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Sep 16, 2016

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Strain & Stress

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44 vizualizări49 paginiStrain & Stress

© All Rights Reserved

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7/9/2016

1.

EQUILIBRIUM OF

DEFORMABLE BODIES

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Introduction

Mechanics of Materials/Strength of Materials

- a branch of mechanics that studies the internal effects of

stress and strain in a solid body that is subjected to an external

loading.

Stress is associated with the strength of the material from

which the body is made, while strain is a measure of the

deformation of the body.

In addition to this, mechanics of materials includes the study

of the bodys stability when a body such as a column is

subjected to compressive loading.

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Lets review!

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- Surface Forces are caused by the direct

contact of one body with the surface of

another. In all cases these forces are

distributed over the area of contact

between the bodies.

External Loads

the total surface area of the body, then the

surface force can be idealized as a single

concentrated force, which is applied to a

point on the body.

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If the surface loading is applied along a

narrow strip of area, the loading can be

idealized as a linear distributed load,

w(s).

The resultant force of w(s) is equivalent

to the area under the distributed

loading curve, and this resultant acts

through the centroid C or geometric

center of this area.

External Loads

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A body force is developed when one body

exerts a force on another body without

direct physical contact between the

bodies.

Examples include the effects caused by

the

earths

gravitation

or

its

electromagnetic field.

External Loads

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Support Reactions

The surface forces that develop at the supports or points of

contact between bodies are called reactions.

As a general rule, if the support prevents translation in a given

direction, then a force must be developed on the member in that

direction. Likewise, if rotation is prevented, a couple moment must

be exerted on the member.

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Support Reactions

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Introduction

Equations of Equilibrium

Equilibrium of a body requires both a balance of forces, to prevent the

body from translating or having accelerated motion along a straight

or curved path, and a balance of moments, to prevent the body from

rotating.

3-Dimension

Coplanar/

2-Dimension

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Normal force, N

This force acts perpendicular to the area.

It is developed whenever the external

loads tend to push or pull on the two

segments of the body.

Internal Loads

Shear force, V

The shear force lies in the plane of the

area and it is developed when the external

loads tend to cause the two segments of

the body to slide over one another.

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Torsional moment or torque, T

This effect is developed when the external

loads tend to twist one segment of the

body with respect to the other about an

axis perpendicular to the area.

Internal Loads

Bending moment, M

The bending moment is caused by the

external loads that tend to bend the body

about an axis lying within the plane of the

area.

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Examples

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1. Determine the resultant internal loadings acting on the cross

section at C of the cantilevered beam.

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2.

Determine

the

resultant

internal

loadings acting on the

cross section at C of the

machine shaft shown on

the figure below. The

shaft is supported by

journal bearings at A and

B, which only exert

vertical forces on the

shaft.

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3. Determine the resultant

internal loadings acting on

the cross section at G of

the beam shown below.

Each

joint

is

pin

connected.

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2.

STRESS

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Introduction to Stress

Assumptions:

1. The material is continuous/

continuum;

2. The material must be cohesive.

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Introduction to Stress

Stress

It is the quotient of the force and area which

describes the intensity of the internal force

acting on a specific plane (area) passing

through a point.

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Introduction to Stress

Normal Stress (sx, sy, and sz)

- it is the intensity of the force (F)

acting normal to a certain area (A). If

the normal force or stress pulls on

A, it is referred to as tensile stress,

whereas if it pushes on it is called

compressive stress.

State of Stress

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Introduction to Stress

Shear Stress (txz, txy, tzx, tzy, tyx, tyz)

- it is the intensity of the force (F) acting

tangent to a certain area (A).

State of Stress

Units

SI: Pascal, Pa (1 Pa = 1 N/m2), kPa, Mpa

English: psi (pound per square inch)

or kpi (kilopound per square inch)

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This bar is

Prismatic.

It is also

Isotropic.

It is

Homogeneous.

Result:

Uniform Deformation!!!

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deformation of the

material,

it

is

necessary that the

cross section be

subjected

to

a

constant

normal

stress distribution.

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Where:

any point on the cross-sectional

area;

P = internal resultant normal

force, which acts through the

centroid of the cross-sectional

area;

A = cross-sectional area of the

bar where s is determined.

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Examples

Loaded Bars)

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Axially Loaded Bars

1. The bar in the figure below has a constant width of 35mm and

a thickness of 10mm. Determine the maximum average normal

stress in the bar subjected to the loading as shown.

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Axially Loaded Bars

two rods AB and BC as shown in the

figure. If AB has a diameter of 10

mm and BC has a diameter of 8

mm, determine the average normal

stress in each rod.

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Axially Loaded Bars

is made of steel having a specific

weight of gst=490 lb/ft3. Determine

the average compressive stress

acting at points A and B.

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Axially Loaded Bars

4. Member AC as shown is

subjected to a vertical force of 3 kN.

Determine the position x of this

force so that the

average

compressive stress at the smooth

support C is equal to the average

tensile stress in the tie rod AB. The

rod has a cross-sectional area of

400 mm2 and the contact area at C

is 650 mm2.

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Shear Stress is defined as

the stress component that

acts in the plane of the

sectioned area. As shown on

the figure, if the supports are

considered rigid, and F is

large enough, it will cause the

material of the bar to deform

and fail along the planes

identified by AB and CD.

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Where:

=

V = F/2

the section, which is assumed to

be the same at each point

located on the section;

V = internal resultant shear

force on the section determined

from

the

equations

of

equilibrium;

A = area at the section

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Examples

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1. Determine the average shear stress in the 20-mm-diameter

pin at A and the 30-mm-diameter pin at B that support the

beam.

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2. If the wood joint in the

figure has a width of 150 mm,

determine the average shear

stress developed along shear

planes aa and bb. For each

plane, represent the state of

stress on an element of the

material.

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3. The inclined member in the

figure is subjected to a

compressive force of 600 lb.

Determine

the

average

compressive stress along the

smooth areas of contact

defined by AB and BC, and the

average shear stress along the

horizontal plane defined by

DB.

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Allowable Stress

member is to use a number called the factor of

safety. The factor of safety (F.S.) is a ratio of the

failure load, Ffail to the allowable load Fallow.

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3.

STRAIN

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Deformation

Whenever a force is applied to a

body, it will tend to change the

bodys shape and size. These

changes are referred to as

deformation, and they may be

either

highly

visible

or

practically unnoticeable.

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Normal Strain

Normal strain is defined as the change

in length of a line per unit length.

Where:

eavg (epsilon) = average normal strain;

Ds = new length;

Ds = original length.

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Normal Strain

line will elongate, whereas if e is

negative the line contracts.

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Shear Strain

Shear strain

It is a deformation that causes not only

line segments to elongate or contract,

but they also cause them to change

direction. If we select two line segments

that are originally perpendicular to one

another, then the change in angle that

occurs between these two line

segments is referred to as shear strain.

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Shear Strain

in radians (rad.)

Where:

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Examples

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1. The slender rod shown in the figure is

subjected to an increase of temperature

along its axis, which creates a normal strain

in the rod of ez=40x10-3z1/2, where z is

measured in meters. Determine the following:

(a) The displacement of the end B of the rod

due to the temperature increase; and

(b) The average normal strain in the rod.

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lever arm ABC in the figure, the arm

rotates counterclockwise about pin A

through an angle of 0.05. Determine

the normal strain developed in wire

BD.

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3. Due to a loading, the plate is

deformed into the dashed shape

shown the figure. Determine (a)

the average normal strain along

the side AB, and (b) the average

shear strain in the plate at A

relative to the x and y axes.

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Any questions?

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