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silt loam
bank condition
loose condition
expanve soil heave
back hoe

retaining wall
crawl space
grade beam
mat/ raft
spread footing
caisson/ coffer dam
foundation bed
soil bearing capacity
boring test
uno sinotra
medullary rays

close grain
coarse grain
mixed grain
staight grain
wood grain
dry rot
machine burn
rough lumber
dressed lumber
surfaced green
yard lumber
dimension lumber
light framing
post and timbers
rotary cutting
flat slicing
plain sawing
quarter slicing
half round slicing

rift cutting
board measure
tempered hardboard
low density hardboard
particle board
composite panel
gypsum board
tempered board
perforated board/peg board
wood wool cement board
insulating fiberboard
sheating paper
roofing felt
rolled roofing
vapor barrier paper
pierno pisante
construction documents
performance specification
descriptive specification
closed specification

reference specification
senepa/takip silipan
punda/ bayna
staple wire
alkyd type paint
construction joints
bearing wall
flat slab
level tool
steel square
tin shear
boring tool
wood plank
total rise
portable hand router
dressed lumber
load bearing wall
live load
contraction joint
overhanging beam
jack rafter
gypsum board/lath
total run
soft wood
anchor bolt
lintel beam

lap joint
green lumber
retaining wall
common wall
shell work
zig-zag rule
undressed lumber
grade beam
anchor bolts

inset/ interior

polyurethane floor coating


scarf joint
triangular arch
horseshoe arch /moorish arch

lancet arch
sandstruck brick
flare header
false front
drying shrinkage
top cut
modular design
skew arch
surbased arch
economy brick
queen closer
porte cochere
concealed grid
linear diffuser

integral ceiling
tile grout
bond coat
main runner

metal pan
expanded slate
expansion shield
eye bolt
stove bolt
beam seat
post cap
post cap
post base
post base
sill anchor
fillet welt
single-bevel weld
full-penetration weld
groove weld
alligning punch
chimney breast
smoke chamber
fire pump
shear stud
fire cut

beam pocket
cellular decking
access flooring system
raised flooring system
strip flooring
slat block
block flooring
rubber tile
pole house
post-and-beam construction
post-and-beam construction
composite wall
faced wall
adhered veneer
panel wall
blank jamb
planted stop
jib door
drywall frame
double egress frame
kalamein door

knockdown frame
blind nail
casing nail
common nail
truss head
bugle head
oval head
lock washer
toggle bolt
glazing compound
floor closer
rising hinge
duct liner
weep hole
grout lift
in-and-out bond
cramp iron
saddle joint
string course
belt course
bullnose block

corner block
concrete brick
sill block
sash block
sash block
pilaster block
slump block
screen block
ferrous metal
chrome plate
m shape
roof deck
extension rule
framing chisel
trying plane
bleeder mass
lift slab
polyproplylene olepin
contact cement
mastic cement
butyl rubber
brass strips
2 hrs
40 mm
20 mm
200 mm
plain rail

box-head window
soil stabilizer
head flashing
drip cap
blind casing
hanging stile
pulley stile
meeting rail
operable window
wicket screen
projected window
cant bay window
ribbon window
window wall
storm window
storm window
internal dormer
plain saw

plain saw
face width
slope of grain
flitch beam
box beam
slip matching
herringbone matching
plate rail
ceramic tile
quarry tile
rammed earth
concrete mixer
direct placement
trowel finish
pavement saw

type of soil that is very fine with soft material deposited on rivers or the bottom of lakes
a friable mixture of relatively even proportions of sand, silt and clay, usually with
some organic matters
type of soil consisting mainly of the mineral feldspar and various impurities
soil having a moderate amount of clay and sand, in which 50% of the sand is extremely
type of soil consisting mainly of the mineral feldspar and various impurities
soil that is an intermediate stage between clay and slate
a soil condition whrein the soil materials is in its natural state before disturbance
soil condition wherein the materials had been excavated or loaded
a phenomenon in soil condition wherein soil increases its volume when it is excavated
effect of wet soil expansion and produces an upward and/or bulging effects on the soil
an excavator designed primarily for excavation below grade
construction equipment used primarily for lifting, lowering and trasnporting loads
process of increasing the density of a soil by mechanically forcing the soil particles
closer together
method of soil compaction that places a temporary fills on the site as a load. The weight
of this temporrary fill compresses the subsoil. When the subsoil is sufficiently
compressed, the load is removed
a method of compacting soil that vibrates granular materials to a greater density while sand
and water are pumped into the voids created
a structure whose primary purpose is to prevent the flow of lateral movement of soil
method of foundation system construction wherein the lowest floor of the building is
suspended a short distance, usually less than a full floor height above the ground
reinforced conrete beam at ground level around the entire perimeter of the building
a foundation system consists of a heavily reinforced concrete slab under the entire building
the simplest and probably the most common type of building foundation
a column driven int ot he soil to support a structure by transferring building to a deeper
and stronger layer of soil
a structure used to provide all around lateral support to an excavation
a column usually of reinforced concrete constructed below the gound surface
refers to the soil or rock directly beneath t he footings
refers to the maximum pressure that the foundation bed can support
hole drilled into the ground to obtain samples for evaluation and to obtain information
about the strata
vernacular term for adobe anchor
vernacular term for alternate or staggered
vernacular term for baseboard
vernacular term for brick
vernacular term for banister
a thin layer of reproductive tissue between the phloem and the xylem which produces new
phloem on the outside and new xylem on the inside
the younger, softer, living portion of wood between the cambium and heartwood, comparable
in strength to heartwood but usually lighter in clor, more permeable and less durable
the older, harder, inactive core of a tree, usually dark, denser and more durable than
the surrounding sapwood
the soft central core about which first growth takes place in a newly formed stem
the ribbons of tissue extending radially from the pith;
an organic substance that with cellulose forms the woody cell walls of plants and the
cementing material between them
the vital fluid of water, nitrogen and mineral nutrients that circulates through a plant
one of the slender, thick-walled cells which together served to strenghten plant tissue
one of the relatively large vertical cells for conduction sap, esp. in hardwood trees

a tubular structure of woody tissue for conducting water and mineral nutrients, formed by
the fusion and loss of end walls in a series of connected cells
the resinous sap that exudes from various conifers
a viscious, clear to translucent, organic substance exuded by certain pines, used in making
varnishes, adhesives and plastics
outward growing trees preferred for lumbering
wood grain characterized by narrow annual rings with little difference in pore size
wood grain characterized by wide annual rings with considerable contrast in pore size
a combination of edge-grained and flat-grained lumber
grains running along one side of wood
direction, size, arrangement and appearance of fibers in a piece of wood
decomposition of wood by fungi
a decay caused by fungi that consumed the cellulose
lenghtwise separation of wood caused by uneven or rapid shrinkage
separation along the grain of a wood piece caused by stresses on a tree
a check that extends completely through a board or veneer
another term for sapwood
another term for heartwood
any deviation from a plane usually cause by uneven drying or change in moisture content
a curvature across the width
a curvature along the length
a curvature along the edge
a warp resulting from the turning of the edges of a wood piece in opposite directions
presence of bark of absence of wood at a corner or along an edge of a piece
an area on the surface of a board or panel missed by a planning machine
a surface charring caused by overheating
term applied to wood after it is sawed or sliced into boards, etc for commercial purposes
lumber that is sawn, edged and trimmed, but not surfaced
lumber that is surfaced with a planning machine to attain a smooth surface and uniform size
pertaining to a dressed lumber having a moisture content of 19% or less at the time of
softwood lumber intended for general purposes
yard lumber less than 2" thick and 2" or more wide
the classification of lumber in regard to strength and utility in accordance with the grading
rules of an approved lumber grading agency
kind of rough lumber which is cut tangent to the annual rings of wood running the full length
of the log
a wide piece of lumber from 2" to 5" thick
yard lumber from 2" to 4" thick and 2" or more wide
dimension lumberintended for use where high strength are not required
structural lumber of rectangular cross section at least 5" thick and a wicth more than 2"
greater than the thikcness, graded primarily with respect to bending strength
a thick piece of lumber
process of removing moisture from wood
another word for seasoning
an oily liquid of aromatic hydrate obrained by the distillation of solution, used as wood
the rotating of a log against the cutting edge of a knife in a lathe, producing a continous
veneer with a bold, variegated ripple figure
the longitudinal slicing of a half log parallel to a line through its center
another term for flat slicing
the longitudinal slicing of a quarter log perpendicular to the annual rings
the slicing of a flitch mounted off-center in the lathe, slightly across the annual rings

producing characteristics of both rotary cutting and flat slicing

the slicing of a log perpendicular to the conspicious radiating rays so as to minimize their
lumber measurement in boardfeet
a thin sheet of wood rotary cut, sliced or sawn from a log or flight and used as a superior
facing to infeior wood or bonded together to form plywood
a layer of veneer immediately adjacent to and right angles to the face plies in a plywood panel
the center of a plywood panel. Consisting of veneers, sawn lumber or composition board
a wood panel product made by bonding veneers together under heat and pressure, usually
at right angles to each other
a very dense, felted, homogeneous panel made from lignocellulosic fibers consolidated
under heat and pressure in a hot press
made by impegnated standard board with tempering compound of oils and resin and baking it
to polymerize the tempering material
has low density and used for lightweight application
a non-veneered wood panel product made by bonding small wood particles under heat and
a non-venerred panel product composed of large, thin wood flakes bonded under heat and
pressure with a waterproof adhesive
a wood panel product consisting of two face veneers bonded to a reconstituted wood core
a building mterial made of wood or other plant fibers compressed with a binder into rigid
a wallboard having a gypsum core
a rigid sheet composed of wood pulp, gypsum or other materials; the long edges of the board
usually tapered to provide easy tretment of joints
a hardboard impregnated with a drying oil or other oxidizing resin and baked to improve its
hardness and moisture resistance
trademark for a brand of tempered hardboard having regularly space perforations into which
hooks may be inserted for the storage or display of articles
a non-structual material in low cost housing constructions which may be used for heat
insulation and sound absorption but not as a fire-retardant material
a hardboard made of compressed wheat straw, processed and covered with a tough kraft paper
structural glued-laminated timber
bi-product of wood made up of wood, sugarcane, asbestos and binder
provide airtight barrier over walls, floors, ceiling, etc.
used in making a built-up roof manufacture in 36"wide rools and weights 3 to 20lbs per sq. ft
a heavy mineral surfaced paper used as a final roof covering
this material is intended to prevent the passsage of moisture vapor through walls
vernacular term for window
venacular tem for soffit
vernacular term for tread
vernacular tem for plaster
vernacular tem for rabbet
vernacular term for mortar joint
vernacular term for rivet
vernacular term for latch
vernacular term for machine bolt
construction drawings and specifications setting forth in detail the requirements for the proj.
detailed description of the technical nature of the materials, standards, and quality of
execution of the work to be placed unde contract
stipulates how a particular component must perform w/out giving means to be employed
stipulates the exact quantities and qualities of materials to be furnished and how they are to
be assembled in a construction
composed of the single product specification and multi product specification

a specification that refers to a standard specification to indicate the properties desired in a

material and the methods of testing required to substantiate the performance of products
venacular term for projection
vernacular term for plate
vernacular tem for reinforcing bar
vernacular tem for riser
vernacular tem for scratchcoat
vernacular term for sheath
the hardware material needed to fasten an asphalt strip roof shingle on wooden sheets/planks
the time required for the removal of a form of a concrete footing
wall partition wooden framing
appropriate paint material for G.I sheet
a common paint film defect where progressive powdering from the surface inward occurs
a joint where two successive placement of concrete meet
a wall which supports vertical loads in addition to its weight without the benefit of a
complete vertical load carrying space frame is called
a type of concrete floor with no beam
used for guiding and testing the work to a vertical and horizontal position
a tool for testing and for framing work
the vertical surface on the face of a stair step
a tinsmithry tool
auger bit is a part of this
2" to 5" thick wood
the distance from the first to the last riser of a stair flight
a high speed rotary shaping hand power tool used to make smooth cutting and curving on solid
major horizontal supporting member of the floor system
refers to smooth or planed lumber
wall that support the weight from above as well as their own dead weight
refers to the occupancy load which is either partially of fully in place
the amount of space measured in cubic units
an expansion joint adjacent to parts of a structure to permit expected movement between
concrete members
the most improtant component to determine the strength of concrete mix
a beam that porjects beyond one or both its support
a hip roof support
another term for plasterboard
the total of all the tread width in a stair
the face or front elevation of a building
a pit in the basement floor made to collect water into which a pump is placed to pump the
liquid to the sewer
refers to pre-construction of components as part of the whole
an opening in the roof for admitting light
wood coming from tress with needles rather than broad leaves
kind of brick used for high temperatures
the acceptable variance for dimensions from the approved standard size
the distance between structural supports
a trough used for carrying off water
the process of removing concrete forms from cured conrete
a structural member spanning from truss-to-truss or supporting rafters
a threaded steel, bent and inserted into masonry construction for secruing wood or metal
plates to concrete construction
a horizontal piece of wood, stone, steel or concrete across the top of door or window
opening to bear the weight of the walls avobe the opening

the placing of glass in windows or doors

a rejected building material because of its below standard grade
a series of baluster
another word for handmill on a stair construction
a joint produced by lapping two pieces of materials
lumber that still contains moisture of sap
the internal angle formed by the two slopes of a roof
a vertical board attached on the ends of the rafters. It is part of the cornice
a large heavy nail
the underwater watertight chamber to allow construction work to be done
lumber specification meaning smooth on four sides
the term used to indicate top and lower principal member of a roof or bridge truss
strips of hardwood usally 2" x 2" laid over a concrete slab floor
a wall that holds back on earth embankment
wall that serves two dwelling units, also known as party wall
pertaining to a material description that resembles glass
to allow concrete to dry slowly by keeping it moist to attain maximum strength
the hardware on a door to accommodate the knob and lockset keyhole
the term used to describe the putting up of the skeleton of the building
a carpenter's measuring tool
a wedge-shape stone of an arch
a fireproff door with metal covering
lumber that is not dressed of finished
a concrete beam placed directly on the ground to provide foudnation for the superstructure
a round steel embedded in concrete or masonry used to hold down machinery, steel columns
or beams, casting, shoes, beam plates and engine heads
a concrete flooring and finish which transforms ordinary plain concrete into an elegant and
decorative textured surface done by adding a dust-on-color pigments to the concrete to give
a fast color and imprinted with a patented pattern and texture while the concrete is still
plastic to create the look and finish of stone, slate, or brick
vernacular term for chb laying
vernacular term for shelf
vernacular term for shingle
vernacular term for slope
vernaclar term for masonry
vernacular term for oakum
vernacular term for open stringer
vernacular term for pickwok
vernacular term for plate
vernacular term for putty
an installation method where cabinet covers recessed and flushed with the cabinet sidings
a pre-treatment of poured concrete such as walls, beams, and columns where a thin layer of
lean cement grout mixed with flexible base additives is splattered by stamp brush or masonry
spoon onto the surface to give a "tooth" for excellent plaster adhesion
a special coating system with a high gloss shine while maintaining the natural wood qualities,
maintenance free, used to finish and top coat wood flooring
a common and cheap masonry finish wherein dry consistency mortar mix is sprayed by
mechanical or pneumatic means. The sprayer cement is left to dry and give a rustic finish.
optional paint coat may be required
a type of wood end joint where both wood are cut at equal angels diagonally
an arch having one post higher than the other
a primitive form of arch consisting of two stones laid diagonally tos upport each other
over an opening
an arch having an intrados that widens above the springing before narrowing

to a rounded crown
a stone or course of masonry having a soping face againts which the end of a segmental
arch rests
a pointed arch having two centers and radii greater than the span
a brick grade suitable for exposure to negligible weathering as when used as a backup or in
interior masonry
a brick grade suitable for exposure to severe weathering, as when in contact with the
ground or used on surfaces likely to be permeated with water in subfreezing temperature
brick formed in the soft mud process with a mold lined with sand to prvent sticking producing
a matte textured surface
a masonry unit specially formed or cut to finish a course or complete the bond at the
corner of a wall
a brick having a darker end exposed as a header in a patterned brickwork
a horizontal or inclined door over a stairway giving access to a cellar
a faade falsifying the size or importance of a building
a thin metal strip inserted into the edges of two acoustical tiles to make a butt joint
between them
a cart oftern motor-driven for transporting heavy materials, as freshly mixed concrete, for
short distances at a construction site
a reduction in volume of concrete moretar, or plaster caused aby a loss of moisture
to install the highest structural member in a construction or complete the uppermost course
in a masonry wall
planning and design utilizing prefabricated modules or modular coordination for ease
of erection, flexible arrangement, or variety of use
the highest part or point of a convex construction as an arch, vault, or roadway
either side of an arch curving down form the crown to the impost
the uppermost part of an abutment, often in the form of a block, capital, or molding, from
which an arch springs
an arch way having sides or jambs not a t right angles with the face of its abutment
the part of a structure receiving and supporting the thrust of an arch, vault or strut
an arch having a rise of less than half the span
a modular brick having nominal dimensions of 4 x 4 x 8in
a brick of half the normal width used for completing a course or for spacing regular bricks
the exterior framework or walls and roof of a building
any number of principal divisions of a wall, roof, or other part of a building marked off by
vertical or transverse supports
a raised platform approached by steps and sometimes having a roof at the entrance of a
an exterior appendage to a building forming a covered approach or vestibule to a doorway
a large open porch usually roofed and partly enclosed as by a railing, often extending
across the front and sides of a house
an open often paved area connected to a house or building and serving as an outdoor
living area
a vehicular passageway leading through a building or screen wall into an interior courtyard
a private or side entrance as one for pedestrians next to a porte cochere
any series of columns supporting a building above an open ground level
a wing at right angles to the length of a building
a french term for a broad walk planted with trees
a concave surface forming part of a ceiling at its edge so as to eliminate the usual interior
angle between the wall and the ceiling
one of a numver of recessed usually square or octagonal panels in a ceiling, soffit or vault
a metal grid supporting the acoustical tiles of a suspended ceiling, hidden within kerfs cut
into the edges of the tiles
a long narrow diffuser designed to disperse air throug slots between the panels of an

integrated ceiling system

a suspended ceiling system incorporating acoustical lighting and air-handling components
into a unified whole
a cementitious or resinous mix for filing joints in ceramic tile work
a thick coat of mortar for bonding ceramic tile to a backing
a principal member of the grid supporting a suspended ceiling system, usually a sheet
metal channel or tee suspended by hanger wired from overhead structures
the space between a suspended ceiling and floor structure above, exp one that serves as a
receiving chamber for conditioned air to be distributed to inhabited spaces or for return
air to be conveyed back to a central plant for processing
an acoustical tile consisting of a steel or aluminum pan having a perforated face and
containing a separate layer of sound absorbing material
load bearing structural clay tile suitable for masonry walls exposed to weathering or frost
a strong lightweight aggregate obtained by the exfoliation of slate
one of the leaves of a double or revolving door
the flexible weathestripping along the edges of a revolving door
a slender vertical member dividing the opening for a pair of double doors sometimes
removable to permit the passage of large objects
to increase the diameter of a portion length of a drilled hole to receive the nut of a bolt/screw
a lead or plastic sleeve inserted into a predrilled hole and expanded by driving a bolt
or screw into it
a bolt having a ring-shaped head to receive a hook or rope
a small, coarse-threaded at one end to receive a nut
the part on the shank of abolt next to the head esp. when it has a special form
a u-shaped metal bracket for anchoring a timber beam to a concrete support
a u-shaped metal bracket for securing a timber beam to a supporting post
also called a column cap
a u-shaped metal bracket for supporting and anchoring a timber post to its base or foundation
also called column base
a framing anchor for securing a sill plate to a concrete slab or foundation wall
a weld with a triangular cross section joining two surfaces that meet in an interior right angle
the point at which the back or bottom of a weld meets the base metal
the distance from the root of a weld to the face of the base metal
a groove weld in which the edge of one abutting member is bevelled from one side
a butt weld having a depth equal to the thickness of the smaller of the two members being
a weld made in a preformed indentation between two abutting pieces of metal
a round tapering piece of metal for enlarging or alligning holes to receive rivets or bolts
a drift for bringing holes in line to receive a rivet or bolt
a pipe for the escape of the smoke or gases of combustion
a part of a chimney or fireplace that projects out from a wall usually inside a building
a metal cover or canopy for a stove, fireplace, chimney or ventilator
an incombustible passage or duct smoke in a chimney
a movable plate for regulating the draft in a fireplace, stove, or furnace
an enlarged area between the throat of a fireplace and the flue of a chimney
the chamber containing the fire of a fireplace
the receptacle in the bottom of a fireplace or firebox for the collection and removal of ashes
a water pipe extending vertically through a building to supply fire hoses at every floor
a pump that provides ther equired water pressure in a standpipe or sprinkler system when
the pressure in the system drops below a preselected value
a steep pin welded to the top flange of a steel beam or girder and embedded in a concrete
slab so as to cause the beam and the concrete to act as a structural unit
an angular cut at the end of a joist or beam where it enters a masonry wall, allowing

the member to fall without damaging the wall if it burns through somewhere along its length
an opening in the vertical face of a structural member to receive a beam
metal decking manufactured by welding a corrugated steel sheet to a flat steel sheet,
forming a series of raceways for electrical wires and cables
a system of removable and interchangeable floor panels supported on adjustable pedestals
or stringers to allow free access to the space beneath
another term for access flooring system
flooring composed of long narrow wood strips usually side and end matched
a flooring block made by assembling narrow slats or fingers of hardwood into larger units
flooring composed of square units preassembled at the mill and usually installed with mastic
over a wood subfloor or concrete slab
the mortar base on which a terrazzo toppin is applied
a resilient floor tile composed of natural or synthetic rubber with mineral fillers
the upright tufts of yarn forming the surface of a carpet or fabric
a house of pole construction
wall construction utilizing a framework of vertical posts and horizontal beams to carry floor
and roof load
also called post and lintel construction
of or pertaining to a system of construction employing beams or lintels
a horizontal timber connecting the posts of a braced frame at an intermerdiate level above
the ground floor
having a timber framework with the spaces filled with masonry or plaster
an upper story of a building projecting beyond the one below
a major vertical division of a wall, esp a nogged panel of half timber
a masonry wall having at least one wythe dissimilar to the other wythe or wythes with
respect to type or grade of masonry unit or mortar
a wall having a masonry facing bonded to a backing so as to exert a common action
under load
a veneer supported by and serured to a backing by means of a bonding material
a nonstructural facing of brick, stone, concrete or tile attached to a backing for the purpose
of ornamentation, protection, or insulation
a non-load bearing exterior masonry wall wholly supported at each story
the finished, often decorative framework around a door or window opening, esp. the portion
parallel to the surrounding surface and at right angles to the jambs
a doorjamb having no stops nor prepared to receive hardware
a top formed by attaching a molding to a doorframe or window frame
a raised piece of flooring between the jambs of a doorway, to which a door fits closely so
as to prevent its binding when opened
a surface that makes an oblique angle with another as where a window or door opening
widents from the frame toward the face of the wall
the part of a jamb of a window or door opening that is visible between the outer wall surface
and the window or door frame
a door hinged to be flush with the wall on iether side and treated so as to be indiscernible
when closed
a rough casing for a doorway or window opening
a knockdown frame having a double-return backbend for installation after a drywall partition
is finished
a metal doorframe prepared to receive a pair of single-acting doors that swing in opposite
a protective lining usually of stainless steel at the base of a door frame
the opening between the backbends of a metal doorframe
the face at the outer edge of a metal doorframe that returns to the wall surface
a door having a structural wood core clad with galvanized sheet metal

a metal doorframe composed of three or more parts for assembly in the field
to secure by nailing in such a way that nailheads are not visible on the face work
a nail having a small conical head and a shank more slender than a common nail of the same
length, used in finish work in which the head may remain visible
a nail having a slender shank, a flat head and a diamond point
to cut screw threads into an opening
a screw or bolt head having a shallow spherical shape with a flat bearing surface
a screw head having a flat upper surface and an underside shaped like the bell of a bugle
a screw head having a shallow, spherical shape with a conical bearing surface
a washer specially constructed to prevents a nut from shaking loose
an anchor bolt having two hinged wings that close againts a spring when passing through a
predrilled hole and open as they emerge to engage the inner surface of a hollow wall
a stone or wooden lintel over a fireplace opening or a masonry arch used in place of such
a lintel
a hoodlike covering for increasing the draft of a chimney or ventilator
a construction framing the opening of a fireplace and usually covering part of the chimney
breast in a decorative manner
a crossbeam or a bay formed by crossbeams
the amount of overlap between the edge of a glass pane or unit and a window frame,
stop, or lock-strip gasket
an adhesive compound used as putty formulated so an not to become brittle with age
a door closer installed in a recess in the floor
a gravity hinge causing a door to rise slightly when opened
a fiberglass blanket for lining the insie of a duct to reduce noise and serve as
thermal insulation
a small opening in a cavity wall, retaining wall, or other construction for draining off
accumulated moisture, as from condensation or leakage
an increment of groung height within a total grout pour
having rough, irregular surfaces and sunken or beveled joints
a large stone passing through the entire thickness of a wall and exposed on both faces
a masonry bond having headers and stretchers alternating vertically
a squared building stone finely dressed on all faces adjacent to those of other stones as to
permit very thin mortar joints
rough fragments of broken stone or the masonry built of such stone
an iron bar or rod with bent ends for holding ogether stone masonry units
a stone forming a coping
a tone molding used as a drip, as on a cornice over a window or doorway
a string course esp. one having little or no projection
any of the stones having a sloping top for supporting or forming a gable coping
another term for skew
any of a series of steplike projections that terminate a masonry gable above
the surface of the roof
another term for corbiestep
a vertical joint raised above the level of the washes on a stone sill or coping to prevent
the penetration of rainwater
a course or band esp of masonry having a distinctive form or position
a footing or ledge formed by a setback in the face of a wall
a continuous, usually projecting course of stones forming the base or foundation of a wall
a horizontal course of brick or stone flush with or projecting beyond the face of a building.
often molded to mark a division in the wall
another term for string course
a splayed enlargement of a door or window opening toward the inner face of a wall
a concrete masonry unit having one or more rounded exterior corners

a concrete masonry unit having a solid end face and used in constructing the end or
corner of a wall
a solid rectangular concrete masonry unit, usually not larger than 4 x 4 x 12
a solid concrete masonry unit having a wash to shed rainwater from a sill
a concrete masonry unit having an end slot or rabbet to receive the jamb of a door or
window frame
another term for jamb block
any of various concrete masonry units used in constructing a plain or reinforced
masonry pilaster
a concrete masonry unit having an irregular face and surface texture caused by
the settlement of a wet mix during curing
a concrete masonry unit used esp in tropical architecture having a decorative pattern
of transverse openings for admitting air and excluding sunlight
the solid residue of coal left after destructive distillation, used as a fuel
a metal containing iron as a principal element
to coat or plate a metal surface with a compound of chromium
a hot-rolled structural steel shape similar to but not classified as a w-shape, designated by
the prefix M follwed by the size and weight of the member
a hot-rolled structural steel section having an l-shape designated by the prefix L followed
by the length of each leg and their thickness
membrane type of waterproffing is applied in ____________
rule for measuring inside distances such as doors, windows, cabinets, etc.
a heavy duty chisel tool designed to absorb a severe strain in framing work where deep
cut is necessary
plane tool used to obtain the smoothest finish
rock volume to collect water in retaineng wall
convex curvature in beams and trusses
method of concrete construction at ground level
ratio of truss over its span
inclined structural marker
kind of carpet material that does not hold soil
carpet material that will not hold static
most expensive carpet material w/ excellent resiliency
carpet material with excellent resistance to abrasion
handsaw that teeth are straight across and work like chisels in cutting wood
strong waterproof glue that must be mixed with water for each use
glues consist of a resin and a hardener mixed just before use
glue that provides instant bonding and resistance to water and heat, widely used for
veneers and laminate countertops
skimmed milk glue
waterproof and puttylike adhesive
outdoor caulking material used in metal and stone
material used for division line in terrazo flooring
maximum time for mixing conrete before pouring and depositing
color code for intermediate grade steel bar
welded wire frame
location of construction joint for concrete slab
application of dead oil of coal tar
concrete cover for pipes conduits, and fittings for exposed to earth or weather
concrete cover for concrete not exposed to weather or not in contact with ground
in metal cased concrete piles, every metal casing for a concrete pile shall have a sealed
tip with a diameter of not less than _______________
a meeting rail equalin thickness to the other members of the frame

a double-hung window constructed with a pocket in the head, into which one or both sashes can
pass to increase the opening available for ventilation
a limestone composed of small, round, calcerous grains resembling fish roe
also called egg stone
any fine-graied stone, as limestone or sandstone, that can be quarried or woked easily
esp. one that cuts well in all directions
vernacular term for moulding
vernacular term for varnish finish
vernacular term for vertical stud
vernacular term for horizontal stud
vernacular term for cement tile
vernacular term for thread
an additional or excessive load or burden as that of the earth above the level of the top of
a retaining wall
to face a sloping surface or embankment with stone or other material
a system of cribs for retaining earth or for a building being moved
or having its foundation rebuilt
a log, concrete block, or similar mass buried in the ground as an ancro
a chemical admixture for maintaining or increasing the stability of a soil mass
a backward slope of the face of a wall as it rises
a fixed or movable framework of a window or door in which panes of glass are set
the inteior sill of awindow
a flat pied of trim immediately beneath the stool of a window
also called skirt
a molding surrounding the trim at the top and sides of a door or window
the flashing over a window opening or a projection in a masonry wall
a projecting molding over an exterior door or window opening for catching
and shedding rainwater
an additional sill fitted to a window frame to cause rainwater to drip farther away
from a wall surface
the rough casing of a bos frame to which trim is secured
a stile in a window frame against which a window sash slides.
also called hanging stile
the rail of each sash in a double-hung window that meets at the rail of the other when
the window is closed
a window having a sash that may be opened for ventilation
a small sliding or hinged portion of a larger screen providing access for operating a window
a railing or balustrade projecting slightly beyond the plane of a window and reaching
to the floor having the appearance of a balcony when the window is fully opened
a casement or awning window in which the inner end of the sash slides alon a track
on the sill or jamb as the sash swings outward
a bay window having canted side
a horizontal band of windows weperated only by mullions
a dormer window in a roof or sphire
a nonbearing wall composed primarily of vertical and horizontal framing members
containing a combination of fixed lights and operating sashes
a portion of an interior risng above adjacent roofstops and having windows admitting
daylight to the interior
a supplementary sash placed outside an existing window as additional protection againts
severe weather
also called stormsash
an internal window set below the line of a sloped roof
to saw a squared log into boards with evenly spacd paralled cuts

also called bastard saw

to saw wood in the direction of the grain
the width of the face of apiece of dressed and matched or shiplapped lumber,
excluding the tongue or lap
the angle of grain relative to a line parallel to the length of a wood piece
a horizontal timber on a post for enlarging the bearing area and reducing the
free span of a beam
a steel plate for reinforcing a flitch beam
a vertically laminated beam consisting of timbers set on edge and bolted side by side
to steel plates or sections
a beam having a hollow, rectangular cross section made by gluing two or more plywood
or oriented strandboard webs to sawn or laminated beneer lumber flanges
a metal ring or cap placed around the end of a wooden post or handle to prevent splitting
arranging veeneers so as to emphasize the color and figure of the wood
arranging veneers from the same flitch alternately face up and face down to produce
symmetrical mirror images about the joints between adjacent sheets
arranging adjacent sheets of veneer from the same flitch side by side without turning so as
to repeat the figure
bookmatching in which the figures in adjacent sheets slope in opposite directions
the natural pattern on sawed wood surfae produced by the intersectin of annual rings,
knots, burls, rays and other growth characteristics
trademark for a brand of tempered hardboard
the position of the hinges of a door, in terms of right and left, when seen from the exterior
a rail or narrow shelf fixed along a wall and grooved to hold plates, esp. for ornament display
to attach or faste a molding to a surface
an ornamental bracket, usually formed with scrolls and higher than its projection
to make clay body vitreius by firing at a specified temperature
low-fired, opaque, nonvitreious ceramic ware
fired to harden a clay body
any of various fired clay tiles used for surfacing walls, floors, and countertop
unglazed ceramic floor tile having a natural clay body
a stiff mixture of clay sand or other aggregate and water compressed and dried within
forms as as a wall construction
a machine having a revolving drum, oftern motor-driven, for mixing cement, aggregate,
and water to produce concrete
the discharging of freshly mized concrete directly into a form from a conrete mixer,
buggy or crane bucket
a dense, smooth finish obtained by working a fresh concrete or plaster surface with a
steel trowel
a wheel-mounted, rotary power saw equipped with a silicon-carbide or diamond
blade for cutting a control joint in a hardened conrete slab
a trowel having a long, cruved lip for rounding the edges of a frsh concrete slab
as it begins to set
voids on a formed conrete surface caused by segragation during placement or
by insufficient consolidation
the vertical part of a cupola
the space between the inner and outer shells of a dome
a substructure supporting a dome or cupola