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ARTS GRADE 10 - First Quarter

Modern Art

Lesson 1 : Impressionism: Origins of the Movement

The learner...
1. analyzes art elements and principles in the production of work following a specific
art style from the various art movements.
2. Identifies distinct characteristics of arts from the various art movements
3 .identifies representative artists and Filipino counterparts from the various art
4. Derives the mood, idea, or message from selected artworks
5. Shows the influences of modern art movements on Philippine art forms

In all of human history, art has mirrored life in the community, society, and the world
in all its colors, lines, shapes, and forms. The same has been true in the last two
centuries, with world events and global trends being reflected in the art movements.
The decades from 1900 to the present have seen the human race living in an evershrinking planet. The 20th century saw a boom in the interchange of ideas, beliefs,
values, and lifestyles that continues to bring the citizens of the world closer

Impressionism was an art movement that emerged in the second half of the 19th
century among a group of Paris-based artists. The duration of the impressionist
movement itself was quite short, less than 20 years from 1872 to the mid-1880s. But
it had a tremendous impact and influence on the painting styles that followed, such as
neo-impressionism, post-impressionism, fauvism, and cubismand even the artistic
styles and movements of today. The name impressionism was coined from the title of
a work by French painter Claude Monet, Impression, soleil levant (in English,
Impression, Sunrise). Impression, Sunrise Claude Monet, 1872 Oil on canvas The term
precisely captured what this group of artists sought to represent in their works: the
viewers momentary impression of an image. It was not intended to be clear or
precise, but more like a fleeting fragment of reality caught on canvas, sometimes in
mid-motion, at other times awkwardly positionedjust as it would be in real life.
The Influence of Delacroix As with all emerging art movements, impressionism owed
its inspiration to earlier masters. One major influence was the work of French
painter Eugne Delacroix. Delacroix was greatly admired and emulated by the early
impressionistsspecifically for his use of expressive brushstrokes, his emphasis on
movement rather than on clarity of form, and most of all his study of the optical
effects of color. In particular, Delacroixs painting, The Barque of Dante, contained a
then revolutionary technique that would profoundly influence the coming
impressionist movement. And it involved something as simple as droplets of water.

Impressionism: A Break from Past Painting Traditions

There were several areas in which impressionist artists moved away from the

established practices of art at that time. These involved their use of color, choice of
subject matter and setting, and technique for capturing light and conveying

Color and Light

The painting conventions and techniques of earlier art periods were very much
concerned with line, form, and composition. In contrast, the impressionists painted
with freely brushed colors that conveyed more of a visual effect than a detailed
rendering of the subject. They used short broken strokes that were intentionally
made visible to the viewer. They also often placed pure unmixed colors side by side,
rather than blended smoothly or shaded. The result was a feeling of energy and
intensity, as the colors appeared to shift and moveagain, just as they do in reality.

Everyday Subjects
Impressionists also began to break away from the creation of formally posed
portraits and grandiose depictions of mythical, literary, historical, or religious
subjects. They ventured into capturing scenes of life around them, household
objects, landscapes and seascapes, houses, cafes, and buildings. They presented
ordinary people seemingly caught off-guard doing everyday tasks, at work or at
leisure, or doing nothing at all. And they were not made to look beautiful or lifelike,
as body parts could be distorted and facial features merely suggested by a few
strokes of the brush.

Painting Outdoors
The location in which the impressionists painted was also different. Previously, still
lifes, portraits, and landscapes were usually painted inside a studio. However, the
impressionists found that they could best capture the ever-changing effects of light
on color by painting outdoors in natural light. This gave their works a freshness and
immediacy that was quite a change from the stiffer, heavier, more planned paintings
of earlier masters.

Open Composition
Impressionist painting also moved away from the formal, structured approach to
placing and positioning their subjects. They experimented with unusual visual angles,
sizes of objects that appeared out of proportion, off-center placement, and empty
spaces on the canvas.

The Influence of Photography

Photography was in its early stages at this time as well. As it gained popularity,
photography inspired impressionists to capture fleeting moments of action, whether
in landscapes or in the day-to-day lives of people. But whereas camera snapshots
provided objective, true-to-life images, the artists were able to offer a subjective
view of their subjects, expressing their personal perceptions rather than creating
exact representations. They also had the advantage of manipulating color, which
photography at that time still lacked.


Dare to pair

The students will classify the pictures of artworks according to 20th century art movements.



1. How did the term impressionism originate? What did it mean?
2. In what country did this art movement begin, and in what period of
3.What was the significance of the painting technique used by
Delacroix in the development of the impressionist style?
4.What characteristics distinguished impressionism from the art
movements of the earlier centuries? Cite and briefly describe at
least three of these characteristics

To help you understand the revolutionary technique for applying color introduced by
the impressionists, experiment with this simplified process:
1. Take a set of watercolors (cake type or in tubes). Choose one secondary color:
orange, green, or violet.

2. Color a shape on a paper using this single secondary color.

3. Beside it, color a similar shape using strokes of the two primary colors that are
combined in that particular secondary color (ex: red + yellow = orange; blue + yellow =
green; red + blue = violet).
4. Hold the paper some distance away and ask your classmates to comment on the
impression of the secondary color you have created and the actual color itself.


Works of Manet, Monet, and Renoir

By the 1870s, the stage was set for the emergence of the next major art movement
in Europe, impressionism. It started with a group of French paintersthat included
Edouard Manet, Claude Monet, Auguste Renoirand eventually spread to other
countries, such as Italy, Germany, and The Netherlands.
Edouard Manet (1832-1883) was one of the first 19th century artists to depict
modern-life subjects. He was a key figure in the transition from realism to
impressionism, with a number of his works considered as marking the birth of modern

Edouard Manet, 1874
Oil on canvas

Rue Mosnier Decked With Flags

Edouard Manet, 1878
Oil on canvas

Claude Monet (1840-1926) was one of the founders of the impressionist movement
along with his friends Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley, and Frdric Bazille. He was the

most prominent of the group; and is considered the most influential figure in the
movement. Monet is best known for his landscape paintings, particularly those
depicting his beloved flower gardens and water lily ponds at his home in Giverny

La Promenade
Claude Monet, 1875
Oil on canvas

The Red Boats, Argenteuil

Claude Monet, 1875
Oil on canvas

Auguste Renoir (1841-1919), along with Claude Monet, was one of the central figures
of the impressionist movement. His early works were snapshots of real life, full
sparkling of colors and light.

Auguste Renoir, 1874
Oil on canvas

A Girl with a Watering Can

Auguste Renoir, 1876
Oil on canvas

1. Name three of the most prominent artists of the impressionist movement.
2. Cite one outstanding characteristic of each of these artists.
3. Who were two of the most famous post-impressionists?
4. What new techniques or styles distinguished post-impressionism from the earlier
5. Identify two to three specific artworks where these techniques are prominently

Creating Your Own Impressionist Artwork:
Impasto One of the most distinctive painting techniques used by impressionist
artists was impasto. Impasto is the very heavy application of paint to the canvas
often with a spatula or knife instead of a paintbrush, and sometimes even directly
squeezed from the tube. Materials: illustration board or chipboard Tubes of acrylic
paints (can be shared among the class members) Paintbrushes Wooden popsicle sticks
Pencil Rags for clean up
1. Decide on a simple design for your artwork. Keep in mind what colors of paints are
available to you.
2. Using a pencil, sketch in the general design on the illustration board or chipboard.
3. Apply the paints to your design with the brush, then more thickly with the popsicle
sticks and, in certain spots, squeeze the paint directly from the tube. 4. Allow the
paint to dry thoroughly before handling or displaying the finished artwork.

A Bold New Movement
The early 1900s, there arose in the Western art world a movement that came to be
known as expressionism. Expressionist artists created works with more emotional
force, rather than with realistic or natural images. To achieve this, they distorted
outlines, applied strong colors, and exaggerated forms. They worked more with their
imagination and feelings, rather than with what their eyes saw in the physical world.
Among the various styles that arose within the expressionist art movements were:
social realism
Neoprimitivism was an art style that incorporated elements from the native arts of
the South Sea Islanders and the wood carvings of African tribes which suddenly
became popular at that time. Among the Western artists who adapted these
elements wasAmedeo Modigliani, who used the oval faces and elongated shapes of
African art in both his sculptures and paintings. I

Amedeo Modigliani, c. 1913

Yellow Sweater
Amedeo Modigliani, 1919
Oil on canvas

Fauvism was a style that used bold, vibrant colors and visual distortions. Its name was
derived from les fauves (wild beasts), referring to the group of French
expressionist painters who painted in this style. Perhaps the most known among them
was Henri Matisse.
Dadaism was a style characterized by dream fantasies, memory images, and visual
tricks and surprisesas in the paintings of Marc Chagall and Giorgio de Chirico below.
Although the works appeared playful, the movement arose from the pain that a group
of European artists felt after the suffering brought by World War I. Wishing to
protest against the civilization that had brought on such horrors, these artists
rebelled against established norms and authorities, and against the traditional styles
in art. They chose the childs term for hobbyhorse, dada, to refer to their new nonstyle.
Surrealism was a style that depicted an illogical, subconscious dream world beyond
the logical, conscious, physical one. Its name came from the term super realism,
with its artworks clearly expressing a departure from realityas though the artists
were dreaming, seeing illusions, or experiencing an altered mental state.
Many surrealist works depicted morbid or gloomy subjects, as in those by Salvador
Dali. Others were quite playful and even humorous, such as those by Paul Klee and
Joan Miro.

Social Realism
The movement known as social realism.expressed the artists role in social reform.
Here, artists used their works to protest against the injustices, inequalities,
immorality, and ugliness of the human condition. In different periods of history,
social realists have addressed different issues: war, poverty, corruption, industrial
and environmental hazards, and morein the hope of raising peoples awareness and
pushing society to seek reforms. Ben Shahns Miners Wives, for example, spoke out
against the hazardous conditions faced by coal miners, after a tragic accident killed
111 workers in Illinois in 1947, leaving their wives and children in mourning.

Activity 2:

Match the pictures according to its various styles that arose within the expressionist
art movements


Miners Wives Melancholy and Woman with Hat Personages

Mystery of a Street
with Star

1. Neoprimitivism

A. ____________________

2. Fauvism


3. Dadaism


4. Surrealism


5. Social Realism



Another group of artistic styles emerged at the same time as the expressionist
movement. It had the same spirit of freedom of expression and openness that
characterized life in the 20th century, but it differed from expressionism in certain
ways. This group of styles was known as abstractionism. The abstractionist movement
arose from the intellectual points of view in the 20th century. In the world of
science, physicists were formulating a new view of the universe, which resulted in the
concepts of space-time and relativity. This intellectualism was reflected even in art.
While expressionism was emotional, abstractionism was logical and rational. It
involved analyzing, detaching, selecting, and simplifying
The cubist style derived its name from the cube, a three- dimensional geometric
figure composed of strictly measured lines, planes, and angles. Cubist artworks were,
therefore, a play of planes and angles on a flat surface. Foremost among the cubists
was Spanish painter/sculptor Pablo Picasso (right). In earlier styles, subjects were

depicted in a three-dimensional manner, formed by light and shadow. In contrast, the

cubists analyzed their subjects basic geometrical forms, and broke them up into a
series of planes. Then they re-assembled these planes, tilting and interlocking them
in different ways

Three Musicians
Pablo Picasso, 1921
Oil on canvas

Girl Before a Mirror (detail)

Pablo Picasso, 1932
Oil on canvas

Human figures as well were often represented with facial features and body parts
shown both frontally and from a side angle at once. This gave a sense of imbalance
and misplacement that created immediate visual impact. It also gave cubism its
characteristic feeling of dynamism and energy. To this day, variations of cubism
continue to appear in many contemporary artworks.
The movement known as futurism began in Italy in
the early 1900s. As the name implies, the futurists
created art for a fast-paced, machine-propelled age.
They admired the motion, force, speed, and strength
of mechanical forms. Thus, their works depicted the
dynamic sensation of all theseas can be seen in the
works of Italian painter Gino Severini.

Armored Train
Gino Severini, 1915
Oil on canvas

Mechanical Style
As a result of the futurist movement, what became known as the mechanical style
emerged. In this style, basic forms such as planes, cones, spheres, and cylinders all
fit together precisely and neatly in their appointed places.
This can be seen in the works of
Fernand Lger. Mechanical
parts such as crankshafts,
cylinder blocks, and pistons are
brightened only by the use of
primary colors. Otherwise, they
are lifeless. Even human figures
are mere outlines, rendered
purposely without expression.
The City
Fernand Lger, 1919
Oil on canvas


The logical geometrical conclusion of abstractionism came in the style known as

nonobjectivism. From the very term non-object, works in this style did not make use
of figures or even representations of figures. They did not refer to recognizable
objects or forms in the outside world.

Lines, shapes, and colors were used in a

cool, impersonal approach that aimed
for balance, unity, and stability. Colors
were mainly black, white, and the
primaries (red, yellow, and blue).
Foremost among the nonobjectivists was
Dutch painter Piet Mondrian.
New York City
Piet Mondrian, 1942
Oil on canvas

A. Expressionism
1. Describe how the different elements and principles were used by
expressionist artists to convey their individual style. Discuss three
examples from works in these LearnersMaterials.
2. What qualities make an artwork expressionistic?
3. Where did neoprimitivismget its influences?
4. Who is the French artist famous for his fauvist style?
5. What are the characteristics of fauvism?
6. Why was the childs term dada fitting for the art movement
known as dadaism?
7. What style of painting is Salvador Dali known for?
8. What art movement expressed the artists social role?
B. Abstractionism: Cubism, Futurism, Mechanical Style
1. Explain the difference between expressionism and abstractionism.
2. How did the cubists give a sense of dynamism and energy to their
3. Who is considered the most famous abstractionist and cubist artist?
4. Describe how each of the following styles reflected modern life:
a. futurism
b. mechanical style
c. nonobjectivism
A. For Expressionism
Create a Work of Social Realism

1. With your group mates, choose a current issue in society that you feel needs to be
2. Select art materials that are readily available, such as one whole sheet of
cartolina; acrylic paints, poster paints, or any available paints;
markers, crayons, pastels, or colored pencils; #8 brush; scissors; glue
or paste; and pictures from magazines, newspapers, or calendars.
3. Working as a group, plan how to use these materials to express your
message about your chosen social issue.
4. Assign a task to each group member, then create your artwork
together. (Note: Remember that expressionism made use of very
strong images and colors, and expressed deep emotions.)
5. Decide on a title for your group artwork.
6. Present your finished artwork to the rest of the class.
7. Join in the discussion about the social message of each groups
8. Comment on how each group effectively used the characteristics
of expressionism (through the elements and principles of art) to
convey this social message.
B. For Abstractionism
Groups A, B, C: Create a Picasso
1. Review the description of Picassos cubist style.
2. Based on this, plan a cubist artwork for your group to create.
3. Prepare a magazine, assorted photographs, 1 sheet of oslo paper,
scissors, and glue or paste.
4. Select a large photograph from the magazine and/or the other photos,
and cut these up into segments of different shapes and sizes.
5. Glue or paste the segments on the oslo paper in a creative way, but with
the image still recognizable.
6. Give your cubist artwork a title.
7. Display it in front of the class, together with the works of the other
8. Join your classmates in giving personal reactions to each others work.
Groups D, E, F: Create a Mondrian
1. Reviewthe description ofMondrians style of painting.
2. Based on this, plan a non-objectivist artwork for your group to create.
3. Prepare sheet of cartolina; masking tape; scissors; a #8 round
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Modern Art

paintbrush; and acrylic, poster, or any available paints in primary colors,

black, and white.
4. Use the tape to mask off strips and spaces on the board.
5. Paint the exposed areas using your chosen colors. Wait for the paint to
6. Continue masking and painting, overlapping strips of color as Mondrian
did, until you have completed your artwork. (Note: Allow the paint to
dry thoroughly between applications before laying the masking tape to
avoid destroying your design.)

7. Give your painting a title. Display it in front of the class, together with
the works of the other groups.
8. Join your classmates in giving personal reactions to each others
A. Expressionism
1. How was expressionist art an outgrowth of life in modern society?
2. Were all surrealist artworks gloomy? Support your answer.
3. Which among the forms of expressionism (fauvism, dadaism,
surrealism, social realism) appeals to you the most? And which does
not appeal to you at all? Explain why.
4. Expressionism in Philippine art Research online for works by
Filipino artists who used variations of this style (e.g., Cesar Legaspi).
Give your personal reaction to these.
B. Abstractionism
1. Which form of abstractionism do you find most striking? Explain why.
2. Do you consider action painting, color field painting, and pictographic
painting true art? Why or why not?
3. Abstractionism in Philippine art Research online for works by
Filipino artists who used variations of this style (e.g., Arturo Luz, Jose
Joya, and others). Give your personal reaction to these.
C. Cubism
1. Recall the message expressed in the painting Guernica by Picasso.
Study the details that he incorporated to convey that message.
2. Do you think his technique was effective? Why or why not?
3. How does the painting make you feel?
4. Cubism in Philippine art Research online for works by Filipino
artists who used variations of this style (e.g., Vicente Manansala and
others). Give your personal reaction to these.

Abstract Expressionism, Pop Art, Op Art

Action Painting
One form of abstract expressionism was seen in
the works of Jackson Pollock.These were created
through what came to be known as action

Pollock worked on huge canvases spread on the floor, splattering, squirting, and
dribbling paint with (seemingly) no pre-planned pattern or design in mind. The total
effect is one of vitality, creativity, energy made visible. Pollocks first one-man
show in New York in 1943 focused worldwide attention on abstract expressionism
for the first time.

Autumn Rhythm
Jackson Pollock, 1950
Oil on canvas

Color Field Painting

In contrast to the vigorous gestures of the action painters, another group of artists
who came to be known as color field painters used different color saturations
(purity, vividness, intensity) to create their desired effects. Some of their works
were huge fields of vibrant coloras in the paintings of Mark Rothko and Barnett

Vir Heroicus Sublimis

Magenta, Black, Green

After The New York School

By the early 1960s, the momentum of The New York School slowed down. In its
place, a new crop of artists came on the scene using lighter treatment and flashes of
humor, even irreverence, in their artworks.
The movements they brought about have come to be called:
neodadaismand pop art
conceptual art
op art
the new realism
Conceptual Art
As the term implies, conceptual art was that which arose in the mind of the artist,

took concrete form for a time, and then disappeared (unless it was captured in photo
or film documentation). Conceptualists questioned the idea of art as objects to be
bought and sold. Instead, they brought their artistic ideas to life temporarily, using
unusual materials as grease, blocks of ice, food, even just plain dirt.
A key difference between a conceptual artwork and a traditional painting or
sculpture is
that the conceptualists work often requires little or no physical craftsmanship.
Much of the artists time and effort goes into the concept or idea behind the work,
with the actual execution then being relatively quick and simple. An example is this
conceptual art piece by Kosuth.

One and Three Chairs

Joseph Kosuth, 1965
An actual chair (center), with a photograph of the same chair
and an enlarged copy of a dictionary definition of a chair

Op Art
Another movement that emerged in the 1960s was
optical art or op art. This was yet another
experiment in visual experiencea form of action
painting, with the action taking place in the viewers
eye. In op art, lines, spaces, and colors were precisely
planned and positioned to give the illusion ofmovement
Bridget Riley, 1964
Synthetic polymer paint on composition board

A. Abstract Expressionism: Action Painting, Color Field Painting
1. What were two of the art movements that emerged from The New
York School?
2. Why were action painting and color field painting given these names?
3. Who was the artist who became famous for his action painting style?
4. Describe how the elements and principles of art were used in the
unique techniques and approaches of these movements.
B. Neodadaism, Pop Art, Op Art
1. What is conceptual art? How is it unlike any other art movement before

2. How was neodadaism different from the earlier dadaism movement?
3. From where did pop art draw its subjects?
4. Name the foremost artists of the pop art movement.
5. Explain how the elements of art were used to create the special technical effect in
op art.
My own Modern art

Your teacher will divide the class into six groups, and will assign the modernist art
styles as follows:
Groups 1 and 4 - Action painting
Groups 2 and 5 - Color field painting
Groups 3 and 6 - Pop art
Depending on the group you belong to, follow the procedure below:
Procedure for Action Painting
1. Prepare your materials 1 whole cartolina, box board, or other recycled
board; acrylic paints; 1-inch paintbrushes, sponges, or popsicle sticks;
recycled mixing plates; small rags for cleaning up; newspaper for
covering work surface.
2. As a group, discuss the overall composition and technique that you will


Learning Task 2 : How modern art affect the skills of a

Learning Task 3: Word Webbing

Output : Moodern Art

Materials : bond paper, crayons/ water color, pencil
Procedure :
1. Think of an image that has a lot of meaning for you.
2. List down all the words related to the image.
3. Make a simple pattern of your image.
4. Apply the colors to your picture.

Worksheet 1 : Modern Art

1. What is Modern Art?
2. How modern art affects the arts in nowadays?
3. Why do you need to learn the modern art?