Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
UNIT I: Introduction to design for static strength
Introduction:
A machine is defined as an apparatus using mechanical power and having several parts
(Mechanisms), each with a definite function and together performing a particular task. It is can
also be defined as a tool containing one or more parts that uses energy to perform an intended action. Machines are usually powered by mechanical, chemical, thermal, or electrical means, and are often motorized. Historically, a power tool also required moving parts to classify as a machine. However, the advent of electronics has led to the development of power tools without moving parts that are considered machines.
According to Cambridge Dictionary, ‘A Machine is a piece of equipment with several moving parts that uses power to do a particular type of work.
A combination of a number of bodies (link) assembled in such a way that the motion of one causes, constrained and predictable motion to the others is known as a mechanisms. Thus, the function of a mechanism is to transmit and modify a motion.
machine is a mechanism or a combination of mechanisms which, apart from imparting
motions to the parts, also transmits and modifies the available mechanical energy into some kind
desired work. It is neither a source of energy nor a producer of work but helps in proper
Lathe, Shaper, Milling Machine, Drilling Machine, Gas Turbine, Steam Turbine, Wind Mill, IC Engine, EC Engine, Water Pump, Wood Cutter, Screw Jack, Hydraulic Pump, Pneumatic Pump etc., Transportation Related:
Bicycle, Motor bike, Scoter, Car, Van, Truck, Boat, Ships, Submarine, Locomotives, Aero planes, Helicopter etc., Domestic Related:
Washing Machine, Wet Grinder, Mixture, Juice Maker etc.,
Machine element is a part of a machine represents a link, which is defined as a rigid body which possesses at least two nodes which are points for attachment to other links
Machine design is defined as the use of scientific principles, technical information and imagination in the description of a machine or a mechanical system to perform specific functions with maximum economy and efficiency. This definition of machine design contains the following important features:
1  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
1. A designer uses principles of basic and engineering sciences such a physics, mathematics, statics and dynamics, strength of materials, thermodynamics and heat transfer, vibrations and fluid mechanics. Some of the examples of these principles are
a. Newton’s laws of motion
b. D’Alembert’s principle
c. Boyle’s and Charles’ laws of gases
d. Carnot cycles and
e. Bernoulli’s principles
2. The designer has technical information of the basic elements of a machine. These elements include fastening devices, chain, belt and gear drives, bearing, oil seals and gaskets, springs, shafts, keys, couplings and so on. A machine is a combination of these basic elements. The designer knows the relative advantages and disadvantages of these basic elements and their suitability in different applications
3. The designer uses his/her skill and imaginations to produce a configuration, which is a combination of these basic elements. However, this combination is unique and different in different situations. The intellectual part of constructing a proper configuration is creative in nature. The final outcome of the design process consists of the description of the machine. The description is in the form of drawings of assembly and individual components
A design is created to satisfy a recognized need of customer. The need may be to perform a specific function with maximum economy and efficiency.
Design Considerations Sometimes the strength required of an element in a system is an important factor in the determination of the geometry and the dimensions of the element. In such a situation it is said
that
consideration, it is referring to some characteristic that influences the design of the element or, perhaps, the entire system. Usually quite a number of such characteristics must be considered and prioritized in a given design situation. Many of the important ones are as follows (not
necessarily in order of importance):
strength is an important design consideration. When it uses the expression design
1 Functionality
2 Strength/stress
3 Distortion/deflection/stiffness
4 Wear
5 Corrosion
6 Safety
7 Reliability
8 Manufacturability
9 Utility
10 Cost
11 Friction
12 Weight
13 Life
14 Noise 15 Styling 16 Shape 17 Size 18 Control 19 Thermal properties 20 Surface 21 Lubrication 22 Marketability 23 Maintenance 24 Volume 25 Liability 26 Remanufacturing/resource recovery
2  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elemen ts – I (Unit I)
Some of these characteristics processing, and the joining of
interrelated, which affects the co nfiguration of the total system.
have to do directly with the dimensions, t he material, the the elements of the system. Several charac teristics may be
F lowcharts  difference between
Design Process and a Basic Procedure for Design of Machine Ele ment
Definition of a Code:
A code is a standard that has
enforceable by law. Any set of s tandards set forth and enforced by a local gover nment agency for
the protection of public safety , health, industrial procedures for production , safety, quality
control etc., safety as in the stru ctural safety of buildings (building code), hea lth (health code),
been adopted by one or more government al bodies and is
3  Department of Mechanical Engine eering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V
Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
requirements for plumbing, ventilation etc., (sanitary code) and the specifications for fire escapes
or exits (fire code).
Definition of a standard:
A standard consists of technical definitions and guidelines that function as instructions for
designers/manufacturers and operators/users of equipment. Standards can run from a few pages
to a few hundred pages and are written by professionals who serve on ASME committees.
Standards are considered voluntary because they are guidelines and not enforceable by law. ASME publishes standards, accredits users of standards to ensure that they are capable of manufacturing products that meet those standards, and provides stamps that accredited manufacturers may place on their products to indicate conformance to a standard. Standardization is defined as obligatory norms, to which various characteristics of a product should conform. The characteristics include materials, dimensions and shape of the component, method of manufacturing, testing and method of marketing, packing and storing of the product. The following standards are used in mechanical engineering design:
1. Standards for Materials, their chemical compositions, Mechanical Properties and heat Treatment Example: Indian standards IS 210 specifies seven grads of grey cast iron designated as FG150, FG200, FG220, FG260, FG300, FG350 and FG400. The number indicates ultimate tensile strength in N/mm ^{2} .
Review of strength of materials:
engineering practice, the machine parts are subjected to various forces which may be due to
either one or more of the following:
1. Energy transmitted
2. Weight of machine
3. Frictional resistances
4. Inertia of reciprocating parts
5. Change of temperature, and
6. Lack of balance of moving parts
The different forces acting on a machine part produces various types of stresses.
Load: It is defined as any external force acting upon a machine part. The following four
types of the load are considered to be important.
1. Dead or steady load: A load is said to be a dead or steady load, when it does not change in
magnitude or direction.
2. Live or variable load: A load is said to be a live or variable load, when it changes continually.
4  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
3. Suddenly applied or shock loads: A load is said to be a suddenly applied or shock load, when
it is suddenly applied or removed.
4. Impact load: A load is said to be an impact load, when it is applied with some initial velocity.
[Note: A machine part resists a dead load more easily than a live load and a live load more easily
than a shock load.]
Stress:
It is defined as the internal resistance offered by the machine component for any deformation under the action of external force or load. Mathematically,
, = _{}
/ ^{}
ℎ , = ℎ = − ℎ ^{} Some conversions for units of stress are as follows:
It is defined as the deformation per unit length under the action of external force or load. Mathematically,
= ℎ ℎ ℎ
= ℎ ℎ
Tensile stress and tensile strain:
When a component is subjected to two equal and opposite axial pulling force (tensile load) as
shown in Figure 1, then the stress induced at any section of the component is known as tensile
stress. The ratio of increase in length to the original length is known as tensile strain.
P
P
P
σ t
σ t
Fig. 1 Tensile stress and strain
P
5  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
Compressive stress and tensile strain:
When a component is subjected to two equal and opposite axial pushing force (compressive
load) as shown in Figure 2, then the stress induced at any section of the component is known as
compressive stress. The ratio of decrease in length to the original length is known as compressive
strain.
P
P
Fig. 2 Compressive stress and strain
Young’s modulus:
The ratio of stress to strain within the elastic limit of a material is known as Young’s modulus or Modulus of Elasticity. Mathematically,
^{=}
_{}_{} / ^{}
=
[For details of Mechanical properties of various engineering materials, refer Tabl1 I.1 to I.18
from page No. 458 to 475, Design Data Hand Book (DDHB)]
When a body is subjected to two equal and opposite forces acting tangentially across the
resisting section, as a result of which the body tends to shear off the section as shown in
Figure 3, then the stress induced is called shear stress. The corresponding stain is known as
shear strain and it is measure in terms of angular deformation.
p
p
p
p
Fig. 3 Shear stress and shear strain
Mathematically,
ℎ , =
^{=}
_{}
;
/ ^{}
6  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
Rigidity modulus:
The ratio of shear stress to shear strain within the elastic limit of a material is known as Young’s modulus or Modulus of Elasticity. Mathematically,
=
_{∅}
/ ^{}
Stressstrain Diagram:
In designing various parts/elements of a machine, it is necessary to know how the material will function/behave in service condition. For this purpose certain characteristics or properties of the material should be known well in advance the machine design process. The mechanical properties mostly used in mechanical engineering practice are commonly determined from a standard tensile test. This test consists of gradually loading a standard specimen of a material and noting the corresponding values of load and elongation until the specimen fractures. The load is applied and measured by a testing machine. The stress is determined by dividing the load values by the original crosssectional area of the specimen. The elongation is measured by determining the amounts that two reference points on the specimen are moved apart by the action of the machine. The original distance between the two reference points is known as gauge length. The strain is determined by dividing the elongation values by the gauge length. The values of the stress and corresponding strain are plotted taking stress in yaxis and strain xaxis. Such plot/diagram is known as stressstrain diagram of the material tested, as shown in Figure 4
Fig. 4 Stress and Strain Diagram
7  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
Working stress or allowable stress or permissible stress or design stress:
When designing machine parts/elements, it is desirable to keep the stress lower than the yield stress or ultimate stress. This stress is known as the working stress or design stress or safe stress or permissible stress or allowable stress. Note: By failure it is not meant actual breaking of the material. Some machine parts are said to fail when they have elastic deformation, and they no more perform their function satisfactory. Factor of safety:
It is defined as the ratio of the maximum stress to the working stress. Mathematically,
∴ Factor of safety = Maximum stress/Working or design stress In case of ductile materials e.g. mild steel, where the yield point is clearly defined, the factor of safety is based upon the yield point stress. In such cases,
∴ Factor of safety = Yield point stress /Working or design stress = σ _{e} /σ _{i} In case of brittle materials e.g. cast iron, the yield point is not well defined as for ductile materials. Therefore, the factor of safety for brittle materials is based on ultimate stress.
∴ Factor of safety = Ultimate stress / Working or design stress = σ _{u} /σ _{i} This relation may also be used for ductile materials. Selection of Factor of Safety (FOS):
The selection of factor of safety for designing a machine component depends on a number of considerations, such as the material, mode of manufacture, type of stress, general service
conditions and shape of the parts. Before selecting a factor of safety, a design engineer should consider the following points:
1. The reliability of the properties of the material and change of these properties during service
2. The reliability of test results & accuracy of application of these results to actual machine parts
3. The reliability of applied load
4. The certainty as to exact mode of failure
5. The extent of simplifying assumptions
6. The extent of localized stresses
7. The extent of initial stresses set up during manufacture
8. The extent of loss of life if failure occurs and
9. The extent of loss of property if failure occurs
8  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
Each of the above factors must be carefully considered and evaluated. The values of factor of safety based on ultimate strength for different materials and type of load are given in the following Table 1:
Table 1 Factor of safety for various engineering material under different load conditions
Material 
Steady load 
Live load 
Shock load 

Cast iron 
5 to 6 
8 to 12 
16 
to 20 
Wrought iron 
4 
7 
10 
to 15 
Steel 
4 
8 
12 
to 16 
Soft materials and alloys 
6 
9 
15 

Leather 
9 
12 
15 

Timber 
7 
10 to 15 
20 
(a)
^{(}^{b}^{)}
Fig. 5 Linear strain and Lateral strain
It is noticed that due to tensile force, the length of the bar increases by an amount δl and the
diameter decreases by an amount δd, as shown in Figure 5(b). Similarly, if the bar is subjected to
a compressive force, the length of bar will decrease which will be followed by increase in
diameter. Every direct stress is accompanied by a strain in its own direction which is known as linear strain and an opposite kind of strain in lateral direction, (at right angles to it), is known as lateral
strain.
9  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
Poisson’s Ratio:
It has been found experimentally that when a body is stressed within elastic limit, the lateral
strain bears a constant ratio to the linear strain. Mathematically,
1
_{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{} _{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{} =
∴
^{′} , _{} = =
Following Table 2 gives the values of Poisson's ratio for some of the materials commonly used
in engineering practice.
Table 2 Values of Poisson’s ratio for commonly used materials
Material 
Poisson’s Ratio (µµµµ) 
Material 
Poisson’s Ratio (µµµµ) 

Steel 
0.25 
to 0.33 
Aluminium 
0.32 
to 0.36 
Cast iron 
0.23 
to 0.27 
Concrete 
0.08 
to 0.18 
Copper 
0.31 
to 0.34 
Rubber 
0.45 
to 0.50 
Brass 
0.32 
to 0.42 
10  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
Problems involving uniaxial load
1. Find the diameter of a rod made of C14 material subjected to the load as shown in Figure 6. Assume the factor safety as 3.
Figure 6
2 × 10 ^{}
Nature of Load: Tensile Factor of Safety, = 3 Diameter of the rod, d =? Notice that one end of the rod is fixed and other end is subjected to a pull of 2 kN, i.e., the rod is subjected to a tensile load. From Design Data Hand Book (DDHB) Page No. 463, Table I.8 for C14 material we have, Yield strength,
_{} = 216 / ^{}
∴
^{} ^{=}
^{=}
216
3
=
72 / ^{}
We know that,
^{} ^{=}
^{=} ^{}
4
72 =
∴
Round it off to the next nearest inter number
4 × 2 × 10 ^{}
^{}
ℎ , = 5.94
=
11  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
2. Find the diameter of a rod made of C14 material subjected to the load as shown in Figure 7. Assume the factor safety as 3.
F = 2 kN
F = 2 kN
Solution:
Data Given:
Material: C14 Tensile load, = 2 = 2 × 10 ^{} Nature of Load: Shear Factor of Safety, = 3 Diameter of the rod, d =? Notice that the rod is inserted through two plates, which are pulling the rod on either side creating a shear load across the cross section of the rod with a magnitude of 2 kN. From Design Data Hand Book (DDHB) Page No. 463, Table I.8 for C14 material we have, Yield strength,
∴
^{} ^{=}
^{=}
216
3
=
72 / ^{}
Knowing the allowable yield stress, one can estimate the allowable shear stress of the material
using the following relation:
ℎ , _{}_{}_{} = 0.5 _{}_{}_{} = 0.5 × 72 = 36 / ^{} We know that,
4
^{} ^{=}
^{=} ^{} 4 × 2 × 10 ^{}
36 =
∴ Round it off to the next nearest inter number
^{}
ℎ , = 8.41
=
12  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
3. Find the diameter of a rod made of C14 material subjected to the load as shown in Figure 8. Assume the factor safety as 3.
Fig. 8
Solution:
Data Given:
Material: C14 Tensile load, =
Nature of Load: Bending Factor of Safety, = 3 Length of the rod, = 30 Diameter of the rod, d =? Notice that the rod is subjected to a bending load of 2 kN acting at the free end. The cross section near to the fixed is the critical crosssection. From Design Data Hand Book (DDHB) Page No. 463, Table I.8 for C14 material we have, Yield strength,
2
=
2 × 10 ^{}
^{=}
3
= 72 / ^{}
^{} ^{=}
Bending moment, = = 2 × 10 ^{} × 30 = 6 × 10 ^{} −
From DDHB, Page No. 2, Equation, 1.1 (b), we have
32
_{} =
^{=}
^{}
Where, Z is section modulus and given by DDHB, Page No. 13, Table 1.3 (a), g row
=
^{}
32
[Note that this induced bending stress should be less than or equal to allowable stress of the
material]
32
∴
_{} = _{}_{}_{} =
^{} 32 × 6 × 10 ^{} ^{}
72 =
∴
ℎ , = 20.39
=
13  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
4. Determine the required thickness of the steel bracket at section AA when loaded as shown in Figure 9. The material of the element is C35. Assume the factor of safety as 3.
A
Fig. 9 Steel Bracket
5. A mild steel bracket shown in Figure 10 is subjected to a pull of 10 kN. The bracket has a rectangular crosssection whose depth is twice the width. If the allowable stress for the material is 80 N/mm ^{2} , determine c/s of the bracket.
X Fig. 10 Steel Bracket
14  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
Principal Stresses:
There are many situations when mechanical components are subjected to several types of loads
simultaneously. A transmission shaft shown in Figure 10 is a good example and is subjected to
bending as well as torsional moment at the same time, leads to bending stress and shear stress
respectively.
Y
X
Fig. 11 Biaxial stresses with shear stress
15  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
The normal stresses are acting perpendicular to the area under considerations and are denoted by σ _{x} and σ _{y} in the X and Y directions respectively, while the shear stresses acts over the area and is denoted by τ _{x}_{y} and τ _{y}_{x} .
τ _{x}_{y} indicates the shear stress acting on the area which is perpendicular to Xdirection and is acting in the Ydirection.
For normal stresses, tensile stresses are considered to be positive and the compressive stresses are negative. The shear stresses are positive if they act in the positive directions of the reference axis. It can be proved that, _{τ}_{τ}_{τ}_{τ} _{x}_{y} = _{τ}_{τ}_{τ}_{τ} _{y}_{x}
With this, principal stresses are calculated using the following relations:
Maximum Principal Stress,
_{} = ^{} ^{} ^{+} ^{} ^{} + ^{} ^{} ^{−} ^{} ^{} ^{}
2
2
+
_{} = ^{} ^{} ^{+} ^{} ^{} − ^{} ^{} ^{−} ^{} ^{} ^{}
2
_{}_{}_{} = ± ^{} ^{} ^{−} ^{} ^{} ^{}
2
^{}
+
_{} − _{}
=
2
, . 5, . 1.8( )
, . 5, . 1.8( )
16  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
Problems on principal stresses:
6. The stresses on two mutually perpendicular planes through a point in a body are 30 MPa and 15 MPa, both tensile along with a shear stress of 25 MPa. Find the Principal Stresses.
Solution:
Given:
_{} = 30 = 30 / ^{} ( )
_{} = 15 = 15
/ ^{} ( ) / ^{}
= 25 = 25
Maximum Principal Stress,
_{} = ^{} ^{} ^{+} ^{} ^{} + ^{} ^{} ^{−} ^{} ^{} ^{}
2
2
+
, . 5, . 1.8( )
= 30 + 15 − _{} 30 − 15
2
2
^{}
+ 25 ^{} = 22.5 − 26.1
_{} = − . / ^{} ( )
Maximum Shear Stress,
^{} _{}_{}_{} ^{=}
± ^{} ^{} ^{−} ^{} ^{} ^{}
2
+
= ± _{} 30 − 15
2
+
25 ^{}
_{}_{}_{} = ± . / ^{}
, . 5, . 1.8( )
17  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
7. The stresses on two mutually perpendicular planes through a point in a body are 120 MPa and 30 MPa both tensile along with a shear stress of 60 MPa. Determine the Principal Stresses. Solution:
Given:
_{}
_{} = 30 = 30 / ^{} ( )
= 120 = 120 / ^{} ( )
= 60 = 60 / ^{}
Maximum Principal Stress,
_{} = ^{} ^{} ^{+} ^{} ^{} + ^{} ^{} ^{−} ^{} ^{} ^{}
2
2
+
, . 5, . 1.8( )
= 120 + 30 + _{} 120 − 30
2
2
^{}
+ 60 ^{} = 75 + 75
_{} =
Maximum Shear Stress,
^{} _{}_{}_{} ^{=}
± ^{} ^{} ^{−} ^{} ^{} ^{}
2
+
= ± _{} 120 − 30
2
+
60 ^{}
_{}_{}_{} = ± / ^{}
, . 5, . 1.8( )
18  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
8. The stresses on two mutually perpendicular planes through a point in a body are 80 MPa and 50 MPa both tensile. Determine the maximum value of the shear stress which can be applied so that the maximum value of the permissible Principal Stress is limited to 120 MPa. [ : = 52.9 _{}_{}_{} = ± 55 ]
19  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
Theories of Failure under Static Load:
The strength of machine members is based upon the mechanical properties of the materials used.
Since these properties are usually determined from simple tension or compression tests,
therefore, predicting failure in members subjected to uniaxial stress is both simple and straight
forward. But the problem of predicting the failure stresses for members subjected to biaxial or
triaxial stresses is much more complicated. Unfortunately, design data for such cases not readily
available for design purpose. However, designer has to decide about the limit; thereafter the
elastic failure of elements can be declared. To address these issues several numbers of different
theories have been formulated. The principal theories of elastic failure for a member subjected
to biaxial stress are as follows:
1. Maximum principal (or normal) stress theory (also known as Rankine’s theory)
2. Maximum shear stress theory (also known as Guest’s or Tresca’s or Coulomb’s theory)
3. Maximum principal (or normal) strain theory (also known as Saint Venant theory)
Maximum total strain energy theory (also known as Haigh’s theory)
Maximum distortion energy theory (also known as Hencky’s and Huber Von Mises theory)
Since ductile materials usually fail by yielding i.e. when permanent deformations occur in the
material and brittle materials fail by fracture, therefore the limiting strength for these two classes
of materials is normally measured by different mechanical properties. For ductile materials, the
limiting strength is the stress at yield point as determined from simple tension test and it is,
assumed to be equal in tension or compression. For brittle materials, the limiting strength is the
ultimate stress in tension or compression.
Maximum Principal or Normal Stress Theory (Rankine’s Theory)
[Ref: DDHB, Eq. No. 2.8(a), Page No. 21]
_{} = ^{} ^{} ^{+} ^{} ^{} + ^{} ^{} ^{−} ^{} ^{} ^{}
2
2
+
_{} = _{}
According to this theory, the failure or yielding occurs at a point in a member when the
maximum principal or normal stress in a biaxial stress system reaches the limiting strength of
the material in a simple tension test.
20  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
Maximum Strain Energy Theory or SaintVanant’s Theory
[Ref: DDHB, Eq. No. 2.8(b), Page No. 22]
According to this theory, the failure or yielding occurs at a point in a member when the
maximum strain energy in a biaxial stress system reaches a value equal to the shear stress at
yield point in a simple tension test.
_{} = _{} − _{}
Maximum Shear Stress Theory (Guest’s or Tresca’s Theory)
[Ref: DDHB, Eq. No. 2.8(c), Page No. 22]
_{} = _{} − _{}
= ^{} ^{} ^{−} ^{} ^{}
2
; _{} _{}
_{}_{}_{} = ^{} ^{} , ^{} ^{} ; _{} _{}
2
2
According to this theory, the failure or yielding occurs at a point in a member when the
maximum shear stress in a biaxial stress system reaches a value equal to the shear stress at yield
Shear Energy Theory or Maximum Distortion Energy Theory (Hencky and Von Mises
Theory) [Ref: DDHB, Eq. No. 2.8(d), Page No. 22]
_{} = _{} ^{} + _{} ^{} − _{} _{}
According to this theory, the failure or yielding occurs at a point in a member when the distortion
strain energy (also called shear strain energy) per unit volume in a biaxial stress system reaches
the limiting distortion energy (i.e. distortion energy at yield point) per unit volume as determined
from a simple tension test.
Maximum Total Strain Energy Theory (Haigh’s Theory)
[Ref: DDHB, Eq. No. 2.8(e), Page No. 22]
_{} = _{} ^{} + _{} ^{} − 2 _{} _{}
According to this theory, the failure or yielding occurs at a point in a member when the strain
energy per unit volume in a biaxial stress system reaches the limiting strain energy (i.e. strain
energy at the yield point) per unit volume as determined from simple tension test.
21  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
Selection and use of Failure Theories:
While selecting the theories of failure, the following general points should be used:
1. For ductile materials maximum shear stress theory and distortion energy theory is used, where, the criterion of failure is yielding. It is assumed that the yield strength in tension is equal to the yield strength in compression.
2. Distortion energy theory predicts yielding with precise accuracy, but involves slightly complicated design calculations. This theory is used when the factor of safety is to be held in close limits and the cause of failure of the component is being investigated. This theory predicts the failure most accurately.
3. Maximum shear stress theory is used of ductile materials, if dimensions need not be held too close and a generous factor of safety is used. The calculations involved in this theory are easy. The maximum principal stress theory is the proper choice for brittle materials.
22  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
Problems on Theories of Failure:
9. A plate of C45 steel is subjected to the following stresses:
_{} = 150
Find the factor of safety using,
, _{} = 100 _{}_{} = 50
a. Maximum Principal Stress Theory
b. Maximum Shear Stress Theory and
c. Maximum Distortion Energy Theory (Hencky  Mises Theory)
[ _{} = 180.9 ( ), _{} = 69.1 ( );
( ). = 1.96;
( ). = 1.9517 ( ). = 2.233]
Solution:
Given
_{} = 150 , _{} = 100 _{}_{} = 50
From DDHB, Page No.
_{} = 150
for C45 steel, we have
Maximum Principal Stress,
Minimum Principal Stress,
_{} = ^{} ^{} ^{+} ^{} ^{} − ^{} ^{} ^{−} ^{} ^{} ^{}
2
2
+
, . 5, . 1.8( )
= 150 + 100 − _{} 150 − 100
2
2
^{}
+ 50 ^{} = 125 − 55.90
_{} = . / ^{} ( )
Maximum Shear Stress,
^{} _{}_{}_{} ^{=}
± ^{} ^{} ^{−} ^{} ^{} ^{}
2
+
= ± _{} 150 − 100
2
^{}
+
50 ^{}
_{}_{}_{} = ± . / ^{}
, . 5, . 1.8( )
23  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
a. Maximum Principal Stress Theory Note that _{} _{} , _{} > _{}
∴ _{} =
^{} ^{}
353
180.9 =
∴ = 1.96
b. Maximum Shear Stress Theory
Since _{} _{} ,
_{}_{}_{} = ^{} ^{} , ^{} ^{} ;
2
2
_{}_{}_{} = ^{1}^{8}^{0}^{.}^{9}^{0} 2
_{} _{}_{}_{} _{=} _{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{} _{}_{} (90.45,34.55)
∴ _{}_{}_{} = 90.45 / ^{}
69.10
^{,}
2
,
_{}_{}_{} =
_{2} _{}_{}_{} ;
90.45 =
353
2
∴ = 1.9513
Maximum Distortion Energy Theory (Hencky  Mises Theory)
_{}_{}_{} = _{} ^{} + _{} ^{} − _{} _{}
_{}_{}_{} = 180.9 ^{} + 69.1 ^{} − 180.9 × 69.1
= 2.2325
353
10. A material has maximum yield strength in tension and compression as 100 MPa.
Compute factor of safety for the following theories of failure
a. Maximum Normal Stress Theory
b. Maximum Shear Stress Theory and
c. Maximum Distortion Energy Theory
Considering the following stresses:
i. _{} = 
70 

, 
_{} = 
70 


_{} = 
0 
ii. _{} = 
70 

, 
_{} = 30 


_{} = 
0 
_{i}_{i}_{i}_{.} 0 , _{} = −30 _{} = −70
_{} =
[(a). (i). FOS = 1.43; (ii). FOS = 1.43; (iii). FOS = 1.43 (b). (i). FOS = 1.43; (ii). FOS = 1.43; (iii). FOS = 1.43 and
(c). (i). FOS = 1.43; (ii). FOS = 1.644; (iii). FOS = 1.644]
11. A mild steel shaft of 60 mm diameter is subjected to a bending moment of 25 x 10 ^{5} N mm and Torque T. If the yield point of steel in tension is 230 N/ mm ^{2} , find the maximum value of Torque without causing yield of the shaft according to:
a. Maximum Principal Stress Theory
b. Maximum Shear Stress Theory and
24  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
c. Maximum Distortion Energy Theory
Assume the FOS = 1.5 [(a). T = 3.126 x 10 ^{6} Nmm; (b). T = 2.078 x 10 ^{6} Nmm and (c). T = 2.4 x 10 ^{6} Nmm]
12. A round rod of diameter 50 mm is to sustain an axial compression load of 20 kN and a twisting moment of 1.5 kNm. The rod is made of carbon steel C40. Determine the factor of safety as per the following theories of failure:
a. Maximum Principal Strain Theory
b. Distortion Energy Theory and
c. Maximum Elastic Strain Energy Theory
[(a). FOS =
; (b). FOS =
; (c). FOS =
]
13. A rod of circular cross section is to sustain a torsional moment of 300 kNm and bending moment 200 kNm. Selecting C45 steel and assuming factor of safety 6, determine the diameter of the rod as per the following theories of failure: [Assume _{µ} = 0.3]
a.
b.
Maximum Principal Stress Theory Maximum Shear Stress Theory
Maximum Distortion Energy Theory and
Total Energy Theory
[(a). 290 mm; (b). 315 mm; (c). 305 mm and (d). 301 mm Consider the highest value]
Determine the maximum normal stress and maximum shear stress at section AA for the crank shown in Figure 12, when a load of 10 kN is assumed to be concentrated at the centre of crank pin.
10 kN
Crank Shaft
Crank Pin
Crank Web
Fig. 12 Crank
25  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
15. A circular rod of diameter 50 mm is subjected to loads as shown in Figure 13. Determine the nature and magnitude of stresses at the critical points.
Fig. 13
15 kN
16. Determine the maximum normal stress and maximum shear stress at section AA for the crank shown in Figure 14, when a load of 10 kN is assumed to be concentrated ,is applied at the centre of crank pin. Neglect the effect of transverse shear.
Fig. 14 Crank
17. A 50 mm diameter steel rod supports a 9 kN load and in addition is subjected to a torsional moment of 100 Nm as shown in Figure 15. Determine the maximum tensile and the maximum shear stress.
100 Nm
9 kN
Fig. 15
26  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
18. A bar of 50 mm diameter fixed at one end is subjected to a torsional load of 1 kNm in addition to an axial pull of 15 kN as shown in Figure 16. Determine the principal stresses if the length of the shaft is 250 mm.
1 kNm
Fig. 16
15 kN
27  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
Design for Impact loads:
Derivation of instantaneous Stress due to axial loading:
Consider a bar carrying a load ‘W’ at a height ‘h’ and falling on the collar provided at the lower
end of the bar as shown in Figure 17.
L= Length of the bar in mm
W = Falling load in N
h = Height through which the load falls in mm
δ’= Instantaneous deformation of the bar in mm
σ’ = Impact Stress or instantaneous stress induced in the bar due to the impact load in N/mm ^{2}
F’ = Force at which the deflection _{δ}_{’} is produced in N
= Instantaneous load at the time of hit
The potential energy lost by the weight = the strain energy absorbed by the system
Strain energy absorbed by the system,
=
1
2
× ′ × ′
Potential energy last by the weight,
=
(ℎ + ′)
(1)
(2)
28  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
Equating equation (1) and (2), we get,
. ,
∴
1 2 × ′ × ′
=
(ℎ + ′)
_{} = 2 (ℎ + ^{} ) ′
^{} =
^{}
_{}_{}
Substituting eqn. (3) in eqn. (4) we get,
,
_{} = 2 (ℎ + ^{} ) ′
^{×}
∴
^{=} ^{}
_{} = 2 (ℎ + ^{} ) ′
(3)
(4)
On simplification, we get
^{} ^{} − 2 ^{} − 2ℎ = 0
It is in the form of a quadratic equation in ^{} and on solving we get,
The general equation for the deformation under impact action,
^{} = 1 + 1 + ^{2}^{ℎ}
(Refer DDHB; page No. 27 Eqn. 2.26(b))
On multiplying both the side by ^{} , The general equation for the impact stress,
On making substitution =
^{} = 1 + 1 + ^{2}^{ℎ}
=
^{} =
1 + 1 + ^{2}^{ℎ} ^{}^{}
(Refer DDHB; page No. 27 Eqn. 2.26(a))
Where, 1 + 1 + ^{}^{} is known as ‘Impact factor’
29  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
Derivation of instantaneous Bending Stress due to Central Point Load:
Consider a simply supported beam subjected to a load ‘W’ at a height ‘h’ and falling at the
midpoint of the beam as shown in Figure 18.
Fig. 18 Impact load (Ref. page No. 27 and 28 – DDHB)
Let,
= Young’s modulus of the material of the beam in N/mm ^{2}
I = Moment of inertia of the beam crosssection in mm ^{4}
= Height through which the load falls in mm
y’= deformation of the bar in mm
σ _{b} ’ = Impact Stress or Instantaneous stress induced in the beam due to the impact lad in N/mm ^{2}
F’ = Force at which the deflection y’ is produced in N
= Equivalent load producing the same deflection
The potential energy lost by the weight = the strain energy absorbed by the system
Strain energy absorbed by the system,
=
1 2 × ′ × ′
Potential energy last by the weight,
=
(ℎ + ′)
Equating equation (1) and (2), we get,
1 2 ′ × ′
×
=
(ℎ + ′)
(1)
(2)
30  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
. ,
∴
_{} = 2 (ℎ + ^{} ) ′
^{} =
^{} ^{}
48
Substituting eqn. (3) in eqn. (4) we get,
,
_{} = 2(ℎ + ^{} ) ′ × 
^{} 

48


^{} 

48 ^{=} ^{} 

∴ _{} = 2 (ℎ + ′ 
^{} ) 

(3)
^{(}^{4}^{)}
On simplification, we get
^{} ^{} − 2 ^{} − 2ℎ = 0
It is in the form of a quadratic equation in ^{} and on solving we get,
^{} = 1 + 1 + ^{2}^{ℎ}
The general equation for the deformation under impact action,
(Refer DDHB; page No. 27 Eqn. 2.26(d))
On multiplying both the side by ^{}^{}^{}^{} , the general equation for the impact stress,
^{}
^{}
48
× 12
^{}
^{=}
48
× 12 ^{}
1 + 1 + ^{2}^{ℎ}
On making substitution =
^{} 4
^{=}
4
^{} =
^{}
_{}_{}
1 + 1 + ^{2}^{ℎ}
we get
= _{} 1 + 1 + ^{2}^{ℎ}
(Refer DDHB; page No. 27 Eqn. 2.26(c))
31  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
Students are advised to derive an equation for
1. The impact stress due to torsion
^{′} = 1 + 1 +
[Ref: DDHB, eqn. 2.26(e)]
2. The angular deformation due to torsional impact action
^{′} = 1 + 1 +
[Ref: DDHB, eqn. 2.26(f)]
[Where r is the moment arm of the load W]
32  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
Problems on Design for Impact Load:
19. Derive the equation for impact stress due to torsion with usual notations 20. Derive the equation for angular deformation due to torsional impact action with usual notations 21. A bar made of C60 material is 40 mm diameter and 1.2 m long, has a collar securely fitted to one end. It is suspended vertically with the collar at the lower end and a mass of 2,000 kg is placed on the collar producing an extension in the bar of 0.25 mm. Find the height from which the same load could be dropped on to the collar without causing yielding. Also find the impact factor. Assume a factor of safety as 4.
Solution:
Given:
FOS = 4 = 40
= 1.2 = 1.2 × 10 ^{}
= 0.25 From DDHB, Table I.8, Page No. 464, we have For Material: C 60;
= 2,000 = 2,000 × 9.81
, =
^{=} ^{} ^{=}
From DDHB, Equation 2.26 (a),
× 40 ^{}
103 / ^{} =
^{}
4 × 2,000 × 9.81
15.6 / ^{}
^{} = 1 + 1 + ^{2}^{ℎ}
103 = 15.6 1 + 1 +
2ℎ
0.25
^{}
∴ ℎ = 3.798 ℎ = 3.8
, = 1 + 1 + _{0}_{.}_{2}_{5} = 1 + 1 + ^{2} ^{×} ^{3}^{.}^{8}
2ℎ
0.25
= 6.6
33  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
22. An unknown weight falls through 20 mm on a collar rigidly attached to the lower end of a vertical bar 2 m long and 500 sq. mm section. If the maximum instantaneous extension known to be 2 mm, find the corresponding stress, value of unknown weight and the impact factor. [Take E = 200 GPa] Solution:
Given:
ℎ = 20 = 500 ^{} = 200 = 200 × 10 ^{} / ^{} =? We know that, 
= 2 = 2 × 10 ^{} ^{} = 2 

^{} 
=? 

=? 


^{} 
^{} 

= 
^{=} 

^{=} 
^{} 
^{} 

∴ 
^{} = 
^{} 
200 × 10 ^{} × 2 ^{=} 
= 
200 
/ ^{} 

But, From DDHB, Equation 2.26 (a), 
2 × 10 ^{} 
^{} = 1 + 1 + ^{2}^{ℎ} =
1 + 1 + ^{2}^{ℎ} ^{}^{}
500
1 + _{} 1 + 2 × 20 × 200 × 10 ^{} × 500 × 2 × 10 ^{}
10 × 10 ^{} = 1 + 1 + ^{2} ^{×} ^{1}^{0} ^{}
10 × 10 ^{}
−
1 = 1 + ^{2} ^{×} ^{1}^{0} ^{}
10 × 10 ^{}
−
1
− 1 =
2 × 10 ^{}
10 × 10 ^{}
+ 1 −
2 × 10 × 10 ^{}
_{}
− 1 =
2 × 10 ^{}
10 × 10 ^{} − 2 × 10 ^{} × = 2 × 10 ^{} × 10 × 10 ^{} = 22 × 10 ^{} ×
∴
=
10
× 10 ^{} × 10 ^{}
22
∴ = 4545.45
, = 1 + 1 + ^{2} ^{×} ^{1}^{0} ^{} = 1 + 1 +
2 × 10 4545.45 ^{} ^{=} ^{2}^{2}
34  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
23. A simply supported beam of width 50 mm, depth 150 mm is 1.5 m long. It is struck by a weight of 1000 N that falls from a height of 10 mm at its midpoint. Determine: [Take E = 20.6 x 10 ^{4} N/mm ^{2} ]
a. Impact factor
b. Instantaneous maximum deflection
c. Instantaneous maximum stress and
d. Instantaneous maximum load
Solution:
Given:
35  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
24. A cantilever beam of width 50 mm, depth 150 mm is 1.5 m long. It is struck by a weight
a height of 10 mm at its free end. [Take E = 20.6 x 10 ^{4}
of 1000 N that falls from N/mm ^{2} ].Determine:
a. Impact factor
b. Instantaneous maximum deflection
c. Instantaneous maximum stress and
d. Instantaneous maximum load
Given:
= 50 1.5 = 1.5 × 10 ^{} ℎ = 10 =? =?
=
= 150 = 1,000 = 20.6 × 10 ^{} / ^{} ^{} =? ^{} =?
From DDHB, Table 1.4, Page No. 15,
. , _{}_{}_{} = = 1,000 × 1.5 × 10 ^{} = 1.5 × 10 ^{} −
. , =
^{}
^{} × 12
3 × × ^{=}
3 × × ^{}
=
, =
1 + 1 + ^{2}^{ℎ}
8 / ^{}
= 1 + 1 + ^{2} ^{×} ^{1}^{0}
0.388 ^{=} ^{8}^{.}^{2}^{5}
_{×} _{1}_{5}_{0} _{} = 0.388 ( )
. , ^{} = × = 0.388 × 8.25 = 3.2
.
, _{}
=
_{} ×
= 8 × 8.25 = 66 / ^{}
. / , ^{} = × = 1,000 × 8.25 = 8,250
36  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
25. A steel rod is 1.5 m long. It has to resist longitudinally an impact of 2.5 kN falling under gravity at a velocity of 0.99 m/s. Maximum computed stress is limited to 150 MPa. [Take E = 20.6 x 10 ^{4} N/mm ^{2} ].Determine
a. Diameter of the rod required and
b. Impact factor
[Answer: d = 45 mm and IF = 92.89]
26. A steel rope runs at a speed of 2.5 m/s between the rails of a narrow gauge. The weight of
a loaded car which must be connected with the steel rope of pulling force 8 kN. Area of
crosssection of the rope is 100 mm ^{2} , the length of the rope between the driving pulley
and the point where the car is hooked is 300 m. Determine the stress induced in the rope by the impact of hooking in the car. [Take E = 20.6 x 10 ^{4} N/mm ^{2} ] [Answer: σ’ = 184.33 N/mm ^{2} ]
27. A cantilever beam of span 800 mm long has a rectangular crosssection of depth 200 mm.
The free end of the beam is subjected to a transverse load of 1 kN that drops on to it from
a height of 40 mm. Selecting C40 steel and a factor of safety 3, determine the rectangular
crosssection
A simply supported beam of span 800 mm long has a rectangular crosssection of depth 200 mm. The midpoint of the beam is subjected to a transverse load of 1 kN that drops on to it from a height of 40 mm. Selecting C40 steel and a factor of safety 3, determine the rectangular crosssection [Answer: 80 mm]
29. A weight of 1 kN is dropped from a height of 50 mm at the free end of cantilever beam of effective length 300 mm. Determine the crosssection of the cantilever beam of square crosssection. If the allowable stress in the material is limited to 80 MPa [Answer: 312 x 312 mm]
30. A beam of I – crosssection with 300 mm depth is resting on two end supports 5 m apart.
It is loaded by a weight of 5,000 N falling through a height ‘h’ and striking the beam at
its midpoint. Moment of inertia of the section is 9.6 x 10 ^{7} mm ^{4} . Modulus of elasticity is
given as 21 x 10 ^{4} N/mm ^{2} . Determine the permissible value of ‘h’ if the material of the beam is taken as C40 with a factor of safety 3.
Solution:
Given:
depth, d Length of beam, L Load, W
= 300 mm = 5 m = 5, 000 mm = 5, 000N
37  Department of Mechanical Engineering, PESIT, Bangalore,
Dr. C V Chandrashekara
Design of Machine Elements – I (Unit I)
Moment of inertia, I Modulus of elasticity, E factor of safety, FOS
= 9.6 x 10 ^{7} mm ^{4} = 21 x 10 ^{4} N/mm ^{2} = 3
From DDHB, Table I.8 for C40, we have σ _{e} = 324 N/mm ^{2}
From DDHB, Table 1.4 for simply supported beam, Maximum bending moment,

^{=} 

5,000 × 300 ^{=} 

4 
4 
4 

^{} 

^{} ^{=} 
48 ^{=} 
4 ^{=} 
^{} ^{=}
Maximum deflection, ^{}
= 6.25 × 10 ^{} −
5,000 × 500 ^{} 48 × 21 × 10 ^{} × 9.6 × 10 ^{} ^{=} ^{0}^{.}^{6}^{4}^{6} ^{}^{}
Static bending stress,
^{}
10 ^{} × ^{3}^{0}^{0}
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