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Garment Care label analysis and Product Safety Rules

-Preksha Pandey

Care Labels: Care instructions are small solutions to big problems. Care
labels provide guidelines to consumers about apparel care, and the best
cleaning procedures to be used for a particular combination of fabric, thread
decoration and construction techniques. Following the instructions on the
care labels is an assurance that the appearance and fit of the garment will
be maintained after repeated cleaning treatments.

Care Labeling Systems :

There are five care labeling systems which are generally used on
care labels. These systems are:
The International Care Labeling System- The International Association for
Textile Care Labelling (GINETEX) is the world body which governs care labels since

Member nations of GINETEX are Belgium, France, Germany, England, Netherlands,

Israel, Austria, Switzerland, and Spain.

Five basic symbols are used in the International care labelling system in
this order:

The Japanese Care Labeling System- The Japanese system, like other
care labeling systems must have symbols placed in a specified order.
Labels should be designed based on the following convention:

Symbols should be arranged from left to right according to the

following sequence:
1) Washing, 2) Bleaching, 3) Ironing, 4) Dry-Cleaning, 5) Wringing and
6) Drying
For coloured products which are not usually bleached, the symbol for
possibility of chlorine bleached may be omitted
For products which are not usually ironed, the symbols for ironing
may be omitted. (Except 'cannot be ironed')
For products which can be washed with water, the symbols for drycleaning may be omitted. (Except cannot be dry-cleaned)

The symbols should be either in black or dark blue whereas the

prohibition symbols are in red and on a white background

3. The Canadian Care Labeling System- The new Canadian care symbol
system used green (go ahead), amber (caution), and red (dont try) with five
symbols which were wash tub, bleach triangle, square dryer, iron, and dry
cleaning circle. In 2003 the Canadian system was updated to harmonise
with the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and (ISO) standards,
and the colour code was discontinued.

4. The European Care Labeling System- Individual committees of the

European Union are reviewing existing care label standards by
collaborating with other international bodies so that they can create a
unified system under the ISO scheme.

The symbols used in Europe are trademarked by GENETEX and a

trademark fee needs to be paid to GENETEX, the trademark holder, if
the garments are to be sold in a GENETEX country.

5. The American Care Labeling System- According to the Federal Trade

Commissions Care Label rule, care labels may be composed of either
words or symbols. Irrespective of whether the content is words, symbols,
or both, care instructions appear in the following order:


Machine wash / hand wash / dry-clean

Washing temperature (hot / warm / cold)
Washing machine programme (delicate / permanent press / normal
Bleaching instruction (do not bleach / non-chlorine bleach / chlorine
Drying method (tumble dry / line dry / flat dry / drip dry)
Ironing (do not iron / cool iron / warm iron / hot iron)

Additional Care Label SymbolsWashing-

Bleaching and drying-

Ironing and Professional Care-

Washing Temperatures and Supplement Care-

Care Label AnalysisInternational Branded Clothes

1.This garment is a maxi dress from Max store-

Brand Label



Care Label:

The care label on this garment is a woven one. It is

positioned at the right seam
of the garment near the waist area.
The product is made in India.
The care label symbols follow the
American care labeling systems. The
symbols on the care label indicate1.Washing Maximum machine washing
temperature 30
degrees Celsius.
Mechanical action much reduced.
Rinsing normal
Spinning reduced

2. Bleaching Do not bleach


3. Ironing- Iron at 110 degrees Celsius (low).

4. Dry cleaning- Do not dry clean
5. Drying- Do not tumble dry

2. This garment is a T-shirt from Lee Cooper-

The product is

made in India



Brand Label
The brand label on this T-shirt was printed on the back panel of the T-shirt
and also on the front side of the care label.


The care label follows European care labeling system. It has 4

symbols indicating

Maximum machine washing temperature 40 degrees celsius.

Mechanical action normal
Rinsing normal
Spinning normal

National Branded Clothes1.This garment is a shirt from Allen Solly

Brand Label



The brand label is a woven one attached on the yoke of the shirt,
right below the collar.

The care
on this garment
made of satin. It does not have
Care label
label Back
Care label
any care symbols, but the care instructions are written on the label
for easy understanding. The product is made in India.
2. A hooded sleeveless jacket from Jealous 21-



Brand Label

The brand label of jealous 21 is a woven one attached on the

inside of the hood attaching to the back panel.

Care Label

The care label on this one has symbols as well

as instructions written on it. The label is made on taffeta fabric.
The symbols indicate Wash in domestic or commercial machine in water not exceeding 30
degrees celsius, at normal setting
Do not wring
Do not bleach

Local BrandsA tube empire line dress from a local brand named Pura



Brand Label

The brand label is a woven one.




The care label does not

have any symbols but the instructions are clearly written on it. The
label is a woven one attached on the right side seam of the
garment near the thigh area.

Product Safety and Rules

USACare labelsCare Labels 16 CFR 423, Care Labeling of Textile Wearing Apparel and
Certain Piece Goods as Amended The Federal Trade Commissions (FTC)
Care Labeling Rule requires manufacturers and importers to attach care
instructions to garments.

Childrens apparel and sleepwearSection 101(a) of the CPSIA restricts childrens products, including childrens
apparel and sleepwear, to a lead content limit of 100 parts per million
(ppm). In addition, the use of paint or surface coating on childrens apparel
and sleepwear must not exceed a lead content limit of 90 ppm. Additionally,
Section 108 of CPSIA states that childrens toys and child care articles
cannot contain more that 0.1% of six phthalates (e.g., DEHP, DBP, BBP,
DINP, DIDP, and DnOP). Although childrens clothing does not need to be
certified to this requirement, childrens sleepwear or bibs intended for
children age 3 years or younger and any childrens textile product that is
intended for use in play must be certified.

16 CFR Part 1500.18 (a) (16)

16 CFR 1500.48
16 CFR 1500.49

Flammability 16 CFR 1610 Standard

16 CFR 1615 Standard
through 6X (FF 3-71)
16 CFR 1616 Standard
through 14 (FF 5-74)
16 CFR 1611 Standard

for the Flammability of Clothing Textiles

for Flammability of Childrens Sleepwear: Size 0
for Flammability of Childrens Sleepwear: Size 7
for the Flammability of Vinyl Plastic Film

Toxic Substance ControlThe Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 provides EPA with authority to
require reporting, record-keeping, and testing requirements, and restrictions
relating to chemical substances and/or mixtures. Certain substances are
generally excluded from TSCA, including, among others, food, drugs,
cosmetics, and pesticides.

Chemical California Proposition 65

16 CFR 1303 Ban of Lead-Containing Paint and Certain Consumer
Products Bearing Lead-Containing

Paint Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 - Section 108 Ban
of Phthalates in Childrens
Toys and Childcare Articles

Fiber Labeling- Textile Labeling and Advertising Regulations
Textile Flammability Regulations (SOR/2011-22)
Childrens Sleepwear Regulations (SOR/2011-15)
Upholstered and Stuffed Article Label:
Technical Standards and Safety Act 2000
Chemical: - CCPSA, Restriction of Lead on Surface Coating Material in
Childrens Product (SOR/2005-109)

CCPSA, Restriction of Lead Content in Children's Product (SOR/2010273)

CCPSA, Restriction of Phthalates in Childrens Product (SOR/2010-298)

GB 18401 National General Safety Technical Code for Textile Products
GB 31701 The Safety Technical Code for Infants and Children Textile
GB 5296.4 Instructions for Use of Products of Consumer Interest Part 4:
Textiles and Apparel
GB 20400 Leather and Fur Limit of Harmful Matter
GB 21550 The Restriction of Hazardous Materials in Polyvinyl Chloride
Artificial Leather


Fiber Labelling: Household Goods Quality Labelling Law

Care Labelling: Household Goods Quality Labelling Law
Chemical: Act on Control of Household Products Containing Harmful
Substances (Act No. 112 of October 12, 1973)

Fiber Labelling: - New South Wales Fair Trading Regulation 2012 - AS/NZS
2622 Textile Products Fiber Content Labelling
Care Labelling: - Australian Consumer Law of Competition and Consumer
Act 2010 - Consumer Protection Notice No. 25 of 2010 - AS/NZS 1957
Textiles Care Labelling for Clothing and Textile Products
Flammability: - Australian Consumer Law of Competition and Consumer
Act 2010 - Trade Practices (Consumer Product Safety Standards) (Childrens
Nightwear and Paper Patterns for Childrens Nightwear) Regulation 2007 AS/NZS 1249 Childrens Nightwear and Limited Daywear Having Reduced
Fire Hazard.

All consumer products must be safe and meet consumer guarantees under
the product safety laws. There should be some safety standards. These
standards are designed to ensure the safety of products, activities or
processes etc.
The Indian consumer has the right to be protected against marketing of
goods and services which are hazardous to life and property (Consumer
Protection Act 1986).
Consumer Education and Research Centre undertook A Study of the
Regulations and Enforcement Practices Regarding Safety of Consumer

Products in India at the instance of GIZ to analyze the general prevailing

rules as well as to understand regulations for different sectors concerning
consumer product safety in India.
CERC prepared a report on regulation and enforcement practices regarding
safety of consumer products in India. It was approved by GIZ and has been
appreciated by the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, New Delhi.
Most often consumers are unaware of the lurking danger in many products
they buy. The dangers can range from faulty design features such as small
parts in toys, to the use of harmful substances in the manufacture of
products such as use of mercury in skin lightening creams and bisphenol A
(BPA) in plastic water bottles and food containers. The CERC study covered
regulations and enforcement practices regarding safety of consumer
products in India, including withdrawal and recall practices, case studies,
court judgments and policies.
Five product categories were selected by GIZ for the study: toys,
detergents, plastics as storage and food containers, colour paints and
cosmetics. CERC compared the regulations & standards of European Union,
USA and India. They also studied and compared labelling information of
detergents, cosmetics, colour paints, and toys. CERC recommended for
labelling of consumer products which require mandatory label. The purpose
of labelling is to enhance the safety of the consumers by making available
to users valuable information concerning the composition of consumer
Children aged 3 years and under are particularly susceptible to choking,
asphyxiation and ingestion hazards caused by small objects. All components
that could become detached from childrens clothing are all examples of
small parts, and therefore choking hazards. Some examples of small parts
are listed below:
Bows and rosettes
Pompoms and fringe
Dungaree clasp (Hasps) and slider
Zipper components
Belt fastenings
Decorative and functional loops
Decorative labels

Summary of self assessment of product safety rules

in India

In India, when assessing the day to day situation, a number of

product safety loopholes can be seen. A few examples are stated For metal fusing work, the required equipment to protect the
eyes is used but the clothes are the regular ones. They may be
prone to catching fire easily.
Proper care labels according to the garments must be
attached. And not just that, but the consumers must become
active and follow the instructions accordingly for better
utilization of the garment.
Ignorance to recyclable material and hazardous and must be
taken care of.
Bulletproof jackets must be in working condition as stated.
All the ingredients/fabric/material must be clearly mentioned
on the packet/product.
Children apparel should not be made up of flammable material
or toxic chemicals.

Product Safety and Restricted Substances in Apparel Subrata Das