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Dying And

Presented By
Ananya Kapoor
Divya Krishna
Sunny sehgal
Tanushekha Agnihotri

Dyeing defects
Colour Crocking
Color Bleeding
Off shade
Shade Bar
Stained Cross bar
Tender spots

Printing Defects
Flipped Yarns
Staining During Steaming
Uneven Printing
Slight Touching
Poor adjusted Screen
Double Printing
Pressing Paste by Frame

Dyeing Defects
Dyeing defects may result from faulty or improper
dyeing procedures, faulty or improper preparation
of fabric prior to dyeing , or from imperfections in
the material being dyed or to imperfections in the
material itself.
Many defects that appear in fabrics and yarns after
dyeing are not all related to dyeing . many of these
defects can be traced back to prior production
processes. It is important therefore when assessing
a defect to try to ascertain the root cause. Careful
consideration of the possible cause of the defects
do not re-occur. Whilst the following list is not
exhaustive it highlights some of the dyers face on
a daily basis.

Barre is defined as unintentional , repetitive visual
pattern of continuous bars or stripes usually
parallel to the filling of woven fabric or to the
courses of circular knit fabric.

Barre can be caused by physical , optical or dye

differences in the yarns, geometric differences in
the fabric structure or by any combination of these

Color Crocking
Crocking is simply the transfer of color from a
fabric onto another white test fabric. The more
color is transferred, the more the fabric crocks.
Crocking determines the amount of color
transferred from the surface of colored textile
material to other surfaces by rubbing.

Color Bleeding
Color bleeding occurs when clothing manufacturers
rely on ineffective dying techniques or cheap dyes.
Sometimes the dyes are simply unstable or not
permanently set in the fabric. Other times,
manufactures overdye clothes so theyll appear
brighter and more vibrant in the store, but then
fade the first time you wash them. Red and orange
dyes are notoriously vulnerable to bleeding, so

these colors require extra vigilance on the part of

the consumer.

An expression referring to the fact that the color ot
the dyed fabric does not match the standard color
or reference sample.

Shade Bar
A shade change in afabric that appears as a
horizontal selvedge to selvedge change.
It is caused by a filling change or loom stop and
subsequent start up.

Stained Cross Bar

In cross dyed fabric , usually of one color and white
, where the dye of the colored portion stains the
white portion sometimes called unclear cross dyes.
In solid color fabric, the term refers to specks of
foreign fiber that have been caught in the material
and do not become dyed.

Stained/Sreaked is the discolored area on the cloth.
It is caused by foreign matter such as dirt, grease ,
oil or residue of sizing on the fabric being dyed.

Tender Spots
Tender spots are places in the fabric that have
been excessively weakened , actually by exposure
to processing of chemicals.

Printing Defect
Printing defects may result from faulty or improper
printing procedures, faulty or improper preparation
of fabric prior to printing, or from imperfections in
the material being printed or to imperfections in
the material itself.

Flipped Yarn
The part that looks like scratches because the warp
and weft yarns have been turned upside down. This
failure of finishing is called Flipped Yarn. Basically ,
the cause of this trouble is due to the insufficient
penetration of color paste, and it often happens
when the treatment after printing is carried out

A part of the printed surface became blebby with a
rough aprreance like that of sharkskin. This is often

caused by such factors as insuitability of color

paste, viscosity and screen mesh and uneven

A printed motif blurs and as a result the outline
of the design appears unclear. This may be due to
the viscosity of the colour paste is too low, the
concentration of the dyestuff in the print paste is
too high and the amount of colour paste printed or
the amount of hygroscopic agent used id too high.

Staining during Steaming

Stains are transferred when a poorly washed
printing table is used, the printing cloth is piled
up after insufficient drying or a part of the cloth
touches another during steaming. In Japan, some
factories carry out complete washing of finished
cloth applying tensionless rope.

Color tone gaps appear horizontally at the same
distance from each other. This may be due to bad
screen frame, a poorly installed squeegee and uneven
squeegee pressure can cause such a problem.

Slight Touching
Some area in the motif has pale spots. This may be
due to slow replenishment of colour paste, uneven
squeegee pressure, choosing a squeegee within
appropriate hardness, bad squeegee relay,
and uneven surface of printing table, inappropriate
viscosity of the colour paste and inappropriate use
of thickener

Poorly adjusted screen

Disfigured designs or overlapped motifs. This is

due to the belt drive and point adjustments, etc are
not properly done

Double printing


printed are a little off. Disfigured

designs, poor engraving, poor cloth
adhesion, etc are the cause of this

Pressing Paste by Frame

Sometimes a frame mark appears in the printed

area. This is because of poor belt drive and frame


Pattern bending

When the print bends or is of different width in different areas.


Dots are visible due to colour stain. This might occur due to nondissolved dye stuff and impurities contained in colour paste have
fixed to the problem area.


Staining occurs since the motif touches something when it is not dried
and scuffed after all.


It is the result of colour being smeared during printing. The splashes are
most likely to occur when the roller printing speed is too fast, the screen
plate is lifted inappropriately or the viscosity of the colour paste is too

Yarns like stains are made by the extra hanging yarns sticking out of the
cloth. This happens when poorly knit fabric is used.


The colour shade or depths of selvedges are different from that of the
center. This happens due to poor bleaching, poor installation of a frame
and squeegee, uneven squeegee pressure and inappropriate padding and
colour fixing.


Stain made by sewing machine stitches or the end stitches of the under
cloth. This happens when the end stitches or joints overlap end up too

Stains or unevenness due to drops. Drain (condensed water) or drops

are the cause.


Belt-like-stain appears vertical to the direction of roller printing.


-differs from crease streak in that streak will probably appear for an
entire roll. Crease mark appears where creases are caused by fabric folds
in the finishing process. On napped fabric, final pressing may not be
able to restore fabric or original condition. Often discoloration is
a problem.


Poor white discharge and colour discharge have to do with poor

conditions of discharge/resist printing paste, colour paste, squeegee
pressure, steaming.


Printed colour paste cracks. The problem occurs because poor

treatment is carried out after printing or the viscosity of the colour paste
is inappropriate.


Rope and roller leave their mark son printed cloth. This is when the
temperatures during steaming are too high or the temperatures set for
finishing are too low.


The area that has touched rope or rollers during steaming has faded
colours or stains. This problem occurs particularly when steam is
condensed in rope or rollers.


Tenters pin or clip marks remain or appear too inside. Bad clips or
pins, poorly conditioned guilder and unusual cloth width can lead to
the problem.

Some area in a motif are not printed. The reason is that a foreign matter
has been built up in the screen mesh, or the colour paste cannot adhere to
the cloth. It occurs for example in printing a fabric with slubs or by fuzz
balls in the printing paste. Imprint is created by touching insufficiently
dried right side of the print.


Unprinted part appears when the fabric is stretched or bent. This is

caused by poor penetration of colour paste due to inappropriate viscosity
of colour paste, screen mesh and squeegee pressure.

Moir patterns appear on printed designs. Screen mesh, the roulettes of

routers, the line delineation pattern has to do with this phenomenon.

An unwanted ripple effect/light mark produced on the fabric. Main

causes are improper scouring, surface pressure of one fabric on another,
contamination with water prior to tinting or dyeing on the pad mangle
resulting in the reduction in the uptake of dye liquor.
It indicates a discoloration caused by a foreign substance, grease, and
oil or sizing residue on the fabric being dyed.
-knitting repeat is a shift of one or more repeats of a printed pattern,
colours and lines of the resulting printing overlap.
-backing fabric is often used to cushion fabric being printed. If there is a
joining seam in the backing fabric, an impression will result on printed
- the result of colour running low in reservoir on printing machine