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Chapter Summary

I. CONDUCTING
PORTION
A. Nasal
Cavity
1. Respirator
y Region
The respiratory region is lined by respiratory (pseudostratified ciliated columnar) epithelium. The subepithelial connective tissue is richly vascularized and
possesses seromucous glands.
2. Olfactor
y
Region
The epithelium of the olfactory region is thick, pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium composed of
three cell types: basal cell, sustentacular cells, and
olfactory cells. The lamina propria is richly
vascularized and pos- sesses Bowmans glands, which
produce a watery mucus.

B. La
ry
nx
The larynx is lined by a respiratory epithelium except
for certain regions that are lined by stratified squamous
nonkeratinized epithelium. From superior to inferior, the
lumen of the larynx presents three regions: the vestibule,
the ventricle, and the infraglottic cavity. The
ventricular and vocal folds are the superior and
inferior boundaries of the ventricle, respectively.
Cartilages, extrinsic and intrinsic muscles, as well as
mucous and seromucous glands are present in the
larynx.

C.Tra
che
a
1. M
u
c
o
s
a
The mucosa of the trachea is composed of a respiratory
epithelium with numerous goblet cells, a lamina
propria, and a well-defined elastic lamina.

2. Su
bm
uco
sa
The submucosa houses mucous and seromucous glands.
3. A
dv
en
titi
a
The adventitia is the thickest portion of the tracheal wall.
It houses the C-rings of hyaline cartilage (or thick connective tissue between the rings). Posteriorly, the trachealis muscle (smooth muscle) fills in the gap between the
free ends of the cartilage.

D.Extrapulmonary
Bronchi
Extrapulmonary bronchi resemble the trachea in histologic structure.

E. Intrapulmonary
Bronchi
These and subsequent passageways are completely
sur- rounded by lung tissue.
1. M
u
c
o
s
a
Intrapulmonary bronchi are lined by respiratory
epithe- lium with goblet cells. The subepithelial
connective tis- sue is no longer bordered by an elastic
lamina.
2. M
u
s
c
l
e
Two ribbons of smooth muscle are wound helically
around the mucosa.
3. C
a
rt
il
a
g
e
The C-rings are replaced by irregularly shaped
hyaline cartilage plates that encircle the smooth
muscle layer. Dense collagenous connective tissue
connects the peri- chondria of the cartilage plates.

4. G
l
a
n
d
s
Seromucous glands occupy the connective tissue between
the cartilage plates and smooth muscle. Lymphatic
nodules and branches of the pulmonary arteries are also
present.

F. Bronchi
oles
Bronchioles are lined by ciliated simple columnar to
sim- ple cuboidal epithelium interspersed with
nonciliated Clara cells. Goblet cells are found only in
larger bronchi- oles. The lamina propria possesses no
glands and is sur- rounded by smooth muscle. The
walls of bronchioles are not supported by cartilage.
The largest bronchioles are about 1 mm in diameter.

G.Terminal
Bronchioles
Terminal bronchioles are usually less than 0.5 mm in
diameter. The lumen is lined by simple cuboidal epithelium (some ciliated) interspersed with Clara cells. The
connective tissue and smooth muscle of the wall of the
terminal bronchioles are greatly reduced.

II.
RESPIRATORY
PORTION
A. Respiratory
Bronchiole
Respiratory bronchioles resemble terminal bronchioles,
but they possess outpocketings of alveoli in their walls.
This is the first region where exchange of gases occurs.
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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

B. Alveolar
Ducts
Alveolar ducts possess no walls of their own. They are
long, straight tubes lined by simple squamous
epithelium and display numerous outpocketings of
alveoli. Alveolar ducts end in alveolar sacs.

C.Alveolar
Sacs
Alveolar sacs are composed of groups of alveoli
clustered around a common air space.

D.Alve
olus
An alveolus is a small air space partially surrounded
by highly attenuated epithelium. Two types of cells are

present in the lining: type I pneumocytes (lining cells)


and type II pneumocytes (produce surfactant). The
opening of the alveolus is controlled by elastic fibers.
Alveoli are separated from each other by richly vascularized walls known as interalveolar septa, some of
which present alveolar pores (communicating spaces
between alveoli). Dust cells (macrophages), fibroblasts, and other connective tissue elements may be
noted in interalveolar septa. The blood-air barrier is a
part of the interalveolar septum, the thinnest of which
is composed of surfactant, continuous endothelial
cells, type I pneumocyte, and their intervening fused
basal laminae.