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%CRKVCN CEEWOWNCVKQP

#EEWOWNCVKQP QH ECRKVCN TGFKTGEVU JGTG (QT VJG 


GEQPQOKEU DQQM UGG 6JG #EEWOWNCVKQP QH %CRKVCN
%CRKVCNDWKNFKPI TGFKTGEVU JGTG (QT VJG JGCFSWCTVGTU
QH VJG 'WTQRGCP 'ZVGTPCN #EVKQP 5GTXKEG UGG 6TKCPING
DWKNFKPI

UWEJ CU CESWKUKVKQPU TGUGCTEJ CPF FGXGNQROGPV GVE


VJCV ECP KPETGCUG VJG ECRKVCN QY
KPXGUVOGPV KP PCPEKCN CUUGVU TGRTGUGPVGF QP RCRGT
[KGNFKPI RTQV KPVGTGUV TGPV TQ[CNVKGU HGGU QT ECRKVCN
ICKPU

Capital accumulation
CNUQ VGTOGF the accumulation
KPXGUVOGPV KP OPOQSPEVDUJWF RJ[UKECN CUUGVU UWEJ CU
of capital KU VJG F[PCOKE VJCV OQVKXCVGU VJG RWTUWKV QH
TGUKFGPVKCN TGCN GUVCVG QT YQTMU QH CTV VJCV CRRTGEKCVG
RTQV KPXQNXKPI VJG KPXGUVOGPV QH OQPG[ QT CP[ PCPEKCN
KP XCNWG
CUUGV YKVJ VJG IQCN QH KPETGCUKPI VJG KPKVKCN OQPGVCT[ XCNWG
QH UCKF CUUGV CU C PCPEKCN TGVWTP YJGVJGT KP VJG HQTO QH
CPF D[ GZVGPUKQP VQ
RTQV TGPV KPVGTGUV TQ[CNVKGU QT ECRKVCN ICKPU 6JG RTQ
EGUU QH ECRKVCN CEEWOWNCVKQP HQTOU VJG DCUKU QH ECRKVCNKUO
JWOCP ECRKVCN  KG PGY GFWECVKQP CPF VTCKPKPI KP
CPF KU QPG QH VJG FGPKPI EJCTCEVGTKUVKEU QH C ECRKVCNKUV
ETGCUKPI VJG UMKNNU QH VJG
RQVGPVKCN NCDQWT HQTEG
GEQPQOKE U[UVGO=?=?
YJKEJ ECP KPETGCUG GCTPKPIU HTQO YQTM
+P C OQTG DTQCF UGPUG ECRKVCN CEEWOWNCVKQP OC[ TGHGT
VQ VJG ICVJGTKPI QT COCUUKPI QH CP[ QDLGEVU QH XCNWG CU
UQEKCN ECRKVCN  KG VJG YGCNVJ CPF RTQFWEVKXG EC
LWFIGF D[ QPGU RGTEGKXGF TGRTQFWEVKXG KPVGTGUV ITQWR
RCEKV[ VJCV VJG RGQRNG KP C UQEKGV[ JQNF KP EQOOQP
TCVJGT VJCP CU KPFKXKFWCNU QT EQTRQTCVKQPU

Denition

GVE

6JG FGPKVKQP QH ECRKVCN CEEWOWNCVKQP KU UWDLGEV VQ EQP $QVJ PQPPCPEKCN CPF PCPEKCN ECRKVCN CEEWOWNCVKQP KU
WUWCNN[ PGGFGF HQT GEQPQOKE ITQYVJ UKPEG CFFKVKQPCN RTQ
VTQXGTU[ CPF CODKIWKVKGU DGECWUG KV EQWNF TGHGT VQ
FWEVKQP WUWCNN[ TGSWKTGU CFFKVKQPCN HWPFU VQ GPNCTIG VJG
UECNG QH RTQFWEVKQP 5OCTVGT CPF OQTG RTQFWEVKXG QTIC
C OFU BEEJUJPO VQ GZKUVKPI YGCNVJ
PK\CVKQP QH RTQFWEVKQP ECP CNUQ KPETGCUG RTQFWEVKQP YKVJ
QWV KPETGCUGF ECRKVCN %CRKVCN ECP DG ETGCVGF YKVJQWV KP
C SFEJTUSJCVUJPO QH YGCNVJ
ETGCUGF KPXGUVOGPV D[ KPXGPVKQPU QT KORTQXGF QTICPK\C
/QUV QHVGP ECRKVCN CEEWOWNCVKQP KPXQNXGU DQVJ C PGV CF VKQP VJCV KPETGCUG RTQFWEVKXKV[ FKUEQXGTKGU QH PGY CUUGVU
FKVKQP CPF C TGFKUVTKDWVKQP QH YGCNVJ YJKEJ OC[ TCKUG VJG
QKN IQNF OKPGTCNU GVE  VJG UCNG QH RTQRGTV[ GVE
SWGUVKQP QH YJQ TGCNN[ DGPGVU HTQO KV OQUV +H OQTG
YGCNVJ KU RTQFWEGF VJCP VJGTG YCU DGHQTG C UQEKGV[ DG
EQOGU TKEJGT VJG VQVCN UVQEM QH YGCNVJ KPETGCUGU $WV KH
UQOG CEEWOWNCVG ECRKVCN QPN[ CV VJG GZRGPUG QH QVJGTU
YGCNVJ KU OGTGN[ UJKHVGF HTQO # VQ $ +V KU CNUQ RQUUK
DNG VJCV UQOG CEEWOWNCVG ECRKVCN OWEJ HCUVGT VJCP QVJ
GTU +P RTKPEKRNG KV KU RQUUKDNG VJCV C HGY RGQRNG QT QTICP
KUCVKQPU CEEWOWNCVG ECRKVCN CPF ITQY TKEJGT CNVJQWIJ VJG
VQVCN UVQEM QH YGCNVJ QH UQEKGV[ EFDSFBTFT

+P OQFGTP OCETQGEQPQOKEU CPF GEQPQOGVTKEU VJG VGTO


DBQJUBM GPSNBUJPO KU QHVGP WUGF KP RTGHGTGPEG VQ CEEWOW
NCVKQP VJQWIJ VJG 7PKVGF 0CVKQPU %QPHGTGPEG QP 6TCFG
CPF &GXGNQROGPV
70%6#& TGHGTU PQYCFC[U VQ CEEW
OWNCVKQP 6JG VGTO KU QEECUKQPCNN[ WUGF KP PCVKQPCN CE
EQWPVU

1.1 The measurement of accumulation

+P GEQPQOKEU CPF CEEQWPVKPI capital accumulation KU


QHVGP GSWCVGF YKVJ KPXGUVOGPV QH RTQV KPEQOG QT UCX
KPIU GURGEKCNN[ KP TGCN ECRKVCN IQQFU 6JG EQPEGPVTCVKQP
CPF EGPVTCNKUCVKQP QH ECRKVCN CTG VYQ QH VJG TGUWNVU QH UWEJ
CEEWOWNCVKQP
UGG DGNQY 

#EEWOWNCVKQP ECP DG OGCUWTGF CU VJG OQPGVCT[ XCNWG QH


KPXGUVOGPVU VJG COQWPV QH KPEQOG VJCV KU TGKPXGUVGF QT
CU VJG EJCPIG KP VJG XCNWG QH CUUGVU QYPGF
VJG KPETGCUG
KP VJG XCNWG QH VJG ECRKVCN UVQEM  7UKPI EQORCP[ DCNCPEG
UJGGVU VCZ FCVC CPF FKTGEV UWTXG[U CU C DCUKU IQXGTPOGPV
%CRKVCN CEEWOWNCVKQP TGHGTU QTFKPCTKN[ VQ
UVCVKUVKEKCPU GUVKOCVG VQVCN KPXGUVOGPVU CPF CUUGVU HQT VJG
RWTRQUG QH PCVKQPCN CEEQWPVU PCVKQPCN DCNCPEG QH RC[
TGCN KPXGUVOGPV KP VCPIKDNG OGCPU QH RTQFWEVKQP OGPVU CPF QY QH HWPFU UVCVKUVKEU 7UWCNN[ VJG 4GUGTXG



$CPMU CPF VJG 6TGCUWT[ RTQXKFG KPVGTRTGVCVKQPU CPF CPCN
[UKU QH VJKU FCVC 5VCPFCTF KPFKECVQTU KPENWFG %CRKVCN
HQTOCVKQP )TQUU ZGF ECRKVCN HQTOCVKQP ZGF ECRKVCN
JQWUGJQNF CUUGV YGCNVJ CPF HQTGKIP FKTGEV KPXGUVOGPV
1TICPKUCVKQPU UWEJ CU VJG +PVGTPCVKQPCN /QPGVCT[ (WPF
70%6#& VJG 9QTNF $CPM )TQWR VJG 1'%& CPF VJG
$CPM HQT +PVGTPCVKQPCN 5GVVNGOGPVU WUGF PCVKQPCN KPXGUV
OGPV FCVC VQ GUVKOCVG YQTNF VTGPFU 6JG $WTGCW QH 'EQ
PQOKE #PCN[UKU 'WTQUVCV CPF VJG ,CRCP 5VCVKUVKECN 1EG
RTQXKFG FCVC QP VJG 75# 'WTQRG CPF ,CRCP TGURGEVKXGN[

 ."39*"/ $0/$&15 0' $"1*5"- "$$6.6-"5*0/

3 Marxian concept of capital accumulation


+P -CTN /CTZ U GEQPQOKE VJGQT[ ECRKVCN CEEWOWNCVKQP
KU VJG QRGTCVKQP YJGTGD[ RTQVU CTG TGKPXGUVGF KPVQ VJG
GEQPQO[ KPETGCUKPI VJG VQVCN SWCPVKV[ QH ECRKVCN %CRK
VCN YCU WPFGTUVQQF D[ /CTZ VQ DG GZRCPFKPI XCNWG VJCV
KU KP QVJGT VGTOU CU C UWO QH ECRKVCN WUWCNN[ GZRTGUUGF
KP OQPG[ VJCV KU VTCPUHQTOGF VJTQWIJ JWOCP NCDQT KPVQ C
NCTIGT XCNWG GZVTCEVGF CU RTQVU CPF GZRTGUUGF CU OQPG[
*GTG ECRKVCN KU FGPGF GUUGPVKCNN[ CU GEQPQOKE QT EQO
OGTEKCN CUUGV XCNWG KP UGCTEJ QH CFFKVKQPCN XCNWG
UWTRNWU
XCNWG  6JKU TGSWKTGU RTQRGTV[ TGNCVKQPU YJKEJ GPCDNG QD
LGEVU QH XCNWG VQ DG CRRTQRTKCVGF CPF QYPGF CPF VTCFKPI
TKIJVU VQ DG GUVCDNKUJGF

1VJGT WUGHWN UQWTEGU QH KPXGUVOGPV KPHQTOCVKQP CTG DWUK


PGUU OCIC\KPGU UWEJ CU 'PSUVOF 'PSCFT 5IF &DPOPNJTU
#VTJOFTT 8FFL GVE CPF XCTKQWU EQTRQTCVG YCVEJFQI QT
ICPKUCVKQPU CPF PQPIQXGTPOGPVCN QTICPK\CVKQP RWDNKEC
VKQPU # TGRWVCDNG UEKGPVKE LQWTPCN KU VJG 3FWJFX PG *O
DPNF  8FBMUI +P VJG ECUG QH VJG 75# VJG #PCN[VKECN
2GTURGEVKXGU FQEWOGPV
CP CPPGZ VQ VJG [GCTN[ DWFIGV
RTQXKFGU WUGHWN YGCNVJ CPF ECRKVCN GUVKOCVGU CRRN[KPI VQ 3.1 Over-accumulation and crisis
VJG YJQNG EQWPVT[
6JG /CTZKUV CPCN[UKU QH ECRKVCN CEEWOWNCVKQP CPF VJG FG
XGNQROGPV QH ECRKVCNKUO KFGPVKGU U[UVGOKE KUUWGU YKVJ
VJG RTQEGUU VJCV CTKUG YKVJ GZRCPUKQP QH VJG RTQFWEVKXG
2 HarrodDomar model
HQTEGU # ETKUKU QH QXGTCEEWOWNCVKQP QH ECRKVCN QEEWTU
YJGP VJG TCVG QH RTQV KU ITGCVGT VJCP VJG TCVG QH PGY RTQH
+P OCETQGEQPQOKEU HQNNQYKPI VJG *CTTQF&QOCT
KVCDNG KPXGUVOGPV QWVNGVU KP VJG GEQPQO[ CTKUKPI HTQO
OQFGN VJG UCXKPIU TCVKQ
s CPF VJG ECRKVCN EQGEKGPV

KPETGCUKPI RTQFWEVKXKV[ HTQO C TKUKPI QTICPKE EQORQUK


k CTG TGICTFGF CU ETKVKECN HCEVQTU HQT CEEWOWNCVKQP CPF
VKQP QH ECRKVCN
JKIJGT ECRKVCN KPRWV VQ NCDQT KPRWV TCVKQ 
ITQYVJ CUUWOKPI VJCV CNN UCXKPI KU WUGF VQ PCPEG ZGF
6JKU FGRTGUUGU VJG YCIG DKNN NGCFKPI VQ UVCIPCPV YCIGU
KPXGUVOGPV 6JG TCVG QH ITQYVJ QH VJG TGCN UVQEM QH ZGF
CPF JKIJ TCVGU QH WPGORNQ[OGPV HQT VJG YQTMKPI ENCUU
ECRKVCN
K KU
YJKNG GZEGUU RTQVU UGCTEJ HQT PGY RTQVCDNG KPXGUVOGPV
QRRQTVWPKVKGU /CTZ DGNKGXGF VJCV VJKU E[ENKECN RTQEGUU
K
YQWNF DG VJG HWPFCOGPVCN ECWUG HQT VJG FKUUQNWVKQP QH
K
s
Y
= K
=
ECRKVCNKUO CPF KVU TGRNCEGOGPV D[ UQEKCNKUO YJKEJ YQWNF
K
k
Y
QRGTCVG CEEQTFKPI VQ C FKGTGPV GEQPQOKE F[PCOKE=?
YJGTG Y KU VJG TGCN PCVKQPCN KPEQOG +H VJG ECRKVCNQWVRWV
+P /CTZKUV VJQWIJV UQEKCNKUO YQWNF UWEEGGF ECRKVCNKUO
TCVKQ QT ECRKVCN EQGEKGPV
k = K
Y KU EQPUVCPV VJG TCVG CU VJG FQOKPCPV OQFG QH RTQFWEVKQP YJGP VJG CEEWOW
QH ITQYVJ QH Y KU GSWCN VQ VJG TCVG QH ITQYVJ QH K  6JKU
NCVKQP QH ECRKVCN ECP PQ NQPIGT UWUVCKP KVUGNH FWG VQ HCNNKPI
KU FGVGTOKPGF D[ s
VJG TCVKQ QH PGV ZGF KPXGUVOGPV QT
TCVGU QH RTQV KP TGCN RTQFWEVKQP TGNCVKXG VQ KPETGCUKPI RTQ
UCXKPI VQ Y CPF k 
FWEVKXKV[ # UQEKCNKUV GEQPQO[ YQWNF PQV DCUG RTQFWEVKQP
# EQWPVT[ OKIJV HQT GZCORNG UCXG CPF KPXGUV  QH KVU QP VJG CEEWOWNCVKQP QH ECRKVCN KPUVGCF DCUKPI RTQFWEVKQP
PCVKQPCN KPEQOG CPF VJGP KH VJG ECRKVCN EQGEKGPV KU  QP VJG ETKVGTKC QH UCVKUH[KPI JWOCP PGGFU CPF FKTGEVN[ RTQ

KG  DKNNKQP OWUV DG KPXGUVGF VQ KPETGCUG VJG PCVKQPCN FWEKPI WUGXCNWGU 6JKU EQPEGRV KU GPECRUWNCVGF KP VJG
KPEQOG D[  DKNNKQP VJG TCVG QH ITQYVJ QH VJG PCVKQPCN RTKPEKRNG QH RTQFWEVKQP HQT WUG
KPEQOG OKIJV DG  CPPWCNN[ *QYGXGT CU -G[PGUKCP
GEQPQOKEU RQKPVU QWV UCXKPIU FQ PQV CWVQOCVKECNN[ OGCP
KPXGUVOGPV
CU NKSWKF HWPFU OC[ DG JQCTFGF HQT GZCORNG  3.2 Concentration and centralization
+PXGUVOGPV OC[ CNUQ PQV DG KPXGUVOGPV KP ZGF ECRKVCN

UGG CDQXG 
#EEQTFKPI VQ /CTZ ECRKVCN JCU VJG VGPFGPE[ HQT EQPEGP
#UUWOKPI VJCV VJG VWTPQXGT QH VQVCN RTQFWEVKQP ECRKVCN KP VTCVKQP CPF EGPVTCNK\CVKQP KP VJG JCPFU QH TKEJGUV ECRKVCN
XGUVGF TGOCKPU EQPUVCPV VJG RTQRQTVKQP QH VQVCN KPXGUV KUVU /CTZ GZRNCKPU
OGPV YJKEJ LWUV OCKPVCKPU VJG UVQEM QH VQVCN ECRKVCN TCVJGT
VJCP GPNCTIKPI KV YKNN V[RKECNN[ KPETGCUG CU VJG VQVCN UVQEM
KPETGCUGU 6JG ITQYVJ TCVG QH KPEQOGU CPF PGV PGY KP
XGUVOGPVU OWUV VJGP CNUQ KPETGCUG KP QTFGT VQ CEEGNGTCVG
VJG ITQYVJ QH VJG ECRKVCN UVQEM 5KORN[ RWV VJG DKIIGT
ECRKVCN ITQYU VJG OQTG ECRKVCN KV VCMGU VQ MGGR KV ITQYKPI
CPF VJG OQTG OCTMGVU OWUV GZRCPF

+V KU EQPEGPVTCVKQP QH ECRKVCNU CNTGCF[ HQTOGF FGUVTWE


VKQP QH VJGKT KPFKXKFWCN KPFGRGPFGPEG GZRTQRTKCVKQP QH
ECRKVCNKUV D[ ECRKVCNKUV VTCPUHQTOCVKQP QH OCP[ UOCNN KPVQ
HGY NCTIG ECRKVCNU %CRKVCN ITQYU KP QPG RNCEG VQ C JWIG
OCUU KP C UKPING JCPF DGECWUG KV JCU KP CPQVJGT RNCEG DGGP
NQUV D[ OCP[ 6JG DCVVNG QH EQORGVKVKQP KU HQWIJV D[
EJGCRGPKPI QH EQOOQFKVKGU 6JG EJGCRPGUU QH EQOOQFK

5IF DJSDVJU PG DBQJUBM BDDVNVMBUJPO GSPN QSPEVDUJPO

VKGU FGOCPFU DBFUFSJT QBSJCVT QP VJG RTQFWEVKXGPGUU QH


NCDQWT CPF VJKU CICKP QP VJG UECNG QH RTQFWEVKQP 6JGTG
HQTG VJG NCTIGT ECRKVCNU DGCV VJG UOCNNGT +V YKNN HWTVJGT
DG TGOGODGTGF VJCV YKVJ VJG FGXGNQROGPV QH VJG ECRK
VCNKUV OQFG QH RTQFWEVKQP VJGTG KU CP KPETGCUG KP VJG OKP
KOWO COQWPV QH KPFKXKFWCN ECRKVCN PGEGUUCT[ VQ ECTT[ QP
C DWUKPGUU WPFGT KVU PQTOCN EQPFKVKQPU 6JG UOCNNGT ECR
KVCNU VJGTGHQTG ETQYF KPVQ URJGTGU QH RTQFWEVKQP YJKEJ
/QFGTP +PFWUVT[ JCU QPN[ URQTCFKECNN[ QT KPEQORNGVGN[
IQV JQNF QH *GTG EQORGVKVKQP TCIGU +V CNYC[U GPFU KP
VJG TWKP QH OCP[ UOCNN ECRKVCNKUVU YJQUG ECRKVCNU RCTVN[
RCUU KPVQ VJG JCPFU QH VJGKT EQPSWGTQTU RCTVN[ XCPKUJ=?

EQORGVKVKQP COQPI ECRKVCNKUVU EQORGVKVKQP DGVYGGP ECR


KVCNKUVU CPF YQTMGTU CPF EQORGVKVKQP DGVYGGP YQTMGTU
6JG RCVVGTP QH ECRKVCN CEEWOWNCVKQP ECP VJGTGHQTG PGXGT
DG UKORN[ GZRNCKPGF D[ EQOOGTEKCN HCEVQTU KV CNUQ KP
XQNXGF UQEKCN HCEVQTU CPF RQYGT TGNCVKQPUJKRU



3.3

The rate of accumulation

3.4 The circuit of capital accumulation


from production
5VTKEVN[ URGCMKPI ECRKVCN JCU CEEWOWNCVGF QPN[ YJGP TG
CNK\GF RTQV KPEQOG JCU DGGP SFJOWFTUFE KP ECRKVCN CUUGVU
$WV VJG RTQEGUU QH ECRKVCN CEEWOWNCVKQP KP RTQFWEVKQP JCU
CU UWIIGUVGF KP VJG TUV XQNWOG QH /CTZU %BT ,BQJUBM CV
NGCUV  FKUVKPEV DWV NKPMGF OQOGPVU

+P /CTZKCP GEQPQOKEU VJG SBUF PG BDDVNVMBUJPO KU FGPGF


CU
 VJG XCNWG QH VJG TGCN PGV KPETGCUG KP VJG UVQEM QH ECR
KVCN KP CP CEEQWPVKPI RGTKQF
 VJG RTQRQTVKQP QH TGCNK\GF
UWTRNWUXCNWG QT RTQVKPEQOG YJKEJ KU TGKPXGUVGF TCVJGT
VJCP EQPUWOGF 6JKU TCVG ECP DG GZRTGUUGF D[ OGCPU QH
XCTKQWU TCVKQU DGVYGGP VJG QTKIKPCN ECRKVCN QWVNC[ VJG TG
CNK\GF VWTPQXGT UWTRNWUXCNWG QT RTQV CPF TGKPXGUVOGPVU

UGG GI VJG YTKVKPIU QH VJG GEQPQOKUV /KEJC -CNGEMK 

6JG KPKVKCN KPXGUVOGPV QH ECRKVCN


YJKEJ EQWNF DG
DQTTQYGF ECRKVCN KP OGCPU QH RTQFWEVKQP CPF NCDQT
RQYGT

1VJGT VJKPIU DGKPI GSWCN VJG ITGCVGT VJG COQWPV QH RTQV


KPEQOG VJCV KU FKUDWTUGF CU RGTUQPCN GCTPKPIU CPF WUGF HQT
EQPUWORVKXG RWTRQUGU VJG NQYGT VJG UCXKPIU TCVG CPF VJG
NQYGT VJG TCVG QH CEEWOWNCVKQP KU NKMGN[ VQ DG *QYGXGT
GCTPKPIU URGPV QP EQPUWORVKQP ECP CNUQ UVKOWNCVG OCTMGV
FGOCPF CPF JKIJGT KPXGUVOGPV 6JKU KU VJG ECWUG QH GPF
NGUU EQPVTQXGTUKGU KP GEQPQOKE VJGQT[ CDQWV JQY OWEJ
VQ URGPF CPF JQY OWEJ VQ UCXG

6JG CRRTQRTKCVKQP QH VJG PGY QWVRWV RTQFWEGF D[


GORNQ[GGU EQPVCKPKPI VJG CFFGF XCNWG

6JG EQOOCPF QXGT UWTRNWUNCDQWT CPF KVU CRRTQRTK


CVKQP
6JG XCNQTKUCVKQP
KPETGCUG KP XCNWG QH ECRKVCN
VJTQWIJ RTQFWEVKQP QH PGY QWVRWVU

6JG TGCNKUCVKQP QH UWTRNWUXCNWG VJTQWIJ QWVRWV


UCNGU
6JG CRRTQRTKCVKQP QH TGCNKUGF UWTRNWUXCNWG CU

RTQV KPEQOG CHVGT FGFWEVKQP QH EQUVU

6JG TGKPXGUVOGPV QH RTQV KPEQOG KP RTQFWEVKQP


+P C DQQO RGTKQF QH ECRKVCNKUO VJG ITQYVJ QH KPXGUVOGPVU
KU EWOWNCVKXG KG QPG KPXGUVOGPV NGCFU VQ CPQVJGT NGCF
KPI VQ C EQPUVCPVN[ GZRCPFKPI OCTMGV CP GZRCPFKPI NCDQT #NN QH VJGUG OQOGPVU FQ PQV TGHGT UKORN[ VQ CP GEQ
HQTEG CPF CP KPETGCUG KP VJG UVCPFCTF QH NKXKPI HQT VJG PQOKE QT EQOOGTEKCN RTQEGUU 4CVJGT VJG[ CUUWOG VJG
OCLQTKV[ QH VJG RGQRNG
GZKUVGPEG QH NGICN UQEKCN EWNVWTCN CPF GEQPQOKE RQYGT
+P C UVCIPCVKPI FGECFGPV ECRKVCNKUO VJG CEEWOWNCVKQP EQPFKVKQPU YKVJQWV YJKEJ ETGCVKQP FKUVTKDWVKQP CPF EKT
RTQEGUU KU KPETGCUKPIN[ QTKGPVGF VQYCTFU KPXGUVOGPV QP EWNCVKQP QH VJG PGY YGCNVJ EQWNF PQV QEEWT 6JKU DGEQOGU
OKNKVCT[ CPF UGEWTKV[ HQTEGU TGCN GUVCVG PCPEKCN URGEWNC GURGEKCNN[ ENGCT YJGP VJG CVVGORV KU OCFG VQ ETGCVG C OCT
VKQP CPF NWZWT[ EQPUWORVKQP +P VJCV ECUG KPEQOG HTQO MGV YJGTG PQPG GZKUVU QT YJGTG RGQRNG TGHWUG VQ VTCFG
XCNWGCFFKPI RTQFWEVKQP YKNN FGENKPG KP HCXQWT QH KPVGTGUV +P HCEV /CTZ CTIWGU VJCV VJG QTKIKPCN QT RTKOKVKXG CEEW
TGPV CPF VCZ KPEQOG YKVJ CU C EQTQNNCT[ CP KPETGCUG KP VJG OWNCVKQP QH ECRKVCN QHVGP QEEWTU VJTQWIJ XKQNGPEG RNWP
NGXGN QH RGTOCPGPV WPGORNQ[OGPV
FGT UNCXGT[ TQDDGT[ GZVQTVKQP CPF VJGHV *G CTIWGU VJCV
#U C TWNG VJG NCTIGT VJG VQVCN UWO QH ECRKVCN KPXGUVGF VJG VJG ECRKVCNKUV OQFG QH RTQFWEVKQP TGSWKTGU VJCV RGQRNG
JKIJGT VJG TGVWTP QP KPXGUVOGPV YKNN DG 6JG OQTG ECR DG HQTEGF VQ YQTM KP XCNWGCFFKPI RTQFWEVKQP HQT UQOG
KVCN QPG QYPU VJG OQTG ECRKVCN QPG ECP CNUQ DQTTQY CPF QPG GNUG CPF HQT VJKU RWTRQUG VJG[ OWUV DG EWV Q HTQO
TGKPXGUV CV C JKIJGT TCVG QH RTQV QT KPVGTGUV 6JG KPXGTUG UQWTEGU QH KPEQOG QVJGT VJCP UGNNKPI VJGKT NCDQT RQYGT
KU CNUQ VTWG CPF VJKU KU QPG HCEVQT KP VJG YKFGPKPI ICR DG
VYGGP VJG TKEJ CPF VJG RQQT

'TPGUV /CPFGN GORJCUK\GF VJCV VJG TJ[VJO QH ECRKVCN CE


EWOWNCVKQP CPF ITQYVJ FGRGPFGF ETKVKECNN[ QP
 VJG FK
XKUKQP QH C UQEKGV[U UQEKCN RTQFWEV DGVYGGP PGEGUUCT[
RTQFWEV CPF UWTRNWU RTQFWEV CPF
 VJG FKXKUKQP QH VJG
UWTRNWU RTQFWEV DGVYGGP KPXGUVOGPV CPF EQPUWORVKQP
+P VWTP VJKU CNNQECVKQP RCVVGTP TGGEVGF VJG QWVEQOG QH

3.5 Simple and expanded reproduction


+P XQNWOG  QH %BT ,BQJUBM /CTZ EQPVKPWGU VJG UVQT[ CPF
UJQYU VJCV YKVJ VJG CKF QH DCPM ETGFKV ECRKVCN KP UGCTEJ QH
ITQYVJ ECP OQTG QT NGUU UOQQVJN[ OWVCVG HTQO QPG HQTO
VQ CPQVJGT CNVGTPCVGN[ VCMKPI VJG HQTO QH OQPG[ ECRK
VCN
NKSWKF FGRQUKVU UGEWTKVKGU GVE  EQOOQFKV[ ECRKVCN

 ."39*"/ $0/$&15 0' $"1*5"- "$$6.6-"5*0/

VTCFGCDNG RTQFWEVU TGCN GUVCVG GVE  QT RTQFWEVKQP ECRK PQV FKUEWUU IKHVU CPF ITCPVU CU C UQWTEG QH ECRKVCN CEEWOW
VCN
OGCPU QH RTQFWEVKQP CPF NCDQT RQYGT 
NCVKQP PQT FQGU JG CPCN[\G VCZCVKQP KP FGVCKN
*G EQWNFP V
*KU FKUEWUUKQP QH VJG UKORNG CPF GZRCPFGF TGRTQFWEVKQP CU JG FKGF GXGP DGHQTG EQORNGVKPI JKU OCLQT DQQM &CU
QH VJG EQPFKVKQPU QH RTQFWEVKQP QGTU C OQTG UQRJKUVK -CRKVCN  0QYCFC[U VJG VCZ VCMG KU QHVGP UQ NCTIG
KG
ECVGF OQFGN QH VJG RCTCOGVGTU QH VJG CEEWOWNCVKQP RTQ  QH )&2 VJCV UQOG CWVJQTU TGHGT VQ UVCVG ECRK
EGUU CU C YJQNG #V UKORNG TGRTQFWEVKQP C UWEKGPV VCNKUO 6JKU IKXGU TKUG VQ C RTQNKHGTCVKQP QH VCZ JCXGPU VQ
COQWPV KU RTQFWEGF VQ UWUVCKP UQEKGV[ CV VJG IKXGP NKXKPI GXCFG VCZ NKCDKNKV[
UVCPFCTF VJG UVQEM QH ECRKVCN UVC[U EQPUVCPV #V GZRCPFGF
TGRTQFWEVKQP NPSF RTQFWEVXCNWG KU RTQFWEGF VJCP KU
PGEGUUCT[ VQ UWUVCKP UQEKGV[ CV C IKXGP NKXKPI UVCPFCTF
C
UWTRNWU RTQFWEV VJG CFFKVKQPCN RTQFWEVXCNWG KU CXCKNCDNG
HQT KPXGUVOGPVU YJKEJ GPNCTIG VJG UECNG CPF XCTKGV[ QH
RTQFWEVKQP
6JG DQWTIGQKU ENCKO VJGTG KU PQ GEQPQOKE NCY CEEQTFKPI
VQ YJKEJ ECRKVCN KU PGEGUUCTKN[ TGKPXGUVGF KP VJG GZRCP
UKQP QH RTQFWEVKQP VJCV UWEJ FGRGPFU QP CPVKEKRCVGF RTQH
KVCDKNKV[ OCTMGV GZRGEVCVKQPU CPF RGTEGRVKQPU QH KPXGUV
OGPV TKUM 5WEJ UVCVGOGPVU QPN[ GZRNCKP VJG UWDLGEVKXG
GZRGTKGPEGU QH KPXGUVQTU CPF KIPQTG VJG QDLGEVKXG TGCNK
VKGU YJKEJ YQWNF KPWGPEG UWEJ QRKPKQPU #U /CTZ UVCVGU
KP 8QN UKORNG TGRTQFWEVKQP QPN[ GZKUVU KH VJG XCTKCDNG
CPF UWTRNWU ECRKVCN TGCNK\GF D[ &GRV RTQFWEGTU QH
OGCPU QH RTQFWEVKQPGZCEVN[ GSWCNU VJCV QH VJG EQPUVCPV
ECRKVCN QH &GRV  RTQFWEGTU QH CTVKENGU QH EQPUWORVKQP

RI   5WEJ GSWKNKDTKWO TGUVU QP XCTKQWU CUUWORVKQPU


UWEJ CU C EQPUVCPV NCDQT UWRRN[
PQ RQRWNCVKQP ITQYVJ 
#EEWOWNCVKQP FQGU PQV KORN[ C PGEGUUCT[ EJCPIG KP VQ
VCN OCIPKVWFG QH XCNWG RTQFWEGF DWV ECP UKORN[ TGHGT VQ
C EJCPIG KP VJG EQORQUKVKQP QH CP KPFWUVT[
RI  
'TPGUV /CPFGN KPVTQFWEGF VJG CFFKVKQPCN EQPEGRV QH DPO
USBDUFE FDPOPNJD SFQSPEVDUJPO KG TGFWEGF CEEWOWNC
VKQP YJGTG DWUKPGUU QRGTCVKPI CV C NQUU QWVPWODGTU ITQY
KPI DWUKPGUU QT GEQPQOKE TGRTQFWEVKQP QP C FGETGCU
KPI UECNG HQT GZCORNG FWG VQ YCTU PCVWTCN FKUCUVGTU QT
FGXCNQTKUCVKQP
$CNCPEGF GEQPQOKE ITQYVJ TGSWKTGU VJCV FKGTGPV HCEVQTU
KP VJG CEEWOWNCVKQP RTQEGUU GZRCPF KP CRRTQRTKCVG RTQ
RQTVKQPU $WV OCTMGVU VJGOUGNXGU ECPPQV URQPVCPGQWUN[
ETGCVG VJCV DCNCPEG KP HCEV YJCV FTKXGU DWUKPGUU CEVKXKV[
KU RTGEKUGN[ VJG KODCNCPEGU DGVYGGP UWRRN[ CPF FGOCPF
KPGSWCNKV[ KU VJG OQVQT QH ITQYVJ 6JKU RCTVN[ GZRNCKPU
YJ[ VJG YQTNFYKFG RCVVGTP QH GEQPQOKE ITQYVJ KU XGT[
WPGXGP CPF WPGSWCN GXGP CNVJQWIJ OCTMGVU JCXG GZKUVGF
CNOQUV GXGT[YJGTG HQT C XGT[ NQPI VKOG 5QOG RGQRNG CT
IWG VJCV KV CNUQ GZRNCKPU IQXGTPOGPV TGIWNCVKQP QH OCTMGV
VTCFG CPF RTQVGEVKQPKUO

3.6

Origins

#EEQTFKPI VQ /CTZ ECRKVCN CEEWOWNCVKQP JCU C FQWDNG


QTKIKP PCOGN[ KP VTCFG CPF KP GZRTQRTKCVKQP DQVJ QH C NG
ICN QT KNNGICN MKPF 6JG TGCUQP KU VJCV C UVQEM QH ECRKVCN ECP
DG KPETGCUGF VJTQWIJ C RTQEGUU QH GZEJCPIG QT VTCFKPI
WR DWV CNUQ VJTQWIJ FKTGEVN[ VCMKPI CP CUUGV QT TGUQWTEG
HTQO UQOGQPG GNUG YKVJQWV EQORGPUCVKQP &CXKF *CT
XG[ ECNNU VJKU CEEWOWNCVKQP D[ FKURQUUGUUKQP /CTZ FQGU

6JG EQPVKPWCVKQP CPF RTQITGUU QH ECRKVCN CEEWOWNCVKQP


FGRGPFU QP VJG TGOQXCN QH QDUVCENGU VQ VJG GZRCPUKQP QH
VTCFG CPF VJKU JCU JKUVQTKECNN[ QHVGP DGGP C XKQNGPV RTQ
EGUU #U OCTMGVU GZRCPF OQTG CPF OQTG PGY QRRQT
VWPKVKGU FGXGNQR HQT CEEWOWNCVKPI ECRKVCN DGECWUG OQTG
CPF OQTG V[RGU QH IQQFU CPF UGTXKEGU ECP DG VTCFGF KP
$WV ECRKVCN CEEWOWNCVKQP OC[ CNUQ EQPHTQPV TGUKUVCPEG
YJGP RGQRNG TGHWUG VQ UGNN QT TGHWUG VQ DW[
HQT GZCORNG
C UVTKMG D[ KPXGUVQTU QT YQTMGTU QT EQPUWOGT TGUKUVCPEG 
9JCV URWTU CEEWOWNCVKQP KU EQORGVKVKQP KP DWUKPGUU KH
[QW FQP V IQ HQTYCTF [QW IQ DCEMYCTF CPF WPNGUU VJG
NCY RTGXGPVU KV VJG UVTQPI YKNN GZRNQKV VJG YGCM

3.7 Capital accumulation as social relation


#EEWOWNCVKQP QH ECRKVCN UQOGVKOGU CNUQ TGHGTU KP /CTZ
KUV YTKVKPIU VQ VJG TGRTQFWEVKQP QH ECRKVCNKUV UQEKCN TGNC
VKQPU
KPUVKVWVKQPU QP C NCTIGT UECNG QXGT VKOG KG VJG
GZRCPUKQP QH VJG UK\G QH VJG RTQNGVCTKCV CPF QH VJG YGCNVJ
QYPGF D[ VJG DQWTIGQKUKG
6JKU KPVGTRTGVCVKQP GORJCUK\GU VJCV ECRKVCN QYPGTUJKR
RTGFKECVGF QP EQOOCPF QXGT NCDQT KU C UQEKCN TGNCVKQP
VJG ITQYVJ QH ECRKVCN KORNKGU VJG ITQYVJ QH VJG YQTMKPI
ENCUU
C NCY QH CEEWOWNCVKQP  +P VJG TUV XQNWOG QH
%BT ,BQJUBM /CTZ JCF KNNWUVTCVGF VJKU KFGC YKVJ TGHGTGPEG
VQ 'FYCTF )KDDQP 9CMGGNF U VJGQT[ QH EQNQPKUCVKQP
9CMGGNF FKUEQXGTGF VJCV KP VJG
%QNQPKGU RTQRGTV[ KP OQPG[ OGCPU QH
UWDUKUVGPEG OCEJKPGU CPF QVJGT OGCPU QH
RTQFWEVKQP FQGU PQV CU [GV UVCOR C OCP CU C
ECRKVCNKUV KH VJGTG DG YCPVKPI VJG EQTTGNCVKXG
VJG YCIGYQTMGT VJG QVJGT OCP YJQ KU
EQORGNNGF VQ UGNN JKOUGNH QH JKU QYP HTGGYKNN
*G FKUEQXGTGF VJCV ECRKVCN KU PQV C VJKPI DWV
C UQEKCN TGNCVKQP DGVYGGP RGTUQPU GUVCDNKUJGF
D[ VJG KPUVTWOGPVCNKV[ QH VJKPIU /T 2GGN JG
OQCPU VQQM YKVJ JKO HTQO 'PINCPF VQ 5YCP
4KXGT 9GUV #WUVTCNKC OGCPU QH UWDUKUVGPEG
CPF QH RTQFWEVKQP VQ VJG COQWPV QH d
/T 2GGN JCF VJG HQTGUKIJV VQ DTKPI YKVJ JKO
DGUKFGU  RGTUQPU QH VJG YQTMKPIENCUU
OGP YQOGP CPF EJKNFTGP 1PEG CTTKXGF CV
JKU FGUVKPCVKQP /T 2GGN YCU NGHV YKVJQWV C
UGTXCPV VQ OCMG JKU DGF QT HGVEJ JKO YCVGT
HTQO VJG TKXGT 7PJCRR[ /T 2GGN YJQ
RTQXKFGF HQT GXGT[VJKPI GZEGRV VJG GZRQTV QH
'PINKUJ OQFGU QH RTQFWEVKQP VQ 5YCP 4KXGT
%BT ,BQJUBM XQN  EJ 


+P VJG VJKTF XQNWOG QH %BT ,BQJUBM /CTZ TGHGTU VQ VJG
HGVKUJKUO QH ECRKVCN TGCEJKPI KVU JKIJGUV RQKPV YKVJ
JOUFSFTUCFBSJOH DBQJUBM DGECWUG PQY ECRKVCN UGGOU VQ
ITQY QH KVU QYP CEEQTF YKVJQWV CP[DQF[ FQKPI CP[VJKPI
+P VJKU ECUG
6JG TGNCVKQPU QH ECRKVCN CUUWOG VJGKT
OQUV GZVGTPCNKUGF CPF OQUV HGVKUJNKMG HQTO
KP KPVGTGUVDGCTKPI ECRKVCN 9G JCXG JGTG
M M  OQPG[ ETGCVKPI OQTG OQPG[
UGNHGZRCPFKPI XCNWG YKVJQWV VJG RTQEGUU VJCV
GGEVWCVGU VJGUG VYQ GZVTGOGU +P OGTEJCPVU
ECRKVCN M C M  VJGTG KU CV NGCUV VJG
IGPGTCN HQTO QH VJG ECRKVCNKUVKE OQXGOGPV
CNVJQWIJ KV EQPPGU KVUGNH UQNGN[ VQ VJG URJGTG
QH EKTEWNCVKQP UQ VJCV RTQV CRRGCTU OGTGN[
CU RTQV FGTKXGF HTQO CNKGPCVKQP DWV KV KU
CV NGCUV UGGP VQ DG VJG RTQFWEV QH C UQEKCN
TGNCVKQP PQV VJG RTQFWEV QH C OGTG VJKPI

6JKU KU QDNKVGTCVGF KP M M  VJG HQTO
QH KPVGTGUVDGCTKPI ECRKVCN
 6JG VJKPI

OQPG[ EQOOQFKV[ XCNWG KU PQY ECRKVCN


GXGP CU C OGTG VJKPI CPF ECRKVCN CRRGCTU CU C
OGTG VJKPI 6JG TGUWNV QH VJG GPVKTG RTQEGUU
QH TGRTQFWEVKQP CRRGCTU CU C RTQRGTV[ KPJGTGPV
KP VJG VJKPI KVUGNH +V FGRGPFU QP VJG QYPGT
QH VJG OQPG[ KG QH VJG EQOOQFKV[ KP KVU
EQPVKPWCNN[ GZEJCPIGCDNG HQTO YJGVJGT JG
YCPVU VQ URGPF KV CU OQPG[ QT NQCP KV QWV CU
ECRKVCN +P KPVGTGUVDGCTKPI ECRKVCN VJGTGHQTG
VJKU CWVQOCVKE HGVKUJ UGNHGZRCPFKPI XCNWG
OQPG[ IGPGTCVKPI OQPG[ CTG DTQWIJV QWV KP
VJGKT RWTG UVCVG CPF KP VJKU HQTO KV PQ NQPIGT
DGCTU VJG DKTVJOCTMU QH KVU QTKIKP 6JG UQEKCN
TGNCVKQP KU EQPUWOOCVGF KP VJG TGNCVKQP QH C
VJKPI QH OQPG[ VQ KVUGNH+PUVGCF QH VJG
CEVWCN VTCPUHQTOCVKQP QH OQPG[ KPVQ ECRKVCN
YG UGG JGTG QPN[ HQTO YKVJQWV EQPVGPV
&CU -CRKVCN XQN EJ 

Capital accumulation and military wars

9CTU V[RKECNN[ ECWUGU VJG FKXGTUKQP FGUVTWEVKQP CPF ETG


CVKQP QH ECRKVCN CUUGVU CU ECRKVCN CUUGVU CTG DQVJ FGUVTQ[GF
QT EQPUWOGF CPF FKXGTVGF VQ V[RGU QH RTQFWEVKQP PGGFGF
VQ IJV VJG YCT /CP[ CUUGVU CTG YCUVGF CPF KP UQOG HGY
ECUGU ETGCVGF URGEKECNN[ VQ IJV C YCT 9CT FTKXGP FG
OCPFU OC[ DG C RQYGTHWN UVKOWNWU HQT VJG CEEWOWNCVKQP
QH ECRKVCN CPF RTQFWEVKQP ECRCDKNKV[ KP NKOKVGF CTGCU CPF
OCTMGV GZRCPUKQP QWVUKFG VJG KOOGFKCVG VJGCVTG QH YCT
1HVGP VJKU JCU KPFWEGF NCYU CICKPUV RGTEGKXGF CPF TGCN YCT
RTQVGGTKPI 6JG VQVCN JQWTU YQTMGF KP VJG 7PKVGF 5VCVGU
TQUG D[  RGTEGPV FWTKPI 9QTNF 9CT ++ GXGP VJQWIJ
VJG OKNKVCT[ FTCHV TGFWEGF VJG EKXKNKCP NCDQT HQTEG D[ 

RGTEGPV=?
9CT FGUVTWEVKQP ECP DG KNNWUVTCVGF D[ NQQMKPI CV 9QTNF
9CT ++ +PFWUVTKCN YCT FCOCIG YCU JGCXKGUV KP ,CRCP
YJGTG  QH HCEVQT[ DWKNFKPIU CPF  QH RNCPV  GSWKR
OGPV YGTG FGUVTQ[GF  QH GNGEVTKE RQYGTIGPGTCVKPI
ECRCEKV[ YCU FGUVTQ[GF CPF  QH QKN TGPKPI ECRCEKV[
6JG ,CRCPGUG OGTEJCPV GGV NQUV  QH VJGKT UJKRU +P
)GTOCP[ KP  YJGP CKT CVVCEMU YGTG JGCXKGUV 
QH OCEJKPG VQQNU YGTG FCOCIGF QT FGUVTQ[GF DWV CTQWPF
 YGTG NCVGT TGRCKTGF #DQWV  QH UVGGN RTQFWE
VKQP ECRCEKV[ YCU NQUV +P 'WTQRG VJG 7PKVGF 5VCVGU CPF
VJG 5QXKGV 7PKQP GPQTOQWU TGUQWTEGU YGTG CEEWOWNCVGF
CPF WNVKOCVGN[ FKUUKRCVGF CU RNCPGU UJKRU VCPMU GVE YGTG
DWKNV CPF VJGP NQUV QT FGUVTQ[GF
)GTOCP[U VQVCN YCT FCOCIG YCU GUVKOCVGF CV CDQWV
 QH VJG RTGYCT VQVCN ECRKVCN UVQEM D[ XCNWG KG
CDQWV  +P VJG $GTNKP CTGC CNQPG VJGTG YGTG  OKN
NKQP TGHWIGGU NCEMKPI DCUKE PGEGUUKVKGU +P  NGUU VJCP
 QH VJG TCKNYC[U YGTG UVKNN QRGTCVKPI  TCKN DTKFIGU
YGTG FGUVTQ[GF CPF C VQVCN QH  DTKFIGU  NQ
EQOQVKXGU CPF OQTG VJCP  IQQFU YCIQPU YGTG
FGUVTQ[GF .GUU VJCP  QH VJG TGOCKPKPI NQEQOQVKXGU
YGTG QRGTCVKQPCN
*QYGXGT D[ VJG TUV SWCTVGT QH  'WTQRGCP TCKN VTCH
E YJKEJ YCU IKXGP CUUKUVCPEG CPF RTGHGTGPEGU
D[ YGUV
GTP CRRQKPVGF OKNKVCT[ IQXGTPQTU HQT TGUQWTEGU CPF OC
VGTKCN CU CP GUUGPVKCN CUUGV TGICKPGF KVU RTGYCT QRGTCVKQPCN
NGXGN #V VJG GPF QH VJG [GCT  QH )GTOCP[U TCKNYC[
NKPGU YGTG QRGTCVKPI CICKP +P TGVTQURGEV VJG TCRKFKV[ QH
KPHTCUVTWEVWTG TGEQPUVTWEVKQP CRRGCTU CUVQPKUJKPI
+PKVKCNN[ KP /C[  PGYN[ KPUVCNNGF 75 2TGUKFGPV
*CTT[ 5 6TWOCP U FKTGEVKXG JCF DGGP VJCV PQ UVGRU YQWNF
DG VCMGP VQYCTFU GEQPQOKE TGJCDKNKVCVKQP QH )GTOCP[ +P
HCEV VJG KPKVKCN KPFWUVT[ RNCP QH  RTQJKDKVGF RTQFWE
VKQP KP GZEGUU QH JCNH QH VJG  NGXGN VJG KTQP CPF UVGGN
KPFWUVT[ YCU CNNQYGF VQ RTQFWEG QPN[ NGUU VJCP C VJKTF
QH RTGYCT QWVRWV 6JGUG RNCPU YGTG TCRKFN[ TGXKUGF CPF
DGVVGT RNCPU YGTG KPUVKVWVGF +P  QXGT  QH )GT
OCP[U RJ[UKECN ECRKVCN UVQEM
RNCPV  GSWKROGPV YCU
CNUQ FKUOCPVNGF CPF EQPUECVGF OQUV QH KV IQKPI VQ VJG
7554 $[  KPFWUVTKCN RTQFWEVKQP KP )GTOCP[ YCU CV
 QH VJG  NGXGN CPF KPFWUVTKCN KPXGUVOGPV CV CDQWV
 VJG  NGXGN
6JG TUV DKI UVTKMG YCXG KP VJG 4WJT QEEWTTGF KP GCTN[
KV YCU CDQWV HQQF TCVKQPU CPF JQWUKPI DWV UQQP
VJGTG YGTG FGOCPFU HQT PCVKQPCNKUCVKQP 6JG 75 CR
RQKPVGF OKNKVCT[ )QXGTPQT
0GYOCP JQYGXGT UVCVGF CV
VJG VKOG VJCV JG JCF VJG RQYGT VQ DTGCM UVTKMGU D[ YKVJ
JQNFKPI HQQF TCVKQPU 6JG ENGCT OGUUCIG YCU PQ YQTM
PQ GCV #U VJG OKNKVCT[ EQPVTQNU KP 9GUVGTP )GTOCP[
YGTG PGCTN[ CNN TGNKPSWKUJGF CPF VJG )GTOCPU YGTG CN
NQYGF VQ TGDWKNF VJGKT QYP GEQPQO[ YKVJ /CTUJCN 2NCP
CKF VJKPIU TCRKFN[ KORTQXGF $[  )GTOCP KPFWUVTKCN
RTQFWEVKQP JCF QXGTVCMGP VJG RTGYCT NGXGN 6JG /CTUJCNN
#KF HWPFU YGTG KORQTVCPV DWV CHVGT VJG EWTTGPE[ TGHQTO

YJKEJ RGTOKVVGF )GTOCP ECRKVCNKUVU VQ TGXCNWG VJGKT CU

 /05&4

UGVU CPF VJG GUVCDNKUJOGPV QH C PGY RQNKVKECN U[UVGO


OWEJ OQTG KORQTVCPV YCU VJG EQOOKVOGPV QH VJG 75# VQ
SFCVJMEJOH )GTOCP ECRKVCNKUO CPF GUVCDNKUJKPI C HTGG OCT
MGV GEQPQO[ CPF IQXGTPOGPV TCVJGT VJCP MGGRKPI )GT
OCP[ KP C YGCM RQUKVKQP +PKVKCNN[ CXGTCIG TGCN YCIGU
TGOCKPGF NQY NQYGT GXGP VJCP KP  WPVKN VJG GCTN[
U YJKNG RTQVCDKNKV[ YCU WPWUWCNN[ JKIJ 5Q VJG VQVCN
KPXGUVOGPV HWPF CKFGF D[ ETGFKVU YCU CNUQ JKIJ TGUWNVKPI
KP C JKIJ TCVG QH ECRKVCN CEEWOWNCVKQP YJKEJ YCU PGCTN[
CNN TGKPXGUVGF KP PGY EQPUVTWEVKQP QT PGY VQQNU 6JKU YCU
ECNNGF VJG )GTOCP GEQPQOKE OKTCENG QT 8JSUTDIBGUTXVO
EFS=?

%WNVWTG QH ECRKVCNKUO

+P +VCN[ VJG XKEVQTKQWU #NNKGU FKF VJTGG VJKPIU KP 


VJG[ KORQUGF VJGKT CDUQNWVG OKNKVCT[ CWVJQTKV[ VJG[
SWKEMN[ FKUCTOGF VJG +VCNKCP RCTVKUCPU HTQO C XGT[ NCTIG
UVQEM QH YGCRQPU CPF VJG[ CITGGF VQ C UVCVG IWCTCPVGG QH
YCIG RC[OGPVU CU YGNN CU C XGVQ QP CNN UCEMKPIU QH YQTM
GTU HTQO VJGKT LQDU=? #NVJQWIJ VJG +VCNKCP %QOOWPKUV
2CTV[ ITGY XGT[ NCTIG KOOGFKCVGN[ CHVGT VJG YCT GPFGF
KV CEJKGXGF C OGODGTUJKR QH  OKNNKQP RGQRNG KP C RQR
WNCVKQP QH  OKNNKQPKV YCU QWVOCPGQWXTGF VJTQWIJ C
EQORNKECVGF RQNKVKECN DCVVNG D[ VJG %JTKUVKCP &GOQETCVU
CHVGT VJTGG [GCTU=? +P VJG U CP GEQPQOKE DQQO DG
ICP KP +VCN[ CV TUV HWGNGF D[ KPVGTPCN FGOCPF CPF VJGP
CNUQ D[ GZRQTVU=?

+PXGUVOGPVURGEKE VGEJPQNQIKECN RTQITGUU

+P VJG 7PKVGF 5VCVGU KP 9QTNF 9CT ++ VJG NCTIG KPXGUVOGPVU


KP KPFWUVTKCN RNCPV PGEGUUKVCVGF D[ VJG YCT DTQWIJV DKI CF
XCPVCIGU DWV VJG EQUVU QH FGCF YCUVG CPF FGDV YQWNF JCXG
PGXGT DGGP WPFGTVCMGP D[ CP[ TCVKQPCN IQXGTPOGPV HQT VJG
UNKIJV CFXCPVCIGU
+P OQFGTP VKOGU KV JCU QHVGP DGGP RQUUKDNG VQ TG
DWKNF RJ[UKECN ECRKVCN CUUGVU FGUVTQ[GF KP YCTU EQORNGVGN[
YKVJKP VJG URCEG QH CDQWV  [GCTU GZEGRV KP ECUGU QH
UGXGTG RQNNWVKQP D[ EJGOKECN YCTHCTG QT QVJGT MKPFU QH KT
TGRCTCDNG FGXCUVCVKQP *QYGXGT FCOCIG VQ JWOCP ECRK
VCN JCU DGGP OWEJ OQTG FGXCUVCVKPI KP VGTOU QH HCVCNKVKGU

KP VJG ECUG QH 9QTNF 9CT ++ CDQWV  OKNNKQP FGCVJU 


RGTOCPGPV RJ[UKECN FKUCDKNKV[ GPFWTKPI GVJPKE JQUVKNKV[
CPF RU[EJQNQIKECN KPLWTKGU YJKEJ JCXG GGEVU HQT CV NGCUV
UGXGTCN IGPGTCVKQPU

%BT ,BQJUBM
&WCNUGEVQT OQFGN
(KZGF ECRKVCN
)TQUU ZGF ECRKVCN HQTOCVKQP
*KUVQT[ QH VJGQT[ QH ECRKVCNKUO
6JG KPVGTPCN EQPVTCFKEVKQPU QH ECRKVCN CEEWOWNCVKQP
+PXGUVOGPV
.CY QH CEEWOWNCVKQP
.CY QH KPETGCUKPI RQXGTV[
/CVVJGY GGEV
2TGHGTGPVKCN CVVCEJOGPV
2TKEGU QH RTQFWEVKQP
2TKOKVKXG CEEWOWNCVKQP QH ECRKVCN
2TKOKVKXG UQEKCNKUV CEEWOWNCVKQP
2TQFWEVKXG CPF WPRTQFWEVKXG NCDQWT
2TQNGVCTKCPK\CVKQP
2TQRGTV[ KPEQOG
4GNCVKQPU QH RTQFWEVKQP
4GVWTP QP ECRKVCN
5KORNG EQOOQFKV[ RTQFWEVKQP
5WTRNWU XCNWG
7PGCTPGF KPEQOG
7PGSWCN GZEJCPIG
8CNWG KPXGUVKPI
9GCNVJ EQPEGPVTCVKQP

See also
#EEWOWNCVKQP D[ FKURQUUGUUKQP
$WUKPGUU E[ENG
%CRKVCN HQTOCVKQP
%CRKVCN
GEQPQOKEU
%CRKVCNKUO
%CRKVCNKUV OQFG QH RTQFWEVKQP
%QOOQFKV[ HGVKUJKUO
%QPUVCPV +VGO 2WTEJCUKPI 2QYGT #EEQWPVKPI

%JCTKV[

6 Notes
=? 6OCPVOEFE 0SHBOJ[BUJPO BOE UIF 'VUVSF PG 4PDJBMJTN D[
*QYCTF 4KEJCTFU  'FWECVKQP CU %JCPIG 8QN 
0Q  RR  %CRKVCN CEEWOWNCVKQP KU DQVJ C
F[PCOKE CPF C NQIKE +V KU C F[PCOKE VJCV OQVKXCVGU JW
OCP CEVKQP PCOGN[ VJG RWTUWKV QH RTQV +V KU C NQIKE
VJCV FGPGU TCVKQPCN FGEKUKQPOCMKPI PCOGN[ QRVKOK\KPI
RTQVU D[ OCZKOK\KPI TGXGPWG HTQO UCNGU YJKNG OKPKOK\
KPI EQUVU6JG ECUG KU DGVVGT WPFGTUVQQF KH QPG VCMGU KPVQ
CEEQWPV VJCV CEEWOWNCVKQP KU VJG OCKPURTKPI
CEEQTFKPI
VQ /CTZ VJG KPXCTKCDNG CEEQORCPKOGPV CPF XKTVWCNN[ VJG
FGPKVKQP QH ECRKVCNKUO


=? $BQJUBM 'PE[ENQRGFKC QP /CTZKUVUQTI JVVROCTZKUVU
QTIINQUUCT[VGTOUECJVOECRKVCN
=? 5IF 4PDJBM %JWJEFOE 6OEFS .BSLFU 4PDJBMJTN D[ ;WPMGT
,COGU  #PPCNU QH 2WDNKE CPF %QQRGTCVKXG 'EQ
PQOKEU 8QN  0Q  RR  0GXGTVJGNGUU YJKNG
/CTZ GORNQ[GF VJG UWTRNWU NCDQT XCNWG VJGQT[ VQ WPFGT
OKPG VJG OQTCN HQWPFCVKQPU QH ECRKVCNKUO KV YCU KP JKU
XKGY PGKVJGT VQ DG VJG KPUVTWOGPVCNKV[ QH ECRKVCNKUV EQN
NCRUG PQT YCU KV VJG RTKOCT[ TGCUQP HQT VJG FGUKTCDKNKV[
QH VJG CDTQICVKQP QH ECRKVCNKUO5WTRNWU XCNWG YCU UGGP
CU RTQXKFKPI VJG HWGN HQT VJG E[ENKECN GPIKPG CPF VJGTGHQTG
CU VJG HWPFCOGPVCN ECWUG QH VJG KORGFKPI FKUUQNWVKQP QH
ECRKVCNKUO
=? %BT ,BQJUBM XQN  EJ 
=? )TCVVCP 'NNGP 4 1JCPKCP .GG '
&GEGODGT  
6JG OCETQGEQPQOKE GGEVU QH DKI UECN UJQEMU VJG
ECUG QH YQTNF YCT ++
2&(  .JOOFBQPMJT 'FEFSBM 3FTFSWF
8PSLJOH 1BQFS 
=? #TOUVTQPI )N[P  *CTTKUQP $BQJUBMJTN TJODF XPSME XBS
 (QPVCPC  5GG CNUQ -CTN *CTFCEJ )GTOCP[
 KP %CTNQ / %KRQNNC 5IF 'POUBOB )JTUPSZ
PG &VSPQF 2CTV 1PG (QPVCPC  R 
=? )KPUDQTI 2CWN
  " )JTUPSZ PG $POUFNQPSBSZ *UBMZ
4PDJFUZ BOE 1PMJUJDT  .QPFQP 2GPIWKP $QQMU
R  +5$0 
=? )KPUDQTI
  EJCRVGT 
=? )KPUDQTI
  R 

References
/KEJGN #INKGVVC " 5IFPSZ PG $BQJUBMJTU 3FHVMBUJPO
'NOCT #NVXCVGT (FTFMMTDIBGUMJDIF 1SPEVLUJPO VOE
LPOPNJTDIF 3BUJPOBMJUU &YUFSOF &FLUF VOE [FO
USBMF 1MBOVOH JN 8JSUTDIBGUTTZTUFN EFT 4P[JBMJTNVT
5COKT #OKP "DDVNVMBUJPO PO B 8PSME 4DBMF
2JKNKR #TOUVTQPI #PFTGY )N[P CPF ,QJP *CTTKUQP
$BQJUBMJTN TJODF 8PSME 8BS ** %BT ,BQJUBM 8QN
 2CTV  CPF 8QN  2CTV  U 'PXKTQPOGPVCN %TK
UKU #P +PSWKT[ KPVQ VJG .KOKVU QH 0CVKQPCN &GXGN
QROGPV "SNPOL .& 4IBSQF 
*GTPCPFQ FG 5QVQ 5IF .ZTUFSZ PG $BQJUBM 8IZ
$BQJUBMJTN 5SJVNQIT JO UIF 8FTU BOE 'BJMT &WFSZ
XIFSF &MTF
/CPWGN ) 8GNCUSWG\ #VTJOFTT &UIJDT $PODFQUT BOE
$BTFT

8 External links
)TQYVJ #EEWOWNCVKQP %TKUKU 9KVJ 0GY /CETQG
EQPQOKE &CVC HQT 5YGFGP  D[ 4QFPG[
'FXKPUUQP
&CXKF *CTXG[ 4GCFKPI /CTZU %CRKVCN 4GCFKPI
/CTZU %CRKVCN  %NCUU  %JCRVGT  6JG )GPGTCN
.CY QH %CRKVCNKUV #EEWOWNCVKQP
XKFGQ NGEVWTG

 5&95 "/% *."(& 4063$&4 $0/53*#65034 "/% -*$&/4&4

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

9.1

Text

Capital accumulation 4PVSDF JVVRUGPYKMKRGFKCQTIYKMK%CRKVCNACEEWOWNCVKQP!QNFKF $POUSJCVUPST 6GFGTPUV 'FYCTF


/KEJCGN *CTF[ #JQGTUVGOGKGT 5KT 2CWN -CKJUW ,PK (KHGNHQQ 4CXP 9TQPMKGY ,FGXKPG )TGGP4GCRGT 6JG1DVWUG#PING1H&QQO 'C
ING1PG &KUEQURKPUVGT 4KEJ (CTODTQWIJ $GPFGT .[EWTIWU &GCPQU 4GOWGN /CWTTGGP %CXTFI 2GCTNG ,JGTVGN ,QJP 3WKIIKP 5VKNN
PQVGNH $QDTC[PGT 9QQJQQMKVV[ ,G 2CNKEC $& +OGTUKQP ,QUJ 2CTTKU &TDQIFCP 4LYKNOUK &QWDNG$NWG (NC$QV )TQWPF <GTQ
+VKPGTCPV /CTM ,TVC[NQTKX 9J[$G0QTOCN %JQDQV 4WUU$QV +CP/CPMC 9KMK CNH .GWVJC .GG $GII ,WTTKCCP <\WW\\ 265' 4D
4KEMMWJP +PPKV[ &QEGPFQ&KUEKOWU 5OCEM$QV #PFTGPK9 #NGZ 6KOGUJKHVGT %QOOCPFGT -GCPG DQV %JTKU VJG URGNNGT &CTVJ
5KFKQWU #PPGNKF $CVVNGET[ -CKUGTD$QV 5VGXGPOKVEJGNN %CP&Q -XECF 5JCFQY &/CEMU $[GNH -WTW )WTQCFTWPPGT 4QDQUJ
2JW\KQP 5FQTTCPEG 0GGNKZ %[FGDQV -CTKOCTKG $CPF-CORH 4KEJJQPEJQ $CTVKEWU +UNGUECRG 5OGG ,WUV#)CN (TGG-TGUIG &WIYKMK
:NGG &[NCP .CMG 4QDKPC (QZ 2JKN-PKIJV CPCEQPFCDQV -GXKPOQP $KPJ )KCPI`GPYKMK 4 P $ 0PQLQJP 56$QV& 5SWKFU CPF
%JKRU 6TGCUWT[6CI 9CTTWUJ 5GNMGV$QV ,QLCNQ\\Q 1JCFNKXPG :GCN 5CP[C /CGNIYPDQV #PEJQT .KPM $QV 5NCEMGT/QO %NWG$QV
%QJGUKQP$QV *CPU #FNGT )WPFGTUGP 5EJTGKDGT$KMG 5QPQH2QTMKPU #FFDQV )WQIWQ #PKCEU $GP $GP 7NTKE 2GPP[5GXGP
/CWTKVU$QV #PPC (TQFGUKCM 1OPKRCGFKUVC %WCWVK (TGUEQ$QV 1NKDTQOCP .KN[-KVV[ 6JGQ 5CNXKQ IKWNKCPQ -KPM[.KRKFU ,QJP QH
4GCFKPI 4# <TQ$QV ,QPRCVVGTPU %NCWFKQ5CPVQU 6GCRGCV 5QPKE[QWVJ %NWG$QV 0) #NHNC[NCJYCNC[NCJ /CTEQECRGNNG 'MTGP
*GPFTKEM  ,CEQPC(TGTG *QTUGNQXGT (CVU #DKGTOC 1XCXQWTCMKU -CURCT$QV CPF #PQP[OQWU 

9.2

Images

File:Commons-logo.svg 4PVSDF JVVRUWRNQCFYKMKOGFKCQTIYKMKRGFKCGPC%QOOQPUNQIQUXI -JDFOTF %%$;5# $POUSJCV


UPST ! 0SJHJOBM BSUJTU !
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UPST JVVRYYYIPQOGNQQMQTIEQPVGPVUJQYRJR)01/'EQNQTU!EQPVGPV 0SJHJOBM BSUJTU RGTHGEVUMC
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OCKP $POUSJCVUPST 6TCPUHGTTGF HTQO 9KMKRGFKC VQ %QOOQPU 0SJHJOBM BSUJTU 6JG QTKIKPCN WRNQCFGT YCU CV 'PINKUJ 9KMKRGFKC
File:Red_flag_II.svg 4PVSDF JVVRUWRNQCFYKMKOGFKCQTIYKMKRGFKCEQOOQPU4GFAHNCIA++UXI -JDFOTF %% $;  $POUSJCVUPST
0Q OCEJKPGTGCFCDNG UQWTEG RTQXKFGF 1YP YQTM CUUWOGF
DCUGF QP EQR[TKIJV ENCKOU  0SJHJOBM BSUJTU 0Q OCEJKPGTGCFCDNG CWVJQT
RTQXKFGF 5UQNDGTIL CUUWOGF
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File:Socrates.png 4PVSDF JVVRUWRNQCFYKMKOGFKCQTIYKMKRGFKCEQOOQPUEEF5QETCVGURPI -JDFOTF 2WDNKE FQOCKP $POUSJCVUPST
6TCPUHGTTGF HTQO GPYKMKRGFKC VQ %QOOQPU 0SJHJOBM BSUJTU 6JG QTKIKPCN WRNQCFGT YCU /CIPWU /CPUMG CV 'PINKUJ 9KMKRGFKC .CVGT XGTUKQPU
YGTG WRNQCFGF D[ 1RVKOCIGT CV GPYKMKRGFKC
File:Symbol-hammer-and-sickle.svg 4PVSDF JVVRUWRNQCFYKMKOGFKCQTIYKMKRGFKCEQOOQPUG5[ODQNJCOOGTCPFUKEMNGUXI
-JDFOTF 2WDNKE FQOCKP $POUSJCVUPST UGNHOCFG DCUGF QP +OCIG*COOGT CPF UKEMNGUXI D[ <UEQWV 0SJHJOBM BSUJTU 4QEMGV

9.3

Content license

%TGCVKXG %QOOQPU #VVTKDWVKQP5JCTG #NKMG