened by hand to avoid over
clamping of the workpiece as well as the vice. Hide face hammer

should be used to assure that the workpiece is in perfect contact

with the supporting base.
On completion of the milling of the first face, the workpiece
should be unloaded, deburred, and cleaned before the next
To machine the second and the third faces, the workpiece should
be clamped with its preceding machined surface facing against the
fix jaw of the vice.
Similar clamping method can be applied in the machining of the
fourth face.
Yet it can also be clamped on the vice without the round bar.
Both ends of the workpiece can be machined with the periphery
flutes of the cutter using up cut milling as shown in figure 23.

Cutting parameters

In milling, the speed and motion of the cutting tool is specified

through several parameters. These parameters are selected for each
operation based upon the workpiece material, tool material, tool
size, and more.

Cutting feed - The distance that the cutting tool or workpiece

advances during one revolution of the spindle and tool, measured
in inches per revolution (IPR). In some operations the tool feeds
into the workpiece and in others the workpiece feeds into the tool.
For a multi-point tool, the cutting feed is also equal to the feed per
tooth, measured in inches per tooth (IPT), multiplied by the
number of teeth on the cutting tool.

Cutting speed - The speed of the workpiece surface relative to the

edge of the cutting tool during a cut, measured in surface feet per
minute (SFM).
Spindle speed - The rotational speed of the spindle and tool in
revolutions per minute (RPM). The spindle speed is equal to the
cutting speed divided by the circumference of the tool.
Feed rate - The speed of the cutting tool's movement relative to the
workpiece as the tool makes a cut. The feed rate is measured in
inches per minute (IPM) and is the product of the cutting feed
(IPR) and the spindle speed (RPM).
Axial depth of cut - The depth of the tool along its axis in the
workpiece as it makes a cut. A large axial depth of cut will require
a low feed rate, or else it will result in a high load on the tool and
reduce the tool life. Therefore, a feature is typically machined in
several passes as the tool moves to the specified axial depth of cut
for each pass.

Radial depth of cut - The depth of the tool along its radius in the
workpiece as it makes a cut. If the radial depth of cut is less than
the tool radius, the tool is only partially engaged and is making a
peripheral cut. If the radial depth of cut is equal to the tool
diameter, the cutting tool is fully engaged and is making a slot cut.
A large radial depth of cut will require a low feed rate, or else it
will result in a high load on the tool and reduce the tool life.
Therefore, a feature is often machined in several steps as the tool
moves over the step-over distance, and makes another cut at the
radial depth of cut.

Peripheral cut

slot cut

During the process cycle, a variety of operations may be performed
to the workpiece to yield the desired part shape. The following
operations are each defined by the type of cutter used and the path
of that cutter to remove material from the workpiece.

End milling - An end mill makes either peripheral or slot cuts,

determined by the step-over distance, across the workpiece in order
to machine a specified feature, such as a profile, slot, pocket, or
even a complex surface contour. The depth of the feature may be
machined in a single pass or may be reached by machining at a
smaller axial depth of cut and making multiple passes.

Chamfer milling - A chamfer end mill makes a peripheral cut

along an edge of the workpiece or a feature to create an angled
surface, known as a chamfer. This chamfer, typically with a 45
degree angle, can be machined on either the exterior or interior of a
part and can follow either a straight or curved path.

Face milling - A face mill machines a flat surface of the workpiece

in order to provide a smooth finish. The depth of the face, typically
very small, may be machined in a single pass or may be reached by
machining at a smaller axial depth of cut and making multiple

Drilling - A drill enters the workpiece axially and cuts a hole with
a diameter equal to that of the tool. A drilling operation can
produce a blind hole, which extends to some depth inside the
workpiece, or a through hole, which extends completely through
the workpiece.

Boring - A boring tool enters the workpiece axially and cuts along
an internal surface to form different features. The boring tool is a
single-point cutting tool, which can be set to cut the desired
diameter by using an adjustable boring head. Boring is commonly
performed after drilling a hole in order to enlarge the diameter or
obtain more precise dimensions.

Counterboring - An counterbore tool enters the workpiece axially

and enlarges the top portion of an existing hole to the diameter of
the tool. Counterboring is often performed after drilling to provide
space for the head of a fastener, such as a bolt, to sit below the
surface of a part. The counterboring tool has a pilot on the end to
guide it straight into the existing hole.

Countersinking - A countersink tool enters the workpiece axially

and enlarges the top portion of an existing hole to a cone-shaped
opening. Countersinking is often performed after drilling to
provide space for the head of a fastener, such as a screw, to sit

flush with the workpiece surface. Common included angles for a

countersink include 60, 82, 90, 100, 118, and 120 degrees.

Reaming - A reamer enters the workpiece axially and enlarges an

existing hole to the diameter of the tool. Reaming removes a
minimal amount of material and is often performed after drilling to
obtain both a more accurate diameter and a smoother internal

Tapping - A tap enters the workpiece axially and cuts internal

threads into an existing hole. The existing hole is typically drilled
by the required tap drill size that will accommodate the desired tap.
Threads may be cut to a specified depth inside the hole (bottom
tap) or the complete depth of a through hole (through tap).

The tooling that is required for milling is a sharp cutter that will be
rotated by the spindle. The cutter is a cylindrical tool with sharp
teeth spaced around the exterior. The spaces between the teeth are
called flutes and allow the material chips to move away from the
workpiece. The teeth may be straight along the side of the cutter,
but are more commonly arranged in a helix. The helix angle
reduces the load on the teeth by distributing the forces. Also, the
number of teeth on a cutter varies. A larger number of teeth will
provide a better surface finish. The cutters that can be used for
milling operations are highly diverse, thus allowing for the
formation of a variety of features. While these cutters differ greatly
in diameter, length, and by the shape of the cut they will form, they
also differ based upon their orientation, whether they will be used
horizontally or vertically.

A cutter that will be used in a horizontal milling machine will have

the teeth extend along the entire length of the tool. The interior of
the tool will be hollow so that it can be mounted onto the arbor.
With this basic form, there are still many different types of cutters
that can be used in horizontal milling, including those listed below.

Plane (helical) mill

Form relieved mill
Staggered tooth mill
Double angle mill

Another operation known as a straddle milling is also possible with

a horizontal milling machine. This form of milling refers to the use
of multiple cutters attached to the arbor and used simultaneously.
Straddle milling can be used to form a complex feature with a
single cut. For vertical milling machines, the cutters take a very
different form. The cutter teeth cover only a portion of the tool,
while the remaining length is a smooth surface, called the shank.
The shank is the section of the cutter that is secured inside the
collet, for attachment to the spindle. Also, many vertical cutters are
designed to cut using both the sides and the bottom of the cutter.
Listed below are several common vertical cutters.
Flat end mill
Ball end mill
Chamfer mill
Face mill
Twist drill


All cutters that are used in milling can be found in a variety of

materials, which will determine the cutter's properties and the
workpiece materials for which it is best suited. These properties
include the cutter's hardness, toughness, and resistance to wear.
The most common cutter materials that are used include the
High-speed steel (HSS)
Carbon steel
Cobalt high speed steel

The material of the cutter is chosen based upon a number of

factors, including the material of the workpiece, cost, and tool life.
Tool life is an important characteristic that is considered when
selecting a cutter, as it greatly affects the manufacturing costs. A
short tool life will not only require additional tools to be
purchased, but will also require time to change the tool each time it
becomes too worn. The cutters listed above often have the teeth
coated with a different material to provide additional wear
resistance, thus extending the life of the tool. Tool wear can also be
reduced by spraying a lubricant and/or coolant on the cutter and
workpiece during milling. This fluid is used to reduce the
temperature of the cutter, which can get quite hot during milling,
and reduce the friction at the interface between the cutter and the
workpiece, thus increasing the tool life. Also, by spraying a fluid
during milling, higher feed rates can be used, the surface finish can

be improved, and the material chips can be pushed away. Typical

cutting fluids include mineral, synthetic, and water soluble oils.