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These were the training areas identified:

FOR THE TOP LEVEL


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

Management development programmes


Emotional training
Succession plan
Leadership
Quality management
Cost cutting and maintenance
Motivation
Employee retention
Risk management
Manpower planning
Stress management
Conflict resolution
Labor relations
Self appraisal
Counseling
Planning, organizing and controlling
Management by objectives
Job enrichment
Effective communication
OD interventions
Civil rights and equal opportunity programs

22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.

Employee empowerment
Customer development (marketing)
Personal development
Customer relationship management (marketing department)
Grievance handling (particularly the HR department)
Technology trends
Training for internal trainers

FOR THE MIDDLE LEVEL


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

Manpower planning
Job enrichment
Self appraisal
Civil rights and equal opportunity programme
Work performance and conduct
Security and safety
Labor relations
Prevention of stock shortages and equipment failures
Effective communication
Supervision
Training for internal trainers.
Quality management
Basic decision making
Cost cutting
Motivation
Team building
Kaizen and 5S
Disciplinary training
Interpersonal skills

FOR THE LOWER LEVEL


The lower level can be divided further into:
Skilled
Semi skilled; and
Unskilled
There training needs are as under:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Disciplinary training
Career planning (skilled)
Skill enhancement; basic process training
Technology trends
Self appraisal (skilled/semiskilled)
Civil rights and equal opportunity programs
Work performance and conduct
Effective communication
Quality management
Prevention of stock shortages and equipment failure
Hygiene
Safety: generic and machine specific
Cost cutting
Motivation (skilled)
Standard operating procedures (semiskilled/unskilled)

THE TRAINING CALENDAR


Once the training needs are identified a training calendar giving the training
schedule for each month is prepared specifying the training needs for different
cadres of employees. The calendar may be altered if required.
At the B.E.L, training is taken at all levels on a regular basis A few days before the
actual training programme the, a notice of the same is sent out to the nominated
trainees or the HR department may ask the respective department heads to
nominate their own trainees. The training calendar is consulted at the beginning of
each month and a notice of the programme to be conducted is given out

THE TRAINING NOTICE


The training notice contains all the information related to the training programme.
It is generally in the form of an internal memo. It contains the date on which the
training programme is to be conducted, the venue the nominees etc.

THE TRAINER

Most of the times training is provided by an internal trainer as it is more cost


effective. At other times trainers may be called from outside particularly if the
topic is technical. If the trainer is external, a notice has to be sent out to him
specifying the topic of training, the date, venue and the fees that would be paid to
him. A sample of the training calendar and the notice is given on the adjoining
pages.

FACTORS THAT ENSURE


PROGRAMME

SUCCESS

OF A TRAINING

1. THE OVERALL TRAINING PROGRAMME


A training programme, is more than simply the sum of its parts. They all must be
interwoven into a unified design.The factors that affect such integration include
how methods are selected sequenced and presented. For an evolution of a training
programme seven steps are summarized here.
STEP 1: Define the problem
STEP 2: Arrange the problem in order of priority
STEP 3: Analysis of the problem
STEP 4: Set the targets
STEP 5: Produce a training plan
STEP 6: Implement the training process
STEP 7: Evaluate the results

The job of a training manager

Define the problems

Evaluate the result

Assemble the resources and


implement the process

Arrange the problem in order of


priority

Analyze each problem to


determine the best combination
of organizational change,
selection and training

Design the training process and


produce a training plan

Produce a
-Target population analysis
-Task analysis
-Performance analysis

THE SYSTEMS APPROACH TO TRAINING


The systems approach to training given by Eckstrand involves seven major steps
1. Define training objectives
2. Develop criterion measure to evaluate training
3. Define training contents
4. Design methods and training materials
5. Integrate training programmes and trainees
6. Compare graduates to criteria standards set in step 2
7. Modify step 3 &4 based upon results in step 6

ASSESING TRAINING NEEDS


In a way training needs analysis (TNA) is an examination of the training system
there are a variety of internal and external forces in an organization to change the
following table lists some of these forces and their implications for training within
organizations. Often organizations attempt to change with these forces by
maintaining the status quo some will respond to these forces and recognize the
need to change.

FORCES

TRAINING IMPLICATIONS

Increased computerization

Training in the use and mgmt of computers

Increased
demand
for
employees
with
technological skills
Changing composition of the
workforce
(e.g.
greater
education, more minorities
and females)
More
demand
on
management time
Greater foreign competition

Develop these skills in the current employees


Need for managers who know how to relate
to employees problems and can work in a
cooperative manner with employees
Need for managers who can make quick and
accurate decisions
Need for employees who have skills in the
technical aspect of the job. Need for
managers who have skills in management
techniques
that
maximize
employee
productivity.

THE CHANGE MODEL


TNA can be done on the basis that what sorts of changes are needed for the
betterment of the organization. This gives rise to the Change model Price observes
that training need exists when there is a gap between the present performance of an
employee or group of employees and their desired performance. If an organization
uses training to achieve its goals it must first access its training needs.
Which goals can it attain through training?
Which people need training?
What is the purpose of training; and finally
What will be the training cores?
Goldstein believes that assessing training needs is far more important tan choosing
particular training technique The Change Model is depicted as under:

Stimulus for change


Recognition of the
Stimulus

Recognition of the
Need to change
Diagnosis

Goals

In other words we can say that Training needs assessment (TNA) is the
examination or the diagnostic portion of the training system, the system that TNA
examines are often referred to as perceived performance deficiencies. A perceived
performance deficiency exists where there is a difference between the expected and
perceived job performance. Perceived performance deficiency can be equated with
the reasons that often lead to losses within organizations or with the symptoms of
the need to change. The example below depicts this in a clearer way:

SYMPTOMS OF THE
NEED TO CHANGE
1. Low productivity
2. High absenteeism
3. High turnover
4. Low employee morale
5. High grievances
6. Strikes
7. Low profitability

Failure to
train
workers
effectively

Failure to
motivate
the
employees

TIPS ON PROVIDING THE RIGHT KIND OF TRAINING


Before examining the various forms of TNA it is important to focus on the kinds of
training organizations should provide. Training should be provided based on
current and/or future job requirements training should have a dual goal of
organizational effectiveness and an improved work experience for the job
incumbent. Organizations should benefit from training if it raises employee
performance by raising skill and motivation level and /or increases the
organizations ability to attract or retain high quality employees and Attempts are
made to determine the training needs for the entire organization rather than its
specific departments to involve the top management in this programme. The
existence of the gap between employees present performance and the desired
performance can be determined on the basis of skill analysis involving five steps
Analysis and determination of the major requirements of the specific job.
Identification of the task needed to be accomplished to meet the job
requirements.
Understanding of the procedures needed to accomplish each of the job tasks.
Analysis of the knowledge and skills needed to accomplish the procedures;
and
Identification of the special problems of the job and analysis of any
particular kind of skill needed to meet the problem.
Selection policy and size and general skill level of the available work force are two
of the important factors that affects the general ongoing training programme of an
organization. Training programmes should be formulated by the line personnel
with the advise and assistance of the staff. An important point to be noted is that
training can also be given in lieu of the high standards accomplished by the
employees i.e. in the form of a reward.

YODERS PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE TRAINING


1. Training is a management function and accordingly every individual is a
trainer.
2. The staff trainer must not exert authority over line but provide advice and
guidance.
3. Every individual requires training.
4. Training should be supported by all levels of managers.
5. Either a committee or some other individual should be eventually responsible
for training.
6. Attempt must be made to distinguish between staff and line training functions.
7. Training should be aimed at the attainment of the objectives of the enterprise
by providing proper knowledge skills and attitude.
8. The objective and scope of the training should be defined at the very outset of
the programme.
9. Attempts should be made to employ tested principles of learning.
10. Training should be imparted in the real work environment.
11. Lastly everything should be measured and the proper yardstick standard
time cost etc should be developed.

SUMMARY: ESSENTIALS OF TRAINING


To conclude there are four essential s for effective training namely:
a)
b)
c)
d)

Stimulus
Response
Motivation
Reward and incentives

STIMULUS
The trainers communication must be scientific and to the point. The trainee should
understand what he is going to learn The instructor must use all or at least most of
the sense organs of the trainee so as to get maximum possible participation.

RESPONSE
The trainer must observe the responses of the trainees as well as the result of his
stimuli the responses of the trainees can be observed either by asking questions or
allowing him to do the job according to his directions The instructor should allow
the repetition of the correct response and encourage the trainees to retain the
improved behavior.

MOTIVATION
The trainee must be motivated to learn unless the trainee is motivated and
interested in learning; even a good instructor cannot train him thus a positive
attitude towards learning must be inculcated in the trainee.

REWARDS AND INCENTIVES


Rewards and incentives act as a stimulus for the trainee to satisfy his need for
social approval For any effective training programme the management must have a
provision for the trainees The management must give sufficient information about
the reward whether in the form of financial or non financial benefits to the trainees
who will come out successfully of the training programme.
At present there is no systematic standardization of the different training
programmes in India. Each organization has developed its own method of training
both for workers and supervisors. However management must consider a
systematic training to improve the efficiency and morale of the employees
systematic training programme will help the management to standardize the job
performance as well as the selection and placement programme. As already
specified for the success of any training programme the selection of trainer is of
prime importance. The trainer must be picked from the immediate supervisors in
case of on the job training programme. Secondly the statues of the training in
charge should be equivalent to that of the personal manager in the organization.

Thirdly the needs of training should be based on organizations needs. The last but
not the least important point is the importance of human relations for the
development of an effective organization. Training in good human relations means
training good leadership and developing sound relationship among people in the
organization.

CATAGORIES OF TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS


A TNA can be categorized based upon whether it is reactive or proactive. A
reactive (i.e. remedial) TNA occurs when the perceived performance deficiency is
a discrepancy between perceived and expected performance for the employees
current job. A proactive TNA is conducted to respond to the perception that current
job behavior reflects an inability to meet future standards or expectations.
There are two variants of the proactive TNA namely:
a. Preventive approach
b. Developmental approach
The preventive approach is designed to assure that an employee will be able to
meet future expectations for his or her current job. The developmental approach is
conducted when current job behavior leads to the perception that the individual has
the potential but is not yet ready to perform at a higher level position. A proactive
TNA rests on the ability of someone to predict or anticipate a future problem.
Any well done TNA is time consuming and costly ,it may seem logical that many
organizations do not conduct a TNA prior to training.
TNA increases the probability of a successful training effort by determining if and
how training can help to solve a particular problem. It is impossible for trainers to
prove that their training activity caused an improvement in job performance
without conducting a TNA.

HOW SHOULD A TNA BE CONDUCTED


To pinpoint the range of training needs and define their content, the HR department
uses different approaches to need assessment. It may survey potential trainees to
identify specific topics about which they want to learn more. Another HR led
approach is task identification. Trainers begin by evaluating the job description to
identify the salient task that the job requires. Trainers are also alert to others
sources of information that may indicate a need for training such as production
records quality control reports grievances, safety reports, absenteeism and turnover
statistics and exit interviews of departing employees may reveal problems that
should be addressed through training and development efforts. Training needs may
also become apparent from career planning discussions or performance appraisal
reviews Supervisors see employees on daily basis and thus are another source of
recommendation for training. The HR department also reviews self nominations to
learn whether training is actually needed. Self nominations appears to be less
common for training situations but more common for developmental activities.

KEY STEPS INVOLVED IN CONDUCTING A TNA


Defining the perceived performance deficiency.
Prioritizing the problem.
Identifying the job requirements, trainees skills and abilities and
environmental constraints on correcting the deficiency.
Developing the behavioral description of the need.

These steps are explained as under


Ask questions about
the job
Training committees
and conferences
Analysis
of
the
operating problem
Card sort

Inputs from several view points can often


reveal training needs
Indicators of task interference environmental
factors
Utilized in training conferences how to
statements sorted by training importance

1. PERSON ANALYSIS
A person analysis compares the individual with the task requirements. The
individual must have the necessary KSA as well as the motivation and the
opportunity to perform the task Training the incumbent can typically rectify the
deficiencies that are due to lack of skill or knowledge. To ascertain whether a lack
of KSA is the cause of the performance deficiency the incumbent must be asked to
perform the desired behavior.
2. DEFINE THE DEFICIENCY IN BEHAVIORAL TERMS
The first step in the diagnostic process is to clearly define the deficiency in the
behavioral terms, that needs to be corrected In a reactive TNA the problem is
typically identified as a result of the performance appraisal Problem identification
for a proactive TNA stems from performance appraisal in conjunction with a
planning process Whatever be the source or type, there is often a tendency to state
the problem in terms of the perceived solutions rather than in behavioral terms.
According to Mager and Pipe one way of removing the problem is to ask the
individual defining the problem what specific behaviors are not taking place that
should be Without a specific behavioral description of the problem an accurate.
TNA is highly improbable.

3. PRIORTIZE ORGANISATIONAL GOALS


Since organizations have limited resources all problems cannot be handled
simultaneously. An organizational analysis asks what problem should be solved to
provide the greatest organizational benefit.
The answer to this question will depend upon the following three criteria:

ORGANISATIONAL GOALS
The extent to which the performance deficiency hinders the attainment of
organizational goals.

RESOURCES
The capacity to take corrective action must also be considered Just as any
individual has strengths and weaknesses so to do training departments (and
immediate supervisors) differ in their abilities to rectify the performance problems
These along with other resource limitations (such as budget and time constraints
must be considered).

PROBABILITY OF SUCCESS
The objective of training is to improve performance by changing behavior. Even if
a training need is accurately identified and the correct timing is effectively
administered there are still a variety of factors that may inhibit behavioral change.
One such factor is the particular climate/culture of the organization. Orientation
towards development is a dimension of climate that has been identified by several
researchers. The table on the next page lists a variety of resources that can be used
in organizational analysis.

DATA SOURCE TRAINING NEED IMPLICATION


RECOMMENDED
Organizational
and objectives

Manpower

Skill inventory

Organizational
climate indices

goals Were the training emphasis can and should be


placed These provide normative standards of both
direction and expected impact which can highlight
deviations from objective and performance
problems
Where training is needed to fill the gaps caused by
retirement turnover age etc This provides an
important demographic database regarding
possible scope of the training programme
Number of employees in each skill group,
knowledge and skill level training time per job etc
This provides an estimate of the magnitude of the
specific training needs Useful in cost benefit
analysis of training projects
These quality of working life indicators at the
organizational level may help focus on problems
that have training components

Analysis of effective Cost accounting concepts may represent ratio


indices
between actual performance and the standard or
desired
Changes in system or New or changed equipment may present training
subsystem
problems
Management requests One of the most common techniques of TNA
or interrogation
Exit interviews

Often information not otherwise available can be


obtained in these problem areas and supervisory
training needs specially
MBO
or
Work Provides performance review potential review and
Planning and Review long term business objective Provides actual
systems
performance data on recurring basis so that base
line measurement may be known subsequently
improvements may be made
Of all the sources listed the most useful for an organizational analysis is the
organizations goal and objectives. In larger organizations a formal strategic
document exists which the trainer should not only read but analyze to get the true
feeling for the direction in which the organization is headed
3. JOB TASK AND WORK ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS
As part of TNA a job analysis should focus on what the trainee needs to be able to
do, to perform the job satisfactorily. In TNA a job analysis should take both worker
and task oriented approach. A worker oriented approach focuses on the skill
knowledge and abilities to perform the job. These might include elementary
notions, job demand and the specific human behavior involved such as decision
making, communicating etc. A task oriented approach focuses on a description of
the work activities performed. These involve a description of how where why a
worker performs an activity. The table below specifies the data sources for job
analysis.

TECHNIQUES
OBTAINING
DATA

FOR TRAINING
JOB IMPLICATIONS

NEEDS

Job description

Outlines the job in terns of typical duties and


responsibilities but is not meant to be all
inclusive
Helps
define
performance
discrepancies
Job specifications or task List specified tasks require for each job More
analysis
specific than job descriptions Specifications
may extend to judgment of the reqd
knowledge and skills
Performance standards
Objectives of the task of the job and
standards by which they are judged This may
include base line data as well
Perform the job
Most effective way o determining specific
tasks but has serious limitations the higher
the level of job the greater is the gap between
performance and result outcomes
Review
literature Possibly useful in comparison analysis of job
concerning the job
structure but far removed from unique aspect
of the job structure within any specific
organization
4. WORK ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS
Even if the KS is acquired there is no guarantee that the deficiency will be
eliminated. Training can only rectify a deficiency which is due to the lack of KS.
However, the capacity to perform will not result in performance if the other two
variables are not present analysis. The assessment of whether these variables are
present is referred to as work environment.
5. DEVELOP OBJECTIVES
The information obtained in the job, person and work environment analysis is used
to develop the training objectives. Many advocate this approach while others have
questioned its value. Critics have typically stated that behavioral objectives are
rigid and fail to consider individual learning styles.

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT APPROACHES


INTRODUCTION: DISTINCTION BETWEEN KNOWLEDGE,
SKILLS AND ATTITUDE
While the purpose of training in the business context has changed very little over
the past several years, the approach, the methods and the techniques used have
progressed considerably. Specialists have become more aware of what their role
should be, what trends to motivate people to work in various kinds of employment
and what are the most acceptable and profitable ways of achieving the desired
performance from individuals and groups. Employers too have grown to recognize
the value of investing in training with these ends in view.
It has been accepted over some years that all training can be categorized under the
heading of knowledge skills and attitudes. At one time little distinction was made
between these three areas. Skills were seen to be acquired when knowledge of the
method process or system was passed on either by word of mouth or in writing.
Learners were expected to be proficient in a job after being told what to do. Those
who were slow learners were considered untrainable and thus discharged.
The approach to attitude in training was negative. Employees were often seen to
have the wrong attitude when they failed to meet the employers demand but it
wasnt in practice to inculcate the right attitude i.e. the one that could be accepted
as constructive But the work of behavioral scientists has helped to bring about a
change in the recent years Trainers today are aware that men cannot be treated like
machines.
The distinction between knowledge and skills has also come about much by reason
of workers pressure as because of managerial enlightenment. Employees were
outsiders and the business secrets were not divulged to them. They lived in blissful
ignorance of the aims of the organization and the significance of themselves. Today
managements have become aware of the facts that employees who re kept in the
picture about what is going on are likely to accept and give commitment to
management decisions. After all uncertainty can have a more damaging effect on
workforce than bad news.
Moreover employees need to be continually updated in specific work areas. Many,
but not employees are dedicated enough to undertake private study to keep abreast
of the latest developments in their field. Self development according to most

trainers is the best and the most effective means of training. Nevertheless the
employers have a responsibility towards the employees. Thus there is a continuous
need for knowledge training Not only is it necessary to cover the knowledge
required to enable an employee to carry out a specific job but a good deal more
information about the business has to be imparted if a person is to be made the
contributing member of the team.
In selecting training and development techniques, trade off exists That is no single
technique is always best: the best method depends on: cost effectiveness, desired
programme content, learning principles, appropriateness of the facilities, trainee
preferences and capabilities. The importance of these six trade offs depend s on the
situation. There is a range of teaching methods available to trainers. Each method
has its advantages and disadvantages in terms of the objective of a particular
training programme. The difference between training methods lie mainly in terms
of the trainees personal involvement or participation in the process of learning. The
choice of the training method depends on.
Experience and competence of the instructor; and
How much a particular group of trainees will learn from a particular
method or a combination of methods.
The intellectual level and educational background of the participants, the
participants age and practical experience.
Depends on the social and cultural factors in the environment Now many
participative methods are accepted and used in management training.
Some methods are more effective in achieving certain objectives than
others.
It also depends on the time and availability of resources and
infrastructure all facilities.

Training may be classified lucidly as given by Yoder into the following


categories

General training methods


Rank and file job training methods
Craft training method
Executive training method
Special training method
The second classification can be on the basis where the training takes place i.e.
1. On the job training
2. Off the job training

TYPES OF TRAINING METHODS ON THE BASIS OF ABOVE


CLASIFICATION
INDUCTION OR ORIENTATION TRAINING
Induction or orientation training may be defined as a process of guiding and
counseling the employee to familiarize him with the job situation. The induction
process accomplishes several objectives including formation of a favorable
impression and attitude, development of a feeling of belongingness and felicitation
of learning and teamwork on part of the employees content of the induction
programme should be predetermined in the form of a checklist specifying the
topics to be covered. Attempts are to be made to follow up and assess the
programme by interviewing the new employees as a measure to correct the gaps in
the knowledge and attitude of the employees.

RANK AND FILE JOB TRAINING


This is based on similarities in training on several specific jobs. This type of
training can either be imparted in a class room or on the job. It is performed by
foreman or a group leader. Its advantages arise in so far as it is realistic and
economical and does not hamper production as well as necessitate transition from
classroom to job situations. Its limitations include.

1. The trainer may be an incompetent teacher


2. The shop floor maybe busy
3. There may arise heavy production losses

SUPERVISORY TRAINING
Supervisory training needs reveal utmost divergence in view of the divergent duty
of the supervisor. Employee attitude survey s help in finding areas of supervisory
training. Likewise supervisors themselves may be requested to indicate the areas
where they need training. Frequently these surveys indicate that supervisors need
training in human relations, production control, company policies and how to
instruct. Supervisory courses consist of Job method training (JMT) and Job
relations training (JRT). The JMT helps the supervisors to improve methods in
their departments, while the JRT helps them in handling human relations problems
in their departments.

ON THE JOB TECHNIQUES


As the name suggests on the job techniques are conducted in the real job settings
On the job methods usually involve training in the total job. These methods are
typically conducted by individuals, workers or supervisors. The main advantage is
that the trainees learn while actually performing the job which may minimize the
training costs. They also learn in the same physical and social environment in
which they will be working once the normal training period is completed. However
this method has its limitations. It does happen sometimes that the supervisors and
coworkers are not interested in training new employees. This becomes a problem
particularly when the trainers believe that their job security may be threatened by
training the new comers.

JOB INSTRUCTION TRAINING


Job instruction training (JIT) is received directly on the job, and is so often called
on the job training. It is primarily used to teach workers how to do their current
jobs. In this the worker learns to master the operations involved on the actual job
situation under the supervision of his immediate boss who has to carry the primary
burden of conducting this training. Usually no equipment or space is needed, since
new employees are trained in the actual job location.

The trainer may be a skilled workman. He may be a superior who breaks in the
new man and then turns him over to the skilled workman who continues to guide
the learner.
JIT may include the following steps

1. The trainee receives an overview of the job, its purpose


and its desired outcomes with an emphasis on the
relevance of the training

2. The trainer demonstrates the job to give the employees


a model to copy

3. The trainee then mimics the trainers example.


4. Demo by the trainer and practice by the trainees is
continued till the job is mastered.

5. On the above basis a continuous feedback is received.


6.

Finally the employee performs the job without supervision,


although the trainer may visit the employee to see if there
are any lingering questions.

ADVANTAGES
It is easily organized, is realistic and stimulates high motivation.
It speeds up the workers adjustment to his superior and fellow
workers
The cost of such a training is quite low.
In terms of learning principles, the method facilitates positive
transfer since the training and actual work situations are almost
identical.

It provides active practice and immediate knowledge of results.

DISADVANTAGES
The assigned instructor may be a poor teacher.
The instructor may be antagonized by an additional assignment.
The worker in his haste for immediate production may fail to learn
the best way of doing the job.
The actual costs considering the trainers time loss (if the trainee
fails to learn the job properly) as well as the wasted material and
damaged equipment may be heavy.
The training programmes are often briefly and poorly structured.
Many established workers find teaching a new recruit to be a
nuisance and the new employee may be pressured to master the
task too quickly.
Before implementing effective JIT programme, one should take into account
certain things, these are as under:
Firstly the choice of trainers should be based upon their ability to
teach and their desire to take this added responsibility
The trainer should be trained in proper methods of instructions
Adequate evaluation of the trainers progress has to be made
frequently and then fed off back to the trainee using reliable and
valid methods
Trainers and trainees should be carefully paired in order to
minimize differences in background languages personality,
attitudes or age that may inhibit communication

The trainer must be made to realize the importance of close


supervision in order to avoid trainee injuries
JIT should be used in conjunction with other training approaches
such as programmed instruction lectures and films

JOB ROTATION
To cross train employees in a variety of jobs, some trainers move a trainee from job
to job by job instruction training This is a method of training wherein workers
rotate through a variety of jobs, thereby providing them a wider exposure Trainees
are placed in different jobs in different parts of the organization for a specified
period of time. They may spend several days or even years in different company
locations. In this way they get an overall perspective of the organization. Besides
giving workers variety in their jobs it helps the organizations in vacations
,absences downsizing or when resignations occur. It helps workers to sharpen their
skills and is used to develop people for higher level positions by exposing them to
a wide range of experience in a relatively short span of time. It is used for both
blue collared as well as white collared positions.

ADVANTAGES

High degree of learner participation and job transferability.

Creates flexibility during manpower shortages.

Workers having the right skills can step in to fill open slots.

The method provides new and different work on systematic basis


giving employees a variety of experiences and challenges.

Employees also increase their flexibility and marketability as they


can perform a wide array of tasks.

LIMITATIONS

Time consuming and expensive.

Due to individual differences different employees are not equally


suited for all jobs It weakens a workers commitment to a given
job.

Job rotation also challenges one of the basic principles of


personnel placement: that workers be assigned to job that best
matches their talents and challenges.

APPRENTICESHIP
Apprenticeship training is ancient device. An apprentice is a worker who is
learning a trade but who has not reached the state where he is competent to work
without supervision. It is particularly common in the skilled trades. Organizations
that employ skilled trade people such as plumbers, carpenters, masons, printers and
sheet metal workers may develop journeymen by conducting formal apprentices
programmes. A new worker is tutored by a established worker. An apprenticeship
lasts 2 to 5 years. Classroom instructions are imparted typically in the evenings for
144 or more hours per year. Each apprentice is usually given a workbook
consisting of reading material, tests to be taken and practice problems to be solved.
The apprentice serves as an assistant and learns the craft by working with a fully
skilled member of the trade called a Journeyman. This training is used in such
trades, crafts and technical fields in which proficiency can be acquired after a
relatively long period of direct association with the work and under the direct
supervision of experts. At the end of apprenticeship programme, the person is
promoted to journeyman.

ADVANTAGES
Training is intense, lengthy and usually on one to one basis.

DISADVANTAGES
This kind of training basically discriminates and gives preference
treatment to friends and relatives.

Time use in the programme is on basis of advancement rather than


demonstrated ability. This result in some skilled apprentices
remaining at minimal wages, a situation that companies sometimes
have exploited.
The members of the trade predetermine the amount of time an
apprenticeship lasts.

COACHING
At management levels, coaching of immediate subordinates by their managers is
common. Coaching is similar to apprenticeships because the coach attempts to
provide a model for the trainee to copy. It tends to be less formal than an
apprenticeship programme because there are few formal classroom sessions and
because it is provided when needed rather than being part of a carefully planned
programme. Coaching is almost always handled by the supervisor or the manager
not by the HR department.

ADVANTAGES

Coaching thrives in a climate of confidence, a climate in which


subordinates respect the integrity and capacity of their superiors.

Coaching can take greatest advantage of the possibilities of


individualized instruction concentrating on those specific stimulus
situations subordinates find hardest to deal with, those specific
performances subordinates find hardest to improve and the kind and
quality of feedback which can have great impact on subordinates.

Participation, feedback and job transference are likely to be high in


this form of learning.

DISADVANTAGES

Coaching is likely not to be effective as less directive approaches such


as nondirective counseling or sensitivity training the trainees
shortcomings are emotional or personal Coaching may be effective if
relations between trainee and coach are ambiguous, in that the trainee
cannot trust the coach.

VESTIBULE TRAINING
To keep instructions from disrupting normal operations, some organizations use
vestibule training. This type of training is often used in production work. A
vestibule consists of training equipment that is set up a short distance from actual
production line. The method is good for promoting practice a learning principle
involving the repetition of behavior. These special training areas are used for
skilled and semiskilled jobs particularly those involving technical equipment.

ADVANTAGES
Trainees can practice in the vestibule without getting in the way or
slowing down the production line.

DISADVANTAGES
Vestibule is small so relatively few people can be trained at the same
time.

OFF THE JOB TRAINING TECHNIQUES


Off the job methods are those training and development programmes that take
place away from the daily pressures of the job and are conducted by highly
competent outside resource people who often serve as trainers, which is one of the
main advantages of this method. Such people include technicians, consultants and
university faculty. Its major drawback is the transfer problem Too often trainees
learn new facts and principles at lectures workshops and conferences but have no
idea how to apply them, once they are back in their jobs.

LECTURES

The lecture method is a popular form of instruction in educational institutions Even


though the effectiveness of the lecture method is often questioned many instructors
find themselves 30%-50% of their time lecturing It is also used in industry
Lectures consist of meeting in which one or a small number of those present
actually play an active part The lecturer may be a member of the company or a
guest speaker. Before preparing a lecture the following 4 questions must be
considered
Who is your audience?
What is your audience?
What is the available time?
What is the subject matter?
Besides the following points must be considered
It should be brief and to the point, presenting the theme of the subject
in a manner that arouses the interest of the audience from the start.
The speaker must poised courteous and sincere.
Simple language must be used.
The method is generally used when
1. Basic theoretical knowledge has to be built up before actual practice.
2. When the summary of some research work has to be communicated.
3. With a more homogeneous audience a trainer can direct the lecture to
specific topics and techniques which is often more beneficial than using
some broad based material.

MERITS
Large number of people can be trained /taught at the same time.
Method is cost efficient and effective.

Lecture method has more participant acceptability than training


directions.

DEMERITS
It gives very little opportunity for active practice, development,
knowledge of results and transfer of learning.
It produces staleness and monotony resulting in less absorption of
knowledge by students.
Trainees themselves have to understand and personalize the contents
of a lecture.
There is a little chance for dialogue, questions or discussion of
individual problems and special interests.
It is not suitable for courses where people with work experience are
participating.
There is one way communication, no interaction among group
members is encouraged.
The method cannot adopt itself to the individual differences and is
farthest from reality.

AUDIO VISUAL TECHNIQUES


Audiovisual techniques cover an array of training techniques, such as films slides
and videotapes. It allows participants to see while listening and is usually quite
good at capturing their interests These allow a trainers message to be uniformly
given to numerous organizational locations at one time and to be reused as often as

required It is important to note that people remember 20%of what they hear, 30%
of what they see and 50% of what they see and hear.

AVAILABLE DEVICES
Blackboard: It is inexpensive and is available in all lecture halls Its use require no
prior preparation is very useful for demonstrating calculations and formulations.
One of the major disadvantages of using a blackboard is that the speaker has to
turn away from the audience.

FLIP CHART
It can replace the blackboard with the advantage that no erasing is required. It is
especially useful for single presentations which may not justify the designing of
costly visuals. Limitation of space is a major disadvantage. Drawings have to be
stored away flat to avoid damage.

OVERHEAD PROJECTOR
It projects large size transport images onto a screen under normal lighting
conditions.

MERITS
Useful for training people in a work process or a sequence as they can
more readily trace the pattern of work flow when laid out graphically
The trainer can readily face the audience retaining an eye contact and
thus make his talk more effective
According to a study conducted by Konz and Duckey, a slide
presentation is superior to verbal and printed instruction in training
employees to complete various work assembly operations.
Videotapes are extremely useful in time and motion study in recording
employees job behavior which can be later evaluated and feedback
provided

They are time saving as copies of the same films can be mailed to all
plants at one time
Trainees can also be provided with immediate visual feedback of their
behavior when necessary

LIMITATIONS
A trainer cannot modify formal visuals in response to new situations
and in answering questions
If the training content changes, a whole new film has to be made

CONFERENCE METHOD
It is also known as the discussion method It encourages the participation of all
members of a group in an exchange of opinions, ideas and criticism It is a small
group discussion in which the leader plays a neutral role providing guidances and
feed back In spite the intention to encourage general participation, the conferences
are dominated by a few, with the majority no more active than, had they been
facing a lecture This is particularly effective if the ratio of trainees to trainers is not
very large This method is useful when the material needs clarification and
elaboration or where a lively discussion would facilitate understanding.

OBJECTIVES OF THE CONFERENCE METHOD


1. Developing the decision the decision making and problem solving skills of
the personnel
2. Presenting new and complicated material
3. Changing and modifying attitudes
Sometimes the lecture method may be followed by a conference, giving the
participants a chance to share opinion about the material. An effective trainer can
get all the participants involved even the less vocal ones The success of this

method depends largely on the skills personality and education of the discussion
leader. The conference method can draw on the learning principles of motivation
and feedback.

MERITS
Stimulated participants readily join in the discussion and then
receive feedback on their ideas from others in the group This
method is used to enhance knowledge or attitudinal development
This method does not usually involve any tangible assets other
than people, the attitudes, enthusiasm and verbal communication
skills of

The participants affect the outcome more than for any other
training method

DEMERIT
This method is only restricted to small groups and therefore, it
proves to be costly

ROLE PLAYING
Role playing believes that learning is facilitated by active participation rather than
passive reception. This is a training method often aimed at enhancing either human
relations, skills or sales techniques. Role playing can be defined as an educational
or therapeutic technique in which some problems involving human interaction, real
or imaginary is presented and then spontaneously acted out. Participants suggest
how the problem can be handled more effectively in the future. The acting is
followed by discussion and analysis to determine what happened and why and if
necessary how the problem can be handled in the future. Role playing is less
structured than acting, where performers have to say lines on cue. Participants are
assigned different roles in the scenario to be enacted so in this way it is a device
that forces trainees to assume different identities. Usually participants exaggerate
each others behaviour. Ideally ,they get to see themselves as others see them. The
experience may create greater empathy and tolerance of individual differences and

is therefore well suited to diversity training which aims to create a work


environment conducive to a diverse workforce. The unique values of role playing
include the following
It requires a person to carry out a thought or decision he may have
reached Role playing experience demonstrates the gap between
thinking and doing
It permits the practice of carrying out an action and make it clear
that good human relations require skills
Attitudinal change is effectively accomplished by placing the
person in the specified role
It trains a person to be aware of, and be sensitive to others feelings
The information serves as feedback of the effect his behaviour has
on other people
A fuller appreciation of the important part played by feelings in
determining behaviour in social situations is developed
Each person is able to discover his own personal faults
It permits training in control of feelings and emotions
The two important types of role-plays are
1. Structured role play is characterized by use of written cases
selected from text or written to meet organizational training
objectives It can further be subdivided into three types
2. Single role play consists of two or three playing out roles in front
of a class

ADVANTAGE

It allows the entire class to examine in depth all the dynamics and
complexities involved when individuals attempt to solve a problem or
understand one another

DISADVANTAGES
a. If players do badly, it may be difficult for the trainers to

handle the

negative comments about them that are likely to emerge in the discussion
following the role play
b. Regardless of the number of roles in any written role play, burden is
placed on only one of the players
c. Some players tend to feel embarrassed performing in front of the entire
class
3. Multiple role play is the one in which all the trainees are players
Each player is given a written role or an assignment as an
observer and then the entire class role plays at the same time It
causes almost no embarrassment to the players and sharply
reduces the problems related to negative comments about
ineffective role play behaviour The problem in this type is that
very little time can be allowed for discussion of process
experiences of each individual group.
4. Role rotation consists typically of one person playing the role
usually that of an individual who has a problem and having
several class members attempt to use their skills to handle the
situation Participants tend to feel less embarrassed and are more
willing.
5. Spontaneous role play is used to help the participant acquire an
insight into his own problem and not on skill development The

trainee elicits some problem from the group itself and does not use
written material.

ADVANTAGE
It tends to develop more deeply into motivations and assumptions that
influences a role players behaviour.

DISADVANTAGE
The major problem is that it requires extremely high skills on the part of the
trainer and only a few persons get an opportunity of active participation.
The typical role-play involves three phases

THE WARM UP
The objective of the warm up is to get the trainees participate in a constructive
manner with minimum anxiety and maximum motivation. The trainees
introduction to the session should be such that it would arouse interest of the
trainees.

THE ENACTMENT
Before carrying out enactment the trainer should do the following
Read aloud the general information.
Those who have volunteered to role play are given briefing
sheets and sent out of the room with the instruction of not to
communicate among themselves.
The instructor should clarify all the doubts that the role player
might have.
Role players take their positions facing the class.

To begin the role play, the trainer sets the scene by restarting
the identity of the roles being enacted and making a brief
statement about what has just happened.

POST ENACTMENT
In conducting post enactment discussion, reaction
should be obtained from the people who have acted a role-play.

to

role-play

ROLE PLAY HAS BEEN SHOWN TO BE EFFECTIVE IN


a. Studying small group leadership skills.
b. Increasing sensitivity to the motivation of others.
c. Improving interviewing skills.
d. Enhancing ability to develop innovative solutions to the human
relations problem.
e. Modifying attitude.

ADVANTAGE
By putting their feet in the other persons shoe participants gain
some understanding of what it is like to experience interpersonal
conflict from someone elses position.

DISADVANTAGE
Some people tend to put more emphasis on acting out rather than
problem solving.

However managerial personnel have indicated only a fair acceptance of this


method of training.