Sunteți pe pagina 1din 8

http://www.paper.edu.

cn

Dynamic Equivalents of Power Systems with


On-line Measurements (II) ---- Applications
P. Ju* F.Wu* N.G.Yang** N.Q.He** X.M.Li*
(*Hohai University,Nanjing,210098)

(**Dispatching Institute of Henan Power Company)

Abstract: Final validation of a dynamic equivalent (DE) is to obtain the equivalent parameters from field tests
and apply them to practical stability studies. A microcomputer-based equipment is developed for online
measurement and identification, with which several valuable field results have been captured. The results are
then applied to dynamic response simulation and stability limit calculation.

1 Introduction
Online identification is an important way for dynamic equivalents. The previous paper [1] studies the
theoretical aspects and this paper gives the field test results captured in Henan Power Company (HNPC),
P.R.China. The results are then applied to dynamic response simulations and stability limit calculations. To
authors' knowledge, such online measurements and applications have not been reported.
HNPC has the generator capacity of 9692MW and maximum load 8341MW. The network consists of
mainly 220KV transmission lines. There are two 500KV lines, one is an intra-line from Zhengzhou to Yaomen,
and another is a tie line from Yaomen (in studied area, i.e. HNPC) to Shuanghe (in neigboring area, i.e. Hubei
Power Company -- HBPC). HNPC consists of only one water power plant with capacity of 400MW, and the
neighboring system consists of large amount of water power plants. As a result, the power flow between HNPC
and HBPC varies with seasons.
At the end of 1998, a microcomputer-based equipment is developed and set at Yaomen Power Plant of
HNPC for online measurement and identification. The equipment monitors the bus voltage and power flow of
tie line periodically. If the variation of bus voltage exceeds a pre-settled value, the equipment automatically
records the three-phase voltage and current and then identifies the equivalent parameters. During the past two
years, several valuable large disturbances have been captured. With the dynamic responses, the equivalent
parameters are estimated and then applied to dynamic response simulations and stability limit calculations.

2 Measurements
Four of the recorded disturbances are reported here, as described in Table 1. Where, PG = total generation
power in Henan, PL = total load power in Henan, PT = total transmission power through the tie line from
Yaomen to Shuanghe, and negative power means the power from Shuanghe to Yaomen.
The dynamic curves recorded during four disturbances are shown in Figure 1-4, numbered as 1. With them,
1

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

http://www.paper.edu.cn

the equivalent parameters are identified as given in Table 2. Using the measured voltage as input to the
equivalent model with the identified parameters lead to the dynamic responses in Figure 1-4 numbered as 2.
The results tell us that:
(1) The dynamic curves with equivalent model are close to those recorded in field, this means that the
equivalent model is able to represent the main dynamics of external system with respect to studied system.
(2) At different time and fault, the main equivalent generator parameters vary slightly and the equivalent load
parameters vary greatly. This may be explained that the service states of generators (in or out) vary slightly,
however, loads change very much from time to time.
Table 1 Four of the recorded disturbances
No.

Fault 1

Fault 2

Fault 3

Fault 4

Time

22:52, Dec.28, 1998

17:51, Sept.8, 1999

21:49,July 30, 1999

11:47, Aug.4, 1999

Fault Type

1 phase to ground,

1 phase to ground,

Generator out of

Unknown

Reclose with

Reclose with

service

success

success

28 km at the line

98 km at the line from

from Yaomen to

Yaomen to

Yahekou, 220KV

Zhengzhou, 500KV

PG=4728MW

Fault Location

Operation state

#2, Danhe Plant

Unknown

PG=6753MW

PG=7465MW

PG=7130MW

PL=4812MW

PL=6874MW

PL=7570MW

PL=7165MW

PT =32MW

PT =58MW

PT =47MW

PT =-41MW

Table 2 Equivalent parameters measured at Henan, China


No.

Fault 1

Fault 2

Fault 3

Fault 4

Error index

3.167

13.725

4.16

3.224

Pv

1.311

0.487

0.016

1.025

Qv

1.049

5.091

1.06

0.047

Pso

20.162

20.02

20.006

20.049

Qso

11.151

2.991

4.34

9.672

1162.398

1347.849

1246.48

1281.958

Td'

25.517

8.205

77.373

75.063

0.196

0.128

0.238

0.178

X'

0.073

0.048

0.089

0.066

47.689

48.338

17.314

48.142

Kv

3.225

22.746

29.217

7.742

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

http://www.paper.edu.cn

Fig.1 Dynamic responses under fault 1

measured

dynamic equivalent

Fig.2 Dynamic responses under fault 2

measured

dynamic equivalent

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

http://www.paper.edu.cn

Fig.3 Dynamic responses under fault 3

measured

dynamic equivalent

Fig.4 Dynamic responses under fault 4

measured

dynamic equivalent

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

http://www.paper.edu.cn

3 Applications
3.1 Dynamic simulations
Two system models are studied:
(1) Model A: All generators in whole system are represented by the 5th order transient model and standard
parameters, which are not necessary accurate. Where load models are composed of half constant impedance
and half induction motors.
(2) Model B: The generators in Henan Power System (studied system) are represented by the 5th order transient
model and standard parameters. The left neighboring system (external system) is described by the 3rd
electro-mechanical model with measured parameters.
Under fault 1, the simulation results with model A and B are given in Figure 5 and 6 respectively. Where, the
power base in Figure 5 and 6 is 100MVA and the power base in Figure 1 is the initial steady power. As a result,
multiplying 0.32 with active power and 0.55 with reactive power gives the values on the base 100 MVA.
It could be seen from the figures that the results of two simulations are close to each other. The simulation
results are similar to the recorded ones, however, with smaller period.
3.2 Transient stability
Transient stability is indicated with the index of maximum clearing time (MCT). Using two system models
defined above, MCTs are computed under several supposed faults as listed in Table 2. It is clearly seen that, in
most of the cases, there is only a little difference between the MCTs with two system models.
The CPU time taken with two system models are compared in Table 3. It is obviously that the system
model B, which uses the simplified equivalent model to represent the studied system, saves much computation
effort.
Table 3 Comparison on the maximum clearing time
State 1

Location

State 2

State 3

State 4

Jiaozuo Plant

0.22

0.23

0.24 0.23

0.16 0.17

0.21 0.21

Tangyin Station

0.27

0.28

0.23 0.25

0.13 0.15

0.20 0.23

Zhengzhou Station

0.33

0.30

0.31 0.29

0.21 0.20

0.30 0.28

Yaomen Plant

0.22

0.21

0.24 0.24

0.20 0.18

0.22 0.23

Shouyangshan Plant

0.28

0.27

0.22 0.21

0.16 0.16

0.22 0.21

Table 4 Comparison on the CPU time


Location

Model A

Model B

Jiaozuo Plant

20

Tangyin Station

18

Zhengzhou Station

20

Yaomen Plant

17

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

http://www.paper.edu.cn

Shouyangshan Plant

19

Fig.5 Dynamic responses under fault 1


(whole system with full model and standard parameters)

Fig.6 Dynamic responses under fault 1 (studied system with full model and stand parameters,
external system with equivalent model and measured parameters)
3.3 Sensitivity of stability limit to equivalent parameters
MCTs, which indicate the stability, are repeatedly calculated under several faults with changing equivalent
6

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

http://www.paper.edu.cn

parameters. It is clear from Table 4 that the effects of equivalent parameters are related to fault locations,
however, not necessary proportional to the distance between equivalent point and fault location. In the table,
Tangyin Station is the farthest from the equivalent point and Yaomen Plant is the closest. However, both cases
do not have large effect. When fault appears at Souyangshan Station, the MCTs vary obviously. The stability
cases are carefully analyzed, it is found that the instability mode under the fault at Souyangshan Station is
inter-area (between Henan and Huazhong) instability and other two cases are intra-area (inside Henan)
instability.
Table 5 Effect of equivalent parameters on maximum clearing time
Tangyin Station
Original measured values

Yaomen Plant

Shouyangshan Plant

27

22

28

26

22

27

28

22

33

27

22

27

27

22

28

'

26

21

22

'

27

22

28

SO

28

20

29

SO

28

23

32

4 Conclusions
Several field measurements are captured at Henan Power Company, China. Equivalent parameters are
identified and then applied in dynamic simulations and stability analysis. Some conclusions are obtained:
(1) The dynamic responses with equivalent model and full model are close to each other, and also similar to
the recorded ones.
(2) The MCTs obtained with equivalent model and full model are no obvious difference.
(3) In another words, equivalent parameters have larger effect on inter-area stability and less effect on
intra-area stability.
The equivalent model takes only as half CPU time as full model.

5 Acknowledgements
The project is supported by China National Science Foundation.

6 References
1

P.Ju, Li X.M., Ni L.Q., Wu F.: Dynamic Equivalents of Power Systems with On-line Measurements (I)
Theory. IEE Proc. Generation, Transmission & Distribution, Submitted

EPRI Report EL-456: Development of Dynamic Equivalents for Transient Stability Studies. Research
Project 763, May 1977

Yu Y.N.: Dynamic Power Systems. Pergamon Press, Canadian, 1986

4
5

Chang A., Adibi M.M.: Power System Dynamic Equivalents. IEEE Trans. PAS, 89(4), 1970
DeMello R.W., Podmore R., Stanton K.N.: Coherency-based Dynamic Equivalents: Applications in
7

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

http://www.paper.edu.cn

Transient Stability Studies. PICA Conference Proceedings, 1975


6

Dommel H.W., Sato N.: Fast Transient Stability Solutions. IEEE Trans. PAS, 91(4), 1972

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com