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CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT

Contents
1.0 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Background.1
1.2 Benefits:..2

2.0 Problem Statement ............................................................................................... 3


3.0 Design Philosophy................................................................................................. 4
3.1specification & Standards..4
3.2 Retrofit Breakdown..4

4.0 Materials .............................................................................................................. 5


5.0 Preliminary Design Criteria.................................................................................... 7
5.1 Site Assessment8

6.0 Retrofit Scheme .................................................................................................... 9


6.1 Construction9
6.2 Structural Layout And Bridge Configuration.9

7.0 Conceptual Design Proposal .............................................................................. ..10


8.0 Preliminary Sizing (Report).................................................................................. 12
9.0 References .......................................................................................................... 19
10.0 Conceptual Drawings ........................................................................................ 20

IXX

1.0 Introduction
Substantial increase in commuters along the Cedar Hill Road has rendered the existing structure
inadequate in terms of its capacity to adequately mange the current high traffic volume .The
structure has been authorized by the Government of Trinidad and Tobago to undergo assessment
to determine viable options to counteract the deficiency it now possesses. The aim of this
document as previously stated is to put forth a viable conceptual design to which can be further
investigated and assessed by the Government of Trinidad and Tobago and extension by the
Ministry of Works and Infrastructure. A thorough description of the design and a preliminary
analysis for the provided conceptual design has therefore been provide in future sections of this
report.

1.1 Background
There has been a continual dispute over the Cedar Hill Bridge since it was deemed to lack
Structural integrity and on its verge of collapse. Under the National Infrastructure Development
Company Limited (Nidco), in partnership with the Ministry of Works and Infrastructure the
current bridge was constructed under the Bridges Reconstruction Programme. A process which
was necessary to prevent the inevitable/probable collapse of the former bridge .The closure of
the bridge, was issued by Works and Infrastructure Minister Surujrattan Rambachan and after it
has been complete at a contractor sum in the vicinity of TT$ 18,000,000 at an approximate 365
calendar days, the bridge is now required to be retrofitted to allow twice the capacity. This is in
lieu of demolition and reconstruction of the existing structure which is deemed unfeasible and a
costly venture by the Government of Trinidad and Tobago .The bridge is an important necessity
to the community of Claxton Bay and environs since it links and appreciable network of
roadways, providing access and egress to communities, large private and publicly owned
enterprises, and purely linking the southern main road through the Claxton Bay to the Solomon
Hochoy Highway.

1.2 BENEFITS:
Many past empirical studies suggest road/bridge improvements have near and longer term
impacts.
Congestion:
The area has been traditionally know to be affected due to the high traffic volumes whilst others
are simply due to incidents including weather, accidents, stalled vehicles and roadside
distraction. A Counteraction of this is likely due to the retrofit.
Expansion & land use:
The retrofit shall directly reduce congestion, but additionally affect growth in the area. The plan
is to keep communities accessible and encourage suburban growth.

Expansion & travel:


The expansion directly affect those whom utilize the bridge daily for it shall provide a faster and
efficient method of transportation rather than that of daily congestion and reduced productivity .

2.0 Problem Statement


The Ministry of Works and Infrastructure (MOWI) on the Government of Trinidad and Tobago
has embarked on a Bridges Reconstruction Programme which includes The B1/3 Cedar Hill
Road as part of its plan. The current bridge is in a relatively good condition and features a two
lane traffic design which has been constructed by using precast and insitu reinforced concrete
elements and has been designed as a two span structure. The objective of the retrofit schematic is
not only increase the bridges capacity but to maintain traffic use on the existing bridge during
construction. A number of option are widely available for the retrofit however the solution
provide in future sections of this report is the most feasible option giving rise to positive
financial , economic , environmental and technical outcome .

3.0 Design philosophy

3.1Specification & Standards


The retrofit of this bridge would typically rely on AASHTO LRFD Bridge philosophy for the
design and analysis .In the chosen philosophy, loading conditions to which failure of the
structure may occur are predefined. In order to prevent failure of this retrofitted bridge all aspects
which are likely to reduce the performance of the bridge are taken into consideration which
traditionally include situations in which a member , connection , or the entire structure cease to
perform its intended function. Two Limit states are recognized in this task which include the
Serviceability limit state and the Strength limit states .The Serviceability limit state shall include
a condition in which the retrofitted bridge structure or its components are deemed inadequate for
its intended function whilst the Strength limit state would involve a condition of an unsafe
retrofitted bridge from both the strength and stability perspective .Two additional limit states
shall be implemented into the design and analysis because of the nature of the loading which
are The fatigue and Fracture limit state and the Extreme event limit state .

3.2 Retrofit Breakdown


With the basic design Standards and Specification stated above , the bridge is to be retrofitted
based on a strategy involving the construction of an adjacent structure linked by the
application of separation joints /expansion joints .These joints are essential in regions where
seismic activity may pose disturbances to the structure and hence is implemented into the
conceptual design .The expansion joint shall avoid; pounding of the adjacent structures during
seismic activity , the accommodation of movements resulting from thermal expansion and
loading changes which may cause cracking and corrosion , differential settlement of the adjacent
structures and allow the structure to endure any additional internal and external stresses. The
conceptual design shall incorporate insitu R.C structural elements and shall take a similar shape
and form in terms of the method of construction. The proposed retrofit has been designed as a
two span structure with an insitu R.C deck supported on R.C Beams , which is supported on
reinforced concrete piers and footing.

4.0 MATERIALS
Concrete
Self-Consolidation concrete with a high flow-ability yet relatively cohesive shall be
fundamentally used in the Bridges construction .This shall provide significant advantages such
as eliminating external and internal vibration for consolidation and the reduction of manual labor
and excessive equipment requirements . This is as a result of the continuous use of the existing
bridge while the construction of the retrofit is undertaken.it shall also provide a reduction in
construction time, excellent consolidation and a higher level of quality control.
Location
Superstructure
Barriers and

Class
A

fc
4.0 ksi

4.0 ksi

4.0 ksi

Curbs
Post and Beam

Reinforcing Steel

Rail Systems

Deformed welded wire


reinforcement /Rebar shall conform
to ASTM A497 specifications with a
maximum tensile strength of 60 ksi and permitted as used for shear and bending within
the entirety of the retrofitted Bridge.
All reinforcing steel bends conform to AASHTO LRFD STANDARDS
All reinforcing steel in the deck slab, approach slabs, barrier curbs/bridge railings,
abutment, wingwalls and pier diaphragms are uncoated
Reinforcing steel shall have a minimum concrete cover of 2 when Concrete exposed to
earth or weather and 3" when Concrete cast against earth or as determined different in
AASHTO LRFD STANDARDS

Substructures
Retaining Walls

A
A

4.0 ksi
4.0 ksi

Expansion Joints
Bridge expansion joints will be used at each end of the bridge thought its length. Deck
expansion joints having total movement of 3 inches or less shall be strip seal joints.

Figure 1.0: Similar expansion joint to be implemented in construction{mageba TENSAFINGER RSFD cantilever finger
joints are bridge expansion joints for movements of up to 500 mm} ( url:
http://www.directindustry.com/prod/mageba/product-38983-1037257.html)

Wearing Surface
The surface shall be applied with an Asphalt road surface, designed to the specifications of
AASHTO.

5.0 Preliminary design criteria

Design Specifications
Design Specifications for bridges in Trinidad have adopted the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design
and American Concrete institute (ACI) specifications. These guidelines shall fundamentally be
applied to the structure.
Dead Load
Dead loads include member weight and any appurtenances on the bridge. Loads anticipated to
be placed in the future, such as a wearing course are established in the analysis of the preliminary
sizing.
Live Load Design
Live load are established for the project based on vehicles for which the bridge must be load
rated. It is common to require that that the bridge is rated at the time of design. The bridge does
not serves a special use, therefore no additional live load determination procedures are required.
Roadway geometry
It has been feasible to reduce the complexity of the roadway geometry. It was therefore desirable
to keep roadway geometry on the bridge as simple and straightforward as possible. The
horizontal alignment of the bridge was keep perpendicular to the traffic direction .Vertical
alignment has been keep as similar to the existing bridge.

5.1 SITE ASSESSMENT


Accessibility of the Site
The project Accessibility has impact on the type, configuration, and geometry of the bridge.
Fortunately the bridges location is situated in South central of Trinidad and there is relatively
available plant and materials for the construction. Therefore It is expected that the site
accessibility shall have no impact on the type, configuration, and geometry of the bridge rather,
the scheme of the retrofit plan and incorporating the plan into the existing bridge is most critical.
Vertical Clearance Requirements
Vertical Clearance requirements have been specified clearly as of the existing structure. The
have been controlled by the anticipated maximum flood levels of the river channel below the
structure.

Water Crossing Issues


An appropriate flood level have been previously established for the site previously in accordance
to the existing structure. An elevation level of 18.852 with reference to a 50 year flood has been
established .the existing water channel with and dimension shall not be changed.

6.0 Retrofit Scheme

6.1 Construction
The plan for the retrofit is to implement two structures adjacent to the existing. These two
structures are to be structurally independent from the existing giving rise to the unhindered
continual use of existing structure .This is as a result of the large number of vehicles which use
the bridge daily i.es minor disruption is a requirement .The retrofit is simply to supplement the
existing bridge to increase its capacity.

The alignment, riding surface, and appearance of a structure are to be a result of quality
plans, specifications, and accurate construction according to the plan and specifications.
In the design the existing abutments, wing walls are to be extended to accommodate the
retrofitted structure in an attempt to protect to newly placed piers
The structures height at the level of the wearing surface is similar to that of the existing
structure to accommodate a smooth road surface separated by traditional expansion joints
at the interface of the two structures.
Gabion baskets and protective amenities are to be outfitted to additionally protect the
retrofitted structure.

6.2 Structural Layout and Bridge configuration


The structural layout and Bridge configuration is depicted in Conceptual drawing provided.

The layout of both structures are similar in nature consisting of an insitu reinforced concrete slab
supported of reinforced concrete beams and piers which in turn is supported on a reinforced
concrete raft .the Bridges Configuration has been made simple as a complex structure is
uneconomical in all aspects. Reinforced concrete beams on the structure are aligned at 45 as
similar to the existing structure to accommodate the alignment of the piers which are required to
be aligned at 45 so that they do not encroach on the existing wingwalls and nearby structures
.the Bridge girders are continuous from pier to pier leading to a maximum span of about 9m .A
central pier is provided to control vertical and horizontal deflection of the bridge deck and to
improve the bridges stiffness. As a result a structure of approximately 4m high and 3.65m wide
with two spans was created.

Piers are kept to a thickness and width so that they do not affect or influence the exiting
foundation.
The bridge alignment allows a straight route from both ends of the crossing .i.e. no
curved sections. The structure is however skewed as previously mentioned at 45 (refer
to drawings.
The Cedar Hill Road is expected to be aligned and amended to accommodate the
additional two lanes.
9

7.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN PROPOSAL

Image 1.0: Wide Frame view of Frame

10

Image 2.0: Wide Frame view of frame

Image 3.0: Wide Frame view of frame

11

8.0 Preliminary Sizing (Report)


This section of the document provides a basic outline as to what was done to provide a rough
preliminary sizing of the members. (Refer to drawings for further details)

Procedure:
General loads were defined, dead, live and seismic (wind excluded).The model was done by
taking typical dimensions provided in the preliminary findings and the structure was analyzed
based on standards described below.
Load Combination and seismic analysis : ASCE 7-05 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings
and Other Structures
Loading : AASHTO (2012)
Analysis Reference : ACI 318
Program : Staad Pro V8i
Actual Design method : AASHTO Design Specifications

Image 4.0 courtesy Staad report

12

Live Load
At the Service Limit State, LRFD Specifications requires design for the HS20-44 vehicular live load. At
the Strength Limit State, LRFD Specifications (AASHTO, 2012).
HS20-44 vehicular live load consists of these combinations:

Design truck or design tandem (AASHTO Art. 3.6.1.2.1)


Design lane load of 0.64 klf without dynamic load allowance (IM)(AASHTO Art. 3.6.1.2.4)

For the design a live in accordance to the design lane of 0.64 klf was applied as specified by
(AASHTO Art. 3.6.1.2.4)

Dead load
Barrier load = 0.15plf
Wearing course = 0.03 klf
Self-weight

Seismic load = 495 kn = 111 kips (ASCE 7-05)

13

STAAD.Pro Report
To:

From:

Copy to:

Date:

16/07/201
5 23:40:00

Ref:

ca/ Document1

Job Information
Engineer
Name:
Date:

Checked

Approved

13-Jul-15

Structure Type

SPACE FRAME

Number of Nodes
Number of Elements
Number of Plates

21
28
8

Highest Node
Highest Beam
Highest Plate

Number of Basic Load Cases


Number of Combination Load Cases

30
59
67
4
9

Included in this printout are data for:


All
The Whole Structure
Included in this printout are results for load cases:
Type

L/C

Primary
Primary
Primary
Primary
Combination
Combination
Combination
Combination
Combination
Combination
Combination
Combination
Combination

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Name
DEAD LOAD
LIVE LOAD
SEISMIC X
SEISMIC Z
GENERATED ACI TABLE1 1
GENERATED ACI TABLE1 2
GENERATED ACI TABLE1 3
GENERATED ACI TABLE1 4
GENERATED ACI TABLE1 5
GENERATED ACI TABLE1 6
GENERATED ACI TABLE1 7
GENERATED ACI TABLE1 8
GENERATED ACI TABLE1 9

14

Nodes
X
(m)

Node
2
3
4
10
13
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

Y
(m)
58.812
65.512
74.412
62.462
78.062
69.162
53.812
58.812
65.512
74.412
81.412
60.637
67.337
76.237
53.812
62.462
81.412
53.812
78.062
81.412
69.162

Z
(m)
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
3.800
3.800
3.800
3.800
3.800
3.800
3.800
3.800
3.800
3.800
3.800
3.800
3.800
3.800
3.800

-31.234
-31.234
-31.234
-27.584
-27.584
-27.584
-31.234
-31.234
-31.234
-31.234
-31.234
-29.409
-29.409
-29.409
-27.584
-27.584
-29.409
-29.409
-27.584
-27.584
-27.584

Beams
Beam

Node A

Node B

24
25
26
32
35
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59

2
3
4
10
13
15
16
17
18
19
17
18
19
24
20
26
16
21
21
27
28
30
25
26
23
22
23
22

17
18
19
25
28
30
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
25
26
23
27
25
27
24
29
28
30
29
22
21
28
30

Length
(m)
3.800
3.800
3.800
3.800
3.800
3.800
5.000
6.700
8.900
7.000
2.581
2.581
2.581
8.650
1.825
5.175
1.825
2.581
6.825
1.825
3.350
8.900
6.700
1.825
8.900
6.700
2.581
2.581

Property
2
2
2
2
2
2
5
5
5
5
3
3
3
5
6
4
6
3
4
6
5
5
5
6
4
4
3
3

15

(degrees)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Materials
Mat

E
(kN/mm2)
205.000
197.930
68.948
21.718

Name

3
4
5
6

STEEL
STAINLESSSTEEL
ALUMINUM
CONCRETE

Density
(kg/m3)
7.83E 3
7.83E 3
2.71E 3
2.4E 3

0.300
0.300
0.330
0.170

(/C)
12E -6
18E -6
23E -6
10E -6

Supports
Node
2
3
4
10
13
15
16
20
24
26
27
29

X
(kN/mm)
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed

Y
(kN/mm)
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed

Z
(kN/mm)
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed

rX
(kN-m/deg)
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed

rY
(kN-m/deg)
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed

rZ
(kN-m/deg)
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed

Primary Load Cases


Number
1
2
3
4

Name

Type

DEAD LOAD
LIVE LOAD
SEISMIC X
SEISMIC Z

Dead
Live
Seismic
Seismic

Combination Load Cases


Comb.

Combination L/C Name

5
6

GENERATED ACI TABLE1 1


GENERATED ACI TABLE1 2

GENERATED ACI TABLE1 3

8
9

GENERATED ACI TABLE1 4


GENERATED ACI TABLE1 5

Primary
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
3

16

Primary L/C Name


DEAD LOAD
DEAD LOAD
LIVE LOAD
DEAD LOAD
LIVE LOAD
DEAD LOAD
DEAD LOAD
LIVE LOAD
SEISMIC X

10

GENERATED ACI TABLE1 6

11
12

GENERATED ACI TABLE1 7


GENERATED ACI TABLE1 8

13

GENERATED ACI TABLE1 9

1
2
4
1
1
3
1
4

DEAD LOAD
LIVE LOAD
SEISMIC Z
DEAD LOAD
DEAD LOAD
SEISMIC X
DEAD LOAD
SEISMIC Z

Section Properties
Prop
2
3
4
5
6

Area
(cm2)
5.03E 3
2.6E 3
1.75E 3
1.75E 3
900.000

Iyy
(cm4)
2.01E 6
347E 3
179E 3
179E 3
67.5E 3

Node C
(cm)
70.000

Node D
(cm)
70.000

Section
Cir 0.80
Rect 0.65x0.40
Rect 0.50x0.35
Rect 0.50x0.35
Rect 0.30x0.30

Izz
(cm4)
2.01E 6
915E 3
365E 3
365E 3
67.5E 3

J
(cm4)
4.02E 6
855E 3
406E 3
406E 3
114E 3

Material
CONCRETE
CONCRETE
CONCRETE
CONCRETE
CONCRETE

Plate Thickness
Prop
1

Node A
(cm)
70.000

Node B
(cm)
70.000

Material
CONCRETE

1 DEAD LOAD : One Way Loads


Load
(N/mm2)
-0.001

Min Ht.
(m)
0.000

Max Ht.
(m)
100.000

Min X
(m)
0.000

Max X
(m)
100.000

Min Y
(m)
-100.000

Max Y
(m)
100.000

1 DEAD LOAD : Selfweight


Direction
Y

Factor
-1.000

Assigned Geometry
ALL

2 LIVE LOAD : Beam Loads


Beam
38
39
40

Type
UNI kN/m
UNI kN/m
UNI kN/m
UNI kN/m
UNI kN/m
UNI kN/m

Direction
GY
GY
GY
GY
GY
GY

Fa
-140.000
-34.250
-140.000
-34.250
-140.000
-34.250

17

Da
(m)
-

Fb

Db

Ecc.
(m)
-

41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49

UNI kN/m
UNI kN/m
UNI kN/m
UNI kN/m
UNI kN/m
UNI kN/m
UNI kN/m
UNI kN/m
UNI kN/m
UNI kN/m
UNI kN/m
UNI kN/m
UNI kN/m
UNI kN/m
UNI kN/m
UNI kN/m
UNI kN/m
UNI kN/m

GY
GY
GY
GY
GY
GY
GY
GY
GY
GY
GY
GY
GY
GY
GY
GY
GY

-140.000
-34.250
-34.250
-140.000
-34.250
-140.000
-140.000
-34.250
-34.250
-140.000
-34.250
-140.000
-34.250
-140.000
-140.000
-34.250
-34.250

18

9.0 References
Manuals:

ASCE 7-05 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures
Guide to Developers and Applicants for Planning Permission.
AASHTO Design specification (2012)
ACI 318-11: Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete

Others:
ASHTO LRFD BRIDGE [Online] Available from:
http://utc2.edu.vn/Uploads/File/AASHTO%20LRFD%202012%20BridgeDesignSpecifications%206th%20E
d%20(US).PDF [Accessed on July 16st 2015]
Fraser, M. (2014) Claxton Bay Bridge About to Collapse. Daily Express.
[Online] 5th November. Available from: http://www.trinidadexpress.com/news/Claxton-Bay-bridgeabout-to-collapse-281711931.html?m=y&smobile=y. [Accessed on 25th June 2015]

Ministry of Works (2015) Works on B 1/3 Bridge Cedar Hill Claxton Bay
[Online] Available from: http://www.mowt.gov.tt/general/marker.aspx?MarkerID=22
[Accessed on July 1st 2015]

19

10.0 Conceptual Drawings


List of Figures:

General layout..1.0
Plan of proposed retrofit...2.0
Elevation and plan 1.3.0
Elevation and plan 2.4.0
Section through retrofit ....5.0
Section b through retrofit ....6.0
Culvert & wing wall plan.7.0
Typical section through roadway..8.0
Typical culvert elevation...9.0

20