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7/9/2016

Chapter 1: Stress and Strain

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1.
EQUILIBRIUM OF
DEFORMABLE BODIES

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Introduction
Mechanics of Materials/Strength of Materials
- a branch of mechanics that studies the internal effects of
stress and strain in a solid body that is subjected to an external
loading.
Stress is associated with the strength of the material from
which the body is made, while strain is a measure of the
deformation of the body.
In addition to this, mechanics of materials includes the study
of the bodys stability when a body such as a column is
subjected to compressive loading.

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Lets review!

ARES 1 Engineering Mechanics

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Equilibrium of Deformable Body


- Surface Forces are caused by the direct
contact of one body with the surface of
another. In all cases these forces are
distributed over the area of contact
between the bodies.

External Loads

If this area is small in comparison with


the total surface area of the body, then the
surface force can be idealized as a single
concentrated force, which is applied to a
point on the body.

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Equilibrium of Deformable Body


If the surface loading is applied along a
narrow strip of area, the loading can be
idealized as a linear distributed load,
w(s).
The resultant force of w(s) is equivalent
to the area under the distributed
loading curve, and this resultant acts
through the centroid C or geometric
center of this area.

External Loads

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Equilibrium of Deformable Body


A body force is developed when one body
exerts a force on another body without
direct physical contact between the
bodies.
Examples include the effects caused by
the
earths
gravitation
or
its
electromagnetic field.

External Loads

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Equilibrium of Deformable Body


Support Reactions
The surface forces that develop at the supports or points of
contact between bodies are called reactions.
As a general rule, if the support prevents translation in a given
direction, then a force must be developed on the member in that
direction. Likewise, if rotation is prevented, a couple moment must
be exerted on the member.

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Equilibrium of Deformable Body

Support Reactions

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Introduction
Equations of Equilibrium
Equilibrium of a body requires both a balance of forces, to prevent the
body from translating or having accelerated motion along a straight
or curved path, and a balance of moments, to prevent the body from
rotating.

3-Dimension

Coplanar/
2-Dimension

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Equilibrium of Deformable Body


Normal force, N
This force acts perpendicular to the area.
It is developed whenever the external
loads tend to push or pull on the two
segments of the body.

Internal Loads

Shear force, V
The shear force lies in the plane of the
area and it is developed when the external
loads tend to cause the two segments of
the body to slide over one another.

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Equilibrium of Deformable Body


Torsional moment or torque, T
This effect is developed when the external
loads tend to twist one segment of the
body with respect to the other about an
axis perpendicular to the area.

Internal Loads

Bending moment, M
The bending moment is caused by the
external loads that tend to bend the body
about an axis lying within the plane of the
area.

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Equilibrium of Deformable Body

Coplanar Internal Loads

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Examples

(Equilibrium of Deformable Bodies)

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Example: Equilibrium of Deformable Bodies


1. Determine the resultant internal loadings acting on the cross
section at C of the cantilevered beam.

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Example: Equilibrium of Deformable Bodies


2.
Determine
the
resultant
internal
loadings acting on the
cross section at C of the
machine shaft shown on
the figure below. The
shaft is supported by
journal bearings at A and
B, which only exert
vertical forces on the
shaft.

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Example: Equilibrium of Deformable Bodies


3. Determine the resultant
internal loadings acting on
the cross section at G of
the beam shown below.
Each
joint
is
pin
connected.

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2.
STRESS

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Introduction to Stress

Assumptions:
1. The material is continuous/
continuum;
2. The material must be cohesive.

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Introduction to Stress

Stress
It is the quotient of the force and area which
describes the intensity of the internal force
acting on a specific plane (area) passing
through a point.

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Introduction to Stress
Normal Stress (sx, sy, and sz)
- it is the intensity of the force (F)
acting normal to a certain area (A). If
the normal force or stress pulls on
A, it is referred to as tensile stress,
whereas if it pushes on it is called
compressive stress.

State of Stress

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Introduction to Stress
Shear Stress (txz, txy, tzx, tzy, tyx, tyz)
- it is the intensity of the force (F) acting
tangent to a certain area (A).

State of Stress

Units
SI: Pascal, Pa (1 Pa = 1 N/m2), kPa, Mpa
English: psi (pound per square inch)
or kpi (kilopound per square inch)

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Average Normal Stress in an Axially Loaded Bars


This bar is
Prismatic.

It is also
Isotropic.

It is
Homogeneous.

Result:
Uniform Deformation!!!

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Average Normal Stress in an Axially Loaded Bars

Due to the uniform


deformation of the
material,
it
is
necessary that the
cross section be
subjected
to
a
constant
normal
stress distribution.

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Average Normal Stress in an Axially Loaded Bars


Where:

s = average normal stress at


any point on the cross-sectional
area;
P = internal resultant normal
force, which acts through the
centroid of the cross-sectional
area;
A = cross-sectional area of the
bar where s is determined.

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Examples

(Average Normal Stress in an Axially


Loaded Bars)

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Example: Average Normal Stress in an


Axially Loaded Bars
1. The bar in the figure below has a constant width of 35mm and
a thickness of 10mm. Determine the maximum average normal
stress in the bar subjected to the loading as shown.

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Example: Average Normal Stress in an


Axially Loaded Bars

2. The 80-kg lamp is supported by


two rods AB and BC as shown in the
figure. If AB has a diameter of 10
mm and BC has a diameter of 8
mm, determine the average normal
stress in each rod.

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Example: Average Normal Stress in an


Axially Loaded Bars

3. The casting shown in the figure


is made of steel having a specific
weight of gst=490 lb/ft3. Determine
the average compressive stress
acting at points A and B.

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Example: Average Normal Stress in an


Axially Loaded Bars
4. Member AC as shown is
subjected to a vertical force of 3 kN.
Determine the position x of this
force so that the
average
compressive stress at the smooth
support C is equal to the average
tensile stress in the tie rod AB. The
rod has a cross-sectional area of
400 mm2 and the contact area at C
is 650 mm2.

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Average Shear Stress

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Average Shear Stress


Shear Stress is defined as
the stress component that
acts in the plane of the
sectioned area. As shown on
the figure, if the supports are
considered rigid, and F is
large enough, it will cause the
material of the bar to deform
and fail along the planes
identified by AB and CD.

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Average Shear Stress


Where:

=
V = F/2

tavg = average shear stress at


the section, which is assumed to
be the same at each point
located on the section;
V = internal resultant shear
force on the section determined
from
the
equations
of
equilibrium;
A = area at the section

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Examples

(Average Shear Stress)

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Example: Average Shear Stress


1. Determine the average shear stress in the 20-mm-diameter
pin at A and the 30-mm-diameter pin at B that support the
beam.

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Example: Average Shear Stress


2. If the wood joint in the
figure has a width of 150 mm,
determine the average shear
stress developed along shear
planes aa and bb. For each
plane, represent the state of
stress on an element of the
material.

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Example: Average Shear Stress


3. The inclined member in the
figure is subjected to a
compressive force of 600 lb.
Determine
the
average
compressive stress along the
smooth areas of contact
defined by AB and BC, and the
average shear stress along the
horizontal plane defined by
DB.

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Allowable Stress

One method of specifying the allowable load for a


member is to use a number called the factor of
safety. The factor of safety (F.S.) is a ratio of the
failure load, Ffail to the allowable load Fallow.

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3.
STRAIN

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Deformation
Whenever a force is applied to a
body, it will tend to change the
bodys shape and size. These
changes are referred to as
deformation, and they may be
either
highly
visible
or
practically unnoticeable.

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Normal Strain
Normal strain is defined as the change
in length of a line per unit length.

Where:
eavg (epsilon) = average normal strain;
Ds = new length;
Ds = original length.

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Normal Strain

When e (or eavg) is positive the initial


line will elongate, whereas if e is
negative the line contracts.

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Shear Strain
Shear strain
It is a deformation that causes not only
line segments to elongate or contract,
but they also cause them to change
direction. If we select two line segments
that are originally perpendicular to one
another, then the change in angle that
occurs between these two line
segments is referred to as shear strain.

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Shear Strain

gnt = is the shear strain measured


in radians (rad.)
Where:

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Examples

(Normal and Shear Strain)

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Example: Normal and Shear Strain


1. The slender rod shown in the figure is
subjected to an increase of temperature
along its axis, which creates a normal strain
in the rod of ez=40x10-3z1/2, where z is
measured in meters. Determine the following:
(a) The displacement of the end B of the rod
due to the temperature increase; and
(b) The average normal strain in the rod.

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Example: Normal and Shear Strain

2. When force P is applied to the rigid


lever arm ABC in the figure, the arm
rotates counterclockwise about pin A
through an angle of 0.05. Determine
the normal strain developed in wire
BD.

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Example: Normal and Shear Strain


3. Due to a loading, the plate is
deformed into the dashed shape
shown the figure. Determine (a)
the average normal strain along
the side AB, and (b) the average
shear strain in the plate at A
relative to the x and y axes.

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Any questions?

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