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You must submit your answers on this assignment sheet.

Five Studies:
1. In an investigation of drug abuse, it was noted that there was a relationship between the
age at which an individual first started experimenting with drugs and the severity of the
drug abuse problem (they operationally defined more severe drug abuse as a higher score on a rating
scale). Those who experimented with drugs at the earliest age (lower the age when they
started) tended to be those with the most severe drug abuse problems.
A. This a correlational study because the researchers studied the actual occurrence
of drug abuse in the society; they dont conduct experimentation
B. The correlation coefficient is negative because the younger the age of the abuse
the severe it become the abuse problem
2. In an attempt to determine which method would assure the best class attendance, an
educational psychologist randomly assigned students to classrooms in which the teachers
were instructed to treat the students in the following ways: one teacher rewarded students
for attending class with extra points, a second teacher punished absences by deducting
points, a third teacher scolded students for absences, and a fourth teacher did nothing to
address absences. Attendance was best in the first class, where the teacher rewarded the
A, This is an experimental study because researchers sets different group of class and
manipulated the amount of reinforcement which is the independent variable , that reach to
the students
B. The independent variable is the addition and deduction of points and the scolding
( the reinforcement) because it was being changed by the researchers.
The dependent variable is class attendance because it was this variable that was being
3. A researcher who was suspicious that hyperactivity in children was related to the amount
of sugar in their diet recorded both sugar intake and activity level for a sample of children
over a five-month period. The results indicated no relationship between the amount of
sugar consumed and activity level.
A. This is a correlational study , because the study involves the routine sugar intake
activities of regular children
B. The correlation coefficient is zero because there is no relation between hyper
activity and the amount of sugar taken
4. Three hundred people answered an online survey about whether they use a manual versus an
electric toothbrush and the number of cavities they have had in the past two years. More frequent
use of an electric toothbrush was associated with fewer cavities.
A, This is a correlational study because the variables the electric toothbrush and the number of

cavities are measured as they appear naturally, they did not assign experimental and control
B. the coefficient of correlation is negative or they have inverse relationship because the increase
usage of electrical tooth brush has actually decreased the number of cavities.

5. Researchers were interested in how stress is impacted by watching different videos. All
subjects watched the same scenes of work-related accidents to induce stress. Next,
researchers randomly assigned subjects to one of three groups: Group One watched a
video of nature images; Group Two watched a video of urban traffic; and Group Three
watched people walking on a pedestrian mall. Finally, researchers again measured each
participants level of stress. Those watching the video of nature images recovered more
quickly from stress than subjects viewing the videos of traffic or pedestrians.
A. This is an experimental study because the researchers exposed the assigned
different groups in to different kinds of videos to measure the dependent variable
B. The independent variable is the three kinds of videos because it was being given
manipulated to measure the dependent variable
The dependent variable is stress recovery, because the researchers were actually
wanted to measure stress recovery.