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Fundamentals of

Water Treatment
Unit Processes
Physical, Chemical,

and

Biological

David Hendricks

TECHNIPCHE
INFORMATICMCL:! L'..; OTI SEK

UNIVERSITATS&SSLiOTHEK
HANIi-JGVEH

B
Publishing

CRC Press
Taylor fx Francis Group
Boca Raton

CRC Press Is

Taylor

an

& Francis

imprint
Croup,

London

New York

of the
an

Informs business

Contents
Preface

xxxiii

Acknowledgments

xxxv

Author

xxxvii

Downloadable Files

xxxix

ContentsDownloadable Files

PART!
Chapter 1

xli

Foundation
Water Treatment

1.1

Water Treatment In-a-Nutshell

1.1.1

Water Treatment Plants

1.1.2

Residuals

Organization

1.3

Unit Processes

1.3.1

Definitions

1.3.2

Technologies

1.3.3

Breadth of Unit Processes and

1.3.4

Proprietary Technologies

1.3.5

Status of Unit Processes

1.3.6

Future of Treatment

1.3.7

Energy Expenditure

1.4

of Water Treatment

Tertiary
1.4.1.1

1.5

Technologies

for Treatment

8
8

Treatment
Cases

9
9

Industrial Wastewater Treatment

10

1.4.2.1

11

1.4.3

Industrial Process Water Treatment

12

1.4.4

Hazardous Wastes

12

1.4.5

Hazardous Wastes: In Situ Treatment

13

Cases

Design

13
Factors: Nontechnical

13

1.5.1.1

13

1.5.1.3

Operation Issues
Managing a Team
Expansion

1.5.1.4

Esthetics

13

1.5.1.5

Regulations

14

1.5.1.6

Institutions

14

1.5.1.7

Consulting Engineering

14

1.5.1.2

1.4.2

1.5.1

1.6

Knowledge

Treatment Trains
1.4.1

Chapter

1.2

Summary

13
13

17

Problems

17

Acknowledgments

18

Glossary

18

References

19

Water Contaminants

21

2.1

Water

Quality:

Definitions

21

2.1.1

Contaminants

21

2.1.2

State of Water

22

vi

Contents

2.1.3

Criteria

2.1.4

Standards
2.1.4.1

2.1.5
2.2

22
22

2.1.4.2

Kinds of Water Quality Standards


Normative Standards

2.1.4.3

Standards

Targets

as

for Treatment

Surrogates

2.4

2.5

2.6

Legal
Regulations
2.2.3
Priority Pollutants
Maturation of Water Quality Knowledge
2.3.1
Knowledge of Contaminants
2.3.2
Measurement Technologies
Categorizations of Contaminant Species
2.4.1
Systems of Categorization
2.4.2
Illustrative System of Contaminant Categorization
of
Water Quality Data
Utility

26

2.5.1

31

Contaminants and Water Uses

Combinations of

Quality

of Source Waters and Product Waters

Problems

26
26
27
27
28
28
28
28

31
31
34

Acknowledgments
Appendix 2.A: Organic
2.A. 1
Categories
2. A. 1.1

34
Carbon
of

as a

Organics

Contaminant

34

in Water

35

Color

37

2.A.1.2

2.A.3

Organic Carbon
2. A. 1.3
UV254
2.A.1.4
Synthetic Organic Carbon
Disinfection By-Products
Disinfection By-Products in Secondary

2.A.4

Disinfectant Selection

40

2.A.5

Other Notes

40

2.A.2

Chapter 3

24

25
Definitions

2.2.2

2.3

24

24

Federal Laws
2.2.1

22

37

37
37
37
Effluents

39

Glossary

40

References

41

Bibliography

42

Models

45

3.1

Unit Processes

45

3.2

Models

Categories

3.2.2

The Black Box

45

3.2.2.1

46

3.2.3

3.3

Physical

of Models

45

Plots
Models

46

3.2.3.1

Bench Scale

3.2.3.2

Pilot Plants

46

3.2.3.3

Demonstration Plants

47

3.2.4

Mathematical Models

3.2.5

Computer

3.2.6

Scenarios

Modeling
3.3.1

3.4

45

3.2.1

Models

Testing

46

48
48
49

Protocol

49

Spreadsheets

51

Units and Dimensions

52

3.4.1

Units

52

3.4.2

Dimensions

52

Contents

vii

3.5
3.6

Chapter 4

Examples
Summary

of Models

54

Problems

54

Glossary

54

References

56

Unit Process Principles

57

4.1

Unit Processes

57

4.1.1

Spectrum of Unit Processes and Technologies


Matching Unit Process with Contaminant

57

4.1.2.1

57

4.1.2

4.2

57
57

4.2.2

Transport

4.2.2.4
4.2.2.5

4.2.2.6
4.2.3

59

Macro Transport: Sedimentation


Macro Transport: Advection

59
59

Macro Transport: Turbulent Diffusion


Macro Transport: Porous Media Dispersion

59

Molecular Transport: Diffusion


Mathematics of Diffusion, Turbulence, and Dispersion

59

59

60

Summary

62

Reactors

62

4.3.1

62

4.3.2

Examples of Reactors
Types of Reactors

4.3.3

Mathematics of Reactors

4.3.4

62
62

4.3.3.1

Materials Balance:

4.3.3.2

Comments

4.3.3.3

Materials Balance: Mathematics

Materials Balance:

Concept

62

on Materials Balance

Special

63
63

Conditions

66

4.3.4.1

Batch Reactor: Complete Mixed

4.3.4.2

Steady

4.3.4.3

Zero Reaction:

4.3.4.4
4.3.4.5

Nonsteady State Reactor


Spreadsheet Method to Solve

4.3.4.6

Utility of Finite

State Reactor:

Complete

Complete

66
Mixed

66

Mixed

Difference

67
67

Finite Difference Form of Mass Balance

Equation

and Tracer Tests

Kinetic Models

Equation

68
71
71

4.4.1

First-Order Kinetics

4.4.2

Second-Order Kinetics

4.4.3

Examples

of Kinetic

71
72

Equations

4.4.3.1

Example: Gas

4.4.3.2

Example: Biological Degradation


Example: Trickling Filter

4.4.3.3

72

Transfer

72
of Substrate

72
72

Problems

73

Glossary

74

References

76

Particulate

PART II
5

57

and New Treatment Demands

Sinks

4.2.2.3

4.4

Changes

4.2.1

4.2.2.2

4.3

Contextual

Principles

4.2.2.1

Chapter

52

Separations

Screening

79

5.1

Theory of Screening
Types of Screens

79

5.2.1

79

5.2

79

Bar Screens
5.2.1.1

Cleaning

5.2.1.2

Manually Cleaned

80
Bar Screens

80

Contents

7.3

Aerated Grit Chambers


7.3.1
7.3.2

Principles
Theory of

Chapter

Operation

Aerated Grit Chambers

7.3.2.1

Calculation of Grit Removal

7.3.2.2

Calculation of

7.3.2.3

Empirical

7.3.2.4

7.3.2.5
7.3.3

148

of Aerated Grit Chamber

150
150
DL

Spiral Length,

Guidelines

151
151

Determination

Algorithm

150

151

for Calculations

152

Practice: Aerated Grit Chambers

154

7.3.3.1

Guidelines from Five

154

7.3.3.2

Summary

7.3.3.3

Pressure in Header

7.3.3.4

Blower Power

Designs

of Guidelines

155

Pipe

156
156

Problems

157

Acknowledgments

159

Glossary

159

References

160

Flotation

163

8.1

8.2

Development

of Flotation

Beginning Design Practice

163

8.1.2

Water and Wastewater

163

Applications

DAF System Description


8.2.1
Synopsis of DAF Process

163

8.2.1.2

Flocculation

163

8.2.1.3

Contact Zone

163

8.2.1.4

Saturator

163

8.2.1.5

Gas

164

8.2.1.7

Precipitation
Bubble-Floc Agglomerate
Float Layer

8.2.1.8

Clarified Water

164

8.2.1.9

Further

164

8.3.4

164

Processing

164

Gas Transfer

164

8.3.1.2

Henry's Law
Application of Henry's

8.3.1.3

Saturator

8.3.1.4

Gas Concentration

8.3.1.5

Saturator Mass Balance

167

8.3.1.6

Saturator

167

8.3.1.7

8.3.3

164

of DAF Flotation

8.3.1.1

8.3.2

163

Coagulation

Principles
8.3.1

163

8.2.1.1

8.2.1.6

8.3

163

8.1.1

Hydraulic
Gas Precipitation

164
Law to Saturator

166
166

Nozzle

at

Depth

Packing
Grade Line

167

167
168

8.3.2.1

Bubbles

168

8.3.2.2

Bubble Size

170

8.3.2.3

Bubble Size Distribution

170

8.3.2.4

Bubble Numbers

170

8.3.2.5

Nozzle Design

170

Contact Zone

171

8.3.3.1

171

8.3.3.2

Floc-Bubble Transport and Attachment


Bubble-Particle Contact

8.3.3.3

Parameter Values

172

172

Separation Zone

172

8.3.4.1

172

Rise Velocity of Bubbles

Contents

xi

8.3.5

8.4

8.3.4.2

Rise

8.3.4.3

Bubble-Particle Ratio

174

8.3.4.4

Concentration

174

8.4.2

172

Expressions

Materials Balance for Dissolved Gas in Flotation Basin

178

8.3.5.1

Mass Balance for Flotation Basin

178

8.3.5.2

Mass Balance Calculations

179

by Spreadsheet

180

Design

Criteria

8.4.3
8.4.4

180

8.4.1.1

Flotation in Water Treatment

180

8.4.1.2

Flotation for

181

8.4.1.3

Air-to-Solids Ratio

Sludge Thickening

181

Pilot Plants
8.4.2.1

181

Pilot Plant

Study

181

Case:

Birmingham
Equipment

182
183

Problems

184

Acknowledgments
Glossary

186

References

187

186

Microscopic Particles

PART III
9

of Particle-Bubble

Practice
8.4.1

Chapter

Velocity

Coagulation
9.1

Coagulation In-a-Nutshell
9.1.1
Denning Coagulation

9.1.2

191

Particles to Be Removed

191

9.1.1.2

Coagulation

191

9.1.1.3

Microflocs

191

9.1.1.4

Rapid-Mix

191

9.1.1.5

Flocculation

191

9.1.1.6

Themes of

191

Coagulation

Coagulation Theory

Practice

191

Dosage

9.1.2.2

191

Coagulation

Effectiveness

192

Particles in Ambient Waters

192

9.2.1

Particle

192

9.2.2

Particle Characteristics

Variety

9.2.2.1
9.2.2.2

192
Particles

9.2.2.5
9.2.2.6

Particle Counts

9.2.2.4

9.2.3

192

Colloids

Microscopic
Natural Organic Matter
Total Organic Carbon
Turbidity

9.2.2.3

9.3

191

9.1.1.1

9.1.2.1

9.2

191

Turbidity

192
and Color

194
194
194

194

and Particle Counts in Ambient Waters and Finished Waters

9.2.3.1

Variation in Source Waters

Spatial

9.2.3.2

Seasonal Variation

Compared

with Plant Effluents

Chemistry
9.3.1

9.3.2

194
194
194

194
of

Chemistry
9.3.1.1
Key

Coagulation: Evolution of Theory and Practice


Innovations

194
195

9.3.1.2

Color

196

9.3.1.3

Modern Theory

196

Reactions

197

Coagulation
9.3.2.1

Metal Ion Reactions with Water

197

9.3.2.2

Two

197

Coagulation Mechanisms

xjj

Contents

9.3.2.3
9.3.2.4

NOM Removal

Organics

9.5

Coagulatants

199

Coagulation
Synthetic Organics
Double Layer Theory
9.4.1
Double Layer Description

200
200
200

9.4.1.1

Beginning

9.4.1.2

Surface Charge

200
Model

200

9.4.1.3

Gouy-Chapman

9.4.1.4

200

9.4.1.5

Fixed Layer
Effect of Ionic Strength of Solution

9.4.1.6

Electrostatic Potentials

201

9.4.1.7

DLVO

201

200

Theory

Trivalent Metal Ions: Reactions with Water

202

9.5.1

Aluminum and Ferric Ions

203

9.5.1.1

Hydration
9.5.1.2
Expressing Concentrations
9.5.1.3
Liquid Alum
Alkalinity
9.5.2.1
Role of Alkalinity as a Buffer
9.5.2.2
Effect of Alkalinity on Demand for Alum
Effect of Alum on pH
9.5.2.3
Reactions between Alum/Ferric Iron and Water

203

9.5.3.1

205

9.5.2

9.5.3

Waters of

9.5.3.3

Beginning
Sequential Hydrolysis
Species Equilibrium

9.5.3.4

Coagulation

9.5.3.2

204
204
204
205

209
209

9.6.1

210

Characteristics of PAC1

Description of PAC1
9.6.1.2
Electrophoretic Mobility: Comparing
Zeta Potential, Charge Density, and Streaming Current
9.7.1
Basic Notions of Electrophoretic Mobility

9.7.3
9.7.4

Mathematical Relations for

Electrophoresis

210
210
210

210
Alum and PAC1

210

Potential

211
211
211

9.7.2.1

Electrophoresis

211

9.7.2.2

Zeta Potential

212

Measured Zeta Potentials

214

9.7.3.1

214

Typical

Zeta Potentials

Colloid Titration

9.7.5

9.9

204

Spreadsheet Construction of Coagulation Diagrams


9.5.3.6
Polynuclear Species
9.5.3.7
Summary of Alum Speciation
Synthetic Aluminum Polymers

9.7.2

9.8

204

206

Zones

9.6.1.1

9.7

203

205

Reactions

9.5.3.5

9.6

197
199

of

9.3.2.5

9.4

Metal

by

in Wastewaters

Streaming Current
Physical Models

215
Monitor

215
216

9.8.1

Jar Tests

216

9.8.2

Bench Scale Filters

217

9.8.3

Pilot Plants

218

9.8.3.1

218

9.8.3.2

Independent Variables
Dependent Variables

9.8.3.3

Pilot Plant Design

218
218

Polymers

218

9.9.1

Definitions

218

9.9.2

Characteristics of Polymers
9.9.2.1
Charge Concentration

219

9.9.2.2

219

9.9.3

Specific Gravity

219

Polymers

in Wastewater Treatment

219

9.9.3.1

Sludge Conditioning

219

Contents

Xl"

9.9.4

Structure of

220

Polymers
Groups

9.9.4.1

Functional

220

9.9.4.2

Monomers

220

Polymers
Selection of Polymers
9.9.5.1
Polymer Screening
9.9.5.2
Polymer Packaging

221

9.9.5.3

224

9.9.4.3
9.9.5

221
221
223

9.9.5.4

Specification Sheets
Prepared Batches

9.9.5.5

Feed of

9.9.5.6

Concentration: Convention

224
224

Polymer
(Adapted from AWWA B453-96)

224

Problems

226

Acknowledgments
Glossary

228

References

235

228

Chapter 10 Mixing
10.1

239

Definitions and
10.1.1

10.1.2

10.2

239

10.1.1.1

Mixing

239

10.1.1.2 Near-Synonyms

239

Application Categories

239

10.1.2.1

Liquid-Solid
Liquid-Gas
10.1.2.3 Immiscible Liquids
10.1.2.4 Miscible Liquids

239

10.1.2.2

239

10.1.2.5 Fluid Motion

240

10.1.2.6 Pumping and Shear


10.1.2.7 Examples

240

10.1.3

Mixing

History

of

10.2.1

239

Applications

Definitions

Rate

as

239
240

240
240

Limiting

240

Mixing

Drinking

Water Treatment

240

10.2.1.1

Initial

240

10.2.1.2

Gas Dissolution

Mixing

10.2.2

Wastewater Treatment

10.2.3

Evolution of
10.2.3.1

241
241
242

Mixing Theory

Development

of Collision

Frequency Mathematics

Modifying Camp
Empirical Parameters

243

10.2.3.4

10.2.3.5

GandG

243

10.2.3.3

10.2.4
10.3

and Stein's G

Technologies
Mixing

243

244

of Mixing

244

Theory of
10.3.1

10.3.2

244

Mechanisms

Transport

10.3.1.1 Advection

245

10.3.1.2 Turbulence

246

10.3.1.3

252

Transport Regime

Navier-Stokes
10.3.2.1
10.3.2.2

10.3.3

242
243

10.2.3.2 Derivation of G

253

Equation

Mathematics of Navier-Stokes

Computational

Fluid

Equation

Dynamics

253
254

Similitude

254

10.3.3.1

255

Dimensionless Numbers

10.3.3.2 Variables of Impeller-Basin


10.3.3.3
10.3.3.4

10.3.3.5

Experimental

Mixing

Plots
Fluid Similitude

Scale-Up by
Scale-Up Dilemma

256
256
256
258

xiv

Contents

10.3.4

10.4

Injection of Coagulant Chemicals

260

10.3.4.1

Disparity of Flows

260

10.3.4.2

Advection of Neat Alum

260

Mixing Technologies
10.4.1
Impeller Mixing

261
261

10.4.1.1

ReactorsBack-Mix and In-line

10.4.1.2

Circulation Criterion for 0.99

10.4.1.3

Time Ratio,

10.4.1.4

Impeller Speed, w(impeller),

;/<2(reactor),

to Attain
to

10.4.2

Complete-Mix

Impellers

and Tanks

10.5

Chapter

Back-Mix Reactor

262
264

264
266

Impeller Variety
10.4.2.2 Impeller Characteristics
10.4.2.3 Impeller Pumping

266

10.4.2.4 Tanks

269

10.4.2.5 Rushton System


10.4.2.6 In-Line Mixers

270

Jet Mixers

271

10.4.3.1

10.4.4

264
Reactors

10.4.2.1

10.4.3

0.99

in

BlendingExperimental Procedure (a)


Attain 0.99 BlendingExperimental

Procedure (b)
10.4.1.5

261

Blending

266
267

270

Flash Mixing by Submerged Jets


Static Mixers

276

10.4.4.1

276

General Principles

271

10.4.4.2 Baffles

276

10.4.4.3

277

Static Mixers

Summary

280

Problems

280

Acknowledgments
Glossary

284

References

288

Bibliography

290

283

11 Flocculation
11.1

Definitions
11.1.1

11.1.2

11.2

291
291

Floe

291

11.1.1.1

Biological

Floe

11.1.1.2

Chemical Floe

291

11.1.1.3

Primary Particles

291

Flocculation

291

11.1.2.1

Orthokinetic Flocculation

291

11.1.2.2

Perikinetic Flocculation

291

11.1.2.3

Flocculent

291

Applications

292

11.2.1

Conventional Filtration

292

11.2.2

Direct Filtration

292

11.2.3

Flotation

292

11.2.4

Activated

Sludge Floe Settling

11.2.5
11.3

291

292

Softening
11.2.6 Tertiary Treatment

292

History

292

11.3.1

Practice

11.3.1.1

Quiescent Basins
11.3.1.2 Langelier's Paddle Wheels
11.3.1.3 Design Guidelines
11.3.1.4 Flocculation Practice, c. 1940
11.3.2 Evolution of Theory
11.3.2.1 Langelier

292
292
292
292
293
294
294
294

Contents

xv

11.4

Theory
11.4.1

11.4.2

11.3.2.2

Smoluchowski's Collision

11.3.2.3

Camp's

296

Kinetics

296

11.4.1.1

Frequency

11.4.1.2

Rate of Formation of New

of Particle Collisions

Particles, k

299
299

Characteristics of Floes

Breakup

304

Bioflocculation

Flocculents

11.4.4

Design Principles

304
305

for Paddle-Wheel Flocculators

11.4.4.1

Derivation of

11.4.4.2

P(paddle-wheel) with Units

Camp's Equation

for Paddle-Wheel Flocculation

Design
Procedure from

11.5.1.2
11.5.1.3

Camp

11.6

11.7

308
310
310

Calculations

310

11.5.2.2

Plots

310

Slip Factor
Plant Design
Other Technologies

313
313
315

11.5.4.1

Turbines

11.5.4.2

Baffles

315

Proprietary Technologies

319

11.6.1

Turbine Flocculators

320

11.6.2

Solids Contact Units

320

11.6.2.1

320

Principles
11.6.2.2 Design Practice, Equipment, Operation
11.6.3 Super-Pulsators
11.6.4 Culligan Multi-Tech
Summary

321
321
321
321

323
of

Camp

and Stein G for Three-Dimensional Cube

323
324
326

Rapid

Filtration

12.1

Description
12.1.1

315

321

References

12.2

308

11.5.2.1

Acknowledgments
Appendix 1 LA: Derivation
Glossary

12

308

Model Flocculation Basin

Problems

Chapter

306

308

Camp's Criteria
Camp's Guidelines
Spreadsheet Algorithm

11.5.2.3

11.5.4

306

308

Design
11.5.1.1

11.5.3

299

11.4.2.1

11.4.3

11.5.2

296

Nature of Floes and Flocculation

11.4.2.3

11.5.1

294
296

of Flocculation

11.4.2.2 Floe

11.5

Equations

329
of

Rapid Filtration

329

Filtration

Technology

329

12.1.1.1

In-a-Nutshell

329

12.1.1.2

Support Components

330

12.1.1.3

Filtration Mode

330

12.1.2

Applications

331

12.1.3

Variations....

331

Development of Rapid Filtration


12.2.1
Development of Rapid Filtration
12.2.1.1

Hyatt Filter

331
331
331

12.2.1.2 Warren Filter

331

Proprietary Filters
12.2.1.4 Fuller's Experiments

331

12.2.1.3 Other

332

Contents

xvi

12.2.2

12.2.3

12.2.2.1

State of the Art, 1890 and 1990

334

12.2.2.2

Growth of Waterworks

334

Industry

334

in Filtration Practice

Progress

335

Dual Media

12.2.3.1

12.2.4

333

of Filtration Practice

Emergence

335

the HLR Barrier

12.2.3.2

Breaking

12.2.3.3

Alternative Modes of Filtration

335
335

Modern Filtration Practice

335

The Federal Role

12.2.4.1

335

12.2.4.2 Modern Practice


12.3

336

Theory
12.3.1

12.3.2

Quest

of

336

Theory

12.3.1.1

Dependent

12.3.1.2

Definitions

Process

336

336

Description
Results of Eliassen

336

Results of Ives

337

12.3.2.2

Experimental C(Z),
Experimental C(Z),

12.3.2.3

C(Z, t) in Three Dimensions

12.3.2.4

Mass Transfer Similarities between

12.3.2.5

Relation between the C(Z), Wave Front and the

12.3.2.6

Specific Solids

12.3.2.1

12.3.2.7

Clogging

12.3.2.8

Local

12.3.2.9

Rational

Adsorption

C{t)z=Zo Breakthrough

340

Hydraulic Gradient, i(Z,t)


Design
Components
a

341
of Headloss

Filter

344

Iwasaki's

12.3.3.2

Filter Coefficient

344

Equations

346
346

Transport Coefficient
12.3.3.4 Attachment Coefficient

12.3.5
12.4

12.3.3.5

Effect of Attachment

12.3.3.6

Derivation of Materials Balance

Synthesis

Efficiency

12.4.2

12.4.3

349
on

Filter

Ripening

Expression

349
350
351

Model

12.3.4.1

Solids

Rate

12.3.4.2

Conditions at

12.3.4.3

Zones of Wave Front

Uptake

Equilibrium

351
352
353

353

Summary

353

Design
12.4.1

342
342

Cycle

Modeling

12.3.3.1

of

337

339

12.3.3.3

12.3.4

337
Curve

339

Deposit, ct(Z, /)

12.3.2.11 Characteristics of C(0z for


Mathematical

337
and Filtration

Front

12.3.2.10Total Headloss and

12.3.3

336

Functions in Filtration

External Parameters

354

12.4.1.1

Design

354

12.4.1.2

Cost

Decisions

354

of Filter

Components
Design
12.4.2.1 Layout of Filters
12.4.2.2 Hydraulic Modes of Filtration

354
354
355

12.4.2.3

Water Distribution

355

12.4.2.4

Media

356

12.4.2.5

Pipe Gallery

356

12.4.2.6

Clear-Well

358

12.4.2.7

Control

359

Systems

Filter Box

359

12.4.3.1

Filtration Rate

359

12.4.3.2

Area of Filters

359

12.4.3.3

Net Water Production

359

12.4.3.4

Depth

of Filter Box

359

Contents

xvii

12.4.4

360

Backwash
12.4.4.1
12.4.4.2

Manifold

Types

361

Systems

12.4.4.3 Backwash Volume

362

12.4.4.4

363

Backwash Water

12.4.4.5 Under-Drain

12.5

360

Principles

of Backwash

Troughs

363

Systems

12.4.4.6 Bed Fluidization

365

12.4.4.7

Surface-Wash

368

12.4.4.8

Air-wash

369

12.4.4.9 Air-Water Concurrent Backwash

369

12.4.4.10 Collapse

370

Pulsing

371

Operation
12.5.1

Filter

12.5.2

Filtration

372

Hydraulics

372

12.5.2.1

Clean-Bed Headless

372

Operating Cycle

12.5.2.2 Progression of Headloss with Filter Run


12.5.2.3 Negative Pressure
12.5.2.4

12.5.3

Air

373
374

374

Binding

Backwash

374

12.5.3.1

375

Mudballs and Surface Cracks

12.5.3.2 Floc-to-Grain

375

Bonding

12.5.3.3 Practice
12.5.3.4
12.6

Operating

375
375

Protocol

Pilot Plants

375

12.6.1

376

Equipment
12.6.1.1 Contaminant
12.6.1.2

376

Injection

377

Filter Column

12.6.1.3 Pilot Plant System


12.6.1.4 Data Handling
12.7

12.8

378
378

Wastewater Filtration

378

12.7.1

Background

378

12.7.2

Forms of Practice
12.7.2.1

As

12.7.2.2

As

378

Unit Process within

Stand-Alone Process

Water Treatment Train

Following Biological

Proprietary Equipment
12.8.1 Ancillary Equipment
12.8.2 Package Filtration Systems
12.8.2.1 Deep Bed FiltrationParkson DynaSand
12.8.2.2 Deep Bed FiltrationCulligan Multi-Tech

12.8.3

379
379
379
379
380
380

12.8.2.4

Package FiltrationEPD Wearnes USA

380
380

Evaluation of Products

381
382
in New York

382
385
391

References

395

13 Slow Sand Filtration

395

Description
13.1.1

378

Shallow Bed FiltrationABW

Acknowledgments
Appendix 12.A: Filtration
Glossary

13.1

378

12.8.2.3

Problems

Chapter

Treatment

Slow Sand

395

Technology

13.1.1.1

Filter B ox and

13.1.1.2

Sand Bed

395

13.1.1.3

Schmutzdecke

395

13.1.1.4

Design Approach

395

Appurtenances

395

xviii

Contents

13.1.2

13.1.3

13.2

Attributes
Selection Criteria

395

13.1.2.2

Effectiveness

395

13.1.2.3

Economy

396

13.1.2.4 Labor

396

13.1.2.5

Materials

397

13.1.2.6

Contextual Factors

397

History

13.2.2

397

13.1.3.1

James

13.1.3.2

Evolution of Practice

Slow Sand
13.2.1

as a

Slow Sand

399

Removal Mechanisms

399

13.2.1.1

Schmutzdecke and Its Role in Straining


13.2.1.2 Depth Filtration

399

Hydraulics
13.2.2.1 Darcy'sLaw

401

13.2.2.2 Instrinsic

401

400

401

Hydraulic Conductivity

Hydraulic Profile and Headloss

403
403

Filter Box

Hydraulic Loading Rate and

13.3.1.2

Number of Cells

405

13.3.1.3

Layout
Depth of Box
Structural Design

405

13.3.1.5

13.3.3

404

13.3.1.1

13.3.1.4

13.3.2

398
398

Design
13.3.1

Area

404

405
406

Hydraulics

406

13.3.2.1

407

13.3.2.2

Backfilling after Scraping


Air Binding

13.3.2.3

Distribution of Raw Water Inflow Kinetic

13.3.2.4

Drainage System

408

13.3.2.5

408

13.3.2.6

Underdrain Manifold Design


Depth of Sand

13.3.2.7

Sand Size

409

13.3.2.8

Gravel

Support

408

Energy

408

408

410

Support Systems

411

13.3.3.1

Flow Measurements

411

13.3.3.2

Piezometers

411

13.3.3.3

Turbidimeters

411

13.3.3.4

Flow Control

411

13.3.3.5 Tailwater Control

411

13.3.3.6

Pipe Gallery

412

13.3.3.7

Access

to Filters

412

13.3.3.8

Plumbing Functions
13.3.3.9 Hydraulic Profile

412

13.3.3.l0Headroom

412

13.3.3.11
13.4

Simpson and the Start of

Process

13.2.2.3

13.3

395

13.1.2.1

Designing

to Avoid

412

Freezing

412

13.3.3.12Sand Recovery System


Pilot Plant Studies

413

13.4.1

Pilot Plant Construction

414

13.4.2

Case

414

Study

13.4.2.1

Context

13.4.2.2 Pilot Plant


13.4.2.3

Results

13.4.2.4 Discussion

413

414

Setup

414
415
415

Contents

x'x

13.5

415

Operation
13.5.1

Plant

13.5.2

Operating

415

Start-Up

415

Tasks

415

13.5.2.1

13.5.3

Chapter

Scraping
13.5.2.2 Rebuilding the Sand
Monitoring and Reporting

416

Bed

416

Problems

416

Acknowledgments
Glossary

418

References

420

14 Cake Filtration

423

14.1

418

423

Description
14.1.1

423

Cake Filtration In-a-Nutshell

423

Applications

14.1.1.1

423

14.1.1.2 Definitions

14.1.1.4 Process
14.1.1.5
14.1.2

Operation
Description

424
424

DE Selection

425

Media
14.1.2.1

Kinds of Media

425

14.1.2.2

Sources of Media

425

of Media

426

14.1.2.4 Characteristics of Media

427

14.1.3

Attributes

427

14.1.4

History

Manufacturing

14.1.2.3

14.2

424

Phases of

14.1.1.3

428

Use of DE Filtration

14.1.4.1

1940s'

14.1.4.2

1950s'

14.1.4.3

Research

Military
Adaptation of DE for Municipal

428
Use

430
431

Cake Filtration Process


14.2.1

431

Particle Removal Effectiveness

431

and Bacteria

14.2.1.1

Turbidity

14.2.1.2

Particle Counts

432

14.2.1.3

Iron and

432

Manganese

14.2.1.4 Asbestiform Fibers

432

Biological Particles

432

14.2.1.5
14.2.2

433

Removal Mechanisms

433

Straining and

14.2.2.1

14.2.2.2 The Role of

Embedding
Body Feed

Adsorption
Comparisons between Filtration
Hydraulics

433
433

14.2.2.3

14.2.2.4

14.2.3

Hydraulics of Cake Filtration

14.2.3.1
14.3

Diatomite
14.3.1.1
14.3.1.2
14.3.1.3

14.3.2

14.3.3

14.4

Processes

433
433
434
437

Design
14.3.1

429

Design

Technologies
Equipment
System Components
Layout

Parameters

437
438
439
440
441

14.3.2.1

Variables

441

14.3.2.2

Guidelines and Criteria

441

Design Examples
14.3.3.1

Data from 12 Plants

14.3.3.2

Plant

Operation
14.4.1
Operating

Descriptions

442
442
442
445

Protocol

445

xx

Contents

14.4.1.1

Pre-Coat

Deposit

14.4.1.2 Body Feed


14.4.1.3 Valve and Pump
14.4.2

14.4.3

14.4.4

14.5

Operation

Monitoring

446

Flow versus Time

447

14.4.2.2

Headloss

versus

Time

447

14.4.2.3

Turbidity

versus

Time

447

14.4.2.4

Criteria for Run Termination

447

Cleaning

and

447

14.4.3.1

Protocol

447

14.4.3.2

Start-Up

447

Disposal

of Waste Diatomite

447

14.4.4.1

Waste

Storage

447

14.4.4.2

Waste

Disposal

447

Questions
14.5.1.1

14.5.2

446

14.4.2.1

Start-Up

Pilot Plant Studies


14.5.1

447
for

Pilot Plant Study


Functional Relationships
a

447
448

Cases
14.5.2.1
14.5.2.2

PART IV

445
446

448
SR

Ranch, Colorado
100 Mile House, British

448
Columbia

449

Problems

450

Acknowledgments
Glossary

450

References

453

451

Molecules and Ions

Chapter 15 Adsorption
15.1

457

Description
15.1.1 Adsorption In-a-Nutshell
15.1.1.1

15.1.2

15.1.3

15.1.4
15.1.5

15.2

457
457

Definitions

457

15.1.1.2 Process Description

458

15.1.1.3

Operation

458

15.1.1.4

Performance Measures

45 8

Adsorbents

458

15.1.2.1

Kinds of Adsorbents

458

15.1.2.2

Sources of Activated Carbon

459

15.1.2.3

Manufacturing

459

of Activated Carbon

15.1.2.4 Characteristics of GAC

459

15.1.2.5

463

Shipping

Data

Adsorbates

463

15.1.3.1

Organic Compounds

463

15.1.3.2

Natural Organic Matter

464

Applications
History

464

15.1.5.1

465

464

Lore

15.1.5.2 Science

465

15.1.5.3

465

Practice

Adsorption Process Theory


15.2.1

466

Equilibrium

466

15.2.1.1

Reaction

15.2.1.2

Langmuir

15.2.1.3

Freundlich Isotherm

466
Isotherm

15.2.1.4 General Isotherm


15.2.1.5

Multicomponent Equilibria

466
469
470
470

Contents

xxi

15.2.2

Kinetics

471

15.2.2.1

471

Graphical Depiction
15.2.2.2 Rate of Uptake: Theoretical
15.2.2.3 Empirical Rate Equation
15.2.3 Reactor Theory for Packed Beds

473
473
473

15.2.3.1

Mathematics

473

15.2.3.2

Advection Kinetics

474

15.2.3.3

Simulation

476

Modeling
15.2.3.4 Characteristics of Output Curves
15.2.4 Rational Design
15.2.4.1 Quick-and-Dirty Mass Balance
15.2.4.2 Empirical Data for Lwf and vwf
15.2.4.3 Theoretical Results for Lwf and vwf
15.2.5

481

15.2.5.2
15.2.5.3

Bacterial Colonization

482

482
483

Plant

Study

483

15.3.1.1

Isotherm Determination

483

15.3.1.2

Determine

483

15.3.1.4

v(wave front)
L(wave front)
Breakthrough Curve

15.3.1.5

Rate of Headloss Increase

484

15.3.1.6

Backwash

484

15.3.1.7

Assess

15.3.1.8

Discover Effects of

15.3.1.9

Fabrication

Velocity
Competitive

484
484

Effects of Different Adsorbates

Unanticipated

Problems

484
484
484

Demonstration-Scale Plants
15.3.2.1

Pomona

15.3.2.2

Denver Reuse Plant

484
484

485
486

Design
15.4.1

Design

Variables

486

15.4.1.1

Independent

15.4.1.2

Guidelines and Criteria

Process Variables

486
488

15.4.2 Design Protocol

489

15.4.2.1

489

15.4.2.2

490

15.4.3

Spreadsheet Layout
Spreadsheet Scenarios
Design Examples
15.4.3.1 Examples of Sites

490

GAC for Taste-and-Odor Control

490

15.4.3.3

Chemicals in

490

15.4.3.4

Pump and Treat


Tertiary Treatment

Operation

Drinking Water

and Costs

15.5.1

Operation

15.5.2

Costs

Characteristics

Sources

492
494
496
496
496

15.5.2.1

South Lake Tahoe

496

15.5.2.2

Virgin GAC
Regeneration

496

15.5.2.3
Problems

496
497

Acknowledgments
Appendix
Glossary

490

15.4.3.2

15.4.3.5
15.5

481
481
481

15.3.1.3

15.4

480

Competition between Adsorbents


Chromatographic Effect

Laboratory and Pilot Plant Studies


15.3.1 Questions for a Laboratory/Pilot

15.3.2

479

Problems
15.2.5.1

15.3

477

15.A:

499
Freundlich Isotherm Coefficients

499
499

References

507

Further

510

Readings

Contents

xxii

511

Chapter 16 Ion-Exchange
16.1

511

Description
16.1.1

Ion-Exchange In-a-Nutshell

511

16.1.1.1

511

Definitions

16.1.1.2 Process
16.1.1.3

16.1.2

512
512

Science

512

Applications
16.1.3.1

16.2

512

Use

Municipal

16.1.3.2 Removals of
16.1.4

511

History
16.1.2.1

16.1.3

511

Description
Operation

Phases of

513

Ions

Specific

16.1.3.3 Deionization

513

Media

513

16.1.4.1

Mineral

16.1.4.2

Clays

16.1.4.3

Zeolites

513

Ion-Exchangers

16.1.4.4

Synthetic

16.1.4.5

Aluminas

513
513

516

Resins

519
520

Ion-Exchange Theory
16.2.1

Capacity

520

of Media

520

Capacity
Expressions
Upper Limit of Capacity
16.2.2 Equilibria
16.2.1.1

of

520

16.2.1.2

16.2.2.1

General Reaction and

16.2.2.2

Isotherm

16.2.2.3
16.2.3

521

Equilibrium Equations

Expression of Equilibrium

522

Kinetics
16.2.3.1

522

Rate-Determining Step

522

16.2.3.2 Fick's First Law


16.3

523

Design
16.3.1

523

Selection of Ion-Exchangers
16.3.1.1

523

Resins

523

16.3.1.2 Zeolites
16.3.1.3
16.3.2

16.3.3

Range of Ion-Exchangers

and

524

524

Pretreatment

16.3.2.2 Reactor Cycle

524

16.3.2.3

525

Regeneration
Design
16.3.3.1 Summary of Design

525

Reactor

Data

525
526
526

Operation
16.4.1
Operating Cycle

527

16.4.1.1

Production

527

16.4.1.2

Regeneration
Disposal

527

Nitrate Removal at

Glendale, Arizona

527
528

Problems

Acknowledgments
Appendix 16.A: Ion-Exchange
Glossary

527
527

Case Studies
16.5,1

523

16.3.2.1

16.4.1.3
16.5

Properties

System Design

16.3.3.2 Pilot Plant Studies


16.4

521
521

of Counterions

Selectivity

521

529
Conversions

529

532

References

537

Bibliography

538

Contents

Chapter 17

xxiii

Membrane Processes

539

17.1

539

Description
17.1.1

Membranes In-a-Nutshell
17.1.1.1

Analysis:

539

Flow Balance

Principle

539

17.1.1.2 Definitions

539

17.1.1.3 Acronyms for Membrane Materials and Membranes


17.1.1.4 Process Description

539

17.1.1.5 Membrane

Technology

540

17.1.1.6 Racks
17.1.1.7

541

Treatment Train

541

17.1.1.8 Operation
Global Capacity

541

542

17.1.4

Membrane Types
Membrane Materials

17.1.5

Membrane Structure

543

17.1.5.1

543

17.1.2
17.1.3

542

Microporous Membranes
17.1.5.2 Asymmetric Membranes
17.1.6 Manufacturing

17.1.7

Flat Sheets

544

17.1.6.2

Tubes

544
545

17.1.7.1

Plate-and-Frame Modules

17.1.7.2

Spiral-Wound Membrane

17.1.7.3

Hollow-Fiber Modules

545

17.1.7.4

Flow within Membrane Element

547

17.1.7.5

Ratings

547

17.1.7.6

Variations in Manufacturer's Products

548

545
Modules

545

548

17.1.8.1

Particle Removals

17.1.8.2

Removal of

17.1.8.3

Removal of Cations and Anions

549

Organics

549
549

Pros and Cons

549

17.1.9.1

549

Advantages
Disadvantages

17.1.9.2

549

History
17.2.1

549
Membranes in Science
17.2.1.1

17.2.2
17.3

544

17.1.6.1

Applications

17.1.9

543

543

Packaging

17.1.8

17.2

539

549

17.2.1.2

Beginnings
The Development

17.2.1.3

Modern Period

550
Period

550
550

Membranes in Water Treatment Practice

550

Theory

550

17.3.1

Performance Variables

550

17.3.2

Solute/Particle Rejection

550

17.3.3

Models

17.3.4

Basic Notions for

Describing Water
a

and Solute Flux

through

Membranes

Cross-Flow Membrane Element

551
551

17.3.4.1

How Balance

551

17.3.4.2

Mass Balance and Pressures

552

17.3.4.3

Water Flux

17.3.4.4

Solute Mass Flux

552

17.3.4.5

Transmembrane Pressure

552

"

Density

552

17.3.5

Poiseuille Law

552

17.3.6

Osmosis

554

17.3.6.1

Osmotic Pressure

17.3.6.2

Reverse Osmosis

17.3.6.3

Effect of Membrane Pressure

554
554
on

Water Flux

Density

555

Contents

xxiv

17.3.7

17.3.8

17.4

17.4.2

556

Applications

556

Fouling
17.3.8.1

Reversible and Irreversible Fouling

557

17.3.8.2

Natural

Organic

557

17.3.8.3

Particle

Fouling

17.3.8.4

Inorganics

557

17.3.8.5

Concentration Polarization

557

Matter

557

559
559

Pretreatment
Filters

559

17.4.1.1

Cartridge

17.4.1.2

Microfilter

559

17.4.1.3

Conventional Treatment

559

17.4.1.4

Other Pretreatment

559

Layouts

559

17.4.2.1

First Stage

560

17.4.2.2

Second

560

17.4.2.3

Third

560

17.4.2.4

Concentrate

560

17.4.2.5

Recoveries

560

Membrane

Stage
Stage

Operation
17.5.1
Integrity Testing

560

17.5.1.1

Breaches

561

17.5.1.2

Testing

561

17.5.2
17.6

556

17.3.7.1

Design
17.4.1

17.5

Electrodialysis

561

561

Cleaning

561

Pilot Plants
17.6.1

Utility

561

of Pilot Plants

17.6.1.1

Pilot Plant

561

Design......

562

17.6.1.2 Pilot Plant Operation


17.7

562

Case
17.7.1

City

Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Plant

of

Brighton
Background
17.7.1.2 Brighton Pilot Plant
17.7.1.3 Design Parameters
17.7.1.4 Plant Layout

Chapter

562
562

17.7.1.1

562
562
563

Problems

564

Acknowledgments
Glossary

565

References

569

565

18 Gas Transfer
18.1

571
571

Description
18.1.1

Gas Transfer In-a-Nutshell


18.1.1.1

18.1.2
18.1.3

Comparison with Other


18.1.1.2 Process Description
Applications
History
18.1.3.1 Theory

571
Mass-Transfer Processes

571
571
571
571
572

18.1.3.2

Stream Aeration

572

18.1.3.3

572

18.1.3.4

Oxygen Transfer in Activated Sludge


Spiral Flow Diffusers

18.1.3.5

Turbine Aeration

572

18.1.3.6

Grid Diffusers

573

18.1.3.7

Air

573

Stripping

572

Contents

xxv

18.2

573

Gas Transfer Theory


18.2.1 Equilibria
18.2.1.1
18.2.2

18.2.3

573

Henry's

573

Law

573

Kinetics
18.2.2.1

Diffusion

18.2.2.2

Adaptation of Fick's Law

573
to

Two-Film

Theory

579

18.2.2.4 Kxjx

580

as

Design

Parameter

18.2.2.5 Derivation of Working Equation


Reactor Modeling

580

18.2.3.1

583

583

Continuous-Flow

Complete-Mix Reactor Modeling for Gas Transfer


Modeling
18.2.3.3 Column Reactor Modeling
18.2.3.4 Column Reactor Modeling: Packed Beds
18.2.3.5 Effect of Gas on KLa and Uptake/Stripping Effects

18.2.3.2 Batch Reactor Aeration

18.3

Aerator

18.4

Oxygen Transferred

588
588

589

Energy Expenditure

591

591

Reactor

592

Types

18.3.2.2 Turbine Aerators

592

18.3.2.3

594

Diffused Aeration

597

Operation

Case Studies

597

18.4.1

Fine-Bubble Diffusers

597

18.4.2

Air

597

Stripping

18.4.2.1

Sydney Mine

18.4.2.2 Well 12A:

at

Valrico, Florida

City of Tacoma, Washington

18.4.2.3

Wurtsmith AFB: Oscoda, Miami

18.4.2.4

Hyde

Park

Superfund Site, New York

597

597
599
599

Problems

599

Acknowledgments

601

Appendix

18.A:

18.A.1

602

Onda Coefficients

602

Onda Correlations

18.A.2 Onda

Chapter 19

per Unit of

Equipment
18.3.2.1

18.3.3

585

589

Design
18.3.1.1 Algorithm for Aerator Sizing
18.3.1.2

18.3.2

584

589

Design
18.3.1

575

18.2.2.3 Surface Renewal Models

602

Equations

Glossary

603

References

604

Disinfection

607

19.1

19.2

607

Fundamentals
19.1.1

Microorganisms

19.1.2

Disinfectants

607

and Diseases

607
607

History
19.2.1

607

Chlorine
19.2.1.1

Story

607

of Chlorine

19.2.1.2 Disinfection

Byproducts

Issue

610

19.2.2

Ozone

610

19.2.3

Chlorine Dioxide

611

19.2.4

Ultraviolet Radiation

611

19.2.5

Other Disinfectants

612

19.2.5.1

Iodine

612

19.2.5.2

Bromine

612

19.2.5.3

Silver

612

xxvi

Contents

19.3

Theory
19.3.1

19.3.2

19.3.3

19.3.4

612
Inactivation

613

19.3.1.1

Factors

613

19.3.1.2

Mathematics

613

19.3.1.3

Ct's

614

19.3.1.4

CY(chlorine) for Giardia lamblia Cysts

614

19.3.1.5

Inactivation

614

Application

Compiled
by Ozone

of Chick-Watson Relation

614

19.3.2.1

Examples

of C -t Relation

Chlorine

Chemistry

617

19.3.3.1

Chlorine

617

19.3.3.2

Chlorine Demand

617

Properties

618

Chloramines

622

19.3.4.1

622

Chlorine-Ammonia Reactions

19.3.4.2 Chloramine Disinfection

622

19.3.5

Ozone

622

19.3.6

Chlorine Dioxide

Chemistry

622

19.3.6.1

Effectiveness of Chlorine Dioxide

19.3.6.2

Characteristics of

as a

Disinfectant

C102

19.3.6.3 Reaction Alternatives


19.3.7

19.3.7.2

19.4

UV

624

Log R's by UV

625

19.3.7.3 Radiation Fundamentals

625

19.3.7.4 Reactor Design

628
629

Chlorine
19.4.1.1

19.5

624

by

Design
19.4.1

623
623

Ultraviolet Radiation
19.3.7.1 Disinfection Rate

622

629

Chlorine Feed

629

19.4.1.2 Reactor Design

630

19.4.2

Hypochlorite

630

19.4.3

Ozone

630

19.4.4

Chlorine Dioxides

631

19.4.5

UV Reactors

631

19.4.5.1

631

Hydraulics

19.4.5.2 UV Reactors Volume

631

19.4.5.3

Lamps
19.4.5.4 Lamp Components
19.4.5.5 UV Design Guidelines

632

19.4.6

Costs

633

19.4.7

Case

633

19.4.8

Summary

633

UV

Operation

632
633

633

19.5.1

Chlorine Operation

19.5.2

Ozone

19.5.3

Ultraviolet

633

Operation

633

Lamps

634

Problems

634

Acknowledgments
Glossary

635

References

640

635

Chapter 20 Oxidation
20.1

643

Description
20.1.1 Applications of Oxidation Technology
20.1.2 History of Oxidation Technology
20.1.2.1

Oxidation Based

on

Electromotive Potential

643
643

643
643

Contents

xxvii

20.2

20.1.2.2 Wet-Oxidation

644

20.1.2.3

644

Supercritical Water Oxidation

Oxidation Theory
20.2.1

644

Fundamentals

644

20.2.1.1

645

20.2.2

Definitions

20.2.1.2 Enumeration of Reaction

645

20.2.1.3

645

Half Reactions

20.2.1.4 Oxidation Numbers

646

20.2.1.5

646

Thermodynamic Relations

Oxidants

647

20.2.2.1

20.2.3

Chlorine

647

20.2.2.3 Hydroxyl Radical

649

20.2.2.4

649

Permanganate

20.2.2.5 Chlorine Dioxide

649

20.2.2.6 Titanium Dioxide

650

Supercritical Water Oxidation

650

20.2.3.1 Critical Point

650

20.2.3.2

SCWO In-a-Nutshell

20.2.3.3

Characteristics of Supercritical Water Relevant

Chapter

21

650
to

Engineering

651

20.2.3.4 Supercritical Reactors

652

20.2.3.5 Research in the 1990s

653

20.2.3.6 Design Factors

653

20.2.3.7
20.3

647

20.2.2.2 Ozone

Case Study: SCWO of Pulp and Paper Mill Sludge

Practice

653
655

Problems

655

Acknowledgments
Glossary

656

References

658

Further Reading

659

Precipitation

661

21.1

656

Description
21.1.1 Precipitation
21.1.1.1

661
In-a-Nutshell

661

Definitions

661
with Other Processes

21.1.1.2

Comparison
Process Description
21.1.2 Applications
21.1.2.1 Softening
21.1.1.3

661
661
661

21.1.2.2 Toxic Metals Removal

662

History

662

21.1.3.1

Softening
Sewage Treatment
21.1.3.3 Heavy Metals
Precipitation Theory
21.2.1 Equilibria
21.2.1.1 Solubility Law
21.2.1.2 Application of Solubility Law
21.2.1.3 Listing of Solubility Products
21.2.1.4 Solubility pC-pH Diagrams
21.2.1.5 pe-pH Diagrams
21.2.1.6 General Rules of Solubility

662

21.1.3.2

662

21.2.2

667

21.1.3

21.2

661

Hardness
21.2.2.1

Occurrence of Hardness
of Hardness

662
663
663
663
663

665
665
666
667

667

21.2.2.2

Expressing

21.2.2.3

Other Definitions of Hardness

as

CaC03

667
668

xxviii

Contents

21.2.3

21.3

Softening Reactions

668

Lime-Soda Process

669

Chemistry

of Metals

669

Practice

21.3.1
21.3.2

21.3.3

PART V

21.2.2.4
21.2.2.5

670
Lime

Softening
Precipitation of Heavy Metals

670

21.3.2.1

Common Chemical Reactions

670

21.3.2.2

Case: Mine

671

670

Drainage

Precipitation of Anions
21.3.3.1 Phosphate Precipitation
21.3.3.2 Cyanide Precipitation

671
671
672

Problems

672

Acknowledgment
Glossary

672

References

675

Biological

Chapter 22 Biological
22.1

Treatment

Processes and Kinetics

679

22.1.1

1880-1980

679

22.1.2

Practice

679

22.1.3

Theory

679

22.1.4

Definitions

680

22.1.4.1

Reaction Classifications

680

22.1.4.2

BOD Nomenclature

22.1.4.3

Surrogates for Active Biomass Concentration,

681

681

22.1.5.1

Municipal Wastewaters

681

22.1.5.2

Industrial Wastes

681

22.1.5.3

Contaminants

683
683

Metabolic Reactions

684

22.2.1.1

Catabolism

684

22.2.1.2

Anabolism

685

22.2.1.3

Cell Division

686

22.2.1.4

Photosynthesis
Energy Principles

686
686

Biological Treatment Overview


22.3.1
Composition of Substrates

687
687

22.3.1.1

Domestic Wastewater and Organic


22.3.1.2 Industrial Wastewaters
22.3.2

Compounds

Composition of Cells
22.3.2.1

22.3.3

681

Wastewaters

22.2.1.5

687
688
688

Empirical Formulae for

Cells

Biological Reactions

688
688

22.3.3.1

Substrate

22.3.3.2

Heterotrophic
Autotrophic Involving Nitrogen

689

22.3.3.4

Anaerobic

690

22.3.3.5

Balancing Equations by Half-Reactions

691

22.3.3.3

22.4

Cell Metabolism
22.2.1

22.3

679

Background

22.1.5

22.2

672

to

Cells

Cell Yield
22.4.1

Cell-Yield Calculation

22.4.2

Cell Maintenance and

688

689

692
692

Endogenous Respiration

693

Contents

xxix

22.4.3

22.5

22.4.2.1

Cell Maintenance

22.4.2.2

Endogenous Respiration

693

22.4.2.3

Microbial Growth Curve and Debris Accumulation

694

Net Cell Yield,

y(net)

694

22.4.3.1

Cell Mass Relations

694

22.4.3.2

Cell Mass Rate Relations

694

22.4.4

Decline in

22.4.5

Cell-Yield Data

Degradable

VSS

695
695

Kinetics of Biological Reactions


22.5.1

Monod

22.5.2

Ks

22.5.3

Net

as

Description

of

695

Biological

Reactions

695

the Half-Saturation Constant


Growth Rate,

695

22.5.4

Specific
Temperature

Effect

697

22.5.5

Evaluation of Kinetic Constants

697

22.5.5.1

697

Data

Andrews/Haldane

22.5.7

Kinetic Parameters

22.5.8

Specific

22.5.7.2

F/M

22.5.7.3

Conversion

22.5.9

697
698

Substrate Utilization

Rate,

698

Ratio

700

F/M

to U

700

Monod Kinetics to U

701

22.5.7.5

Relating
Sludge Age, 9C

22.5.7.6

Minimum Cell

Relationship

701

Regeneration Time, 0

between U and

Nitrification/Denitrification
22.5.8.1 Nitrification: NH4+
22.5.8.2

696

Model of Substrate Inhibition

22.5.7.1

22.5.7.7

u.(net)

Kinetic Constants

on

22.5.6

22.5.7.4

Denitrification:

701

0C

701
701

to

N03~

N03~
N2 Gas

701

to

702

Phosphorous Uptake

702

22.5.9.1

702

Occurrence in Wastewaters

22.5.9.2

to Cells

Uptake
Theory
Technologies

22.5.9.3
22.5.9.4
22.6

693

702
702
703

Summary

703

Problems

703

Acknowledgments
Appendix 22.A: Proteins
22.A.1

704

Protein Molecules

704
705

22.A.3

705

ATP

22.B:

22.B.1

23

704

22.A.2 Urea

Appendix

Chapter

Michaelis-Menten

Enzyme

Equation

Kinetics

705
705

Glossary

707

References

718

Biological

Reactors

23.1

Biological

23.2

Activated
23.2.1

Reactor

Spectrum

721

Sludge
History
23.2.1.1

23.2.2

721

721
721

23.2.1.2

Beginnings
From Empiricism

23.2.1.3

Milestones

23.2.1.4

Modern

History

Activated-Sludge

Reactor

721
to

Science

724
724
725

Analysis

725

23.2.2.1

Materials Balance

726

23.2.2.2

Conventional Activated Sludge

727

23.2.2.3

Extended Aeration

729

xxx

Contents

23.2.3

23.2.2.4 Aerated Lagoon


23.2.2.5 Plug-Flow Reactor

729

Numerical

732

23.2.3.1
23.2.4

23.2.4.1

734

Empirical
Experience

733

Guidelines
with Plants

737

Operation

737

Bulking Sludge

738

23.3.2

739

Biofilms
23.3.1.1

739
Structure

739

23.3.1.2 Transport of Nutrients


Biofilm Reactors Model
23.3.2.1
23.3.2.2

739
739

Empirical Equation
Trickling-Filter Spreadsheet

739
Model.....

741

Anaerobic Reactors

741

23.4.1

741

23.4.2

Evolution of Separate Sludge Digestion

Design

Criteria

23.4.2.1
23.4.3

23.4.4

742

High-Rate Digestion

742

Process Design Principles


23.4.3.1 Reactions

742

23.4.3.2

744

743

Kinetics

23.4.3.3 Influences

23.5

733

Biofilm Reactors
23.3.1

23.4

Concept

733

23.2.5.1
23.3

Modeling

Numerical Model

23.2.3.2 IWA Activated-Sludge Model


Practice
23.2.4.2

23.2.5

730

on

Reaction

Velocity

744

23.4.3.4 Effect of Temperature


23.4.3.5 Mixing

745

23.4.3.6

Environmental Conditions

746

23.4.3.7

Materials Balance: Kinetic Model

746

23.4.3.8

Practice

746

Operation

and

745

Monitoring
Upsets

747

23.4.4.1

Process

23.4.4.2

Indicators and Tests

23.4.4.3

Percent Reduction of Volatile

747
747

Suspended

Solids

748

23.5.1

State of the Art

748

23.5.2

Parameters

748

Problems

749

Activated

Sludge

749

Bio-Filters

750

Anaerobic

750

Acknowledgments

Appendix

23.A:

23 .A. 1

751
Biofilm Reactor Model

751

Biofilm Reactors Model

751

23.A.1.1 Mathematics
23.A.1.2

752
Model

by "Lumping"

Coefficients

753
754

References

754

Tables

Appendix

International

Appendix B

Approximation

Glossary

Pre-Appendix
A

747

Summary

Physical

757

System of

Constants and

Units

765

Physical Data

773

xxxi

Contents

Appendix

Miscellaneous Relations

Appendix

Fluid MechanicsReviews of Selected

783

Topics

791

Appendix E

Porous Media Hydraulics

819

Appendix F

Alum Data and Conversions

833

Appendix G

Dimensionless Numbers

847

Appendix

Dissolved Gases

851

Index

871