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(Part 2)
The Vitamins
* Fat Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin A
Vitamin D

Vitamin E
Vitamin K

Fat-soluble Vitamins
* General properties
Generally have precursors or provitamins
Can be stored in the body
Deficiencies are slow to develop
Not absolutely needed daily from food sources
Generally stable

Vitamin D (Ergocalciferol, Cholecalciferol)

* Function
Promotes normal bone and tooth development
* Sources
Liver and other glandular organs (fish liver oil is the most concentrated)
Egg yolk
Sardines and salmon
* Signs of deficiency

Vitamin E (Tocopherol)
* Functions
Antioxidant, i.e., prevents oxygen from combining with other substances
(vitamins A and C and polyunsaturated fatty acids) and damaging them
Prevents cell membrane damage
* Sources
Vegetable oils and their products

Vitamin K (Menadione, Phylloquinone)

* Function
Needed for formation of prothrombin in the liver

* Sources
Green leafy vegetables
* Deficiency
Abnormal bleeding tendencies

The Vitamins
* Water Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin C
Thiamin (B1)
Riboflavin (B2)
Niacin (B3)
Pyridoxine (B6)

Pantothenic acid
Folic acid (B9)
Cobalamin (B12)

Water-soluble Vitamins
* General Properties

Must be supplied in the diet

Do not have precursors
Not stored in significant amounts in the body
Deficiency symptoms develops relatively fast
Easily destroyed in ordinary cooking

Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)

* Functions
Formation and maintenance of intercellular cementing substance
Healing of wounds and bone fractures
Prevents megaloblastic anemia and petechial hemorrhage
Builds body resistance
Iron utilization
* Food sources: fresh foods eaten raw
Excellent sources
Very good sources
Green leafy vegetables
Citrus fruits
Green pepper

* Signs of deficiency (scurvy)


Bleeding, swollen gums

Loose teeth
Internal/pinpoint hemorrhages (capillary fragility)
Megaloblastic anemia
Frogs position of the legs

Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)
* Functions
Carbohydrate metabolism
Maintains functioning of the GI tract, nervous and cardiovascular system
* Food sources
Outstanding sources: lean pork, pork liver, shell fish
Excellent sources: liver and organ meats, egg yolk, unpolished rice, whole
grains, legumes, rice bran, wheat germ
* Signs of deficiency (beri-beri)
Wet (cardiac)
-Enlarged heart
-Whining cry
Dry (nervous)
Feeling of pins & needles
Gradual loss of touch sensation
Reduced leg reflexes
Calf muscle tenderness
Muscle atrophy

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
* Functions
Component of coenzymes
Maintains healthy skin, tongue and mouth
For normal vision
For proper bone growth and development

* Food sources
Milk, cheese, eggs, meat, liver, glandular organs
Whole grain, legumes, leafy green vegetables, seaweeds
* Signs of deficiency (ariboflavinosis)
Cheilosis (angular stomatitis)
Seborrheic dermatitis

Niacin (Nicotinic acid)

* Functions
Carbohydrate metabolism
For normal growth, healthy skin
Maintenance of the GI tract and the nervous system
* Food sources
Milk, cheese, eggs, lean meat, liver, glandular organs, fish, poultry
Whole grain, legumes, nuts, leafy green vegetables, seaweeds
* Signs of deficiency (pellagra)

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
* Functions
Protein metabolism
Normal function of the central nervous system
Synthesis of heme portion of hemoglobin
* Food sources
Vegetable oils: cottoseed, linseed, olive
Peanuts, wheat germ, rice germ, legumes
* Deficiency is usually a result of intake of antagonists (oral contraceptive
agents, INH, hydralazine)
* Signs of deficiency (peripheral neuritis)
Irritability convulsions

Poor growth

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

* Functions
Helps in the synthesis of heme, nucleic acid and thymosine
For normal function of the nerves, bone marrow and GI tract

* Food sources
Animal proteins
* Signs of deficiency (pernicious anemia)
Anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, achlorydia
Liver and spleen enlargement, jaundice
Nerve degeneration, paresthesia, loss of vibratory sense, difficulty in

Folic acid (Pteroylglutamic acid)

* Functions
Synthesis of hemoglobin
Involved in DNA synthesis, needed in rapidly growing cells such as fetal
and placental tissues
* Deficiency
Megaloblastic anemia
*Sources: Liver (chicken), ready-to-eat cereals, legumes, leafy green
many foods that contain vitamin C