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SULIT Name

4541/2
Chemistry Form
Paper 2
May 2010
2 1/2 hours JABATAN PELAJARAN MELAKA
____________________________________________________________

PEPERIKSAAN SELARAS PERTENGAHAN TAHUN


SIJIL PELAJARAN MALAYSIA 2010

CHEMISTRY

Paper 2

Two hours and thirty minutes

DO NOT OPEN THIS QUESTION PAPER UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO

1. This question paper consists of three sections: Section A, For Examiner’s use only
Section B and Section C.
Section No. Marks
2. Answer all questions in Section A. Write your answers for 1
Section A in the spaces provided in the question paper. 2
3. Answer one question from Section B and one question from A 3
Section C. Answers questions in Section B and Section C in 4
detail. You may use equations, diagrams, tables, graphs and
5
other suitable methods to explain your answer.
6
4. Show your working. It may help you to get marks. Total
5. The diagrams in the questions are not drawn to scale unless B 7
stated. 8
6. Marks allocated for each question or part question are shown Total
in brackets. C 9
10
7. You may use a non-programmable scientific calculator.
Total
8. Hand in your answer sheets at the end of the examination. Total marks

This question paper consists of 21 printed pages


SULIT 2 4541/2
4541/2 [Lihat sebelah

4541/2 SULIT
INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES
MAKLUMAT UNTUK CALON

1. This question paper consists of three sections: Section A, Section B and Section C.
Kertas soalan ini mengandungi tiga bahagian: Bahagian A, Bahagian B dan Bahagian C.

2. Answer all questions in Section A. Write your answers for Section A in the spaces
provided in the question paper.
Jawab semua soalan dalam Bahagian A. Tuliskan jawapan bagi Bahagian A dalam ruang
yang disediakan dalam kertas soalan.

3. Answer one question from Section B and one question from Section C.
Write your answers for Section B and Section C on the `writing paper’ (examination
pad)
Answer questions in Section B and Section C in detail.
You may use equations, diagrams, tables, graphs and other suitable methods to
explain your answer.
Jawab satu soalan daripada Bahagian B dan satu soalan daripada Bahagian C. Tuliskan
jawapan bagi Bahagian B dan Bahagian C pada kertas tulis (kertas jawapan). Jawab
Bahagian B dan Bahagian C dengan terperinci. Anda boleh menggunakan persamaan,
gambar rajah, jadual, graf dan cara lain yang sesuai untuk menjelaskan jawapan anda.

4. Show your working. It may help you to get marks.


Tunjukkan kerja mengira.Ini membantu anda mendapatkan markah.

5. If you wish to change your answer, neatly cross out the answer that you have done.
Then write down the new answer.
Sekiranya anda hendak membatalkan sesuatu jawapan, buat garisan di atas jawapan itu.

6. The diagrams in the questions are not drawn to scale unless stated.
Rajah yang mengiringi soalan tidak dilukiskan mengikut skala kecuali dinyatakan.

7. Marks allocated for each question or part question are shown in brackets.
Markah yang diperuntukkan bagi setiap soalan atau ceraian soalan ditunjukkan dalam
kurungan.

8. The time suggested to answer Section A is 90 minutes, Section B is 30 minutes and


Section C is 30 minutes.
Masa yang dicadangkan untuk menjawab Bahagian A ialah 90 minit, Bahagian B ialah 30
minit dan Bahagian C ialah 30 minit.

9. You may use a non-programmable scientific calculator.


Anda dibenarkan menggunakan kalkulator saintifik yang tidak boleh diprogramkan.

10. Hand in your answer sheets at the end of the examination.


Serahkan semua kertas jawapan anda di akhir peperiksaan.
Section A
Bahagian A
[ 60 marks ]
[ 60 markah ]

Answer all questions in this section.


Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.

1 Table 1 shows the number of protons, electrons and neutrons for atom of four elements
W, X, Y and Z.
Jadual 1 menunjukkan bilangan proton , elektron dan neutron bagi atom empat unsur
W, X, Y dan Z .

Atom Number of protons Number of neutron


Bilangan proton Bilangan neutron
W 8 9
X 8 10
Y 12 12
Z 11 12
Table 1
Jadual 1

(a) (i) What is meant by nucleon number? 1(a)(i)


Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan nombor nukleon?

..................................................................................................................... 1
[1 mark]
(ii) What is the nucleon number of atom Z?
Apakah nombor nukleon bagi atom Z ? 1(a)(ii)

………………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark] 1

(b) (i) State where elementY is located in the Periodic Table ?


Nyatakan dimana kedudukan unsur Y dalam Jadual Berkala Unsur? 1(b)(i)

………………………………………………………………………………
1
[1 mark]
(ii) Explain your answer in (b)(i) .
Terangkan jawapan anda dalam (b)(i)? 1(b)(ii)

........................................................................................................................
2

........................................................................................................................
[2 marks]

(c) Which atoms are isotopes? Explain why.


Atom-atom yang manakah adalah isotop?Jelaskan mengapa. 1(c)

...............................................................................................................................
2

...............................................................................................................................
[2 marks]

(d) Draw the electron arrangement of atom X.


Lukiskan susunan elektron bagi atom X.

[3 marks]
3
2 Diagram 2 shows part of the Periodic Table of the Element. P,Q,R,S,T and U do not
represent the actual symbol of the elements.
Rajah 2 menunjukkan sebahagian daripada Jadual Berkala Unsur. P,Q,R,S,T dan U
tidak mewakili simbul sebenar unsur-unsur.

P Q
R S T
U

Diagram 2
Rajah 2
Using the letters in the Periodic Table of the elements in Diagram 2, answer the
following questions.
Menggunakan huruf-huruf dalam jadual Berkala Unsur pada Rajah 2, jawab soalan-
soalan berikut

(a) Write the formula for ion formed from an atom of


Tuliskan formula ion yang terbentuk dari atom

(i) element T.
unsur T. 2(a)(i)

………………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark] 1

(ii) element S.
unsur S. 2(a)(ii)

………………………………………………………………………………
1
[1 mark]

(b) State the elements which can be use as a catalyst?


Nyatakan unsur yang manakah boleh digunakan sebagai mangkin? 2(b)

...............................................................................................................................
1
[1 mark]

(c) Which element exists as a monoatomic gas ?


Unsur yang manakah wujud dalam keadaan gas monoatomik ? 2(c)

...............................................................................................................................
1
[1 mark]
(d) Element R reacts with element T to form a compound.
Unsur R bertindak balas dengan unsur T untuk membentuk satu sebatian.

(i) Write the chemical formula of this compound 2(d)(i)


Tuliskan formula kimia untuk sebatian ini.

...................................................................................................................... 1
[1 mark]

(ii) What type of bond formed in the compound? 2(d)(ii)


Apakah jenis ikatan yang terbentuk dalam sebatian ini?
1
........................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

(iii)Draw the diagram of the electron arrangement for the compound formed
between R and T .
Lukis rajah susunan elektron bagi sebatian yang terbentuk antara R dan T

2(d)(iii)

[2 marks]
2

(iv) State one condition by which the compound in (d) (i) conducts electricity.
Explain your answer.
Nyatakan satu keadaan yang mana sebatian dalam 2(d)(i) boleh
mengkonduksikan elektrik. Terangkan jawapan anda.
2(d)(iv)
.........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................ 2
[2 marks]
3 Diagram 3 shows the set-up of apparatus to investigate the electrolysis of sodium
chloride solution with carbon electrodes.
Rajah 3 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk mengkaji elektrolisis larutan natrium
klorida dengan menggunakan elektrod-elektrod karbon.

Test tube
Tabung U
Diagram 3
Rajah 3
(a) What is the energy change in the electrolytic cell above? 3(a)
Apakah perubahan tenaga dalam sel elektrolisis di atas?
1
...........................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

(b) Write the formulae of all ions present in sodium chloride solution.
Tuliskan formula bagi semua ion yang hadir dalam larutan natrium klorida. 3(b)

................................................................................................................................

Electrolytic Cell
2
[2 mark]

(c) In the table below, write the ions in 3(b) which moved to electrode P and
electrode Q.
Dalam jadul di bawah, tuliskan ion-ion dalam 3(b) yang bergerak ke elektrod P

Sel Elektrolisis
dan elektrod Q? 3(c)
Electrode P Electrode Q

[2 marks]
(d) Name the gas which are collected at electrode P?
Namakan gas yang dikumpul pada elektrod P? 3(d)

…………………………………………………………………………………… 1
[1 mark]

(e) .How do you identified the gas that collected in 3(b)?


Bagaimana anda mengesahkan gas yang dikumpul pada 3(b)?
3(e)
..............................................................................................................................
2
...............................................................................................................................
[2 marks]

(f) Write the half equation for the reaction that occurs at the electrode P.
Tuliskan setengah persamaan bagi tindak balas yang berlaku pada elektrod P. 3(f)

..............................................................................................................................
3
[3 marks]
4 X and Y are hydrogen chloride solutions in different solvents. Table 4 shows the
observation obtained when the properties of these two solutions are compared.
X dan Y adalah larutan hidrogen klorida dalam pelarut berlainan. Jadual 4
menunjukkan pemerhatian yang diperolehi bila sifat kedua-dua larutan dibandingkan.

Test Solution X Solution Y


Ujian Larutan X Larutan Y
Using a dry blue litmus paper Turns from blue to red No visible change
Menggunakan kertas litmus Bertukar dari biru ke Tiada perubahan dilihat
biru kering merah
Ability to conduct electricity Can conduct electricity Cannot conduct electricity
Keupayaan mengkonduksikan Boleh Tidak boleh
elektrik mengkonduksikan mengkonduksikan elektrik
elektrik
Table 4
Jadual 4

(a) Based on the observation in Table 4, name a suitable solvent for


Berdasarkan pemerhatian dalam Jadual 4, namakan pelarut yang sesuai untuk

(i) solution X.
larutan X. 4(a)(i)

………………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark] 1

(ii) solution Y.
larutan Y. 4(a)(ii)

………………………………………………………………………………
1
[1 mark]

(b) What type of particles are present in solution X which enable it to conduct
electricity?
Apakah jenis zarah yang hadir dalam larutan X yang mana membolehkannya 4(b)
mengkonduksikan elektrik?
1
...............................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(c) Explain why solution X turns blue litmus paper red but solution Y does not?
Terangkan kenapa larutan X menukarkan kertas litmus biru ke merah tetapi
larutan Y tidak?
4(c)
...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... 2
[2 marks]

(d) Table 4.1 shows the information about two types of solutions A and B which
are used to carry out titration with hydrochloric acid.
Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan maklumat tentang dua jenis larutan A dan B yang
digunakan untuk menjalankan pentitratan dengan asid hidroklorik.

Solution A : 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide, NaOH


Larutan A : 50 cm3 natrium hidroksida, NaOH 1.0 mol dm-3

Solution B : 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 ammonium hydroxide, NH4OH


Larutan B : 50 cm3 ammonium hidroksida,NH4OH 1.0 mol dm-3

Table 4.1
Jadual 4.1

(i) What are the types of solutions A and B? 4(d)(i)


Apakah jenis larutan A dan B?

…………………………………………………………………………….. 1
[1 mark]
(ii) State the name of anion that present in solution A? 4(d)(ii)
Nyatakan nama anion yang hadir di dalam larutan A?.
1
.......................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(iii) Is there any different in pH value between solution A and B.Explain your
answer.
Adakah terdapat perbezaan dalam nilai pH antara larutan A dan B?
Terangkan jawapan anda.
4(d)(iii)
........................................................................................................................
3
........................................................................................................................
[3 marks]
5 Table 5 shows two experiments which are carried out to investigate the factors that
affect the rate of reaction.
Jadual 5 menunjukkan dua eksperimen yang dijalankan untuk menyiasat faktor yang
mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas

Total volume of gas collected at 2


Experiment Reactant minutes.
Eksperimen Bahan uji Jumlah isipadu gas dikumpul pada
masa 2 minit.
(cm3)
Excess calcium carbonate
powder + 20 cm3 of 0.1 mol
dm-3 sulphuric acid
I Serbuk kalsium karbonat 40.0
berlebihan + 20 cm3 0.1 mol
dm-3 asid sulfurik.
Excess calcium carbonate
granule + 20 cm3 0.1 mol
dm-3 sulphuric acid. 30.0
II Ketulan kalsium karbonat
berlebihan + 20 cm 0.1 mol
dm-3 asid sulfurik.
Table 5
Jadual 5

(a) Draw a diagram of the set-up of apparatus to carry out this experiment.
Lukiskan gambar rajah susunan radas untuk menjalankan eksperimen ini.

5(a)

[2 marks]
2
(b) Write the chemical equation for the reaction between calcium carbonate
and sulphuric acid.
Tuliskan persamaan kimia untuk tindak balas antara kalsium karbonat dan 5(b)
asid sulfurik.

…………………………………………………………………………………… 2
[2 marks]

(c) Calculate the maximum volume of gas produced in experiment II.


Hitungkan isipadu maksimum gas yang dibebaskan dalam eksperimen II.
[ Molar volume: 24 dm3 mol-1 at room condition]

5(c)

3
[3 marks]

(d) Compare the rate of reaction between experiment I and experiment II, explain
why there is a difference in the rate of reaction based on the collision theory.
Bandingkan kadar tindak balas antara eksperimen I dan eksperimen II,
terangkan kenapa terdapat perbezaan berdasarkan teori perlanggaran
5(c)
...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................ 3

..............................................................................................................................
[3 marks]
6 Table 6 shows molecular formulae of 4 carbon compound.
Jadual 6 menunjukkan formula molekul bagi 4 sebatian karbon

Compound Molecular formula


Sebatian Formula molekul
A C4H10
B C4H8
C C4H9OH
Table 6
Jadual 6
(a) Write the general formula of the homologous series of compound A. 6(a)
Tuliskan formula umum bagi siri homolog sebatian A.

………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
[1 mark]
(b) State the functional group of compound B and C.
Nyatakan kumpulan berfungsi bagi sebatian Bdan C.

Compound B :…………………………………………………………………
Sebatian B 6(b)

Compound C:…………………………………………………………………..
Sebatian C 2
[2 marks]
(c) Compound A shows isomerism. Draw and name the structural formula of all
isomers of compound A.
Sebatian A menunjukkan isomerism . Lukiskan dan namakan formula struktur
bagi semua isomer sebatian A.

6(c)

4
[4 marks]
(d) (i) Name the product formed when compound B is shaken in bromine water.
Namakan hasil yang terbentuk bila sebatian B digoncang dalam air 6(d)(i)
bromin.
1
………………………….……………………………………………………
[1 mark]

(ii) State the colour change that occurs to the bromine water.
Nyatakan perubahan warna yang berlaku kepada air bromin. 6(d)(ii)

........................................................................................................................
1
[1 mark]
Section B
Bahagian B

[20 marks]
[20 markah]

Answer any one question from this section.


Jawab mana-mana satu soalan daripada bahagian ini.

7 (a) Diagram 7 shows the arrangement of atoms in pure copper and bronze.
Rajah 7 menunjukkan susunan atom dalam kuprum tulen dan gangsa.

Pure copper
Copper atom Atom X Bronze
Atom kuprum Gangsa
Diagram 7
Rajah 7

(a) (i) What is the meaning of alloy?


Apakah makna aloi?
[2 marks]
(ii) Name the atom X
Namakan atom X
[1 mark]
(iii) Explain why bronze is harder than pure copper.
Terangkan kenapa gangsa lebih keras dari kuprum tulen
[6 marks]

(iv) State two aim of alloying a pure metal.


Nyatakan dua tujuan mengaloikan logam tulen.
[2 marks]
(b) The flow chart in Diagram 7.1 shows the industrial process for the manufacture of sulphuric
acid by Contact Process.
Carta Alir dalam Rajah 7.1 menunjukkan proses industri untuk menghasilkan asid sulfurik
melalui Proses Sentuh.
Stage I Stage II Stage III Stage IV
Oxygen Oxygen Concentrated Water
Sulphur SO2 SO3 H2S2O7 H2SO4
sulphuric acid

Diagram 7.1
Rajah 7.1

(i) Write the chemical equations for the reactions in Stage II, III and IV.
Tuliskan persamaan kimia untuk tindak balas di Peringkat II, III dan IV.

(ii) State the conditions required for the reaction in Stage II.
Nyatakan keadaan yang diperlukan untuk tindak balas di Peringkat II.

(iii) Explain why SO3 is not directly dissolved in water to produce H2SO4 in Stage IV.
Terangkan mengapa SO3 tidak dilarutkan secara langsung dalam air untuk
menghasilkan H2SO4 di Peringkat IV.
[9 marks]

8 (a) List four factors that can affect the rate of reaction of a chemical reaction
Senaraikan empat faktor yang boleh mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas suatu tindak balas
kimia.
[4 marks]
(b) What is meant by effective collision
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan perlanggaran berkesan.
[2 marks]

(c) Food stored in a refrigerator has long life compared to food stored in the kitchen cabinet.
Explain.
Makanan yang disimpan dalam peti sejuk lebih tahan lama berbanding makanan yang
disimpan di dalam cabinet dapur. Terangkan.

[4 marks]
(d) Table 8 show the data from Experiment I and Experiment II that were carried out to study
the rate of reaction of magnesium with two acids, hydrochloric acid and Q.
Jadual 8 menunjukkan data daripada Eksperimen I dan Eksperimen II yang dijalankan
untuk mengkaji kadar tindak balas antara magnesium dengan dua asid,asid hidroklorik dan
Q.

Experiment Reactants Products


0.6g of magnesium and 30 cm of magnesium chloride and
I hydrochloric acid 2.0 mol dm hydrogen gas
0.6 g magnesium dan 30 cm asid
hidroklorik 2.0 mol dm magnesium klorida dan gas
hidrogen
0.6 g of magnesium and 30 cm of acid magnesium sulphate and
II Q 2.0 mol dm hydrogen gas
0.6 g magnesium dan 30 cm asid Q
2.0 mol dm magnesium sulfat dan gas
hidrogen
Table 8
Jadual 8
(i) Referring to Experiment II, state the name of acid Q used.
Write the chemical equation for the reaction of acid Q with magnesium.
Merujuk Eksperimen II, nyatakan nama asid Q yang digunakan.
Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas asid Q dengan magnesium.
[2 marks]

(c) The graph in diagram 8 .1 shows the results of experiment I and experiment II.
Graf pada rajah 8.1 menunjukkan keputusan bagi Eksperimen I dan Eksperimen II

Volume of hydrogen gas(cm3)


Isipadu gas hydrogen(cm3)

400
Experiment II Experiment I
Eksperimen II Eksperimen I

200

Time(s)
100 200 Masa(s)
Diagram 8
Rajah 8
Based on the graph
Berdasarkan pada graf

(i) Calculate the average rate of reaction for Experiment I.


Hitung kadar tindak balas purata bagi Eksperimen I.
[2 marks]

(ii) Explain the difference in the rate of reaction between Experiment I and Experiment
II.before 100s. Use the collision theory in your explanation.
Terangkan perbezaan kadar tindak balas antara Eksperimen I dengan Eksperimen II
sebelum 100saat.Gunakan teori perlanggaran dalam penerangan anda.
[6 marks]
Section C
Bahagian C

[20 marks]
[20 markah]

Answer any one question from this section.


Jawab mana-mana satu soalan daripada bahagian ini.

9 (a) Table 9 shows the information shows the preparation of ammonium sulphate,fertilizer in the
laboratory.
Jadual 9 menunjukan penyediaan baja ammonium sulfat, dalam makmal.

50 cm of 1.0 mol dm sulphuric acid, H2SO4


+
Ammonia aqueous in excess, NH3

Table 9
Jadual 9

Based on Table 9,answer the following question


Berdasarkan Jadual 9,jawab soalan berikut

(i) Write the chemical equation of the preparation.


Tuliskan persamaan kimia untuk penyediaan tersebut.
[1 mark]
(ii) Calculate the mass of ammonium sulphate produced.
Kirakan jisim ammonium sulfat yang dihasilkan.
[Molar mass of (NH4)2SO4 = 132g mol]
[3 marks]
(b) You are required to identify the presence of iron(II) ion and chloride ion in iron(II) chloride
solution. The materials below are provided.
Anda dikehendaki mengenal pasti kehadiran ion ferum (II) and ion korida dalam larutan
ferum(II) klorida. Bahan-bahan berikut dibekalkan.

• Sodium hydroxide solution


Larutan natrium hdroksida
• Silver nitrate solution
Larutan argentum nitrat
• Dilute nitric acid
Asid nitric cair
Decsribe the test on how to identify the anions and catios in iron(II) chloride solution.
Huraikan ujian-ujian bagaimana untuk mengenalpasti anion dan kation dalam larutan
ferum(II) klorida.
[6 marks]

(c) By using suitable apparatus and substance describe how you would carry out a laboratory
activity to prepare crystal of zinc sulphate salt. In your description , include the chemical
equations involved.
Dengan menggunakan radas dan bahan-bahan kimia yang sesuai, huraikan bagaimana
anda menjalankan aktiviti makmal menyediakan hablur garam zink sulfat. Dalam huraian
anda sertakan persamaan kimia terlibat.
[10 marks]

1 (a) Explain by naming an example , the meaning of saturated hydrocarbon and unsaturated
0 hydrocarbon.
Dengan menamakan contoh, terangkan maksud hidrokarbon tepu dan hidrokarbon tak
tepu.
[4 marks]

(b) Unsaturated hydrocarbon can be converted into saturated hydrocarbon. State the process
and the condition needed.Write the chemical equation involved.
Hidrokarbon tak tepu boleh ditukarkan kepada hidrokarbon tepu . Nyatakan proses dan
keadaan yang diperlukan . Tuliskan persamaan kimia yang terlibat.
[4 marks]

(c) Hydrocarbon hex-1-ene and hexane are burnt completely in air. Compare the sootiness of
the flame produced during the reaction. Explain your answer.
Hidrokarbon heks-1-ene dan heksana terbakar dengan lengkap dalam udara.Bandingkan
kejelagaan nyalaan yang terhasil semasa tindak balas ini. Terangkan jawapan anda.
[6 marks]

(d) Digram 10 shows a series of reactions involving some organic compounds.


Rajah 10 menunjukkan satu siri tindak balas melibatkan beberapa sebatian organik.

Aluminium
Alumin
Propan-1-ol oxide Hydrocarbon H2 / Ni Hydrocarbon
X Y
Heat Heat
Diagram 10
Rajah 10
(i) State the name of hydrocarbon X and Y.
Nyatakan nama hidrokarbon X dan Y.

(ii) Liquid bromine is added separately to hydrocarbon X and Y. State the observation.
Cecair bromin ditambah secara berasingan ke hidrokarbon X dan Y. Nyatakan
pemerhatiannya.

(iii) Explain why there is a difference in these observation


Terangkan kenapa terdapat perbezaan pada pemerhatian tersebut.
[6 marks]

END OF QUESTIONS PAPER


PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS
18

lements  Symbol of  Proton Number


13 14 15 16 17 4Helium He2

11Boron 12Carbon 14Nitrogen 16Oxygen 19Fluorine 20Neon


9 10 11 12 B5 C6 N7 O8 F9 Ne10

27Aluminum Al13 28Silicon Si14 31Phosphorus P15 32Sulfur S16 35.5Chlorine Cl17 40Argon Ar18

59Kobalt Co27 59Nickel Ni28 64Copper Cu29 65Zinc Zn30 70Gallium Ga31 73Germanium Ge32 75Arsenic As33 79Se l e n iu m Se34 80Bromine Br35 84Krypton Kr36

103Rhodium Rh45 106Pa ll a d iu m Pd46 108Silver Ag47 112Ca d m iu m Cd48 115Indium In49 119Tin Sn50 122Antimony Sb51 128Tellurium Te52 127Iodine 53I 131Xenon Xe54

192Iridium Ir77 195Platinum Pt78 197Gold Au79 201Mercury Hg80 204Thallium Tl81 207Lead Pb82 209Bismuth Bi83 210Pol o n iu m Po84 210Astatine At85 222Radon Rn86

*Une109*

* - Not exist naturally


ot yet discovered

150Samarium Sm62 152EuropiumEu63 157GadoliniumGd64 159Terbium Tb65 162.5Dysprosium Dy66 165HolmiumHo67 167Erbium Er68 169Tulium Tm69 173Ytterbium Yb70 175Lutetium Lu71

242Plutonium 243Americium 247Kurium 247Berkelium 251Californium 254Einsteinium Mendelevium


Pu94* Am95* Cm96* Bk97* Cf98* Es99* 253FermiumFm100* 256 Md101* 254NobeliumNo102* 260LawrenciumLr103*