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Arctic Marine Operations Challenges & Recommendations

Volume 1 Main Report


Final report of the Arctic Operations Handbook Joint Industry Project
Version 15-12-2013

Report no MAR11908-E/1133-RP01

Joint Industry Project - Arctic Operations Handbook

Arctic Marine Operations Challenges & Recommendations


Volume 1 Main Report
Final version 15-Dec-2013

Front sheet picture: Reflections on the Arctic Sea 2008 Ville Miettinen

Report no MAR11908-E/1133-RP01

Joint Industry Project - Arctic Operations Handbook

Arctic Marine Operations Challenges & Recommendations


Volume 1 Main Report
Final version 15-Dec-2013

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Arctic Operations Handbook Joint Industry Project (JIP) was launched in February of
2012 supported by a number of companies and knowledge institutes. The JIP was initiated
by a number of Dutch companies in the framework of the Maritime Innovation Program
(MIP) and was awarded a subsidy from the Dutch Ministry of EL&I (Economic affairs,
Agriculture & Innovation). With it the JIP participants committed to issue an open source
document to ensure that the work from the JIP is offered to the international arctic offshore
community and the general public for further use.
The participating companies have the ambition to execute projects in arctic areas, such as
installation and operations of oil and gas production facilities. The term arctic as used here
refers to areas where ice, permafrost and low temperatures may influence offshore
operations, field development and decommissioning.
Currently, there is no specific standard for companies operating in arctic offshore areas. To
support this industry and to ensure services can be provided in a safe manner with minimum
environmental impact, it was proposed to prepare guidance/standards for such operations.
This project has taken an important step in gathering existing rules & regulations, identifying
the areas which require additional guidance, and has taken some steps in defining guidance.
The focus is on the operational activities for installation of fixed, floating and subsea units,
dredging, trenching, pipe laying and floating oil/gas production. Detailed design of facilities
& equipment was not covered in this JIP as it is already supported through ISO 19906 for
Arctic Offshore Structures.
The development of guidelines and regulations in modern industry are expected to be
functional, goal based, as much as possible relying on procedures and technology already in
general use and, in this case, focused on arctic operations.
As part of the work scope the JIP has taken the initiative to liaise with Class Societies, Arctic
Governmental Authorities and international standards organizations such as ISO. A
diversified group of Dutch operators and knowledge centers have assessed deficiencies in
existing standards and it is therefore considered useful and beneficial for the ISO TC67 SC 8
and SC 7 to use this report when preparing their new ISO norms.
This Arctic Marine Operations Challenges & Recommendations Report presents existing
rules & regulations, identifies the areas which require additional guidance, and in those cases
where possible defines recommendations for arctic operations. The index used in this report
is based on ISO 19901-6; Petroleum and natural gas industries Specific requirements for
offshore structures Part 6: Marine operations. The index has been adjusted and
complemented with aspects specific for arctic operations.

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Arctic Marine Operations Challenges & Recommendations


Volume 1 Main Report
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The following key observations/guidance have been gathered within the scope of this Joint
Industry Project;
It was noted from the gap analysis that there was limited (ISO) guidance for pipe lay,
trenching and dredging operations, let alone for the arctic areas. It was therefore chosen
to provide a number of best practices for these operations, considering the arctic
environment. The efforts concentrated on the aspects that would be new in the arctic
when comparing with open water operations in non-arctic areas.
Site specific operations should be considered when planning and carrying out operations.
Considerable effort was performed to align the knowledge on weather conditions and in
particular on the requirements for monitoring and forecasting as well as the requirements
for decision based tools.
For the transportation & logistic aspects input relied heavily on the existing guidance for
arctic shipping which is further developed and was evaluated and transferred to
recommendations for the specific services of this guide.
This report provides guidance as required specifically for contractors expecting to work
in arctic areas on the aspects of health, safety, training and also stakeholder mapping.
A frame work is provided to perform environmental impact assessments both in early as
well as detailed stages of design in order to ensure that impacts can be managed and
mitigated.
Specific attention was given to the evaluation of the loads on and the operation of
disconnectable floating production units.
The other volumes of this report contain results of the gap analysis performed in the project
as well as relevant results of the pilot projects of the Arctic Operations Handbook (AOH)
JIP;
The IceStream Pilot project, described in volume 3, has shown that the egg code
(which is a method to describe characteristics of ice fields), when used as a basis to
establish a visualization of the ice field, can serve as input to numerical models with
which ice loads can be predicted on floating structures. More field data is required to
support development of new analytical models.
The Environmental Impact Pilot project, described in volume 4, has developed an
enhanced approach (interaction of linked sensitivities) for understanding the
environmental impact of operations in an early project stage in a semi-quantitative
manner. Application of such an approach is recommended to assess, evaluate and reduce
the environmental impact of operations in arctic areas.
A state of the art review for marine icing on vessels has been performed and has been
documented in volume 5, Marine icing on arctic offshore operations Pilot project. It
highlights that although there are many approaches, there is no common approach and no
industry standard for marine icing calculations. It strongly recommends more field
observations and improved prediction models to determine sea spray formation and icing
accretion.

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Arctic Marine Operations Challenges & Recommendations


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Key recommendations from the Arctic Operations Handbook JIP are:


Prepare more detailed operational standards including waiting on weather and ice,
uptime and risk and hazard management.
Develop equipment standards especially for the niche operations in this report.
Prepare ice management guidelines, in concert where possible with the ISO TC67 SC 8
Work group 4, ice management.
Guidance text for marine operations in arctic conditions has been prepared in this report.
It is recommended that this can be incorporation into ISO 19901-6, or other ISO
documentation.
Implementation of an operational ice level into the ISO documentation for defining the
ice action at which the (vessel) position may no longer be retained, due to structural or
station keeping capability.

List of participants
The following companies have participated in the Arctic Operations Handbook JIP;
Allseas Engineering B.V.
American Bureau of Shipping
Bluewater Energy Services B.V.
Canatec Associates International Ltd.
Delft University of Technology
Deltares
GustoMSC B.V.
Heerema Marine Contractors B.V. [Project Coordinator]
Huisman Equipment B.V.
Imares, Institute within Stichting Dienst Landbouwkundig Onderzoek
IntecSea The Netherlands
MARIN
IHC Merwede
Royal Boskalis Westminster N.V.
Shell Global Solutions International B.V.
TNO

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Arctic Marine Operations Challenges & Recommendations


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Final version 15-Dec-2013

Table of Contents
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

SCOPE
Introduction
Arctic Operations Handbook JIP
Main Report structure
Key recommendations

16
16
16
18
18

2.0
2.1
2.2

NORMATIVE AND OTHER REFERENCES


Normative references
Other references

19
19
19

3.0

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

20

4.0
4.1
4.2

SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATED TERMS


Symbols
Abbreviated terms

25
25
25

5.0
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
Introduction
Gap analysis
Health, safety and environment
Arctic Conditions and Severity

28
28
28
29
30

6.0
6.1
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.3
6.3.1
6.3.2
6.4

ORGANIZATION, DOCUMENTATION AND PLANNING


Introduction
Stakeholder mapping
General
Whats different for projects in the Arctic
Stakeholder involvement process
Operations planning
General
What is different in the Arctic
References

31
31
31
31
33
34
35
35
35
36

7.0
7.1
7.2
7.2.1
7.2.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.5.1

METOCEAN, ICE AND EARTHQUAKE REQUIREMENTS


Introduction
What is different in the Arctic
Relevant Arctic Conditions
Data availability & reliability
Gaps
Guidance note IceStream and Marine Icing
General discussion
Severity Classes

38
38
38
39
41
41
42
44
44

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Volume 1 Main Report
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7.5.2
7.5.3
7.6
7.6.1
7.6.2
7.6.3
7.6.4
7.6.5
7.7
7.7.1
7.7.2
7.7.3
7.7.4
7.7.5
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11

Risks and hazards


General requirements for Ice Management
Monitoring requirements
General monitoring requirements
Wind and current monitoring
Ice Monitoring
Monitoring equipment and procedures
Monitoring skills
Forecasting requirements
Forecast parameters.
Local experience
Meteorology (wind, temperature, visibility) Forecasting
Oceanography (waves, water levels, currents) Forecasting
Ice Forecasting
ICT Information and communication technology
Other monitoring requirements
Summary recommendations
References

49
50
51
51
55
55
57
59
60
60
60
61
62
62
62
64
66
67

8.0
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4

WEIGHT CONTROL
Introduction
Whats different for weight control in the Arctic
Weight control recommendations
References

69
69
69
69
69

9.0
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4

STABILITY
Introduction
Whats different for stability in the Arctic
Stability recommendations
References

70
70
70
70
73

10.0
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4

BALLASTING OPERATIONS
Introduction
Whats different for ballasting in the Arctic
Ballast system recommendations
References

74
74
74
74
76

11.0
11.1
11.2

LOADOUT
Introduction
References

76
76
76

12.0
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4

TRANSPORTATION
Introduction
Whats different for transportation in the Arctic
Transportation recommendations
References

78
78
78
79
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13.0
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.3.1
13.3.2
13.3.3
13.3.4
13.3.5
13.4

TEMPORARY MOORING & STATIONKEEPING MARINE OPERATIONS


Introduction
Whats different for mooring and station keeping in the Arctic
Station keeping recommendations
Describing ice conditions
Modelling Ice conditions
Calculating limits for station keeping
Ice Management effect
Operational application of limits for station keeping
References

82
82
82
82
83
83
83
84
84
85

14.0
14.1
14.2

CONSTRUCTION AND OUTFITTING AFLOAT


Introduction
References

85
85
85

15.0
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4

FLOAT-OVER TOPSIDES INSTALLATION


Introduction
Whats different for float-over in the Arctic
Float-over recommendations
References

86
86
86
86
87

16.0
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4

PRE-LAID MOORING INCLUDING FOUNDATION


Introduction
Whats different for pre-laid moorings in the Arctic
Pre-laid mooring recommendations
References

88
88
88
88
89

17.0
17.1
17.2
17.3
17.4

OFFSHORE INSTALLATION OPERATIONS


Introduction
Whats different for offshore installation operations in the Arctic
Offshore installation operation recommendations
References

89
89
89
89
89

18.0
18.1
18.2

LIFTING OPERATIONS
Introduction
References

90
90
90

19.0
19.1
19.2

DECOMMISSIONING AND REMOVAL


Introduction
References

90
90
90

20.0
20.1
20.2
20.3
20.4

LOGISTICS AND TRANSPORT


Introduction
Whats different for logistic operations in the Arctic
Logistic operations recommendations
Transport recommendations

92
92
92
93
93

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Volume 1 Main Report
Final version 15-Dec-2013

20.4.1
20.4.2
20.4.3
20.4.4
20.5
20.6
20.7
20.8

General regulations for transport recommendations


General aspects of ships without polar ice class entering Arctic
Protection of cargo, de-icing and redundancy
Supply of regular useables and consumables
Crew change recommendations
Supply base/logistic hub recommendations
Logistic planning / approval recommendations
References

94
96
97
97
98
99
100
101

21.0
21.1
21.2
21.3
21.4
21.5
21.5.1
21.6
21.6.1
21.6.2
21.6.3
21.7
21.8
21.8.1
21.8.2
21.8.3
21.8.4
21.9
21.10

VESSEL OPERATION
Introduction
What is different in the Arctic
Identification of Gaps
Icebreaking services
Icebreaking class and icebreaker selection
Icebreaking requirements
Physical Ice Management
IM vessel selection
IM requirements
Interfaces between IM vessel(s) and protected object
Standby preparations (hot and cold)
Other considerations
Structural integrity forecasting and monitoring
Special considerations for non-arctic units and equipment
Considerations for specialized units and equipment
Navigation aspects
Recommendations
References

104
104
104
104
105
105
108
110
111
112
113
113
114
114
114
114
115
115
116

22.0
22.1
22.2
22.3
22.4
22.4.1
22.4.2
22.4.3
22.4.4
22.4.5
22.4.6
22.4.7
22.4.8
22.5
22.5.1
22.6

GENERAL EQUIPMENT PREPARATION


Introduction
Guidelines
Impact of Arctic conditions on general equipment preparation
Equipment selection & modification
Assessment approach
Assessment conditions
Data to assemble for each site
Actions
Analysis
Adjustment of operations
Modification of equipment
Guidelines for assessment
Hull & shipboard systems
Guidelines for hull & shipboard systems
Mission equipment

117
117
117
118
118
121
121
125
126
127
127
127
128
129
130
130

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22.6.1
22.7
22.7.1
22.8
22.9
22.9.1
22.9.2
22.10
22.10.1
22.10.2
22.10.3
22.10.4

Guidelines for hull & shipboard systems


Winterization
Guidelines for winterization
Redundancy requirements
Maintenance & repair
Maintenance and repair availability / reliability in extreme climate
Availability of maintenance and repair facilities
Lay-up
Selection and preparation of the lay-up site
Equipment preparation, monitoring and re-activation
Cold and hot lay-up
Guidelines for lay-up

131
131
132
132
133
134
134
135
135
136
136
136

23.0
23.1
23.1.1
23.1.2
23.1.3
23.1.4
23.2
23.2.1
23.2.2
23.2.3
23.2.4

HEALTH
Health
Introduction to health
Guidelines for health
Impact of Arctic conditions on health
Recommendations for general health
Staff & crew
Introduction to staff & crew
Guidelines for staff & crew
Impact of Arctic conditions on staff & crew
Recommendations for staff & crew

138
138
138
138
138
139
139
139
139
140
143

24.0
24.1
24.2
24.2.1
24.2.2
24.2.3
24.2.4
24.3
24.3.1
24.3.2
24.3.3
24.3.4
24.3.5
24.4
24.4.1
24.4.2
24.4.3
24.5
24.6
24.7

SAFETY MANAGEMENT
Introduction
Medical support
Introduction to medical support
Guidelines for medical support
Impact of Arctic operations on medical support
Recommendations for medical support
Emergency response
Introduction to emergency response
Escape, evacuation and rescue
Considerations
Impact of Arctic conditions on ER & EER
Recommendations for emergency response
Fire fighting
Introduction to fire fighting
Guidelines for fire fighting
Recommendations for fire fighting
Operations manual and procedures
Risk management
Facilities and working environment

145
145
145
145
145
146
149
150
150
151
153
155
162
164
164
165
165
168
168
168

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24.7.1
24.7.2
24.7.3

Guidelines for facilities and working environment


Impact of Arctic conditions on facilities and working environment
Recommendations for facilities and working environment

168
169
173

25.0
25.1
25.1.1
25.1.2
25.1.3
25.1.4
25.1.5

ENVIRONMENT
Environmental Impact Pilot Project
Introduction
Generic Framework Methodology
Generic Framework Application
Recommendations for further development
References

175
175
175
175
176
177
177

26.0
26.1
26.1.1
26.1.2
26.1.3
26.1.4

TRAINING
Introduction
Introduction to training
Guidelines for training
Impact of Arctic conditions on training
Recommendations for training

178
178
178
178
179
182

27.0
27.1
27.2
27.2.1
27.2.2
27.2.3
27.3
27.3.1
27.3.2
27.3.3
27.4

DREDGING OPERATIONS
Introduction
General dredging operation
Description of dredging operation
Impact of Arctic conditions on dredging
Recommendations for dredging
Pipeline Trenching
Description of trenching
Impact of Arctic conditions on trenching
Recommendations for trenching
References

185
185
185
186
187
188
189
189
189
190
190

28.0
28.1
28.2
28.3
28.3.1
28.3.2
28.3.3
28.4
28.4.1
28.4.2
28.4.3
28.5
28.5.1
28.5.2
28.5.3

PIPE LAY AND SUBSEA INSTALLATION OPERATIONS


Introduction
Guidelines
General Pipe lay Operation
Description of pipe lay operation
Impact of Arctic conditions on pipe lay operation
Recommendations for pipe lay operation
Subsea Structure Installation
Description of subsea structure installation
Impact of Arctic conditions on subsea structure installation
Recommendation for subsea structure installation
Launch & Recovery of Equipment
Description of equipment launch & recovery
Impact of arctic conditions on launch & recovery of equipment
Recommendation for launch & recovery of equipment

191
191
191
192
192
193
194
195
195
196
196
197
197
197
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28.6
28.6.1
28.6.2
28.6.3
28.7
28.7.1
28.7.2
28.7.3
28.8
28.8.1
28.8.2
28.8.3
28.9

Abandonment & Recovery


Description of abandonment & recovery operation
Impact of arctic conditions on abandonment & recovery
Recommendation for abandonment & recovery
Anchoring
Description of anchoring
Impact of Arctic conditions on anchoring
Recommendation for anchoring
Landfalls
Description of landfalls
Impact of Arctic conditions on landfalls
Recommendation for landfalls
References

197
197
198
198
198
198
199
199
200
200
200
200
200

29.0
29.1
29.2
29.2.1
29.2.2
29.2.3
29.2.4
29.3
29.3.1
29.3.2
29.3.3
29.3.4
29.4
29.4.1
29.4.2
29.4.3
29.4.4
29.5
29.5.1
29.5.2
29.5.3
29.5.4
29.6
29.6.1
29.6.2
29.6.3
29.6.4
29.7
29.7.1
29.7.2
29.7.3

FLOATING OIL & GAS PRODUCTION


Introduction
Re-connection of the floating platform facility to the field infrastructure
Description of the reconnection operation
Guidelines controlling the reconnection operation
Impact of arctic conditions on the reconnection operation
Recommendations for reconnection operation
Station-keeping of the platform facility in the field
Description of the station-keeping operation
Guidelines controlling the station-keeping operation
Impact of Arctic conditions on the station-keeping operation
Recommendations for the station-keeping operation
Floating oil and gas production
Description of the production operation
Guidelines controlling the production operation
Impact of Arctic conditions on the production operation
Recommendations for the production operation
Produced oil and gas export operation
Description of the oil and gas export operation
Guidelines controlling the offloading operation
Impact of Arctic conditions on the offloading operation
Gaps for the offloading operation
Disconnection of the platform facility from the field infrastructure
Description of the disconnection operation
Guidelines controlling the disconnection operation
Impact of Arctic conditions on the disconnection operation
Recommendations for the disconnection operation
Pipeline operation
Description of the pipeline operation
Impact of Arctic conditions on the pipeline operation
Gaps for the pipeline operations

202
202
202
202
203
203
204
205
205
205
205
206
206
206
206
207
207
209
209
210
211
211
212
212
212
212
213
214
214
214
214

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30.0

BIBLIOGRAPHY

215

APPENDIX A GAP ANALYSIS WORKING GROUPS

221

APPENDIX B SURVIVAL KITS

222

APPENDIX C ENVIRONMENTAL REFERENCES

224

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INDEX TO VOLUMES
Volume

Title

Doc. No.

Volume 1

Main Report

MAR11908-E/1133-RP01

Volume 2

Gap Analysis Study Matrix

MAR11908-E/1133-RP02

Volume 3

IceStream - Pilot Project

MAR11908-E/1133-RP03

Volume 4

Environmental Impact - Pilot Project

MAR11908-E/1133-RP04

Volume 5

Marine Icing on Arctic Offshore


Operations - Pilot Project

MAR11908-E/1133-RP05

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SECTION 1
SCOPE : ARCTIC MARINE OPERATIONS

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1.0

SCOPE

1.1
Introduction
This report provides the summary results of the Arctic Operation Handbook JIP executed
over the period February 2012 to December 2013, with a group of 16 participants.
The term arctic as used in this report refers to areas where ice, permafrost and low
temperatures may influence offshore operations, field development and decommissioning.
The intent of the report is to assist service companies in preparing for and executing work in
arctic conditions including installation, pipe laying, dredging and trenching, floating oil &
gas production facilities and offloading operations. It is further intended to provide input for
(international) standard development, for instance that of the ISO TC67 SC8 Arctic
Operations.
Key result areas include the guidance for; operations, logistics and transport, weather
monitoring and forecasting, training, health and safety management, environmental impact,
ice flow behaviour and marine icing.
1.2
Arctic Operations Handbook JIP
The Arctic Operations Handbook Joint Industry Project (JIP) was launched in February of
2012 supported by a number of companies and knowledge institutes. The JIP was initiated
by a number of Dutch companies in the framework of the Maritime Innovation Program
(MIP) and was awarded a subsidy from the Dutch Ministry of EL&I (Economic affairs,
Agriculture & Innovation). With it the JIP participants committed to issue an open source
document to ensure that the work from the JIP is offered to the international arctic offshore
community and the general public for further use.
The participating companies have the ambition to execute projects in arctic areas, such as
installation and operations of oil and gas production facilities. The term arctic as used here
refers to areas where ice, permafrost and low temperatures may influence offshore
operations, field development and decommissioning.
Currently, there is no specific standard for companies operating in arctic offshore areas. To
support this industry and to ensure services can be provided in a safe manner with minimum
environmental impact, it was proposed to prepare guidance/standards for such operations.
This project has taken an important step in gathering existing rules & regulations, identifying
the areas which require additional guidance, and has taken some steps in defining guidance.
The focus is on the operational activities for installation of fixed, floating and subsea units,
dredging, trenching, pipe laying and floating oil/gas production. Detailed design of facilities
& equipment was not covered in this JIP as it is already supported through ISO 19906 for
Arctic Offshore Structures.
The development of guidelines and regulations in modern industry are expected to be
functional, goal based, as much as possible relying on procedures and technology already in
general use and, in this case, focused on arctic operations.

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As part of the work scope the JIP has taken the initiative to liaise with Class Societies, Arctic
Governmental Authorities and international standards organizations such as ISO. A
diversified group of Dutch operators and knowledge centers have assessed deficiencies in
existing standards and it is therefore considered useful and beneficial for the ISO TC67 SC 8
and SC 7 to use this report when preparing their new ISO norms.
The project addressed safety and sustainability of offshore operations in the arctic.
The project scope comprised:
1. Survey of available guidelines to identify the gaps in offshore operations guidance
related to the earlier mentioned specific offshore contractor expertise.
The gap analysis focused on the following operations:
Installation and removal of structures
Transport and logistics
Dredging and pipe laying
Floating oil/gas production
The work associated with these three operations was distributed over nine working
groups namely:
WG1 Logistics
WG2 Ice Metocean and Geophysical Intelligence
WG3 General Equipment
WG4 Health, Safety and Environment
WG5 Stakeholder management
WG6 Installation and removal of structures
WG7 Dredging and pipe laying
WG8 Floating oil/gas production
WG9 Vessel Operations
The individual participants that participated in the working groups have been reported in
Appendix A.
2.

Development of technical notes on the methods and needs that follow from working in
the arctic areas during extended periods (normally less than year round). It may be
concluded that separate, more detailed, R&D work should be carried out, but the main
objective is to deliver proposals for guideline and standard development.
On the following areas specific investigations have been performed:
Define appropriate modeling of ice flow around and under floating structure hulls
(IceStream Pilot Project)
Develop a framework to support the environmental impact analysis of offshore
arctic operations (Environmental Impact Pilot Project)
Investigate aspects of marine icing on vessels and equipment like sources, review of
rules, prediction and notes on mitigation and removal (Marine Icing Pilot Project)

3.

Preparation of a report (this report) that highlights the challenges for arctic marine
operations, reveals the gaps in relation to existing guidance and provides
recommendations to new and existing ISO standards based on the conclusions from the
project including the pilot projects. The report will also contain comments on existing
arctic standards and guidelines applicable to the scope of the study.

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4.

Liaison with Class Societies and Authorities to support the acceptance of technical
notes, proposals and comments in the development and updating of the standards and
guidelines.

1.3
Main Report structure
In this report for arctic marine operations, recommendations are given for methodologies,
engineering practices and preparations that the members of the JIP Arctic Operations
Handbook considered realistic and practical for marine based arctic operations. The
handbook follows the structure of ISO 19901-6 Marine Operations, thereby assuming that
existing marine operational guidelines are still valid, but need enhancement and/or extension
to be applicable to arctic conditions.
The main section headings are based on the existing ISO 19901-6 whereas the subsections
have been left at the discretion of the working groups delivering the content, but will in most
cases follow the ISO 19901-6 subsection descriptions. In some cases additional subsections
have been defined.
Also, additional sections have been added which are needed to cover the relevant arctic
operations. It was not the intent to anticipate on a new index for the ISO 19901-6 as the new
sections may well fit better in other ISO documents.
Further some volumes have been added to the Main report, volume 1.
Volume 2, Gap analysis, contains the matrixes produced during the gap analysis phases of
the project.
Volumes 3, 4 and 5 are standalone reports each with their own table of contents as issued by
the companies responsible, within the JIP, for the execution of these pilot projects.
1.4
Key recommendations
Key recommendations from the Arctic Operations Handbook JIP are:
Prepare more detailed operational standards including waiting on weather and ice,
uptime and risk and hazard management.
Develop equipment standards especially for the niche operations in this report.
Prepare ice management guidelines, in concert where possible with the ISO TC67 SC 8
Work group 4, ice management.
Guidance text for marine operations in arctic conditions has been prepared in this report.
It is recommended that this can be incorporation into ISO 19901-6, or other ISO
documentation.
Implementation of an operational ice level into the ISO documentation for defining the
ice action at which the (vessel) position may no longer be retained, due to structural or
station keeping capability.

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2.0

NORMATIVE AND OTHER REFERENCES

2.1
Normative references
Normative references are made in the various sections and pilot projects and are summarised
in section 30, bibliography.
The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated
documents only the edition cited applies. For undated documents, the latest edition of the
referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 19901-6, Petroleum and natural gas industries Specific requirements for offshore
structures Part 6: Marine operations
ISO 19906, Petroleum and natural gas industries Arctic Offshore Structures

2.2
Other references
Other references are given in the various sections and pilot projects.

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3.0

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

Terms and definitions used in this report are identical to those used in ISO 19901-6. New
terms and definitions have been added and are marked with an asterisk *.
For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions in ISO 19900, ISO 19901-1, ISO
19901-2 and ISO 19901-4, and the following apply:
action
external load applied to the structure (direct action) or an imposed deformation or
acceleration (indirect action)
action combination
design values of the different actions considered simultaneously in the verification of a
specific limit state
action effect
effect of actions on the structure or its components
adfreeze
freezing of ice to the surface of a structure
alert
prescribed reaction to specific ice conditions, which in time can become hazardous to the
operation of a structure
NOTE Several different levels associated with the time proximity of the hazard are
normally recognized.
arctic *
the term arctic as used in this report refers to areas where ice, permafrost and low
temperatures may influence offshore operations, field development and decommissioning.
brash ice *
accumulation of floating ice made up of fragments no greater than 2 meter
broken ice
loose ice consisting of small floes, broken up as a result of natural processes, active or
passive intervention
disconnection
planned separation of the risers (and mooring, if applicable) from a floating structure
dynamic positioning
technique of automatically maintaining the position of a floating vessel within a
specified tolerance by controlling onboard thrusters to counter the wind, wave, current and
ice actions

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egg code *
an oval code developed under WMO which specifies basic ice data on concentration, stages
of development (age) and form (floe size). A maximum of three ice types are identified
within the oval.
emergency disconnection
planned separation of the risers (and mooring, if applicable) from a floating structure,
without depressurization of the risers
escape
act of personnel moving away from a hazardous event to a place on the installation where its
effects are reduced or removed
evacuation
planned precautionary and emergency method of moving personnel from the installation
(muster station or TR) to a safe distance beyond the immediate or potential hazard zone
first-year ice
FY
sea ice formed during the current or prior winter that has not survived one summer melt
season
floe
relatively flat piece of sea ice greater than 20 m across
flowline
piping on the sea floor linking one or more subsea wells to the production system
NOTE functions may include production, injection, subsea systems control and export of
produced fluids.
freeze-thaw
possible degrading effect on concrete of repeated temperature changes causing frost cycles at
the surface
ice alert
alert related to encroaching hazardous ice features or conditions, generally requiring specific
changes to production operations
iceberg
glacial or shelf ice (greater than 5 m freeboard) that has broken (calved) away from its source
NOTE Icebergs can be freely floating or grounded, and are sometimes defined as tabular,
dome, pinnacle, wedge or blocky shaped.
ice detection
discrimination of ice features or associated conditions from the surrounding environment

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ice gouge
incision made by an ice feature in the seabed
NOTE Also called ice scour; a pit is an areal incision and a furrow is a linear incision made
by ice in the seabed
ice island
large tabular shaped ice feature that has calved from an ice shelf or glacier
ice management
active processes used to alter the ice environment with the intent to reduce the frequency,
severity or uncertainty of ice actions
ice management plan
detailed plan outlining the objectives, active procedures involved and individual
responsibilities for the implementation of the ice management system
ice management system
ice management, and associated ice detection and threat evaluation tools used for its
implementation
ice movement *
the resulting effect of wind, waves, current and thermal expansion on ice behavior in the
field.
ice ridge
linear feature formed of ice blocks created by the relative motion between ice sheets
NOTE A compression ridge is formed when ice sheets are pushed together and a shear ridge
is formed when ice sheets slide along a common boundary.
ice scenario
combination of circumstances involving the presence of ice, resulting in actions or action
combinations on a structure
landfast ice
ice that remains attached to a shoreline, island or grounded ice feature
NOTE Also called fast ice.
level ice
region of ice with relatively uniform thickness
NOTE Also called sheet ice.
lowest anticipated service temperature
LAST
minimum hourly average extreme level (EL) air temperature

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multi-year ice
MY
sea ice that has survived at least one summer melt season
NOTE when the term multi-year ice is used in conjunction with the term second-year ice,
the former should be interpreted as ice that has survived at least two summer melt seasons
operational ice level *
the ice action at which position of a stationary floating structure, temporary moored, may no
longer be retained, due to structural or station keeping capability
pack ice
sea ice consisting of discrete floes that is not landfast
permafrost
ground (soil or rock) remaining at or below 0 C for at least two consecutive years
place of safety
area outside the hazard zone in which personnel safety is no longer at risk due to the
installation hazard
rafted ice
ice feature formed from the superposition of two or more ice sheet layers
recovery
transfer of evacuees to a rescue vessel, helicopter, etc.
rescue
process by which persons entering the sea or reaching the ice surface, directly or in an
evacuation craft, are subsequently retrieved to a place where medical assistance is typically
available
ridge keel
portion of an ice ridge that extends below the water line
NOTE A ridge keel can consist of a consolidated layer and an unconsolidated layer.
ridge sail
portion of an ice ridge that extends above the water line
rubble field
region of broken ice blocks floating together as a continuous body
rubble pile
ice feature of areal, rather than linear extent, composed of blocks of broken ice
NOTE Term for grounded rubble piles is stamukha.

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safety critical element


SCE
item of equipment, procedure or structure whose failure could lead to a major accident or
whose purpose is to prevent or limit the consequences of a major accident
scour
soil erosion caused by wave, ice or current action
seabed
material below the elevation of the sea floor or ocean floor
sea floor
interface between the sea and the seabed
NOTE Refers to the upper surface of all unconsolidated material, also termed mudline.
seasonal operation
operation of a structure during a selected period during the course of the year, generally to
avoid particular ice conditions
second-year ice
sea ice that has survived one summer's melt season
NOTE second- year ice is sometimes referred to as multi-year ice
stamukha
grounded ice feature composed of broken ice pieces or rubble
temporary refuge
TR
place provided on the installation where personnel can take refuge for a specified period
while investigations, emergency response and evacuation preparations are undertaken

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4.0

SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATED TERMS

Symbols and abbreviated terms used in this report are identical to those used in the ISO
19901-6. New symbols and abbreviated terms have been added as needed.
4.1
Symbols
No specific symbols are used
4.2

Abbreviated terms

Abbreviation Description
A&R
ABS
AFY
AHT
AIRSS
AL
ALARP
ALE
ALIE
ALS
AMY
AOH
ATC
BAT
BMI
BP
C
CD
CEA
CIS
CoG
CSD
DMI
DNV
DP
EEC
EEDI
EER
EGNOS
EIA
EL
EL&A
ELE
ELIE
ER
ERV
EU

Abandonment and Recovery


American Bureau of Shipping
Azimuth first year icebreaker
Anchor Handling Tug
Arctic Ice Regime Shipping System
Abnormal level
As low as reasonably practicable
Abnormal-level earthquake
Abnormal-level ice event
Abnormal (accidental) limit state
Azimuth multiyear icebreaker
Arctic Operations Handbook
Arctic Technology Conference
Best Available Technique
Body Mass Index
Bollard Pull
Celsius
Cart Datum
Cumulative Effect Assessment
Canadian Ice Service
Center of Gravity
Cutter Suction Dredger
Danish Meteorological Institute
Det Norske Veritas
Dynamic Positioning
Ecosystem Effect Chain
Energy Efficiency Design Index
Escape, Evacuation and Rescue
European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service
Environmental Impact Assessment
Extreme level
Economic affairs, Agriculture & Innovation
Extreme-level earthquake
Extreme Level Ice Events
Emergency Response
Emergency Response Vessel
European Union

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FE
Finite Element
FEED
Front End Engineering Design
FLS
Fatigue Limit State
FMA
Finnish Marine Administration
FPIC
Free Prior and Informed Consent
FPSO
Floating Production, Storage and Offloading vessel
FRC
Fast Rescue Craft
FSU
Floating Storage Unit
FTA
Flow line Termination Assembly
FY
First Year, with reference to ice
GBS
Gravity Base Structure
GL
Germanischer Lloyd
GOMO
Global Offshore Marine Operations
GSK
Group Survival Kit
HAZID
Hazard identification
HDD
Horizontal Directional Drilling
HLV
Heavy Lift Vessel
HSE
Health, Safety and Environment
HVAC
Heating Ventilation and Conditioning
IACS
International Association of Classification Societies
ICT
Information and Communications Technology
IM
Ice Management
IMCA
International Marine Contractors Association
IMO
International Maritime Organization
IPIECA
International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association
ISO
International Organization for Standardization
ISPE
International Society of Polar Engineers
ISPS
International Ship and Port Facility Security Code
JIP
Joint Industry Project
KPa
Kilo Pascal
LAN
Local Area Network
LAST
Lowest anticipated service temperature
LAT
Lowest Astronomical Tide
LCV
Light Construction Vessel
MBL
Minimum Breaking Load
MCV
Medium Construction Vessel
MIP
Maritime Innovation Program
MY
Multi Year, with reference to ice
ND
No Data
NDT
Non-destructive testing
NGO
Non-Governmental Organization
NRC
National Research Council Canada
NRT
Near Real Time mode
NSR
Northern Sea Route
OGP
International Association of Oil and Gas Producers
OIM
Offshore Installation Manager
OSV
Offshore Support Vessel

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PAM
PC
PCSP
POB
PPE
PSK
QRA
R&D
RCS
RMRS
RoRo
ROV
SALM
SAR
SC8
SCE
Semi
SLIE
SLS
T
TC 67
TFY
TMY
TR
TSHD
UAV
UN
UNDRIP
ULS
WG
WMO
XT
Z/DS

Passive Acoustic Monitoring


Polar Class
Polar Continental Shelf Project
Persons On-Board
Personal Protective Equipment
Personal Survival Kit
Quantitative risk analysis
Research and Development
Recognised Classification Society
Russian Marine Register of Shipping
Roll-on/roll-off
Remotely Operated Vehicle
Single Anchor Leg Mooring
Search and Rescue
Sub Committee 8 Arctic Operations
Safety Critical Element
Semi-submersible crane vessel
Serviceability Level Ice Events
Serviceability limit state
metric Tonne
Technical Committee 67 Materials, equipment and offshore structures for
petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries
Traditional first year icebreaker
Traditional multiyear icebreaker
Temporary Refuge
Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
United Nations
United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
Ultimate Limit State
Work Group
World Meteorological Organization
Christmas tree (oil well)
Zone / Date Sysytem

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5.0

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

5.1
Introduction
The ISO 19901-6 provides recommendations for marine operation planning and execution.
Section 5 is used to indicate general considerations for marine operations preparation such as
Risk management and Job Safety analyses.
It is important for the user to realize that the many technical aspects in the sections hereunder
are to be integrated in a functional operations design. As many operations could be
seasonally limited, planning evaluation and operational phasing are essential parts of the
operations design. To get frozen in (unless as a planned activity) or having to abandon a job
that cannot continue through the winter will have great impact on the company involved but
also on all other arctic operations in the light of stakeholders tolerance. In sections 5 and 6 of
ISO 19901-6 the various aspects of preparing and planning marine operations are considered.
A significant part of this report involves the gap analysis that was carried out. Gaps are
identified as the difference between (required) guidance for arctic marine operations
compared to existing codes and standards.
5.2
Gap analysis
At the start of the project a significant effort was spent in identifying gaps in existing
guidelines. Gaps are identified as the difference between (required) guidance for arctic
marine operations compared to existing codes and standards. The boundaries for the study
were set up early and a framework was defined to assist with identifying key aspects of safe
arctic operations.
Considerable effort was spent to align the knowledge and definitions of weather conditions.
The arctic conditions and their severity were generically defined within the project and are
listed in section 7, for instance tables 7.1 7.3 provide the definitions metocean and ice
severity classes. These definitions of conditions were used consistently throughout the gap
analysis.
The offshore operations were divided
into sub activities so that more specific
conclusions and recommendations were
developed, instead of only high level
generic comments. As an example, see
figure 5.1, the (sub) activities for fire
fighting included the awareness stage,
sounding alarm, situation assessment,
mobilizing a fire team and so on. The
severity was indicated in red for mayor
challenges and pink for minor
challenges.
A next important step was to identify for
each (sub) activity the potential risks
which may arise due to specific arctic
conditions. By adding the

Figure 5.1 - Gap analysis example Safety Management


(Source: AOH)

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condition/severity consideration, a much better understanding was obtained of the


operational challenges involved.
For the identified combinations of activity and arctic conditions, the available guidance
referred to existing rules, regulations, standards, guidelines and own experience. In addition,
relevant literature was gathered and reviewed by the expert work groups. It was concluded
that significant work would be needed to close all of the gaps. Hence the gaps were
prioritized in order to focus the JIP efforts in these specific areas.
5.3
Health, safety and environment
For the arctic, this report considers the recommendations of Section 5 of ISO 19901-6 to be
fully required. It is even considered paramount to follow the outlined approaches. The
approaches in arctic marine operations however need additional general considerations given
the impact of not thoroughly prepared operations on Health, Safety and the Environment. In
order to indicate the importance of these aspects for the arctic, this report has therefore
defined additional sections to each of these aspects. Specifically these sections are Health
(section 23), Safety Management (section 24), Environment (section 25) and Training
(section 26).
The Environmental impact pilot project, described in volume 4, has developed an enhanced
approach (interaction of linked sensitivities) for understanding the environmental impact of
operations in an early project stage in a semi-quantitative manor. Application of such an
approach is recommended to assess, evaluate and reduce the environmental impact of
operations in arctic areas.
These considerations can be concluded with an excerpt noted hereunder of the Arctic
Offshore Oil and Gas guidelines from the Arctic Council, which describes very well what the
project aim is. The gap analysis is the first step to determine, where additional guidance is
required to ensure that operations are executed in a skilful and safe manner.

Arctic Council, arctic offshore oil and gas guidelines


Section 6.5 Human health and safety

Threats to human health and safety including unsafe working conditions are factors
contributing to accidents that could lead to environmental pollution. Possible threats
or hazards affecting the health and safety of personnel in Arctic offshore oil and gas
activities take many forms and comes from multiple sources.
All offshore activities should be conducted in a safe and skilful manner and equipment
maintained in a safe condition for the health and safety of all persons and the
protection of the associated facilities. All necessary precautions should be taken to
control, remove, or otherwise manage any potential health, safety or fire hazards.

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5.4
Arctic Conditions and Severity
During execution of the JIP, a common ground of understanding on arctic conditions was
developed. Arctic conditions ranging from environment, meteorology, oceanography, sea ice
and icebergs to seabed were explored to find their difference from normal moderate climate
circumstances.
A condition alone does not say anything about the impact that condition may have on an
operation. The severity of that condition does. Therefore severity classes have been
identified and introduced. These were used as general guidance.
For example when air temperatures descend below zero degrees Celsius there is a big
difference of their impact on an operation if the temperature becomes -10C or -40C.
This investigation into these arctic conditions and their severity resulted in three tables, ref.
section 7.5.
Table 7.1 Arctic conditions and severity classes
Table 7.2 Iceberg Classification
Table 7.3 Wind Chill Severity

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6.0

ORGANIZATION, DOCUMENTATION AND PLANNING

6.1
Introduction
The ISO 19901-6 section 6.0 gives recommendations for the organizational aspects of
marine operations. A number of additional recommendations are given in this section for
operations under arctic conditions.
An integrated approach during all stages of the project is recommended. Emphasis may need
to be put on sustainability during the review of the concepts and for final concept selection.
Due to the arctic complexities, this concept review and selection process may need several
iterations to be able to verify all possible (direct or indirect) effects of key parameters and to
facilitate the exchange of ideas between stakeholders.
The aspect of stakeholder mapping is considered an essential aspect which is more complex
in arctic areas, given the importance of involving among others indigenous people and
NGOs in the alignment processes. Recommendations on this aspect are given in the section
6.2 below.
6.2

Stakeholder mapping

6.2.1
General
ISO 26000, entitled "Guidance on Social Responsibility", released on 1 November 2010 is
recommended as primary reference for dealing with stakeholders.
This standard offers guidance much broader than stakeholder issues alone and also covers
socially responsible behaviour and possible actions. The content is summarized in the figure
on the next page, which is copied from the document. It does not contain requirements and
is therefore not certifiable, in contrast to ISO management system standards.

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The ISO 26000 scope clearly states the following.


"This International Standard is not a management system standard. It is not intended
or appropriate for certification purposes or regulatory or contractual use. Any offer to
certify, or claims to be certified, to ISO 26000 would be a misrepresentation of the
intent and purpose and a misuse of this International Standard. As this International
Standard does not contain requirements, any such certification would not be a
demonstration of conformity with this International Standard."
Hence, ISO 26000 cannot be used as basis for audits, conformity tests and certificates, or for
any other kind of compliance statements.
However, as a guidance document the ISO 26000 is an offer, voluntary in use, and it
encourages organizations to discuss their social responsibility issues and possible actions
with relevant stakeholders. As service providers, certification bodies do not belong to an
organizations stakeholders. ISO 26000 encourages the consideration of an organization's
social responsibility or "socially responsible behaviour" and to identify/select from its
recommendations those where the organization could/should engage in contributions to
society. ISO 26000 further encourages firms to report on actions taken.

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When specifically focusing on stakeholder identification, stakeholder engagement and


involving stakeholders in the projects, the ISO 26000 provides guidance as summarized in
the table below.
ISO Reference Section

Discussion

Foreword

This section explains that the International Standard ISO26000 was


developed using a multi-stakeholder approach from more than 90
countries and 40 international or regional organisations
As part of the ISO 26000 outline it explains that Clause 5 covers
recognizing social responsibility and engaging stakeholders.
As part of an overview it is explained that Clause 4 (Principles for
stakeholder interests) respect for stakeholder interests should be
considered.
A stakeholder is defined as an individual or group that has an
interest in any decision or activity of an organization
Stakeholder engagement is defined as an activity undertaken to
create opportunities for dialogue between an organisation and one or
more of its stakeholders.
This clause states that social responsibility is integrated throughout
the organization and takes into account the interests of the
stakeholder.
The principle is that an organization should respect, consider and
respond to the interests of its stakeholders.
This clause states that an organization should be aware of its various
stakeholders, and should understand the expectations of society.
Stakeholder identification and engagement are central addressing an
organizations social responsibility.

Introduction, Table 1
Introduction, Figure 1

2 Terms and Definitions,


Item 2.20
2 Terms and Definitions,
Item 2.21
3.3 Characteristics of
social responsibility,
Clause 3.3.1
4.5 Respect for stakeholder
interests
5.2.1 Impacts, interests and
expectations
5.3 Stakeholder
identification and
engagement
5.3.3 Stakeholder
engagement

This section covers the reasons for an organization to engage with its
stakeholders.

6.2.2
Whats different for projects in the Arctic
The ISO 26000 standard makes no specific reference to arctic developments and its
provisions are general enough to cover projects in any and all parts of the world. So why
should arctic projects be treated any differently?
A particular aspect of stakeholder identification and engagement in arctic project is the
special role accorded to indigenous (native) people. It could in fact be argued that
indigenous stakeholders enjoy certain special privileges which might not be available to
regular stakeholders. These are described in publications such as Adapting Community
Engagement Methodologies for Nunavit (where Nunavit is a territory in Northern Canada).
The principal of Free Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) was incorporated in Convention
169 of the International Labor Organization (1989), and it was further articulated in the UN
Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP). This declaration consists of 46
articles and establishes minimum parameters for respecting the rights of indigenous peoples.
143 countries have voted in favor of UNDRIP.

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Of particular note is Article 18, which states that indigenous peoples have the right to
participate in decision-making matters which would affect their rights, through
representatives chosen by themselves, to maintain and develop their own decision-making
institutions.
Article 20 states that indigenous peoples have the right to be secure in their own means of
subsistence and development and to engage freely in their own traditional and other
economic activities.
The UNDRIP also states that the indigenous peoples who may be affected by a development
are engaged prior to project initiation, and that they have full access to all information about
the scope and impacts of the proposed development activities on their lands, resources and
well-being.
6.2.3
Stakeholder involvement process
Following paragraphs provide a summary of the key steps in a process, which may be
adopted for dealing with stakeholders. Stakeholders are parties with a specific interest in the
development under consideration. They can be private (expert and non-expert) persons
and/or organizations, NGOs, authorities, universities, associations, enterprises, media, etc.
The forms of liaison with the stakeholders will vary according to the situation and objectives
to be achieved. By following a series of logical steps, outlined below, it will be possible to
develop a plan for engaging with all stakeholders.
The process includes the following steps.
1. Identify stakeholders
2. Document needs and define issues
3. Stakeholder analysis and mapping
4. Manage stakeholder expectations (stakeholder management plan)
5. Take action (execute the engagement activities)
6. Review and adjust the plan/repeat

Figure 6.3 Stakeholder Management Process

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6.3
Operations planning
6.3.1
General
Offshore operations in the arctic and related transport must often deal with remoteness, long
distance and may encounter ice or at least have to be prepared to encounter ice. Even when
probabilities are low and ice coverage might be small the possible challenges and risks need
to be addressed.
With developing interest to exploit arctic resources, shipping industrial goods to and from
the arctic will become frequent. Ships designed to transport project cargoes over the world
oceans will now have to enter arctic areas on the last lap of their voyage to their destination.
Also, unloading and re-loading of cargoes in arctic exposed conditions become a real
possibility as many arctic oil and gas developments are offshore.
The industry as well as the arctic coastal states are increasingly aware of the benefit of risk
based engineering and operations design to control the safety of economic activities in the
arctic. The arctic is not only an unforgiving environment, but also an environment to
preserve and protect from pollutions.
6.3.2
What is different in the Arctic
Marine operations planning is a part of the operations design and is carried out in various
phases of the project; we may consider the following phases.
Design phase
Mobilization phase
Actual operation day-to-day
In all phases the metocean conditions (ref. section 7) are governing in the arctic to a much
higher extent than in moderate or tropical environments and the specific aspects (including
sea ice, drifting ice, cold temperature and fog, but also remoteness) need due attention to
assess the impact on the specific operations. Recommendations are given in the following
chapters of this report that are dealing with the specific activities and operations.
Design phase
Abundant information is available about optimized operations scheduling, delay control and
cost control. For marine arctic operations the AOH participants would add three additional
considerations:
a. Design of the operation in phases and steps, led by the question What if
b. Allowance for delays due to late supply/support and interruptions, including large
seasonal changes from average.
c. Testing of the design schedule to arctic conditions in scenario simulations
The question What if should consider the arctic hazards and make the operations design
risk based. Arctic (metocean) conditions to be considered are listed in section 7.
For operations which are seasonal and/or extend over multiple seasons this is most relevant.
For operations which might extend into break up and or into freeze up the same will apply.
Mobilization phase
On basis of long term forecasting an initial estimate of the (earliest) start of the operation can
be made and, working backwards, the mobilization of ships and equipment can be scheduled
according to the planning of the operation. Localized and site specific observations,

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measurements and forecasting must then be added to arrive at a prediction of local seasonal
starting dates as well as likely closing dates for the spread chosen.
Actual day to day operation
Daily information on metocean conditions and forecasts thereof are needed. Monitoring and
remote sensing technologies to better assess the conditions and improve the forecasts are
recommended (ref. section 7). The operations management will have to decide on actual
go/no-go of the steps of the operation and the related supply/support actions. A risk based
decision making is recommended. Examples are available where a team of advisors from
different disciplines give a daily assessment of the risk of the ongoing and next steps of the
operation. (ref. Reed 2006). Procedures need to be in place and proper selection of the
equipment spread and their crews is essential.
Another example of major challenges for day to day operations are the supply and crew
management. Some arctic marine operations may be in extremely remote areas and use of
helicopters cannot be relied on (see also section 20). Long offshore cycles (and harsh arctic
weather conditions) are likely to have a negative impact on equipment and on human
performance (see section 23).
6.4
References
1) ISO 26000 Guidance on Social Responsibility

2) United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP),


New York City, September 2007
3) GUIDEMAPS (2004). Successful transport decision making. A project
management and stakeholder engagement handbook. Reino Unido: Guidemaps
Consortium 2004. ISBN 3-88354-144-3
www.civitas-initiative.org/docs1/GUIDEMAPSHandbook_web.pdf
4) Taschner, S. & Fiedler, M. (2009). Stakeholder Involvement Handbook.
AENEAS report D2.1
http://www.aeneasproject.eu/docs/AENEAS_StakeholderInvolvementHandbook.pdf
5) Convention 169 of the International Labour Organisation (1989)
6) Keinonen A, Browne and Jolles, Six years in Sakhalin offshore oil /
management of risk, operation in ice, Icetech 2006.
7) Reed, I., Oil exploration and production offshore Sakhalin Island, Icetech 2006.

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SECTION 7
METOCEAN, ICE AND EARTHQUAKE
REQUIREMENTS

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7.0

METOCEAN, ICE AND EARTHQUAKE REQUIREMENTS

7.1
Introduction
The subsections in section 7 originate from the ISO 19901-6 norms, dealing with Operations
in Open Water. Additional sub sections have been added, to include specific requirements
for operations in arctic environments. As per the 19901-6 reference other areas than just
metocean and ice will be addressed here.
The Working Group looking after section 7 first defined gaps in operational standards and
codes and then assessed priorities for each of the defined gaps. The items listed in section 7
represent those items which were given a score of High Importance. In a final assessment
and preparation of new Guides it is worthwhile to review medium and low priorities. See
Volume 2 for the gap analysis results.
Where no details have been provided in each of the subsections, the existing ISO 19901-6
code can be used as general reference to cover operations in arctic areas. More refinements
may be required at a later date.
The following sub/sections will follow the same structure as this report in principle, a listing
of gaps, a discussion and suggested additions for an arctic operations standard.
This section provides a summary of currently available knowledge, known to the authors.
More specific solutions and new innovations can be developed in a follow up Phase or JIP,
see also under recommendations.
7.2
What is different in the Arctic
The following ice and metocean aspects need to be considered when preparing or executing
arctic operations as compared to preparing operations in non-arctic areas.
1) General lack of reliable long-term measurement data (in particular ice conditions) and
subsequent large uncertainties in extreme estimates (used for designs but also planning
of operations).
2) Due to climate change, anticipated faster melting of sea ice which in turn leads to larger
areas of open water, and which may lead to higher waves.
3) Perceived or real lack of proper tools and processes to determine ice hazards and risks, to
determine the effects of drift ice on operations, the ability to forecast season start and
end dates and the ability to predict the loads on systems operating in ice and the effects
of such loads.
4) Remoteness which affects the communication and data transfer capabilities, for
forecasting.
The project group further emphasizes the need to evaluate the reliability of hind cast data,
given strong climate change influences in the Arctic. Areas which in the past would show
limited wave action could change over time due to larger open water areas. These effects
need to be considered when evaluating operations and workability.
In the next section a number of significant aspects related to operations in cold climates are
noted.

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7.2.1
Relevant Arctic Conditions
A number of key aspects effecting operations in ice covered waters are listed below.
Metocean and Ice criteria
The ISO code 19901-06 specifies criteria as well as return periods, but this does not include
ice conditions. Design ice conditions can be found in ISO 19906 but these relate to the
design conditions and not the operational conditions.
Clear operational criteria should be defined and a start has been made in the sections which
follow. Further investigations are required to determine the operational criteria.
Ice severity
For general guidance and use, adopt the enclosed ice severity table, prepared by the Arctic
Operations Handbook team, Table 7.1.
Weather windows
ISO 19901-6 refers to the operations, the design impact as well as the applicable weather
margins as a result of certain metocean conditions. In area with ice, different impacts will be
experienced compared to those in open water. Due to the presence of ice in different seasons,
the effects of certain metocean restrictions will change and one cannot rely on wave and
current data.
Weather windows may be chosen for instance as follows:
Open water conditions or summer window, no ice
Open water conditions, or summer window with some ice (growlers, icebergs and other
older ice remnants)
Shoulder conditions which may include a spring break up window and a fall freeze up
window with limiting ice conditions for each
Winter conditions with large areas covered by sea ice
Considerations shall be given to partial ice concentrations and the occurrence of storms
when ice is forming or when ice is about to break up. Even in mid-winter pack ice may be
affected by strong winds and cause ice pressure in some areas and opening up of leads
(narrow open water areas between ice floes) in other areas.
Considerations shall be given to a combination of metocean restrictions and ice restrictions
in all phases of operations; see also for open water effects ISO 19901-6, section 7.5.
Operational duration
In section 7.6 of the ISO 19901-6 details can be found for operational durations in open
water operations. In ice these durations may differ.
Operational duration is defined as the time to carry out an operation, which could take just
one day, the delivery of material, to a week like ice management to a whole season from
break up to freeze up and into the ice season. These operational windows shall be as realistic
as possible and shall include inaccuracies in operational schedules, technical or operational
delays, uncertainties in environmental statistics and accuracy of the metocean, and ice
forecast.
Of key importance is the warning time required by operators to discontinue or even stop their
current operation and eventually leave the site, due to expected and prevailing ice conditions.

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These hazard warning times are often referred to as T Time, which may vary from one to
several hours to well over 1 day. Operational procedures shall be prepared and in place to
handle any such T-Time and the associated responses needed.
Operating limits
Operating limits for the vessel or fleet of vessels shall be defined as limiting ice conditions
for a certain operation (i.e. thickness, type, concentration and drift speed as well as deformed
ice conditions and growlers), in the same context as using wind speed or sea states and
current to define open water limits for those same vessels.
Vessel operating limits should be defined in a similar way as they have been defined for
open water conditions. Aspects to consider will include:
Weather and Ice conditions and hazards, like icebergs, growlers, stamukhi or other
significant ice features
Operational phases and the respective securing time or T-times
Vessel structural and performance capabilities
Support system performance capabilities
Class and or Insurance requirements
Risk and hazard analysis and mitigation procedures
Accuracy of arctic data base and frequency, accuracy and reliability of forecasts from
various sources
Procedures for now casts and forecasts
Decision making principles and procedures
Remoteness
An approach to combine the effects of several key parameters, such as wind, waves and
ice conditions.
Consider the preparation of performance graphs for each of the operating scenarios and
varying with differing ice conditions or with differing support (ice management). These
performance graphs are referred to by some as ice passports. Both the Russian Class as well
as DNV have standards for such ice passports in place. Further details can be found in
section 21.5. Also use of the IMO Polar Code has to be considered.
Visibility
The lack of visibility or the occurrence of
fog, normally occurring at 100 % relative
humidity, can effect stationary and transit
operations in open water and in ice special
precautions will be necessary. Not only
will the usual navigational equipment be
required and in proper functioning order,
the complete metocean and ice detection,
monitoring and forecasting system shall
function properly as well.
Depending on the ice classes of the
various ships in use, safe operating speeds
shall be used, in order to prevent possible
risks in hitting free drifting ice floes, like

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Figure 7.1 - Beaufort Sea Tow


(Source: W. Jolles)

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growlers especially in conditions of low visibility.


Special equipment including the use of special night cameras to detect wild life should also
be available.
7.2.2
Data availability & reliability
In support of safe operations a proper knowledge of the conditions is required. Barents 2020
for instance lists the uncertainty of environmental values to the lower knowledge within that
area. In Appendix 1 we find: Although available measured data and results from numerical
models do not show worse metocean design criteria related to wind, waves and currents in
the Barents Sea than further south on the Norwegian shelf (the North Sea, mid-Norway), less
knowledge about the physical environment in the Barents Sea introduces larger uncertainties
into the estimates of values with annual recurrences of 10-2 and 10-4.
Are more measurements needed, can the design work (FEED) be initiated and is a proper
data base available?
These are some of the questions that will need answering before any system is taken to the
arctic or ice-covered areas. Incomplete data bases will impact the results of such feed studies,
impact EER operations and potentially lead to larger uncertainties.
Larger and more complicated arctic systems may require supplemental data to be gathered
prior to any operation. All offshore operations must be monitored such that all offshore and
where possible onshore users have access to key information and the most reliable access
and use; exchange of data between offshore with copies to onshore users is key to safe
operation; certain data must be exchanged other may be exchanged. A data handling systems
should be in place, see also sections 7.6 and 7.7
7.3
Gaps
The following main operational gaps in standards and guides have been found related
metocean and ice; other sublevels are defined in the following sections:
1. Wind and current monitoring,
2. Temperature monitoring and the effects of ice spray on personnel exposure,
3. Weather windows and metocean and ice conditions for different operational seasons
summer, extended summer and early winter,
4. Sea ice and ice berg data and monitoring, for example satellite imagery may need to be
enhanced providing higher frequency, more coverage and better resolution and
5. Ice behavior and ice drift monitoring and forecasting.
A lot of work has been done in other areas of design of arctic systems (ISO 19906) and
general arctic shipping (IMO Polar Code) and use can be made thereof. Also OGP issued
norms for the monitoring of metocean conditions.
The workgroup identified a gap in the requirements for spatial and temporal detail of the
forecast, required forecast timeframes and forecast accuracies, which are needed to provide
guidance on the use and availability of now- and forecasting for ice & metocean. Therefore
the following tasks shall be regarded as high priority items:
Improved monitoring compared to other applications (open water)
Improved forecasting (compared to other applications, like non-arctic).
Other important gaps were found in areas of data quality and reliability and in risk and
hazard analysis. For the former no data is available how accurate the arctic metocean data is
and how accurate and reliable the forecast. Are sufficient weather stations available and can

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the data be made available to all users? The latter gaps apply for instance to the forecasting
of polar lows white out or long term fog conditions, all affecting arctic operations. This
needs to be taken into consideration when conducting a hazard analysis to assess the risk of
continued operations.
It is recommended to add the need for supplementary ice and weather data in support of
operations of arctic systems within future standards. In various cases probabilistic data is
required to develop proper risks scenarios and ultimate loads and thus responses. When
considering floaters in ice additional time series may be required in order to conduct a proper
analysis of the behavior of the system in the dynamic ice conditions, including a probabilistic
analysis of extremes. Such time series data may not yet exist for all locations and when it
exists it may not cover a large enough number of years. Additional data will thus be
required.
7.4
Guidance note IceStream and Marine Icing
Pilot studies were part of this JIP, the IceStream project managed by MARIN and the marine
icing project managed by IHC Merwede and carried out by the lead author prof. G.
Cammaert. These two pilots could potentially have a large impact on arctic operations.
The first project was to study the behavior of ice around floating structures, called IceStream,
since this influences the operation, station keeping, forces and appendices such as hoist wires
as well as ice formation in moon pools and ice floes impacting mooring wires.
It is difficult to describe the ice conditions with only a few parameters since they may
include first year and also second or multiyear ice, level ice and deformed ice, icebergs,
stamukhas and also various deformed ice conditions. For navigation in ice covered waters,
sea ice charts may indicate large scale ice conditions and small scale ice conditions. These
charts incorporate the so-called egg code, giving ice concentrations, floe sizes and the stage
of the development (or thickness ranges) and where needed they can show ice drift, pressure
as well as other ice features.
The Pilot study IceStream has shown that this egg code is a suitable basis for a parametric
description of an ice field, consisting of level ice at this time, thus useful for predicting level
ice loads on floating structures.
In this phase of IceStream the focus was on the correct simulation of ice floes, corresponding
to their existence in the field and to identify global ice behaviour. Actual modelling of floes
will be undertaken in next phases which fall outside of this JIP. A first step was made for the
modelling work and various models were looked at in some detail. More work is anticipated
in checking other models such as the models by NRC of Canada and a few others. Also
current modelling work has been initiated in 2012, which will need to be recognized.
The egg code may use up to ten parameters to describe the severity of the present level ice.
The first parameter indicates the overall ice concentration as the ratio of the level ice area
over the total area. The other nine parameters distinguish the three main types of level ice,
using three properties to describe them: partial concentration, stage of development and
form. The partial concentration again indicates the fraction of the total area covered with this
particular type of ice. The stage of development refers to the age of the ice, and the ice
thickness can be related to this parameter. Finally, the size of the individual ice particles is
indicated with the form parameter. In future the IceStream pilot can also add other
parameters such as traces of old ice, melting stages as well as other relevant ice conditions.
The limited number of parameters contained in the egg code allows IceStream to indicate the
severity of the level ice, based on the combination of the ice concentration, thickness and

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floe size. Additionally, it enables comparison between multiple conditions. Finally, historical
data in the form of the egg code is available, which can be used in the establishment of a
statistical database (Canatec Ice06). The egg-code is therefore used as a basis to establish a
visualization of the ice field, which can serve as input to numerical models. In this method,
one extra parameter is used to indicate the distribution, or level of clustering, within the ice
field. Additionally, floe size distributions based on observations are part of the input.
IceStream has shown that this egg code is a suitable basis for a parametric description of an
ice field, consisting of level ice at this time, thus useful for predicting level ice loads on
floating structures.
For further details on the IceStream Pilot see volume 3 of the Arctic Marine Operations
Challenges & Recommendations report.
The second Pilot study concentrated on the state of the art in marine and Atmospheric icing.
Icing affects arctic operations in areas of lashings, operations on deck, safety of personnel on
deck as well as stability.
The report Impact of Marine Icing on Arctic Offshore Operations (ref. volume 5) is
intended to give designers a state-of the art review on the sources and distribution of ice
accretion on ships. The goal is to develop an understanding of the subject, and to develop a
guideline on ice accretion based on the best information available. Sea spray and
atmospheric precipitation are the two principal sources of ice accretion. Most sea spray
occurs from the sea surface up to 15 to 20 m above the sea surface and forms about 50 to
90% of the icing on ships, the remaining being atmospheric sources, depending on the
worlds geographic location.
The main international code containing provisions for marine icing is ISO19906 (ISO 2010),
which gives guidance on icing as a function of structure height and icing density, but no
indication of the environmental factors giving rise to these icing parameters. Prediction of
icing build up rate is very complex. The physical processes of superstructure icing vary
spatially and temporally on a ship, and icing rate is qualitatively related to ship size, speed,
headway, temperature, and sea state. Today, modeling of sea spray and atmospheric
precipitation are still in its development phases. Several methods are yet available for icing
mitigation and removal, such as thermal, coating, chemical or mechanical. Vessel design for
anti-icing may increase design and construction cost, but can significantly increase
workability and has potentially minimal operational costs.
For further details on the Marine Icing Pilot see volume 5 of the Arctic Marine Operations
Challenges & Recommendations report.

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7.5

General discussion

7.5.1
Severity Classes
The working group for this section 7 has reviewed a number of rules, standards and norms as
indicated in 7.11. These references will be discussed with particular emphasis on the
additional focus that is needed to cover arctic operations, over and beyond those statements
that already cover open water monitoring needs and requirements.
The following Tables 7.1 7.3 of Arctic conditions and severity classes have been prepared,
for use during operations planning, mobilization and demobilization, and project executions
including monitoring and forecasting, as required and where possible. The Severity can be
used as general guidance. The tables when used, in general from left to right indicate
progressively higher severities. For instance operations in thin first year ice with
concentrations less than 1/10th are much less severe that conditions with 50 cm ice in
concentrations of 8./10ths and above, which include old ice fragments.
Three tables are provided: a general section table 7.1, one for iceberg classification Table 7.2
and one for wind chill, Table 7.3. The latter is an example of wind chill factors and other
versions can be found in literature; this version is most detailed in critical temperature ranges
and was thus selected.

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Table 7.1 Arctic conditions and severity classes
SUBJECT

CONDITIONS

SEVERITY CLASSES

Environment

ISO 19906 - 5.6, 6.1 & 6.2


Eco system sensitivity
Environmental vulnerability (mammals, noise,
spills, exhaust, turbidity)
Socio-economic aspects/public concern
Remoteness

< 5 days
TBA

5 - 10 days

< -10C
Calm
0-1
< 2 m/s
See Table
below

-10C to -20C
Breeze
2-6
< 13.8 m/s

-20 to -30C
Wind
7
< 17.1 m/s

-30 to -40C
Gale
8-9
< 24.4 m/s

> -40C
Storm
10-11
< 32.6 m/s

Precipitation

drizzle

rain

sleet

snow

grapple
(soft hail)

Ice accretion
Atmospheric icing and Marine icing

light
< 0.7 cm/hr.

heavy
2 - 4 cm/hr.

extreme
> 4 cm/hr.

Visibility (related to precipitation)

good

moderate
0.7 - 2
cm/hr.
moderate

poor

very poor

ISO 19906 - 6.3


Air Temperature (mean daily average)
Wind speed
Beaufort Scale

Wind chill

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< 200 nm

500 - 1000
nm
10 - 20 days

Darkness
Daylight hours
Meteorology

Section 25
Section 25

45

200 - 500 nm

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> 1000 nm
> 20 days

Mirage
effect

Hurricane
12
> 32.7 m/s

hail

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SUBJECT

CONDITIONS

SEVERITY CLASSES

Polar lows
Polar low life span
Oceanography

ISO 19906 - 6.4


Water depth
Waves (including spectral character)
Ocean currents
Tidal currents

Sea ice and Icebergs

ISO 19906 - 6.5


Sea Ice
Forms of Ice

Broken ice conditions

Ice type
Ice condition
Ice surface features
Other classes as function of the season

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> 5 nm

5 - 2 nm

2 nm 0.5nm
extreme
> 24 hrs.

< 0.5nm

moderate
< 6 hrs.

heavy
6 - 24 hrs.

< 50 m
mild
< 1.0 m Hs
< 0.5 m/s
Yes

50 - 100 m
moderate
1.0-2.5 m Hs
0.5 - 1.0 m/s
No

100 - 300 m
rough
2.5-4 m Hs
> 1.0 m/s

> 300 m
very rough
4-6 m Hs

Nilas
< 10 cm
Brash Ice

Young Ice
10 - 30 cm
Ice Cake

Thin Ice
30 - 70 cm
Small Floe

<2m

2 - 20 m

20 - 100 m

Medium
70 - 120 cm
Medium
Floe
100 - 500 m

Open drift

Close pack

4/10 - 6/10
Multi Year

7/10 - 8/10
Glacial

Rubble
Snow

Pressured

Open water

Very open
drift
< 1/10
1/10 - 3/10
First Year
Second Year
Landfast
Drifting
Level/Rafted Ridges
Strength
Melting

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Distorted
visibility

high
>6 m Hs

Thick
> 120 cm
Big Floe

Vast Floe

500 - 2000
m
Very close
pack
9/10-<10/10

2 - 10 km

Stamukha

Iceberg *

Consolidated
10/10

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SUBJECT

CONDITIONS

SEVERITY CLASSES

Seabed

ISO 19906 - 6.6


Soil condition
Permafrost

Sand
Yes

Soft Clay
No

Hard Clay
Lenses

<1m
Yes

1-3m
No

3-5m

Ice gouge (seabed scouring effect)


Boulders (> 30 cm)
Note: seismic activity not included

Table 7.2 Iceberg Severity


Iceberg sizes *
Growler
Bergy bit
Small
Medium
Large
Very large

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Weight
[ mm Ton ]
0,001
0,01
0,1
2
10
> 10

Height [ m ]
Above sea-level
<1
1 to < 5
5 to 15
16 to 45
46 to 75
> 75

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Length
[m]
<5
5 to < 15
15 to 60
61 to 120
121 to 200
> 200

Rock
Shallow
water
>5m

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Table 7.3 Wind Chill Severity

Windchill (C)
0 to -10

Qualifier
Low

-10 to -25

Moderate

-25 to -45

Cold

-45 to -59
Warning Level*

Extreme
Extreme

-60 and colder

Very Extreme

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Comfort and/or precautions description


Conditions are slightly uncomfortable for outdoor activity. Dress
Warmly. Winter clothing is recommended, including hat, gloves
and dry insulating under clothing.
Cold on exposed skin. Conditions can be comfortable for outdoor
activity on sunny days. Hat, gloves and layered dry insulating
clothing is a necessity. Risk of hypothermia over prolonged
periods.
Important to keep active. Cover all skin. Take frequent warm up
breaks. Frostbite is possible on exposed skin over short periods
of time so check frequently. Risk of hypothermia over prolonged
periods.
Very uncomfortable. Outdoor activity should be limited to short
periods. Cover all exposed skin. Dress in layers. Limit outdoor
activities to short periods. Exposed skin freezes in minutes.
Serious risk of hypothermia over prolonged periods.
Outdoor conditions are hazardous. Exposed skin will freeze in 2
minutes. Stay indoors.

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Specific examples of working conditions on deck depend on the vessel and her operational
area. For illustration these operations are provided:
Work on exposed decks
Cold to extreme
Anchor handling
Cold to extreme
Draghead inspections and maintenance
Moderate to cold
Drill floor
Heated
ISO 19906 Arctic Structures includes general and quick references to the key environmental
design conditions for all ice covered working areas. Although these tables provide a quick
reference of the conditions that can be experienced, including some design conditions, they
do not reflect operational criteria and they may fall short for detailed design phases as well.
Also they lack time series of data and probabilities of key parameters. Other data which may
be required as well includes Stamukhas, the severity of ridging and pressured ice.
7.5.2
Risks and hazards
Another important factor in the monitoring of arctic conditions is the risk factor associated
with arctic conditions. Risks arise from ice and metocean conditions but also from the
remoteness of operation, challenging conditions, and ecology . These risks must be
monitored and must be assessed in a detailed risk assessment, see also section 24.6. Once
those risk and hazards have been assessed, a detailed monitoring system must be used in
order to keep any type of risk or the chance of running into a hazardous operation under
tight control. This may need to include the sustainability of the operation as well as socio
economic effects. This section will address risks associated with metocean, oceanography
and ice.
The ONS Summit of 2012, Section 5.2 makes reference to such risks: Weather conditions
in the arctic are not well understood and long term developments are uncertain; special
design considerations lead to more severe conditions. Experience has shown that there are
additional challenges associated with establishing new activities where there is no prior
operating experience.
The Summit makes the following recommendation to adopt the Best Available Technique
(BAT), which has the overall ambition of reducing emissions and the impact on the
environment as a whole from any industrial activity. The purpose of a BAT assessment is to
identify the technique with the best environmental performance among all available
techniques for a certain industrial application, taking into account the environmental
footprint, cost, availability and reliability of the technology. Various techniques / models and
simulation runs may have to be run to select the best performing model.
Use can be made of the proposed mitigation factors for a number of identified risks, see
Table 1 in Section 5.2 ONS Summit 2012. Further details can be found in section 24.6.
Possible risks are related to the probabilistic distributions of the sea state and ice parameters
in the arctic areas. For the open water conditions, the ISO 19901-6, Section 7.4.4. makes
reference to these probabilities: In order to understand the relationship of sea state
parameters, such as the significant wave height and peak period, the unit- and bi-variable
distributions should be examined. This includes the joint frequency distributions of
significant wave height and period, and wind speed, wave height and current speed versus

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direction. For those parameters that dictate operability, weather windows should be
computed (for which time series of weather and wave conditions are required). For open
water and ice conditions other bi-variable or joint probabilities shall be determined, i.e.
probability of exceedance of ice drift and direction versus distributions of exceedance of
wind speed and direction; a usual combined probability in arctic areas.
A similar approach shall be used to deal with the variability or uncertainty of several of the
key ice distributions. Joint probabilities shall be developed by the Operator, when preparing
the operations plans and procedures, and an approach with time series of the arctic weather
and ice conditions is required if operability (workability) is concerned.
Of specific relevance is the need to detect and monitor aspects related to Ice Management,
also discussed in section 21. See also lines 127 and following, in the gap analysis worksheet,
Volume 2.
7.5.3
General requirements for Ice Management
The following activities are required in support of the ice management operations: detection,
monitoring, recording and forecasting. These aspects are discussed in section 7.6 and 7.7 as
well as in section 21.
(See also ISO 19906, Section 17.3.1, which shall be enhanced for operational needs.)
Detection Defined as all those procedures necessary to detect metocean and ice conditions.
In general detection is the extraction of specific information from a larger stream of
information, such as the detection of ice and icebergs (from multiple sensors varying in time
and space).
Monitoring - Defined by all those procedures and operations to bring together all necessary
data, analysis, forecasts, risks and decision making processes in support of ice breaking,
removal and towing operations of potentially hazardous ice effecting operations. Monitoring
generally means an awareness of the state of a system and to observe a situation for any
changes that may occur over time.
Several aspects are important in the planning and execution of all monitoring procedures,
some were discussed above. The following considerations shall be given when preparing the
monitoring plan:
Localized monitoring, see also the Table 7.4.
Global monitoring; this may include bays and estuaries, rivers and outflows of rivers,
sources of sea ice and ice bergs and general behaviour of these ice conditions.
Special monitoring skills may be required as specified in ISO 19901-6, Section 7.7.1: For
complex and/or long weather-restricted operations, forecaster's with local experience shall
preferably be present on-site to check the local situation and provide regular weather briefing
based on forecasts from two independent sources. Independent sources shall be considered
for ice data (satellite, radar and visual) as well as weather data (global weather providers who
may use the same source data of the European, American or other models such as Hirlam),
complemented with those forecasts that make use of localized data.

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This applies to major marine operations such as these examples:


tow out and float over
offshore installation and lifting
dredging and construction operations
towing
decommissioning
Recording Defined as all those processes required to record data gathered. Forms can be in
log books, spread sheets or as part of a data collection system. It is important to label all data
properly and to conduct regular quality checks to monitor the validity and accuracy of such
data.
Forecasting - Defined by all procedures and operations on- and offshore to prepare suitable
forecasts in support of operational needs. This shall include the prediction of hazardous ice
features and ice conditions or ice situations effecting the operations. Such ice condition
forecasts shall normally include winds, gusts, cloud cover, air temperature as well as ice
pressure and ice movement.
Additional systems shall be considered in support of these ice management services and they
shall include, where possible:
communications,
data bases,
display
IT systems,
replication back and forth between ships and to shore,
simulations and
training
Note. It may be possible to reduce the design ice actions using IM using qualified techniques
for the determination of the performance and reliability of the IM operations. The
recommendation is to use both numerical (software) and physical (model tests) modeling for
determining minimum guidelines for IM in the design of these systems.
7.6

Monitoring requirements

7.6.1
General monitoring requirements
This section contains suggested details for additional monitoring and forecasting during
arctic marine operations, or ice covered operations. Use should be made of Best Available
Technology (BAT) in all areas.
As mentioned before the layout and some of the basic structure of the complete report are
based on the structure of the ISO 19901-6 marine operations standards and for that reason
earthquakes and other pertinent sections are incorporated in section 7.
Barents 2020 (S3.2.3) proposes to improve the observational network for meteorological
data in the area of operation (in the case of Barents 2020 for the Barents Sea). The
recommendation is made to consider an enhanced meteo network for arctic operations and to

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supplement the existing network where needed. Through an improved monitoring network
quality of data could be enhanced and thus forecasts could be enhanced.
Monitoring and forecasting is especially important to guarantee and safeguard arctic marine
operations. Use of such data is made by the overall Ice Management system, as is presented
in later sections.
Uncertainties induced by a lack of measurement data and proper data analysis influence the
reliability of such ice management operations. It may not be possible to reduce the design
ice actions using Ice Management, or IM, until qualified assumptions on the performance
and reliability connected to IM operations can be made, [Barents2020]. Consequently and
partially because IM has not been proven yet to reduce the design ice loads and using the
same risk scenarios, no reduction in the design ice actions for structures can be applied. The
effects of Ice Management on operations support may need a different approach. See also
section 21 for further details on IM criteria and vessel performance limits. Weather restricted
operations can be considered through the use of IM vessel capabilities and the determination
of limiting ice thicknesses and ice conditions.
The Ice Management effects should be better understood in order to make readily use of
reduced ice actions for ultimate design loads on the moored structures or vessels structures
on dynamic positioning.
It is recommended to conduct further work regarding measurement data analysis and
applying this in numerical and physical modeling, so that guidelines can be developed for
IMs consequences to the design. Finally, the total IM plan should include details regarding
ice detection, ice surveillance, data collection, forecasting and reporting of encroachment,
hazards and loading [Arctic Council - Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Guidelines, April 2009].
Monitoring
Key parameters effecting operations in cold weather must include the monitoring of these
parameters: temperature, wind conditions, wind chill (as a result of wind speed and
temperature), precipitation, ice accretion (including its extent and thickness), visibility as
well as polar lows. The designer and operator should check the actual operations and what
data will be required for monitoring. Special emphasis will need to be given to the effect of
ice on operations.
A sample of the recommended data to be monitored can be seen from the following Table
7.4. This table shows a general listing of possible data to be monitored, including:
Environmental data
Metocean data
Oceanography data
Sea ice data and icebergs
Sea bed data

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Notes:
1. The listing in Table 7.4 is a general listing only.
2. Site specific needs and requirements shall be used.
3. Equipment and fleet requirements shall be used to select the required data (short duration
projects have different requirements compared to those with longer periods of operation
4. Some data will be a definite requirement; some other data is a bonus.
5. Environmental data collection may depend on the EIA need and requirements.
6. Monitoring needs may differ from forecasting.
7. Specific details may be required; examples waves full spectral data.
8. Soil conditions should be available prior operations.
9. Under Meteorology consider adding polar lows, earthquake and tsunamis as required.
10. Under Oceanography consider adding tides and surges as required.
11. Navigation charts may be old in several areas and should be updated where required for
safe operations. See also section 22.4.3.

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Table 7.4 General Monitoring Requirements


SUBJECT

CONDITIONS

Environment

Flora & fauna, see section 25 Environment


Noise
Spills, i.e. waste water and fluids or materials
Exhausts
Turbidity
Daylight hours

Meteorology

Air Temperature
Water Temperature
Wind speed sustained
Wind speed direction
Wind speed gust
Wind gust direction
Wind chill, wind speed and temperature
Precipitation (drizzle, rain, sleet, snow, grapple, hail)
Ice accretion (atmospheric and marine icing) thickness, area of
application and extent of application
Visibility

Oceanography

Water depth *1 and water level


Wave height and direction
Wave period and wave spectrum
Swell height and direction
Swell period
Current speed and direction (at various water levels), tidal currents

Sea ice and Icebergs

Sea Ice types, Stages of development (Nilas to thick and old ice)
Ice type (i.e. first, second and multi-year ice, glacial)
Ice conditions or coverage, i.e. concentrations 0 - 10/10 and coverage
over the area of interest, extent of ice cover including ice edges
Ice forms (floe sizes, pancake to big floe)
Ice Motion (diverging, compacting, compression, shearing)
Ice Compression or pressure (none, slight, moderate, heavy)
Ice Features (growler, hummocks, icebergs, rafted, ridges, rubble,
Stamukha, strips)
Other classes as function of the season (strength, melting, snow cover)

Seabed

Soil conditions (sand, soft clay, hard clay, rock, permafrost)


Boulders
Ice gouging
Seabed slope

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7.6.2
Wind and current monitoring
The ISO 19901-6 code can be augmented in areas of wind and current monitoring when
operating in ice covered areas. Both wind and current are the driving forces of all ice
conditions and must be measured properly: To operate safely and successfully in harsh
areas and in remote locations in cold temperatures and in darkness in some seasons, detailed
knowledge is required continuously of such parameters such as wind, current, temperature
and even waves. Shoulder seasons have been found to provide challenging conditions due to
spray ice and icing on important areas of the vessels as a result of wind and waves and cold
temperatures. Such parameters may impact operations and safety of personnel, assets and the
environment. Thus safety of operation can be influenced, as well as keeping on station and
ice management. Both monitoring and also forecasting of such parameters need to be taken
into account in all phases of the operation.
Definitions used above are the shoulder season, which is an extended summer period into
early freeze up and late break up.
Wind monitoring is equally important in the area of icing forecasting, since it is one of the
variables in the formation of spray ice. . .

7.6.3
Ice Monitoring
A general reference on ice monitoring was found in ISO 19906 Sections 6.3 and 6.5: Ice
conditions shall be considered as part of the environmental data monitoring program. Real
time information on ice conditions can be used, for example, to operate ice management
systems, and escape, evacuation and rescue (EER) procedures for the installation. Coupled
with a facility management plan for shutdown and possible removal, during the operational
phase of the structures, ice monitoring can help reduce the ice criteria used for structural
design.
ISO 19901-6, Section 7.3.4 goes one step further in describing the relevant weather and ice
conditions: combinations of wind, waves and current as well as the combinations of sea ice,
icebergs, snow and ice accretion on topsides and structure, exceptionally low temperatures.
It is for that reason that ice monitoring is closely linked to weather monitoring; this section
includes both aspects.
In some cases operations can be weather restricted. ISO 19901-6 Section 7.2.1: A weatherrestricted operation is a marine operation that can be completed within the limits of a
favorable weather forecast. The reliability of weather forecasts is such that weather-restricted
operations should generally be completed within 72 h. A typical example could be a lift
operation or installation. Dredging or other operations can not be terminated in 72 hrs and
those will require a continuous monitoring during the operations. Depending on the type of
arctic marine operation, the local conditions and the chosen system and support icebreaker /
ice management, weather and ice restricted operations will apply to arctic marine operations.
In such instances of ice restricted operations the following steps shall be taken:
Planning of the operations, including a detailed operations and execution plan
Determination of ice capabilities of the chosen fleet of ships / system
Determination of accuracy of forecasts using observed measurements
Determination of ice passports if and where applicable.

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The monitoring shall be conducted in close association with the needs and requirements of
the operations which will be conducted as specified in Sections 8 onwards. See also section
22 for specific details on standard equipment.
ISO 19901-6 refers to on site monitoring which covers the general requirements for ice in
some form: Where operations are sensitive to local (near-site or on-site) environmental
conditions or to changes in these, real-time measurement, as well as regular forecast, both
prior to start and during operations, shall be considered.
Ice data to be considered for monitoring during operations in arctic conditions are shown in
Table 7.4. Special consideration shall be given to the now cast techniques and the data to be
included, since this will have major impacts on the actual operations and safety.
Ice accretion can be caused by atmospheric icing as well as spray icing. It is important to
both monitor and forecast such accretions since it affects safety of operation (people,
equipment and the complete vessel stability). This includes the measurement and
assessing the impact of ice accretion on deck, on equipment as well as any other equipment
(such as oil spill equipment). Not only do crew members require proper and safe access to
systems, but systems must be able to handle the effects of icing, they must be operable and
monitoring must be feasible at all times, see also section 24.3.4.
For arctic marine operations a number of load combinations may be required and the
applicable scenarios may depend on the actual location and thus localized conditions. The
predictability of these local weather and ice conditions shall be taken into account, as well as
the accuracy / reliability and frequency of these weather and ice conditions.
Specific load combinations may include:
Weather (consisting of wind, waves and currents) and sea ice
Weather and sea ice and drift (pack ) ice
Weather and sea ice and icebergs, including drifting ice, pressure
Weather and sea ice and Stamukhas, including drifting ice
Weather and land fast or stationary pack ice
Effects of local eddies and bathymetry on ice drift behavior and the effects of localized
phenomena such as ice rivers
Combinations of the various loads to provide worst operational conditions.
Extreme events
Extreme events are listed in the Arctic offshore Oil & Gas Standards, section 4.1 which
specifies the requirements for the priority monitoring of extreme weather and ice events.
Some of these extremes can be the results of various load combinations, see above listing. In
specific the following conditions could generate extreme events which need to be monitored:
drift of ice islands
drift of land fast ice and large areas of pack ice
drift of old ice and glacial ice (icebergs) towards the operations sites
effects of polar lows

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7.6.4
Monitoring equipment and procedures
The operator will, in general, have the possibility for extending the operations when ice
conditions get worse using ice management. Notwithstanding, the operator will need to have
proper monitoring equipment and systems in place, which can provide suitable updates
allowing operations to continue or possible halt. This can be done in association with the
forecasting systems which will rely heavily on the frequency and accuracy of the actual
conditions.
Depending the complexity of operations and the spread brought into the ice covered waters
the following may serve as monitoring equipment guidance:

detection systems, detection is defined in section 7.6.1


- visual data from all available ships in the operations spread, weather, ice, icebergs
- marine radar data including ice radar
- sonar data
- satellite data (based on optical radar systems like Modis or SAR, like Radarsat 2 or
TerraSAR-X).
- micro and nano satellites, which may become available in the future
- ship performance data
- Metocean data from observations, instruments and from data buoys, in open water
and ice
- historic data for the local area
- Reconnaissance by air, fixed wing, helicopter or UAV

- Shore stations

monitoring systems, monitoring is defined in section 7.6


- charts
- data base, spreadsheets and other type of data records
- navigational radar displays
- vessel position data
- communication, internet, intranet, email, etc
forecasting systems
decision making system which may include
- integrated radar and ECDIS display systems

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- special systems and software, i.e. Ice Surveillance Advisory Systems including
hazard analysis.
It is the responsibility of the crew to take responsibility of these items and use them to
manage the systems and keep operations safe. The human aspects including the requirements
for ice pilots or ice navigators and ice advisors, are highlighted in the next section.
The IMO Polar Code Section 12.11 refers to various systems which provide vessel routing
information: All ships should be provided with equipment for receiving ice and weather
charts and displaying ice imagery. The listing above specifies most of the equipment that
should be fitted on the bridge. Some ships may have stand-alone equipment brought on
board to facilitate in ice operations, others may not yet have such equipment and should be
equipped with such equipment. For operations involving multiple ships this is economically
achieved by setting a LAN (Local Area Network).
The availability of all data on shore and the replication of ice and system performance data
between different ships and the shore shall be considered. All ships involved in an operation
should have the means to share their data with the other vessels in the fleet, and this could be
achieved most economically using a LAN system. This makes the coverage better and
increases the accuracy of all data monitored and therefore provides the opportunity to make
better forecasts.
Systems deployed in Arctic environments may have more onerous requirements,
operationally than not arctic systems. This includes the effects of the cold temperatures, ice
accretion as well as loads due to motions in ice. Steps must be taken to address the impacts
as well as routine inspection and maintenance of all such systems.
Monitoring procedures.
Monitoring of sea ice and icebergs requires special procedures. Sea ice monitoring is covered
well by WMO and as displayed in MANICE. Therefore no further details are provided in
this report.
Monitoring of icebergs is somewhat more specific. One of the main objectives of the iceberg
monitoring program is to known their trajectories and to keep track of their likely
movements such that operational alerts could be declared in time.
Iceberg monitoring requirements is driven by the specific operational needs. Different
criteria could apply for transiting vessels than for stationary vessels or for survey vessels
towing long arrays of transponder beams behind them. The most effective way of tracking an
iceberg is to put a satellite tracking buoy onto it. This is a suitable technique when there are a
few icebergs around and there is a capability to deploy the tracker. For each of the above
operational scenarios a proper operations procedure is required and the data gathered and
disseminated for use on board. This could include:

iceberg positions and speed


shape, length, width and height, profile
size, displacement
number, cluster
locations of growlers

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Opportunities for enhanced monitoring systems include the following. Visual information
like pictures from sea ice and iceberg can be supplemented with radar / sonar information
and UAVs could be deployed where possible. Special equipment can be used or developed
in order to enhance their detectability, in open water but also in low sea states and in bad
visibility. Tracking of multiple radar positions on marine charting displays will be required.
Satellite images will provide both global and local conditions. Special techniques can be
developed to enhance the ability for satellites to monitor the behavior of such icebergs and to
forward the results both in a Near Real Time, NRT mode and use the data for the next
forecasts.
An effective way for tracking an iceberg is to put a satellite tracking buoy on to it. This can
be considered when there are a few icebergs around and there is the capability to deploy to
the iceberg.
Systems deployed in arctic environments may have more onerous requirements,
operationally than non/arctic systems. This includes the effects of the cold temperatures, ice
accretion as well as loads due to motions in ice. Steps must be taken to address the impacts
as well as routine inspection and maintenance of all such systems. See also under section 22
equipment preparation.
7.6.5
Monitoring skills
Besides the equipment and systems used on the vessel bridge or other suitable location, the
personnel is another equally important part in the monitoring and decision making process.
Not only language but also cultural and experience levels can differ among the crew. Special
emphasis needs to be given to the proper training of the crew, with the systems and with the
interpretation of the data.
The IMO Polar code in Section 1.2 refers to the need of having ice navigators on board the
vessel or vessels. It is of great importance that personnel with proper training and
background have been appraised on the planned conditions, that they can monitor these
conditions continuously and also record them and make the results available across the fleet
where possible as well as the shore, where possible and where needed. The availability of
such operational data is indispensable, not only to conduct continuous quality checks of the
data gathered, but also to make forecasts and to use for any analysis, during actual operations
and as post event analysis.
In accordance with section 6 of the Arctic Ice regime Shipping System or AIRSS, every
ship using the Arctic Ice Regime Shipping System must have on board an Ice Navigator.
The ice navigator may be any person on board, including the Master, who meets the
requirements of section 26 (3)(b) of the Regulations, which may be summarized as:

The ice navigator is required to have 50 days of experience as either the Master or a
person in charge of the deck watch on ships operating in ice conditions that required
the ship to
o be escorted by an icebreaker, or
o perform maneuvers to prevent the ship from coming in contact with ice
concentrations beyond the ships structural capability.

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Of these 50 days of experience, at least 30 days must have been obtained in the
arctic.

Communication system requirements will be discussed in section 7.8.


7.7
Forecasting requirements
For this section a number of rules, standards and norms have been reviewed as indicated in
section 7.11.
In the sections below each of the relevant references will be discussed with particular
emphasis on the additional focus that is needed to cover arctic marine operations, over and
beyond those statements that already cover open water monitoring needs and requirements.
7.7.1
Forecast parameters.
According to ISO19901-6, Section 7.7.2, the forecast should cover short- and medium-term
and outlook periods, and should include the following environmental aspects (some not
experienced in the arctic):

synopsis, barometric pressure, temperature;


wind direction and speed, where the speed should be given for 10 m and 50 m heights
above sea level;
the wind speed should indicate 1 min and 1 h means and also indicate wind gusts;
waves and swell, including significant and maximum height, direction and period;
current reversals and ice rivers;
visibility, rain, snow, sleet, icing and sea ice (extent, stage of development, floe size and
concentration and deformation);
confidence level of the forecast; quite common for wind but likely at a lower level for
ice and currents.
the latest in satellite and remote sensing observation techniques and procedures as well
as data assimilation techniques.

Table 7.1 shows the terminology for appropriate weather and metocean parameters, and
severity classes.
The workgroup determined the need that the Operator should adjust this list for in-ice
operations and to assign priorities. Priorities will be determined by the Operator, having
assessed the weather, metocean and ice parameters which are relevant for their specific
operation type.
7.7.2
Local experience
Expanding on the statement in section 7,7.1 of the ISO 19901-6 it is recommended that For
complex and/or long weather-restricted operations, forecasters with local experience shall
preferably be present on-site to check the local situation and provide regular weather briefing
based on forecasts from at least two independent sources. This applies to major marine
operations such as: float-over topsides, float-out, GBS tow out, dredging, trenching. Pipelaying, floater operations, offshore installation and lifting. It is further recommended
follow DNV-rules for restricted operations applying the alpha factor to include the
uncertainty in the forecast.

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7.7.3
Meteorology (wind, temperature, visibility) Forecasting
Metocean and weather forecast is a basic requirement for safe operations in arctic
environment. ISO19901-6 states that metocean forecasts shall be obtained before and during
marine operations. The forecast shall be issued at suitable regular intervals dependent on the
operation, with the intervals not exceeding 12 h.
Some operations require prediction of stable weather, and favorable environmental
conditions for a period of 48 h, for transportation to start (ISO19901-6, Section 12.2.8). In
such cases the forecast should be made by a competent forecaster who has the necessary
data at his disposal to make a highly specific recommendation for the particular tow. The
forecast should show the operational weather conditions, taking into account the margin
defined in ISO 19901/6 Section 7.5.3. (Includes some necessary data analysis). If the
transportation is a weather-unrestricted operation, departure should still take place on a
favorable forecast in order to allow time to obtain adequate sea room.(ISO19901-6, Section
12.2.8).
Weather forecasts may have to include, depending on the area and planned operations:
limiting conditions for the specific vessels and their equipment
operational requirements
other operational aspects, which are effected by the weather forecasts
Improve the quality and reliability of forecasting polar lows.
Less reliable weather forecasts combined with small scale, very local atmospheric
phenomena, such as polar lows, increase the probability of failing or disrupted operations
(Barents2020, Section 3.2.1).
Polar lows can have an important consequence for operations. Knowledge about why and
when polar lows occur and how to forecast them is still limited. Monitoring and also
forecasting technology and procedures for polar lows must be enhanced and become an
integral part of daily operations (Forecasters handbook for the arctic,
http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/forecaster_handbooks/Arctic/Forecasters%20Handbook%20for
%20the%20Arctic.htm).
Polar lows are very difficult to forecast and a now casting approach is often used, with the
systems being transported with the mid portion of the Earths atmosphere flow. Numerical
weather prediction models are only just getting the horizontal and vertical resolution to
represent these systems. Polar lows tend to form when cold arctic air flows over relatively
warm open water. The storms can develop rapidly, reaching their maximum strength within
12 to 24 hours of formation, but they dissipate just as quickly, lasting on average only one or
two days.
It is advised, when necessary, that the Operator should request special weather/forecast
charts from the weather offices. In analogy to Barents 2020 (Section 3.2.3) it is proposed that
forecast should be improved by an improved observational network for weather forecasting
and meteorological databases in the area of operation.
The operations team shall be able to prepare the necessary forecasts or make use of special
forecasts prepared onshore and distributed in Near Real Time (NRT) fashion where possible.
This may require the use of special trained and experienced forecasters on board the vessels.
Such needs apply to the planning, departure and tow phases as well as operations on
location.

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Forecasts must include the operational weather and ice conditions, taking into account
applicable performance limits as well as operational margins.
7.7.4
Oceanography (waves, water levels, currents) Forecasting
Forecasting of currents, water levels and waves follows current practice outside of the arctic.
Added complexity is formed by the impact of ice on the modeling. This is an important area
of development. Currents and current patterns should be improved to enhance the reliability
of ice drift forecasts, wave forecasting and thus ice management and operations.
7.7.5
Ice Forecasting
Ice forecasts may have to include, depending on the area and planned operations:
o specific ice conditions (incl concentration, thickness, floe size)
o limiting conditions for the specific vessels and their equipment
o operational requirements
o needs for ice observers
o timing and frequency of such forecasts
o other ice and operational aspects, which are effected by the weather and ice
forecasts.
Pending the location and planned operations ice forecasts these variables shall also be
checked for inclusion in the ice forecasts:
- ice pressure
- localized and global ice conditions
- reliability of the data
- ice drift
In various cases probabilistic data is required to develop proper risks scenarios and ultimate
loads and thus responses. When considering floaters in ice additional time series may be
required in order to conduct a proper analysis of the behavior of the system in the dynamic
ice conditions, including a probabilistic analysis of extremes. Such time series data may not
yet exist for all locations and when it exists it may not cover a large enough number of years.
Additional data will thus be required.
Operators can either contact governmental ice and weather agencies, like the Canadian Ice
Service CIS and the Danish Meteorological Institute DMI and several others and obtain
longer term data. In addition use could be made of special databases, consisting of the
digitized ice charts (see also Ref ICE06, Canatec).
The expected performance of the ice forecast shall be documented (ISO1996, Section 17.1,
17.3.1), see also this report section 21.8. The expected performance of ice forecasting shall
be documented and should reflect the actual performance of the types of systems or devices
that will be used in the context of expected metocean conditions, visibility and offshore
operations.
7.8
ICT Information and communication technology
A number of steps have been taken already to assess the needs, requirements and gaps for
robust communications to arctic communities, stakeholders and with operators in arctic
areas. In 2012 a joint staff working document was produced with the aim to produce an EU

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policy toward the arctic region. It involves monitoring, ecology, communication. The
identified gaps included:
1. High bandwidth communications will not be available without further action.
2. High reliability navigation through the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay
Service (EGNOS) is presently not possible in the arctic because of the inability of
geostationary satellites to reach above 75N.
A number of satellite constellations that are in a low-Earth orbit such as Iridium,
Globalstar, OrbComm and Gonets, are serving the arctic with low data-rate and/or
messaging services.
3. GMES services for ice extent have been developed and demonstrated involving some
arctic user communities and national areas of interest but have not yet achieved a
complete circumpolar uptake.
4. The Sentinel-3 satellite will provide more accurate monitoring of ice thickness than has
been hitherto possible in order to meet the needs of science. However, ground
infrastructure and systems need to be developed to ensure that the data can be
downloaded and processed in time to also serve the operational needs of those living or
working in the arctic.
5. The relatively still waters and ice cover make an extension of the operational European
satellite oil-spill monitoring program CleanSeaNet to the arctic challenging.
It is proposed to add the following text to the current ISO 19901-6 text:
For the support of monitoring and forecasting activities, a proper infrastructure is required.
Measurement data in arctic areas are available, but it can be debated whether they are fully
exploited. Reliable statistics and numerical models on the physical environment are desired,
but at the moment large uncertainties are present: Poor knowledge of the environment
introduces thus more uncertainties, so ideally, statistics and numerical models should be
supported by more measurement data, which requires, apart from more measurements, better
data exchange. In order to achieve this, it is important that measurement methods are
documented in such a way that results from different measurement campaigns are
compatible [Barents 2020].
Historic as well as new satellite platforms and observation techniques can be used as a
source for long term wind, wave, ice data in combination with suitable modeling.
On one hand this concerns the application of standardized data formats, and it is
recommended to generate such a format and guide on the structured documentation method
of the measured data. On the other hand clear guidance should be given on how to interpret
the data. Barents 2020 recommends including a checklist with possible pitfalls and
requirements for representativeness and documentation. A gap is identified in high arctic IT
systems and the corresponding requirements for setting it up and utilizing it effectively.
The need for proper databases is thus an important requirement for operations and
monitoring. All offshore operations must be monitored such that all users have access to key
information and the most reliable access and use; exchange of data is key to safe operation;
certain data must be exchanged other may be exchanged. Systems should be in place to
monitor data received, allow sorting and filing, allow all data to be exchanged effectively
and that it can be sent around; data formats must be checked and standardized.

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The database will also be improved by an increase in quality of the measurements due to
enhancement of the observational network. Such enhanced data capture must include data
collection on icebergs, corresponding requirements and criteria, and operational limits and
impacts. Further work is required, specifically on hazardous ice conditions. These hazardous
ice conditions involve among others icebergs and pack ice with a high rate of ridges as well
as pressured ice and ice drift.
Operations at high latitudes is not always easy, therefore the recommendation is made for
large projects to be self-reliant and be able to communicate effectively between the different
vessels and the shore.
In summary and to ensure safe arctic operations, considerations shall be given to

robust data and communication system

redundancy

integrated communications between all systems offshore

proper communications between offshore operational vessels and onshore support

proper bandwidth

exchanges of key operational data between all parties involved

setting up a LAN or cellular network locally for data exchange

Proper analysis of arctic data which might affect operations, before, during and
following operations.
Van der Schoor et al reports on the status of arctic navigation systems and makes
recommendations for future enhances (STC 2012).
7.9
Other monitoring requirements
Outside of monitoring and forecasting requirements of metocean and ice conditions for safe
operations in the arctic, other monitoring and forecasting may be required. These include:
Earthquake
Earthquakes may need to be considered in arctic areas since it may impact operations during
the presence of ice. As with all environmental parameters the combined effects should be
taken into account when applicable. This may become an effect when conducting operations
in the Sea of Okhotsk, especially in areas of using EER system for permanent structures,
which could become exposed to earthquakes. Also earthquakes could effect mobilization and
installation of structures as well as any dredging or construction activity. The combined
effects of earthquakes and cold weather or ice operations shall be considered.
Environment & Eco-system
Monitoring of environmental parameters and eco-systems may be required by permitting
instance as part of an effective environmental impact strategy, both to fill in data gaps to
better assess potential impact as well as for mitigation. One such aspect is the monitoring of
underwater generated noise. There may be other aspects that will require monitoring.
It may be required to include marine mammal observers, in concert with section 6,
stakeholder requirements.

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Underwater noise and marine life


Underwater noise from vessels and in specific from seismic operations may be posing risk
on marine mammals and fish and may be required to monitor as a condition for obtaining a
permit to operate.
The issue is generally addressed by the IFC/World Bank Standard, but not at the very
detailed level (Barents 2020, 4.6.5.).
For operations in environmentally sensitive arctic areas specific guidelines and codes must
be checked. An example can be found in the http://www.bmp.gl/petroleum/environment, the
bureau of Minerals and Petroleum for Greenland. Specific guidelines for underwater noise
by seismic surveying exist. The BMP SEIA states that displacement due to drilling noise for
certain species and certain times/location is to be expected, and mitigation by avoiding
sensitive areas/times is proposed. See also:
(http://www.bmp.gl/petroleum/environment/environmental-regulation)
and
http://www.bmp.gl/images/stories/petroleum/BMP_EIA_Guidelines_stratigraphic_drilling.p
df
In order to provide good benchmarks and to be able to properly monitor the actual noise
generated and the effects on wildlife, more work pertaining to the effects of noise and
disturbances on wildlife in arctic conditions will be required. Characterization of noise
generated by the operation and the noise monitoring in the field, shall be included where
possible to help build the benchmark and monitor the actual conditions to negate any such
effects. Monitoring of animal presence and potential responses using passive acoustic
monitoring (PAM) or infrared imaging before, during (where possible) and after operation
are necessary to improve the understanding of underwater noise on marine life in arctic
conditions.
Seabed
All geotechnical data must be collected prior actual operations, to be able to prepare the
proper designs and then operational procedures. This will have to include soils type, strength
and various soils parameters (i.e. structure like classes, porosity, density, particle size, shear
strength profile, presence and properties of permafrost, bedrocks and boulders).
The difference in the arctic may be permafrost as well as ice scours resulting from grounded
ice as well the general lack of detailed data.
During operations soil properties must be monitored to ensure that the procedures will be
followed and the actual conditions will match with the design values or be better than these
values. As a result and in regular intervals or at certain locations soils properties shall be
collected, measured and documented. Operations shall be limited if concerns arise for values
which are abnormal or which might be off the allowable ranges for these parameters.
Further references can also be found in the OGP report 447.

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7.10
Summary recommendations
The following are key recommendations for enhanced monitoring and forecasting. Tasks
may need to include:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

6.

7.

8.
9.

Identify sources of reliable data that can be used in planning of arctic operations.
Conduct a study how to prepare short term or medium term forecasts for a relatively
large area, given pipe lay routes or transports.
Give due consideration to the variability of working windows derived from operational
limits. .
Compare the suitability of the forecasting systems to the required forecast timeframe
and reliability, which depends on the equipment design specs, duration of the operation,
and safety time to take precautionary actions. MO&I Forecasting models are generally
not sufficiently detailed and /or lack longer term reliability (past 3 days) and there is
limited publically available validation data available from measurements in many of the
arctic working areas.
In other ice covered areas typical predictions of ice conditions are extended into 72 or
even 96 hr. windows (i.e. the Baltic). Global forecasting predictions may therefore have
to be complemented with localized forecasts. Also the need for local weather stations
may have to be considered on a case by case basis. Validation of the forecast data with
the actual data should be considered as part of the normal operations. Global as well as
local weather and ice forecasting models may be enhanced from such validations.
Consider the suitability of forecasting models.
A number of different forecasting systems may be distinguished such as forecasting sea
ice, its formation and behavior, the occurrence of drift and pressure and the formation of
rubble and ridges in special areas. A second type is the forecasting of iceberg tracks.
Experience exists with models in most of the ice covered areas. The Operator shall take
into account such models and determine if such existing models need to be enhanced for
their operation or can be used as is.
Evaluate the reliability of hind cast data, given strong climate change influences in the
Arctic. Areas which in the past would show limited wave action could change over time
due to larger open water areas. It is recommended to prepare/improve global wave/ice
models (such as Oceanweather Inc. which is currently doing a JIP to set up a wave
model for the entire Arctic).
Consider the requirements for the frequency and duration. In regard to the frequency
and duration of such forecasts the same may apply. In some of these areas operations
have been carried out, but not in others. Now casts can be used with proper historic data
basis and good forecasting models to develop the necessary forecasts, usually up to 48
hrs. And in some areas up to 96 hrs.
Consider the installation of temporary arctic-proof weather monitoring stations which
can be erected on various sites.
Prepare procedures and manuals.
. Aspects which shall be covered to assist in metocean and ice monitoring and
forecasting involve:
Operation duration, single vessel or a fleet of ships, type and ice class of the systems
Monitoring and forecasting means
Available data at the start of the project and the need to gather more data than strictly
needed for the actual operation

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Ecological needs and requirements


Shore support, field systems, resources and expertise
Communication systems
Centralized data base
Ensure an efficient and cost effective system of data transfer is set up between
vessels and units in order to exchange data. This could be in the form of a LAN or
cellular network

7.11
References
1. Arctic Council - Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Guidelines, April 2009.
2. Arctic Waters Pollution and Prevention Regulations, CRC 353, Current to Aug 16, 2012
3. Arctic Operations Manual, Polar Continental Shelf Program by NRC.
4. Barents 2020
5. BMP (SEIA for the Greenland part of Baffin Bay)
6. BMP SEIA (http://www.bmp.gl/petroleum/environment/environmental-regulation).
7. http://www.bmp.gl/images/stories/petroleum/BMP_EIA_Guidelines_stratigraphic_drilli
ng.pdf
8. http://www.bmp.gl/petroleum/environment, the bureau of Minerals and Petroleum for
Greenland.
9. Enhanced navigation in arctic climates, JB van der Schoor and R. Van der Bijl, ICT
MAROF Thesis project 2013.
10. Forecasters handbook,
http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/forecaster_handbooks/Arctic/Forecasters%20Handbook%2
0for%20the%20Arctic.htm).
11. ICE12, Digitized ice charts for the arctic hemisphere, Canatec Associates of Calgary,
Canada.
12. IMO Polar Rules
13. ISO 19901-5
14. ISO 19901-6
15. ISO 19906
16. NORSOK N-002/3
17. ONS 2012
18. OGP, Oil and Gas Producers Report 447.
19. ONS Summit 2012 - Arctic Resource Development: Risks and Responsible Management
20. OSPAR Guidelines,
http://www.bmp.gl/images/stories/petroleum/2004_OSPAR_offshore_guidelines_monito
ring.pdf

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SECTION 8
WEIGHT CONTROL

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8.0

WEIGHT CONTROL

8.1
Introduction
ISO 19901-5 & 6 provide guidance for weight control and are the basis for this evaluation.
8.2
Whats different for weight control in the Arctic
A number of key aspects are important to consider in view of weight control requirements.
These are (not in specific higher risk order);
Apart from standard weight control required for the optimum execution of a project, for
arctic areas atmospheric & sea icing poses an additional threat due to weight increase to
the integrity of the unit and the transport, the effect of which should be evaluated.
The possible long distance transports and required equipment (vessels) associated with
operations in the arctic add weight due to accumulation of icing and snow to otherwise
standard structures. It is therefore possible that weight growth contingencies which are
used based on experience in different areas need to be reassessed.
8.3
Weight control recommendations
For the purpose of this report and further to the recommendations mentioned in ISO 19901-5
& 6, comments here are directed to weight control associated with arctic projects which have
sensitive weight and CoG conditions due to either the transport or the installation operation
involved. As such according to ISO they fit in Class A weight control class.
It is advised to have all Class A weight control take account of weight growth and CoG
shifts due to icing [ref ISO19001-6 section 8.2]. The consideration needs to be whether
weight growth and CoG shift due to icing could lead to additional risks to equipment,
safety of personnel or the environment. As such additional icing load could pose less
increased risk on a large topsides than considerable icing on a smaller unit, an aspect not
normally considered as they are less critical outside arctic areas.
Apart from the contingencies defined for the structures [ref ISO19001-6 section 3], an
additional contingency factor is advised for the weight of calculated icing loads. Further
investigation into theoretical parameters and calculation of icing loads need to be
performed. The report of the pilot project Marine Icing on Arctic Offshore
Operations", ref. Volume 4, explores the icing phenomena and current available
guidance.
It is furthermore advised to perform a risk assessment on the effect of icing as
determined in order to evaluate the necessity to apply heat tracing or other active
removal methods. Due to the addition of possible weights as a result of icing and also
by apparent inaccuracies in the total lightship weight as well as Deadweight items, the
Operator should add adequate reserves as found appropriate [ref ISO19001-6 section
8.4].
In situations where icing occurs, the development should be closely monitored in
relation to the anticipated growth. These audit and mitigation approaches [ref
ISO19001-6 section 8.5] need to be captured in the transportation & installation manual.
8.4
References
1) ISO 19901-5 & 6
2) ISO19001-6

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9.0

STABILITY

9.1
Introduction
ISO 19901-6 gives clear guidance for the determination and documentation of the intact and
damaged stability of vessels and barges and any other floating object involved in marine
operations. Section 9 gives such guidance that is recognized as being uniform for rules and
regulations existing in the classification societies (such as DNV or GL Noble Denton). It is
important to review latest guidance to confirm this aspect.
It is mentioned in the GL Noble Denton guidelines (22.1.2): It is recognized that towing in
ice-covered water is a unique marine operation and that all vessels and towages in ice are
different - making these guidelines general in nature. Each approval will depend on the
result of an in-depth review of the tow-plan as well as an equipment inspection/attendance
by a surveyor to identify any particular problems that may exist for the specific vessel(s) and
towage in question.
It is considered prudent to add the above guidance for other specialized craft working in
arctic conditions.
Considerable care and precautionary measures shall be taken when planning, preparing for
and executing tows and/or installation operations in arctic areas even if it concerns an ice
free period. In most arctic areas ice free cannot be guaranteed and projects can encounter
delay which drive the schedule such that ice could be encountered. In the arctic areas it is
recommended to plan for the occurrence of ice and low temperatures even in the summer
periods and to take appropriate measures to adhere to environmental regulations. This has
impact on the choice of vessels, barges and floating objects and their preparation for arctic
transport and installation operations. In particular attention should be given to the use of
vessels or barges converted for arctic use or operations which involve limited ice coverage (1
to 3/10th , pending operation) as these could involve the issues as outlined in this section.
9.2
Whats different for stability in the Arctic
A number of key aspects are important to consider in view of stability requirements. These
are (not in specific higher risk order);
Vessels, barges or floating objects may accumulated atmospheric & sea icing, which
influences the stability characteristics.
Vessels, barges or floating objects in general may experience the occurrence of floating
ice which can lead to an increased probability of damage and loss of stability.
The effect of loss of stability in in a remote arctic environment due to survivability is an
additional consideration.
In ice breaking mode vessels can experience ice run up which influences the stability
characteristics.

9.3
Stability recommendations
In order to define recommendations specific to arctic marine operations, requirements have
been reviewed for arctic shipping. In this respect it is noted that ISO 19901-6 already
provides some guidance for cold weather conditions. Specific attention is directed to the GL

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Noble Denton Guidelines for Marine Transportations, section 22 for towage of vessels and
structures in ice covered waters.
There are a number of stability considerations for arctic transport & operations:
General:
The addition of winterization of vessel and cargo should be considered when evaluating
the stability. Due consideration however needs to be given to the failure of systems.
Special attention should be given to the potential of ice building up inside the ballast
tanks and sea chests (ref. IMO guidelines A1024)
Stability considerations as indicated in ref IMO guideline A1024 section 3.2, for ships
riding up in ice. This applies more to the icebreaking vessels. Of equal or greater
importance for the fleets considered is the effect of ice pressure which may cause ice
loads which in turn may affect stability.
Conduct a detailed deadweight survey of the involved spread to mitigate uncertainty
with respect to the basic values for stability calculations.
Consider the acceptability for hopper dredgers to work at the normally reduced
freeboard when in ice conditions.
Review the requirement that additional margin and reserve in the righting arm curves is
included.
It is expected that Polar classed vessels or classed vessel rules will apply [ref ISO190016 section 9.8] for the purpose of this document. Dredgers are classed vessels but do not
necessarily comply with all classed vessel rules.
The stability of self-floating structures [ref ISO19001-6 section 9.9] in ice covered areas
is subject to risk assessments as indicated in the code and the recommended values
should be reassessed, given the limited experience available.
Intact stability:
Cargo overhang is advised to have at least three meters clearance with the maximum
height of ice deformity during the tow, with due consideration of the vessel or barge
roll, pitch and heave. Cargo overhang is also not allowed to immerse which negates the
contribution of buoyant cargo on the intact stability. This is also recommended given
potential icing of overhanging cargo. The recommendation [ref ISO19001-6 section 9.3]
The buoyancy of cargo compartments (such as overhanging legs of structures and
hulls of mobile drilling units) can contribute to the intact stability (see 9.4) is not
accepted in arctic areas.
With respect to the required positive stability [ref ISO19001-6 section 9.3], it is noted
that GL Noble Denton requires an intact stability range of at least 36 degrees for all
vessels and barges for inland and sheltered waters (in ice areas).
With respect to the required inclining tests [ref ISO19001-6 section 9.12]; for the tow in
of arctic type gravity based structures, or GBS, adequate details must be gathered for the
weight and weight distribution. Since an inclining may become impractical detailed
weight and center of gravity records shall be collected during the construction and
margins of errors included where needed.
When major modifications are completed on board new inclining tests shall be required.

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Damaged stability:
For arctic tows GL Noble Denton recommend that towed objects shall have positive
stability with any two compartments flooded or broached. This is in addition to that
stated in ISO 19901-6 section 9.5.11 on damaged stability. Damaged stability
relaxations are not allowed for vessels and barges in areas where ice can occur. For
floating objects which need to be transported or installed it is recommended to follow
the guidance of ISO 19901-6 section 9.9.2.2 which allows for thorough risk
assessment. This is recommended to be part of the design process for floating objects in
areas where ice or icing can occur.
In damaged stability considerations the potential of leaking of pollutant is not
acceptable. It is recommended to not carry pollutant directly against the outer hull.
Subdivision using double skin, as stated in ref IMO guideline A1024 section 3.4 is
advised.
With respect to the required damaged stability [ref ISO19001-6 section 9.4] and further
to the above introduction, it is noted that GL Noble Denton requires positive stability
with any two compartments flooded or broached and that no relaxations are given in ice
affected areas for e.g. gravity based structures contrary to what is acceptable in other
areas.
Icing related:
ISO19001-6 section 9.2 indicating allowance for ice accumulation should be taken
into account.
Weight and CoG envelopes need to account for icing of vessel, barge and/or floating
objects, ref. volume 5.
In addition to the attention given to the ingress of water as stated in ISO 19901-6 section
9.5.1.2, melting ice accretion should be avoided to accumulate.
Active monitoring of ice accumulation is advised in combination with planned ice
removal approaches, taking due account of the ability to safely access the icing
impacted areas on vessel, barge or floating object. Active monitoring could include
monitoring the roll period. In the tow of large topsides through arctic areas due
consideration needs to be taken to the accumulation at the top of cargos due to
atmospheric icing which is particularly critical for stability and which is not easily
removed during an unmanned tow. Apart from designing the tow for potential icing, it is
advised to consider active heating or other removal methods not requiring human
intervention.
Icing accumulation due to sea spray is in most cases critical for bow areas. As such the
design of the tows need to take account of an increased trim to the bow due to this effect
and potential effect on the tow stability.
If load-out is performed in arctic areas considerations need to be added on ice and snow
accumulation according to severity classes.
When the effect of accumulated icing on the vessels stability is uncertain a simple
inclining test onboard could provide reliable results. Instead of estimating the weight
and CoG of the icing.

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9.4
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

References
ISO 19901-6
Barents 2020
IMO Polar Rules
ABS Guide for Vessels Operating in Low Temperature Environments
GL Noble Denton guidelines for Marine Transportations
IMO guidelines A1024

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10.0

BALLASTING OPERATIONS

10.1
Introduction
This section will highlight considerations as supplied by various guidelines as well as an
extension of the recommendation given in ISO 19901-6 section 10.3.2 on freezing.
The ABS Guide for vessels operating in low temperature environments offers a number of
considerations for the ballast & piping systems which can also apply to barges and in part for
floating objects.
10.2
Whats different for ballasting in the Arctic
A number of key aspects are important to consider in view of ballast system requirements.
These are (not in specific higher risk order);
The operation of ballast systems can be influenced by arctic temperatures, due to its
effect on ballast water piping and hydraulic valves. This can influence the ability to
perform stability correcting measures or marine operations in general.
If ballast systems can operate but cannot be reached due to cold temperature, icing
aspects or outboard placing this also influences the ability to perform stability correcting
measures or marine operations in general.
Humidity is completely different in the arctic with respect to the tropics. Design of
insulation, heating and ventilation in vessels or barges are not often designed for both
conditions.
Recommended practices such as ballast tanks pressed full to avoid free surface effects
could in arctic (low temperature) circumstances create over pressurizing of vents and
tanks.
Freezing of vent pipes
Freezing of ballast water tanks and the consequential damage to instrumentation and
control systems
Operation of the ballast system in low temperatures is dependent on the ability to access
and work in the ballast control room and access, maintain and operate the piping and
valves.
Ballast operations in the arctic are strongly dependent upon the local regulations
regarding use and discharge of ballast water. These need to be considered in relation to
the requirements to keep ballast water (above water line) from freezing.
Control during limited operational windows and the effects of ice incursions or
freezeup.
In case of winterized units proper materials should be selected as well as sound
operating procedures.

10.3
Ballast system recommendations
It is recommended to consider the following aspects when designing a vessel, barge or
floating object ballast system for arctic offshore operations;
Design recommendations for Ice class vessels can offer input for the ballast system.

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It is advised to use high salinity seawater for ballast water within the local or regional
environmental regulations as it is less inclined to freeze as compared to fresh or
brackish water.
Apart from the earlier point the use of using salt water, heating of the ballast water can
prevent or minimize freezing.
Circulation of water can offer another means to reduce freezing but needs to be
controlled which is less obvious for un-manned barge or floating object tows.
Prevention of freezing may be assisted by ballast water exchange, drawing water from
the lowest sea suction which will be warmer.
Barge Ballast control rooms need to be checked for their ability to heat and ventilate
these areas as well as the piping and valve access areas given possible low temperature
and (sea spray) icing circumstances.
The operation of barges and floating objects often involve dedicated ballast control
systems. These ballast control areas also need to be reviewed from an EER perspective.
This is in particular the case when operations are conducted in areas where ice can
occur.
It is important to ensure that all ballast tanks, valves and piping can be maintained,
accessed and operated in low temperature circumstances and that access can be safely
acquired given icing circumstances. Access routes need to frequently checked. They
may not be accessible during all operations when tanks are filled or partially filled or
when the structure in in an active sit on bottom load condition. Also structural and
ballasting criteria may apply in case in tank valves may need to be inspected.
Winterizing and de-winterizing systems may need to be added in case winter layup is
needed.
Proper tank gauging systems shall be provided for control of ballast levels; Tank vents
may need to be heat traced; sea suction inlets shall be suitable for operation in ice
covered waters.
Centralized control of all ballast operation is recommended; a proper monitoring and
control system is recommended. Ballast and stability information may need to be
displayed in a separate command center if one is fitted.
GL Noble Denton: Special precautions should be taken to avoid structural damage
caused by pressurizing compartments when ballasting and deballasting due to water
freezing in tanks or inside tank vent pipes. This is in addition to the freezing of tank
vents from coating with freezing spray in very low temperatures.
Guidelines for ballast water freezing prevention (ABS Low temperature operations,
Lloyds provisional rules for winterization of ships) See also Section 20.4: The
guidelines warn for damage and recommend stirring and/or pumping-through, which
could be feasible for conventional transport ship. For transport operations involving
project cargo specialized vessels and heavy lift vessels these measures may not suffice.
The vessels use large dynamic ballasting system e.g. for balancing crane operations and
ballast water heating may be required to keep these functionalities. For towed barges
without power, power packs may have to be installed. Large dynamic ballast operations
may also involve large discharges for which MARPOL regulations basically apply.
Due to the effects of working in the arctic and having potential low temperatures in the
tanks, considerations shall be given to the tank layout and tank stripping system [ref
ISO19001-6 section 10.2]. Optimal distribution of ballast during periods of controlled

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set down and also during winterized layup may pose more stringent requirements when
in compared to open water ballasting systems.
Apart from the considerations mentioned in 10.1, it is recommended [ref ISO19001-6
section 10.5] to ensure that manual override options are also reachable and operable in
arctic conditions.

10.4
References
1) ISO 19901-6
2) Barents 2020
3) IMO Polar Rules
4) ABS Guide for Vessels Operating in Low Temperature Environments
5) GL Noble Denton Guidelines for Marine Transportations 2010
6) IMO guidelines A1024
7) Lloyds provisional rules for winterization of ships
8) Ice Navigation in Canadian Water

11.0

LOADOUT

11.1
Introduction
Load-out has not been further reviewed but it can be expected that load-out will become part
of future scopes. It is therefore recommended to study further and use could be made of a
number of actual projects (Tarsiut Caissons, Caisson Retained Island and SDC used in the
Canadian Beaufort Sera Operations) carried out safely and successfully in the arctic, some of
which in ice conditions.
Guidelines need to be developed for sea-fastening construction and/or removal, and
preparations thereof in arctic conditions (temperature, welding control and material
dependencies).
11.2
References
1) ISO 19901-6

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SECTION 12
TRANSPORTATION

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12.0

TRANSPORTATION

12.1
Introduction
The guidance in section 12 will focus on self-propelled heavy lift vessel transport of large
objects, tows of un-manned or manned barges, tows of floating objects such as Semi or GBS
as indicated in ISO 19901-6 Section 12.2.2. It will also provide guidance for mobilization
and demobilization of construction vessels.
In section 20 of this report the logistic transport activities for supply and materials/parts is
addressed.
Transportation to, in and from arctic areas requires considerable preparation above what is
recommended for transportations in relevant guidance such as the ISO 19901-6 Section 12.
This section of this report applies guidance from relevant vessel operating standards for the
arctic in order to define guidance for offshore transportation of vessels, barges and floating
objects intended for arctic areas also covering construction spreads or other specialized
systems.
As indicated in ISO 19901-6 Section 12.2.1 manned tows are considered to be covered by
IMO regulations. For the arctic this would mean IMO guidelines A1024. The section 1 of
that guideline is important and a few general recommendations are highlighted here, which
are relevant to offshore transports:
Operations in polar waters should take due account of factors such as: ship class,
environmental conditions, icebreaker escort, prepared tracks, short or local routes,
crew experience, support technology and services such as ice-mapping, availability of
hydrographic information, communications, safe ports, repair facilities and other ships
in convoy. (1.1.7)
All ships operating in polar ice-covered waters should carry at least one Ice Navigator
qualified in accordance with section 14. Consideration should also be given to carrying
an Ice Navigator when planning voyages into polar waters. (1.2.1)
This can be augmented with the type and location of the operations, the seasonal and
expected duration, hazards and risks and both short and long term metocean data and the
forecasts.
In addition to the above, GL Noble Denton recommends that a tow-master should have at
least 3 years experience of towing in the anticipated ice conditions.
12.2
Whats different for transportation in the Arctic
A number of key aspects are important to consider when planning transportation
requirements. These are (not in specific higher risk order);
Many arctic transports may involve long distances, which exceed the forecasting
window for weather restricted operations. In addition the long distance tows often have
limited ability to find shelter or holding areas (ports), let alone access these in extreme
conditions. Many arctic transports will be defined as weather-unrestricted operations.
Tow-barges and tugs will have more manoeuvrability and control problems in ice. For
seasonal operations with guaranteed ice free waters the operations will be conducted as
in standard offshore tows.

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Tows may pass through narrows between different land masses or between land and ice
and conditions could be challenging at those locations where single vessels or vessel
spreads may need to wait or require additional icebreaker support.
In comparison to ocean tows access to the tow can be hampered due to ice or icing
occurrence.
The draft for sailing in ice and in open water needs to be accessed taking into account
the possible shallow areas together with weight increase and contingency due to icing.
Design accelerations will have to take into account extreme seastate conditions, given
the weather-unrestricted character which will often necessitate model tests or detailed
calculations. Next to this the tow/transport may experience ice loads requiring an
additional assessment of accelerations.
Towing in the arctic in ice covered waters require a distinct different approach in the
tow arrangements, such as short towline arrangements in heavy ice conditions and as
such have a considerable influence on the tug / BP and fleet selection. Due
consideration will have to be taken to the effect on the arrangement (such as fishtailing)
due to the various tow arrangements. Normal tow arrangements are sufficient for lower
ice conditions.
Arrangement of ice escort vessels and or ice management vessels.
In a way similar to ocean tows arctic tows will have to be designed to be self-sustained
requiring all backup tugs and equipment to be available upon short notice. Requiring all
backup tugs and equipment to be available upon short notice. I.e. selected tow fleets
should be chosen such that severe weather changes, black outs on different vessels or
other operational changes can be accommodated. A suitable risk analysis must be
performed.
Ice may be covering the destination site and a temporary waiting position may need to
be selected or operations may need to be carried out in such ice conditions when judged
feasible and safe.
Construction vessels designed mainly for open water areas do not have good housing
around equipment or do not possess enclosed working areas against the harsh weather
conditions.

12.3
Transportation recommendations
It is recommended to consider the following aspects when designing an arctic transport
operation (It is noted that not all are relevant for self-propelled vessels);
Of prime importance is the attention which should be given to vessel selection. Section
21 of this report addresses this aspect.
Transport into arctic areas will involve a number of Ice Classed and or Polar class
ships and the ref. 4 - IMO guideline is important to consult. Section 6.1 is noted
here: All Polar Class ships should be capable of anchoring and providing limited
assistance in the case of debilitating damage or breakdown, towards the prevention
of a catastrophic loss or pollution incident. The capability of ships to provide
assistance should be considered of prime importance, having due regard to the lack
of repair facilities, the limited number of dedicated towing ships available and the
response time that may be required by a dedicated towing ship to be able to provide
effective assistance in polar ice-covered waters.

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GL Noble Denton guidelines (22.3.1) recommend for towing Where no independent


icebreaker escort is identified in the tow-plan for the intended voyage, the tug and tow
must be of appropriate ice classification and power to maintain continuous headway in
the anticipated ice conditions. When a tow is anticipated to take more than three (3)
days (the maximum for a reasonably accurate weather/ice forecast) or longer in ice
conditions that includes a concentration of five (5) tenths or more of limiting ice types,
the tow-plan must indicate the location of the nearest icebreaker support and the
anticipated time before independent icebreaker assistance (Coast Guard or
Commercial) can be provided. This recommendation indicates the need to identify
and plan for suitable (ice breaker) support in ice covered areas.
In the same guidance it is possible to reduce ice classification for the towed objects if
the tug can protect the tow from being damaged from ice interaction. This will however
involve a risk evaluation if the breadth of the towed objects exceeds that of the tug. For
an application of a number of tugs in an ice management formation for a large tow it is
advised to perform a comprehensive risk evaluation in order to confirm that the tow will
not be damaged from ice interaction.
In the same guidance close-couple towing operations (22.3.4) are indicated where a
specially designed icebreaker combines towing and icebreaking assistance. This
requires a direct connection between towed object and the icebreaker. Although not
often applied in offshore tows, this could be a method to be considered when
encountering ice conditions as long as the beam of the ice breaker is larger than that of
the tow.
Towing in ice typically requires shorter distances between tug and towed object to
increase manoeuvrability and to allow the propeller wash to clear the ice accumulation
before the bow of the towed object (GL Noble Denton ch 22.7.1). It is advisable to
consider the spread of towing vessels and the possible support escort fleet when laying
out the tow configuration, length of tow lines as well as distances and headings between
the various vessels and the towed object. Also the shape of the towed object shall be
considered in an overall tow plan.
An estimate of the required MBL for the tow line is indicated in the below table

which indicates
an increase as compared to the (non-benign) table 12 of ISO-19901-6 which is similar to
the table 13.5 of GL Noble Denton. These are only applicable in short tows in very thin
new ice or in very low concentrations (<3/10ths) of medium or thick rotten ice.
Appropriate in ice tow calculations shall be performed to assess the (range) of towing
resistance for a number of selected ice conditions and towing spreads, consider the
formula given in chapter 3.3 of the book 'Marine Towing in ice covered waters' by Peter
Dunderdale.
Towing winches need to be protected from icing and low temperature effects to ensure
they are accessible and operable when required.
Synthetic rope is prone to rapid cutting both internally by ice crystals and externally by
ice edges and therefore is not approved for use in a towing system for an in-ice towage.

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Application of synthetic ropes as springs is also not recommended. (GL Noble Denton
22.7.7.1)
The tow plan should indicate required type of fuel and calculated fuel amount given the
power needed in the anticipated ice conditions, where it is noted that a towing speed of
less than 2 knots can be assumed in ice covered areas with severity type 3 or more and 5
knots in ice severity type 2 or less (very thin new ice or in very low concentrations
(<3/10ths) of medium or thick rotten ice). It should also include a strategy for
refuelling where the tow can remain in position with remaining tugs. An additional 25%
fuel (and other consumables)may be required (GL Noble Denton 22.13.4.2)
Minimum requirements for manoeuvrability and propulsion power (Ice Navigation in
Canadian Waters, Ice passport system of RMRS, Russia): Vessel manoeuvring and
turning in ice is more difficult for vessels with long parallel mid-body. See also section
20.4. Larger manoeuvring areas in harbours are advised, to be matched with harbour ice
management. Appropriate calculations and or simulations are advisable to support the
selection of required time and support fleet.
It is noted that the consideration on bunker ports distances [ref ISO19001-6 section
12.2.7] is very important for the arctic areas as there may not be ports available over the
largest part of the tows.
Other spreads then normally applied for open water tows [ref ISO19001-6 section 12.3]
may need to be considered, i.e.
1 lead tug on a bridle with smaller classed tugs as escort on the corners of the
object
1 lead tug and 2 smaller tugs connected to the corner positions
Same with a stern tug
Dual lead tug on 2 bridles with 2 smaller type escort tugs
Combinations of the above.
Based on the required pull and the availability of proper vessels various combinations of
differing tugs may be available. Towing and especially long tow performance
capabilities may be compared before a preferred spread is chosen. This applies to the
need of support vessels and ice management vessels as well. A total spread will need to
be considered with all vessel capabilities and integrated performances.
A dedicated transport manual [ref ISO19001-6 section 12.8] should be made as per
normal open water operations and cover all ice needs and requirements.

12.4
References
1) ISO 19901-6
2) Barents 2020
3) IMO Polar Rules
4) ABS Guide for Vessels Operating in Low Temperature Environments
5) GL Noble Denton guidelines for Marine Transportations
6) IMO guidelines A1024
7) Lloyds provisional rules for winterization of ships
8) Ice Navigation in Canadian Waters
9) Ice passport system of RMRS, Russia
10) SOLAS
11) Marine Towing in ice covered waters by Peter Dunderdale.

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13.0

TEMPORARY MOORING & STATIONKEEPING MARINE


OPERATIONS

13.1
Introduction
The station keeping required to keep the installation vessel in position in ice covered areas is
a critical part of the establishment of operational limits for the whole marine operation. In
particular when working near to active oil & gas platforms station keeping should be
designed such that an accurate position can be held in the anticipated environment.
13.2
Whats different for mooring and station keeping in the Arctic
A number of key aspects are important to consider when preparing temporary mooring and
station keeping in arctic areas. These are (not in specific higher risk order);
The occurrence of ice in considerable variations complicates the placement, operation
and abandonment of temporary moorings but also the functioning of DP. It is therefore
important to start assessing development areas for types of ice coverage as early as
possible.
The fast occurrence of polar lows has an impact on the speed with which abandonment
needs to be designed.
Mooring and abandonment operations need to be performed in darkness, low
temperatures and often in permafrost conditions.
Limited knowledge of (design/operational) loads due to ice conditions.
13.3
Station keeping recommendations
Considerations as indicated in ISO19001-6 section 13.2 are general in the sense that they can
cover situations in the arctic given due consideration is given to the nature of the metocean
and ice environment. To identify guidance for the mooring response analysis [ref
ISO19001-6 section 13.3] approaches need to be defined for moorings in ice loaded
conditions. With other station keeping means [ref ISO19001-6 section 13.10] DP is one of
the options and is evaluated in a number of studies. This report emphasizes the need to
define guidance.
For station keeping in the arctic, in ice covered waters, the approach chosen in this report
follows that of the Barents2020 Working group 2 design of floating structures in ice
(Annex A17) very much where Ice Management (IM) is used to improve the ability to
remain in position.
As a recommendation this report proposes to apply an operational ice level for defining the
ice action at which position may no longer be retained, due to structural or station keeping
capability. It distinguishes from Abnormal (ALIE), Extreme (ELIE) or Serviceability Level
Ice Events (SLIE) which are design parameters, related to the design of fixed structures or
stationary floating structures, permanently moored. The operational ice level relates to
stationary floating structures, temporary moored, and indicates the design ice loading level
for the temporary mooring before the reaching of which the unit should have disconnected.
After disconnection the unit will have to be able to survive in the ice conditions with the
assistance of an ice breaking vessel and move from location.

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The operational ice level is therefore similar to operational limits such as Hs/Tp limits which
define not to exceed maximum motions or forces. The operational ice level ice action needs
to be defined in the operations manual.
In this section the various considerations are discussed in calculating the operational ice
level, relating it to existing ice conditions at location and applying it in actual offshore
situations.
13.3.1 Describing ice conditions
Section 5 proposes the use of the severity classes for the description of ice conditions. For
the purpose of temporary moorings it is anticipated that this provides a too coarse approach
and it is therefore proposed to use the egg codes (refer to section 7 & Volume 3 IceStream
Pilot), which follow from current practice in ice navigation and operations, and can provide
statistical background.
13.3.2 Modelling Ice conditions
There is disagreement in the results delivered by the current existing prediction models,
because each of them is based on different modelling mechanics. Also some of the modelling
techniques are based on only theory whereas others are based on theory plus post analysis of
full scale performance. The industry has established that there is a need to document which
models are available, what full scale performance data is available and how new modelling
techniques can be established (ISO TC 67 SC8 and others).
Therefore the main focus of the IceStream pilot, ref. Volume 3, has been to confirm the
feasibility of using the egg code parameters as a basis for establishing ice field input into
numerical models. An approach is developed which enables the translation of this small
number of ice field parameters into a representative collection of ice particles that can be
used for the numerical modelling of an ice field approaching a floating structure.
Next to the geometry, IceStream considers the dynamic properties. There are significant
differences in the results delivered by the current existing ice flow prediction models,
because of the variety of applied modelling mechanics for individual processes. The choice
of the applied modelling mechanics is influenced by the idealization of the process of the
observer.
To clarify appropriate assumptions in numerical modelling, the involved physical processes
are investigated in the IceStream pilot study, resulting in a better understanding of the
appearance and behaviour of an ice field. This is done by:
1. Creating an overview of measurements and observations in the field, as documented by
the observers and researchers.
2. Summarizing the physical processes that are identified based on the observations and
measurement conclusions. To explain a number of the processes, already some modelling
mechanisms are utilized.
3. Reviewing a number of numerical models for the prediction of the ice loads on floating
structures on their incorporated modelling mechanisms.
13.3.3 Calculating limits for station keeping
Once the numerical models of the ice flow coincide with the egg code descriptions and the
ice movement, as described in the previous section, numerical analysis of various ice
conditions can be performed on the basis of which limits for station keeping can be
established. This analysis will involve analysing a number of conditions (rgg codes and ice

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movement) and evaluating in which condition threshold values are exceeded. The threshold
value is effectively the operational ice level, which indicates the ice action the stationary
floating structures, temporary moored, can resist as a maximum. From the analysis it will
become clear which conditions can lead to exceedance of the operational ice level which is
required for in-field decision making.
Assessment of the requirements for the mooring and DP system based on the operational ice
level principle calls for a proper estimation of the loads. To establish such an estimation, a
tool needs to become available which predicts the global loads on the floating structure as a
result of the ice features interacting with the structure, including the effect on the DP system
performance. Validation of the estimation tool should be made through model tests and full
scale measurements of the load conditions.
13.3.4 Ice Management effect
As indicated in section 21, the IM vessel has specific capabilities chosen to create a
reduction in the ice force effect and as such increases the ability to remain in position on the
temporary mooring. Depending on the vessels in the IM fleet and the effectiveness of the IM
an indication of the reduction is shown in figure 13.1 from [ref. 3], which also shows the
limit for IM at higher ice thickness. It is noted that the figure uses an equivalent ice thickness
approach as described in the same paper. Using the egg code to define the Ice managed
conditions gives the ability to model the change an IM fleet has on the operational ice level
and its associated conditions, in particular related to types of ice anticipated in the area.
13.3.5 Operational application of limits for station keeping
Having calculated the operational ice level, representing the capability level for the
temporary mooring, the actual disconnect ice level should be defined based on:
A characteristic of the type of ice conditions having less severe ice action than the egg
coded ice condition & movement which creates the operational ice level. A way to
handle this is in the equivalent ice thickness approach but will need to be translated to
offshore abandonment criteria.
A safety factor between the equivalent ice thickness which leads to failure of the
temporary mooring and the ice thickness at which disconnection needs to take place.
Consideration needs to be taken to:
Required warning time between forecast and decision making plus required time
between decision to disconnect and actual disconnection. (together T-time). This is an
important factor required for in particular emergency disconnect conditions.
The ability to assess the IM managed ice condition
The possibility of intrusion of unmanaged ice into the temporary mooring area due to
current / wind shifts.
The ability of the disconnected vessel to abandon the location safely possibly assisted
through IM.
Reference is made to table 21-4 for a sample of operational risks experienced in the field.
Due consideration needs to be given to the difference between radial symmetric vessels and
weather-vaning vessels, which are influenced stronger by ice drift direction changes.

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Figure 13.1 Reduced outgoing equivalent ice thickness in ice floe size. [Ref 3]
13.4
References
1) ISO 19901-6
2) Barents 2020
3) Sea-ice management and its impact on the design of offshore structures - Kenneth Eik Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway 2010.

14.0

CONSTRUCTION AND OUTFITTING AFLOAT

14.1
Introduction
Construction and outfitting afloat has not been further reviewed as it was considered not to
be performed in arctic circumstances.
Depending the needs and requirements posed by logistical and construction projects, more
details should be provided which will need to be addressed on a project specific basis.
14.2
References
1) ISO 19901-6

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15.0

FLOAT-OVER TOPSIDES INSTALLATION

15.1
Introduction
A large number of the float-over operations are performed in summer circumstances, but can
be expected to encounter arctic conditions in spite of the period of operation. This guidance
is therefore intended to highlight the most important points for consideration.
15.2
Whats different for float-over in the Arctic
A number of key aspects are important to consider when preparing for and executing Floatover operations in arctic areas. These are (not in specific higher risk order);
Depending on the area and the timing of operations, more towards the end of the summer
season, ice may intrude on the operational area. Although the installation period may
have been defined to avoid this, projects may encounter delay.
The occurrence of fog is more evident in the (early) summer period impacting the
approaches.
The fast occurrence of polar lows has an impact on the float-over fall-back approach,
the ability to quickly establish a holding condition.
Sea spray icing on seafastenings and guiding arrangements may severely hamper the
operation. Sea spray icing will occur in the autumn season only and will not be an issue
at the start of the summer season when the ice is receding.
Substructure preparations need to account for the effects of cold weather and ice and
possibly de-icing.
15.3
Float-over recommendations
A number of aspects can be taken into account when evaluating a Float-over in arctic
conditions;
The impact of ice intruding on the area will have an effect on the ability to enter a slot
in the platform, on the clearance between the structures and the forces associated with
the float-over operation as well as the ability for the barge to move out.
Float-over operations often involve a large amount of deck equipment and handling of
intermediate moorings by offshore personnel. In an arctic environment these approaches
need to be reassessed due to the effects of temperature, icing etc. The considerations as
given for winterisation are important to follow in this respect.
Particular attention needs to be given to active guidance systems using hydraulics which
can be influenced by low temperatures.
Reliable weather/ice forecasts for weather windows need to be available to start a floatover operation. See section 7 wrt the reliability of weather forecasts.
Given the polar lows, the approach for float-over operations should be such that hold
points are defined such that the operation can be brought to a safe condition within the
forecast period. Seafastenings should not be cut until the last possible moment in case a
polar low develops and the vessel is left with her load unsecured.
Apart from structural considerations given [ref ISO19001-6 section 15.3] and
considerations mentioned in ballast operations section 10, ISO 19901-6 gives sufficient
guidance.

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ISO19001-6 section 15.4 indicates When setting these clearances, consideration shall
be given to the influence of factors such as relative motions, tide, current effects, water
density, wind heel, bathymetry and draught measurement tolerances, as well as to
deflections of structures. Minimum required clearances are given in 15.4.2 to 15.4.4.
Here it is advised to add the effect of ice intrusion for arctic conditions.

15.4
References
1) ISO 19901-6

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16.0

PRE-LAID MOORING INCLUDING FOUNDATION

16.1
Introduction
For the installation of mooring systems in arctic conditions, the guidance in ISO 19901-6 is
quite elaborate and can be supplemented with information from ISO 19906, which indicates
concerns regarding permafrost conditions. This guidance will look specifically at the
foundation considerations and less at the installation work.
16.2
Whats different for pre-laid moorings in the Arctic
A number of considerations need to be taken into account when looking at installing
moorings. These are (not in specific higher risk order);
Soil conditions are different due to the arctic circumstances i.e. permafrost lenses or
boulders.
The permafrost and the freeze-thaw effects in arctic areas.
Cold temperature effects on moorings system components and installation.
16.3
Pre-laid mooring recommendations
A number of aspects need to be considered when evaluating mooring installation in arctic
conditions;
As indicated in the ISO 19906 (9.7.3.1): The penetration analysis shall consider both
the intact and remoulded shear strength of permafrost. In cases with internal stiffeners,
higher strength in permafrost zones can cause the soil plug to stand under its own
weight over a larger height than in non-frozen soils, leading to reduced shear strength
along the inside of the skirt wall. It can also lead to a larger soil heave, which should be
compensated for by an anchor height in excess of the target penetration depth. In sand,
penetration resistance is normally reduced by the gradients from the flow of water in the
sand inside the anchor when under pressure is applied. In cases with permafrost, it
should be recognized that the drainage through the permafrost layer can be lower,
potentially blocking the drainage inside the anchor. In this case, the penetration
resistance is not reduced and larger under pressures are required. The under pressure
should also be checked that it does not draw water into the sand layer beneath the
permafrost layer, with the consequence that the soil plug moves up inside the anchor.
In the storage of mooring lines due consideration needs to be taken to cold weather and
low temperature effects.
Accessibility of systems during operations needs to be planned for (with risk
assessments) and ensured in arctic conditions. An example is the SBM access in the
SEIC operations.
GL-Noble Denton (section 22.7.7) indicates that Synthetic rope is prone to rapid
cutting both internally by ice crystals and externally by ice edges and therefore is not
approved for use in a towing system for an in-ice towage. Therefore due consideration
needs to be given to protecting fibre mooring lines during transport and installation and
consideration should be given to completely encapsulate rope to prevent water ingress.
Besides anchor installation aspects given [ref ISO19001-6 section 16] additional
attention needs to be given to the inability of anchors to be tensioned in permafrost
soils.

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16.4
References
1) ISO 19901-6
2) Barents 2020
3) ISO 19906
4) GL Noble Denton guidelines for Marine Transportations

17.0

OFFSHORE INSTALLATION OPERATIONS

17.1
Introduction
For offshore installation operations the precautions which need to be taken depend strongly
on the season in which operations are conducted. Currently offshore installation operations
are anticipated to be performed in the relative ice free summer period. Various operations in
the arctic have been carried out over the past 30 years. This guidance notes that the main
aspect to be tackled in arctic areas is the human performance, which needs considerable
reassessment in arctic areas.
17.2
Whats different for offshore installation operations in the Arctic
The following considerations need to be taken into account when looking at installation
operations. These are (not in specific higher risk order);
The cold temperature effects
The icing aspects
17.3
Offshore installation operation recommendations
As a consequence of the cold temperatures and icing, personnel offshore is less able to work
long shifts and needs special clothing. Furthermore the ability to handle slings, tools etc. is
strongly reduced. The time working on deck is limited due to the effects of wind chill.
With respect to other aspects in ISO 19901-6 section 17.0 similar considerations need to be
taken as indicated in the earlier sections 8-16. Reference is also made to sections 23 & 24
concerning health and safety management.
In previous sections many aspects of the offshore installation operations have already been
addressed.

17.4
References
1) ISO 19901-6

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18.0

LIFTING OPERATIONS

18.1
Introduction
Lifting Operations has not been further reviewed but is not expected to generate strongly
different requirements in arctic conditions if due consideration is taken to icing and low
temperature effects. Other effects include visibility and wind conditions therefore detailed
weather forecasts will be required.
Currently offshore lifting operations are anticipated to be performed in the relative ice free
summer period with potentially cold temperatures.
In previous sections many aspects of the offshore installation operations have already been
addressed.
The weight contingency factors noted in ISO 19901-6 section 18.3.2.1 need to address the
uncertainty of the effects of icing and snow on the weight of the lift object.
The effects of extreme cold temperatures on steel shackles, slings and grommets are not fully
understood and documented. The possible down grading of standard lifting appliances
depending on the temperature should be investigated.
18.2
References
1) ISO 19901-6

19.0

DECOMMISSIONING AND REMOVAL

19.1
Introduction
Decommissioning and removal has not been further reviewed but will have to be reviewed in
arctic circumstances as it should be part of installation considerations.
19.2
References
1) ISO 19901-6

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SECTION 20
LOGISTICS AND TRANSPORT

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20.0

LOGISTICS AND TRANSPORT

20.1
Introduction
Logistics and associated transport in arctic areas / arctic conditions concerns the following
issues:
Crew change (airborne and waterborne)
Supply base, storage and logistic planning & communication thereof (which may
include temporary offshore supply/storage bases)
Transport of project cargoes, typically 50-500T (pipes for pipe-laying, construction
parts, machinery, replacement parts)
Transport of regular supplies typically parcelled, 5-50T (consumables, spare
parts/materials) or pump-able (fuel, drill liquids)
Stand-by and berthing of these carriers at arctic destination (incl. mooring/station
keeping) and loading/un-loading operations from and to these carriers.
The waterborne transports concerned are:
1. Carried out as long hauls, with a significant part of the route through open harsh sea
conditions, making use of the available weather and ice free windows
2. Carried out as scheduled trips from logistic hubs /supply bases near or in the arctic. The
scheduled trips are for instance supply operations, continuing through the ice season,
when large percentages of the route may be covered by various ice conditions. Sailing
distances can still be large and far from capable SAR capacities.
Also airborne transports (crew change, fast spare part delivery) are considered.
These are generally from a base not too far from the arctic destination. Airborne overseas
transport to the offshore site of operation is by helicopter, fixed wing aircraft are used if an
airstrip is available, e.g. at a supply base / logistic hub.
20.2
Whats different for logistic operations in the Arctic
The hazards due to wind, waves and the hazards of ship systems operation are considered to
have been sufficiently covered in normal operating regulations and design recommended
practices. The same holds for aircraft (viz. helicopter) operations. Special tonnage may be
required and ample time shall be allowed in all planning. The long logistical lines cause
further changes impacting planning and operations.
The focus here is on the extension of the transport routine into arctic conditions with
enhanced hazards due to:
Drifting ice in open seas (sea ice, icebergs, bergy bits, growlers)
Sea ice forming and growing up to a level being in-passable for the ship or causing too
great risk
Ice fields (pack ice) drifting into the route of a level/ridging being impassable for the
ship or presenting too great risks and delays
Albeit capable to sail in thin ice, the vessel can still get caught in pack ice under
pressure. This will affect the operation and safety of the vessel and her crew
Arctic atmospheric conditions hampering ship/aircraft operation: fog, precipitation in all
sub-zero forms, storm (polar low), low temperatures and visibility (darkness).

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Ice formation on ship (heli-deck), loading gear, other equipment needed for operation,
and on cargo and sea-fastenings. This is especially valid when the vessel needs to be
winterized for the arctic.
Possibly long distances from ice free supply basis thus working remotely. Also existing
infrastructure may be under heavy strain due to use beyond capacity.
Cargo or crew transfer from ship to ship, affected by visibility and sea conditions (using
cranes, helicopter or small crew tender).

For further details see the next section 21.


All these hazards may lead to call for emergency assistance of icebreakers, to un-finished
voyages (halfway returns), delays and/or damage or injuries. Damages can be to an extent
that EER measures are needed and ship/aircraft repair or salvage is needed. Complicating
factors in these are that SAR capabilities may be slow and limited in capability, that charting
and GPS positioning may be inaccurate, and DGPS (e.g. needed for Dynamic Positioning) is
up to now scarcely available.

20.3
Logistic operations recommendations
Proper design, winterization, pre-cautions and planning guidelines may prevent damages
from hazards associated with arctic logistics. Note that the Arctic Council initiative AMATII
(Arctic Maritime & Aviation Transportation Infrastructure Initiative) carries out an
intermodal assessment (in 2013) of current and future transportation infrastructural needs
from an international perspective. This will include harmonizing of standards and
governance regimes, AIS, charting, arctic SAR and environmental & indigenous peoples
protection policies.
This report includes a matrix analysis of arctic condition severity classes, which follows ISO
19906 section 7, but has been extended [see section 7 in this report], which is advised to be
used for planning purposes and is used for recommendations below.
Logistic operations concern transport operations, crew change operations, supply
base/logistic hub operations and logistic planning for which the following segments provide
recommendations.

20.4
Transport recommendations
For transport three categories may be discerned: incidental and scheduled seasonal transports
and year round operation. The latter holds true also for the supply base operation. Typical
design conditions for these three categories are defined below:
1.

Seasonal, incidental transports (meaning open water, no ice or incidental ice only):
The transport vessels arctic capabilities are considered low. The ships are usually of
low polar class ( i.e #7 or 6, IMO rev 2011) or have an ice notation from class.
Icebreaker assistance may be needed, along the NSR or NWP.
Ice conditions severity: below IMO polar class 7 conditions (summer/autumn operation
in thin 1st year ice with old ice inclusions), as far as other class ice notations allow.

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Atmospheric conditions severity: 10-year return voyage wind and waves, temperatures
down to -20oC as a daily mean but depending on the area of operation, snow, graupel
(soft hail), spray water freezing, loss of standard maritime communication, low
visibility.
2.

Seasonal scheduled transports:


The vessels have been purpose built, with Polar Class 7 or 6/Baltic class 1A.
Ice conditions severity: summer/autumn operation in medium 1st year ice with old ice
inclusions.
Atmospheric conditions severity: 10-year return voyage wind and waves, temperatures
down to -20oC, snow, graupel (soft hail), spray water freezing, loss of standard maritime
communication, low visibility.
Note for both 1) and 2):
We expect to see with increasing frequency that transports, dredging, installation
operations etc. are carried-out/extended into the shoulder season, i.e. early freeze up
and late break up. Dredging, for instance has been shown to be able to handle some
20-40 % ice concentration and either thin ice or broken ice. The above arctic conditions
severity classes have been set to meet this expectation. Practical experience can be
found for instance in ref 28.
Note for 2)
USA Alaska logistics make use of tug-barge
combinations and conventional tows for
supply and export of products of activities
(i.e. mining). The tugs have additional ice
breaking capabilities. Refer also to section
9.1.

3.

Year round - Transports:


The vessel class depends on the selected area
of operation and the type of operation and
have a Polar class 5 or better.
Ice conditions severity: following polar class
but may be more severe than medium 1st year
ice with inclusions of old ice.
Atmospheric conditions severity: 10-year
return voyage wind and waves, temperatures
down to -40oC, snow, graupel, spray water
freezing, loss of standard maritime
communication, low visibility.

20.4.1

Figure 20.1 Kigoriak icebreaker


with drilling caisson tow in 1992
(Source: Canmar)

General regulations for transport recommendations

General regulations for items 1. 2. and 3. noted above.


The IMO Polar Code 2009, rev 2011 requires all ships to have an ice navigator, ice
info/charts receiving equipment, documented limits of operation & voyage plan, and the
navigational-, steering-, power- and emergency equipment (incl. personnel life saving kit)
prepared for arctic conditions. Additional requirements are present for tank clearance if

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carrying pollutants and a general requirement (minimize chance for pollution) for
hoses/pipes and connectors for fluid transfer.
Furthermore, the Guidelines for Offshore Marine Operations GOMO, Appendix 7-A provide
some guidance on operations in environmentally extreme conditions. In general this
document provide guidelines for offshore support operations and is well established within
the industry, replacing the former North West European Area Guidelines (NWEA). See
www.marinesafetyforum.org. Also relevant is the OCIMF's Offshore Vessel Inspection
Database (OVID) questionnaire which, in section 13 presents some requirements for
operations in ice and severe sub-zero conditions.
No further reference is given for the logistic operation planning. Access to arctic regions
may be limited by local and federal regulations, Class, Ice Passports and other., e.g. Russian
Class and DNV having standards in place related to Ice Passports. Canada uses the Ice
numerals method. As of January 2013 the processes and regulations for the Northern Sea
Route Administration seem to have changed. In that respect the IMO Polar Code
requirement for each ship to have a Polar Waters Operations Manual is relevant. This
document, as one of its requirements, will address safe speed, although that may still rely on
local procedures as mentioned above.
For over- wintering operations, NRC has submitted a Technical Report (OCR-TR-2012-08)
describing ice loads for typical Canadian Beaufort Sea overwintering locations.
The IMCA SEL-019 M187 guidelines on crane and lifting operations give no provisions for
arctic conditions, but require that a site specific Job Risk Assessment is made before the
work begins. Site specific implies arctic conditions, but criteria are missing.
Various Class recommendations exist for winterization of ships (Lloyds, ABS, DNV), the
Russian Maritime Register of Shipping is a well informed source (see ref. M. Niini et al). A
problem is that the requirements e.g. for icing vary widely between difference class
regulations and focus on ship safety and not so much on operability.
In addition to above logistic environmental operations scenarios, there may be operations
which are ice breaker assisted.
In the reference IACS Review of World Wide Ice Classes for Ships and Ice Breakers the
limit of operation of a ship behind an ice breaker is indicated. Generally, the operability
criteria increase with a small extent, suggesting that passing in a broken ice corridor still
involves significant ice loads on the ship hull. For example the Russian classes LU4 and LU
5 (1999) are quite prescriptive in this:
LU4: Ice strengthening notation of the ship (independent navigation in young open arctic ice up to
0.6 m thick in winter and spring, and up to 0.8 m thick in summer and autumn. Navigation in a
navigable passage astern an icebreaker in young arctic ice up to 0.7 m thick in winter and spring,
and up to 1.0 m thick in summer and autumn.
LU5:Ice strengthening notation of the ship (independent navigation in young open arctic ice up to
0.8 m thick in winter and spring, and up to 1.0 m thick in summer and autumn. Navigation in a
navigable passage astern an icebreaker in young arctic ice up to 0.9 m thick in winter and spring,
and up to 1.2 m thick in summer and autumn.

Ships generally used for transport of construction components and heavy equipment
generally lack ice-class (Dockwise Vanguard has an ice class 1B). Hence, the operations
design should take the hazards of sailing and (off-)loading in arctic conditions into account.

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Transport of project cargo (typically 50-500t), may require special ships and ice class should
be considered. Useful information may be found in section 12 (Transportation) and section
21 (General equipment preparation) where the construction and preparation aspects are
considered.

20.4.2

General aspects of ships without polar ice class entering Arctic

General aspects of ships without polar ice class entering the arctic are:
Criteria for ships with Polar Class. Operation according the stipulations in the IMO
Polar Class Rules and the National Authorities, see also below.

Criteria for ships with IACS Unified Requirements or with a Finnish Swedish class.
Operation according to the applicable standards and satisfying the arctic requirements.
Generally vessels with an FS Class of 1A Super or equivalent are more than capable for
the summer and some shoulder season conditions in the arctic waters.

Criteria for minimum strengthening in view of hitting growlers/bergy bits, unseen or


smaller than radar resolution. (ISO 19901-6; ISO 19902-Canada regulation B2, B4.3,
B5.7)
See section 21.5 : The guidelines warn for growlers and recommend to avoid areas
with growlers and bergy bits. If encounter is expected, extra bridge watch and
careful navigation is advised. Canada guidelines advise Ice-belt strengthening but
dont provide criteria. Additionally, it is recommended to apply safe speed criteria
when in such conditions.

Minimum criteria for self-aid in case of emergency (damage/repair) (IMO-Polar Code)


The guidelines warn for damage and recommend some (hot) repair capability for
minor damages (with extended capabilities for ice breaking vessels PC 4 and above).
Cold repair techniques using new materials should be considered as well as
minimum self-repair capabilities for ships entering areas with arctic conditions.

Guidelines for ballast water freezing prevention (ABS Low temperature operations,
Lloyds provisional rules for winterization of ships)
See section 10.2 of this report

Minimum requirements for communication reliability (loss of standard maritime


communication) ( Ice Navigation in Canadian Waters)
Recent work (MARENOR JIP Marintek news 2012/8) considered communication
problems in the arctic, especially North of 810. To enhance reliability of
communication for operation management of the vessel and logistics, it is
recommended to prepare for use of improved satellite communications systems (e.g.
Iridium) and for use of direct communication to supply base communication centres.
Guidelines, though, are not available. For communication see also section 7.8.

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Minimum requirements for navigation preparations in areas with un-reliable charting and
uncertain position assessment (IMO Polar Code; Ice Navigation in Canadian Waters;
Canadian Aids to Navigation System)
The guidelines provide clear minimum requirements for ice navigation. Awareness
in ice navigator training of inaccurate GPS positioning and inaccurate charts on
remote locations is advised.

Minimum requirements for manoeuvrability (are tows feasible?) and propulsion power
(Ice Navigation in Canadian Waters, Ice passport system of RMRS, Russia)
Vessel manoeuvring and turning in ice is more difficult for vessels with long parallel
mid-body. Larger manoeuvring areas in harbours are advised, to be matched with
harbour ice management. . Tow-barges and tugs will have enhanced manoeuvrability
and control problems in ice. Tugs should have ice management capabilities. For
seasonal operations with guaranteed ice free waters the operations will be as in
standard offshore tows. See also section 12 on feasibility of tows.
Also, regarding capability to handle ice conditions, low powered ships (EEDI
compliant) and conventional cargo ships /cruise ships need access guidelines.

20.4.3

Protection of cargo, de-icing and redundancy

Criteria for protection of cargo, de-icing and redundancy (Seasonal/Year round) are:

Criteria for cargo protection against icing


Guidelines for cargo protection should focus on capability to get cargo (off-)loaded
in a safe and efficient manner. Icing protection of container hoist points, of project
cargo lifting arrangement, etc. will be needed. It is recommended to apply measures
for safe human accessibility to systems/areas to be made ice-free. Systems and or
procedures shall be in place to prevent ice falling from crane booms and hoisted
cargo gear and suitable warning shall be provided to people underneath those areas
where possible risks may occur.
See for sea-fastening and (off-) loading gear under section 20.6. Operations
involving project cargoes (50-500T) often require offshore offloading which makes
covering of the cargos un-feasible. Operations design will have to take into account
icing pre-cautions as well as de-icing capabilities for lifting arrangements and nonconventional sea-fastenings.

Criteria for redundancy in de-icing and equipment powering systems


See section 21.4. Guidelines for redundancy in essential on-board operational
equipment should focus on capability to keep loading gear power systems, de-icing
systems, sea-fastening removal systems and Emergency Shut Down equipment
operational in all conditions (seasonal and year round arctic conditions, in harbour
and offshore).

20.4.4 Supply of regular useables and consumables


This concerns the regular and year round supply of goods, containerized or packed in well
manageable coli or units. Also RoRo cargoes are considered for arctic developments (see

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paper by Pospelov: Yamal LNG). Logistic hubs and supply bases provide intermediate
storage of these supplies.

Containerization, RoRo cargo


Sea fastenings as well as fixed container latching shall be made suitable for arctic
conditions and cold weather operations.

20.5
Crew change recommendations
General: planning and reliability of crew change operations are to be part of the operations
design. Weather dependent operations need continuous forecasting support and forward
planning management.

Airborne (Year round) (EASA rules, OGP Aircraft management guidelines, CAA
CAP437)
ICS/OCIMF Guide to helicopter / ship operations.
Helicopter blade de-icing and heating
Above includes:
- Approach & landing , stand-by and take-off criteria
- Minimum criteria for cold climate operation of a heli-deck
- Minimum criteria for de-icing of heli-deck and for navigation aids for heli-operation
Regional guidelines may exist for cold climate airborne operation, also related to fast
growing tourism. Generic guidelines require risk based operations design and duefull preparation of each flight. Helicopter landing criteria for ships and platforms are
presently quite tight, resulting in low workability. Additional hazards in arctic
conditions will further limit the operations. Further investigations are advised, i.e. of
hazards, of new technology to pilot guidance and of technology for helicopter
securing to the deck, leading to improved criteria.
Ship borne (Seasonal/Year round)
-

Operational requirements (ISO 19901-6 Sect. 6.6.2; appendix 5 sect 17.18; ISM
Code and IMO ISPS Code; GOMO (Global Offshore Marine Operations), section
7.9.
Minimum polar class requirements (IMO Resolution A863, addition to OSV code)
or Finnish Swedish or equivalent Ice Class Rules.
Ship borne crew change operations may be needed for longer distances off the
logistic hub. (Presently, distances >200 nm are out of range for helicopters however,
these capabilities may be extended).
The present regulations cover the basic issues. Operational considerations will define
polar class requirements of the ships concerned. As crew transfer ships are likely to
be relatively fast, ice belt strengthening and advanced ice detection equipment
(collision avoidance systems) are to be considered. Guidelines for safe transfer of
people from ship to ship/platform in cold climate needs extension beyond clothing

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protection and standard offshore crane operations; some are found in the new (2013)
GOMO guidelines. Question is whether the ship-ship/platform transfers can be
carried out into more severe conditions than helicopter transfer.
20.6
Supply base/logistic hub recommendations
A supply base for arctic marine operations will be chosen at a location that is seasonable
accessible over water and year round accessible by air. Also, access by ice road may be
possible. The location is not too far from the operational area. The facilities will have to
sustain year round arctic conditions. For on-shore operations it is not uncommon to have a
supply barge freeze-in near shore, and serve from there by wheeled surface transport.
Ice conditions severity: a supply base location is assumed to have open waterborne access in
summer but in winter the ice conditions may be more severe than medium 1st year ice with
inclusions of old ice. Precautions shall be taken to prevent the accumulation of brash ice,
impacting part entry and docking operations. Passive and or active port control brash ice
management systems shall be considered.
Atmospheric conditions severity: 10-year return voyage wind and waves, temperatures down
to -40 C, -50 C or even -60 C (this is site specific), snow, spray water freezing, loss of
standard maritime communication, low visibility.
This section provides recommendations for supply bases and load-on and load-off
operations.

Airports, harbours (OGP Aircraft management guidelines; CAA CAP437)


Civil airport regulations are in place and well covered, for fixed wing and rotary
aircraft. In arctic conditions additional criteria may be needed as mentioned under
20.2.1. Guidelines for sea harbours are present (e.g. Coastal Engineering Manual,
US Corps of Engineers) but specific guidelines for ice are largely focused on
engineering problems (ice loads on breakwaters) and not so much on operational
problems. Operational efficiency of harbour facilities at an arctic supply base may
benefit from the following considerations:
- Covered docks in which freezing is avoided and wall power supply systems are
available are to be considered as options to enhance workability and safety.
- Availability of safe and climate resistant storage area for all consumables,
spares, equipment etc., either on barge or on land is recommended. Also arctic
equipment and (fuel-) storage vessels may be put to overwintering in water. The
NRC report (OCRE-TR-2012-08) summarizes: In sheltered areas such
operations are feasible as to mooring and vessel loading, provided a site
specific analysis is made. Use of double hulled vessels for fuel storage is deemed
necessary but regulations on that part are amiss.
- Harbour facilities for safe mooring (mooring assistance) of ships for extended
summer operations or winter operations, Ice growth reduction in harbour basins,
in combination with ice management de-icing capabilities for harbour equipment
and for incoming ships.

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Also, a supply base will have to be prepared for extended functionality as regional
communication and command centre for operations. Adequate communication
systems will be needed.

Storage of rescue and oil spill cleaning equipment, medical facilities, SAR capabilities,
repair and maintenance facilities.
A logistic hub should have sufficient capabilities of support and mitigation in case of
emergencies, guidelines on that should be developed considering agreements made
and to be developed in the Arctic Council WG on SAR and emergency response.
Logistics in mild areas has developed into just in time logistics and minimum stock
optimization. In arctic, these approaches are probably not valid.

Capabilities for waste treatment and spill recovery (IMO-Polar Code/MARPOL)


The guidelines have generic requirements as to spill recovery capabilities in arctic
waters but little attention for spill/waste/emission avoidance measures.

Operational criteria for temporary mooring/docking offshore


Limiting ice conditions to be established for ships temporary berthing in harbour as
well as mooring or DP in offshore conditions. See also section 21 Vessel
Operation. For regular supply services from logistic hubs/supply bases it may be
advisable to enhance regularity by having covered docks and shore side power
supply.

Operational criteria for winterization of loading gear (cranes, skid beams, ramps)
See section 22. This concerns specific equipment for the project cargo specialized
ships (e.g. heavy lift ships) (off) loading relatively heavy cargoes (50-500T). Various
studies on specific winterization methods are carried out (See papers by Niini,
Legland).

Criteria for assessment of operational limits of (un-) loading operations (icing effects,
material effects)
In operations design, it is advised to establish limiting ice and icing conditions for
ships (un-)loading operation. These depend on provisions made (winterization of
loading gear) and design of sea-fastenings.

Criteria for working schedules and climate protection of loading gear operators
To extend existing guidelines (IMCA SEL Section 5.4.; IMO-ISPS) for working
conditions to maintain safety levels in arctic conditions.

20.7
Logistic planning / approval recommendations
This section considers recommendations for logistic planning, the importance of which is
recognized as an additional requirement for arctic marine operations, also identified as to
what is different in the arctic. Local logistics operations typically require weather working
windows, however due to the offshore requirements, vessel capabilities and incoming

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weather patterns (i.e. polar lows) mismatches in logistics operations may occur and these
aspects shall be considered in the planning and operation stages.

Criteria for back-up provisions: escorting, re-routing/pull-out (ISO 19901-6; Canada


regulation B2.4.5; Ice Navigation in Canadian Waters, NSR guidelines)
Regional guidelines and recommended practices exist, e.g. for NSR and Canadian
waters, with ship capability related criteria. International harmonization is desired on
basis of recommended logistic planning, and approval procedure thereof.

Approval criteria for risk based logistic planning


Operations design and operations management is advised to make use of risk based
logistic planning, as are e.g. available from scenario simulation tools.

Multi-ship and convoy operation


In guidelines as e.g. Noble Denton/GL Marine transportations various aspects of
multiple tow /convoy type operations in ice are given. It is advised to also make
provisions for mutual position monitoring and for joint operations related to
emergency aid and repair.

Ice breaker support


Many existing guidelines exist for ice breaker assistance in transport.

20.8
References
International Guidelines:
1) IMO Polar Code 2009 and revision proposal for harmonized Ice Classes
2) ISO 19901-6 Marine operations
3) ABS: Low Temperature Operations
4) IMCA 'Guidelines for Lifting Operations'. (SEL 019/M 187)
5) IMO - ISPS code/ISM code
6) IMO resolution A.469(XI), Guidelines for the design and construction of offshore supply
vessels
7) IMO resolution A.863(20), Code of Safe Practice for the Carriage of Cargoes and
Persons by Offshore Supply Vessels (OSV Code)
8) Lloyds :Provisional Rules for the Winterization of Ships 2009
Regional guidelines:
9) ISO 19902, 2007, appendix B 3.2 The regulatory framework for Canada
10) Ice Navigation in Canadian Waters, Minister of Fisheries and Oceans Canada 2012,
ISBN 978-1-100-20610-3
11) Canadian Aids to Navigation System, Canada Coast Guard, ISBN 978-1-100-15842-6
CAA CAP 437 Standards for Offshore Helicopter Landing
References
12) Barents2020 (Phase 4 report, 2011)
13) Naval Arctic Operations Handbook (ONR, 1953)
14) IACS: Review of World Wide Ice Classes for ships and icebreakers (internet)

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15) Enfotec, GeoInfo and John Mc Callum: Safe Speed in Ice: An analysis of transit speed
and ice numerals, Ship Safety Northern, Transport Canada, Dec . 1996
16) Pospelov: Yamal LNG, AARC12 Arctic Passion Seminar, 2012
17) G.W. Timco and I. Morin: Canadian Ice Regime System Database, 8th International
Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE98, Vol.II), Montreal , 1998
18) Fridtjof Nansens institute: Arctic resource development, Risk and responsible
management, ONS 2012 summit The Geopolitics of Energy, Stavanger
19) M. Niini, S. Kaganov and R.D. Tustin: Development of Arctic double acting shuttle
tankers for the Prirazlomnoye project TSCF 2007 Shipbuilders meeting
20) E. Legland et al: Winterization guidelines for LNG/CNG carriers in Arctic
environments, ABS technical Papers 2006
21) Helios JIP preliminary results (not public available)
22) US Military: FM 04-203 Section 3, Rotary wing environmental operations Cold
weather operations (internet)
23) OGP: Aircraft management guidelines Report No: 390 July 2008, updated August 2011
24) Garas, V. et al: Aerial Reconnaissance in Support of Arctic Drilling Operations:
Requirements, Challenges and Potential Solutions. OTC 24649, ATC conference 2014)
25) Ice classes: ABS Low temperature Operations
26) Floating and Bottom founded units for arctic drilling operations, W.H. Jolles et al,
OMAE 1989.

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SECTION 21
VESSEL OPERATION

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21.0

VESSEL OPERATION

21.1
Introduction
Arctic operations or operations in cold climates, could pose challenges or in some cases
risks, which will be discussed in section 21 and 22:
- Selection of best vessel for the job, including her ice class when needed and support
vessels, when needed,
- Operational window, how many days can be worked in summer, in an extended
summer including the break up and freeze-up shoulder seasons,
- Operating performance, what is the vessel speed or system uptime,
- Icebreaker support, what type of support is needed, in normal operations and also in
emergencies, including mobilization and demobilization,
- Ice management requirements to provide a safe and efficient working environment
with minimal risks and downtime or waiting for ice.
21.2
What is different in the Arctic
A number of operating conditions and also risks and hazards are different in arctic or cold
weather operations. Some of those have been identified in section 7 and the latter will be
discussed in section 23 onwards. The key items which can be regarded different in arctic
marine operations are:
1. Lack of daylight and lack of visibility especially when ice is around.
2. Remoteness which impacts all logistics and infrastructure requirements especially in areas
with cold temperatures, icing, lack of visibility.
3. For extended summer or early winter the impact of freezing and ice cover which effects
vessel operation, personnel and safety of them as well as equipment.
4. Needs for ice defense operations in order to keep the equipment on station and conduct
icebreaking and ice management operations to guarantee safe operations and minimize risks.

21.3
Identification of Gaps
Gaps have been identified for ships operating in ice covered waters.
The focus of this section has been to examine the gaps, to check if key references and
applicable documents have been used, to determine key steps in physical Ice Management
(IM) but also on IM planning and operation, to determine vessel and IM limits and to
determine risks and alert systems.
Many ship related rules or guidance notes exist from which will equally apply to the vessels
within this Guide. They include the IACS Classification vessel rules, Polar Rules as well as
ISO 19906. For this reason ISO TC 67 has initiated a new effort, that of SC8 which will
address such operational aspects for systems in ice. However operations are not addressed in
great detail, specifically: how to manage ice around a dredger with drag arms over the side,
exposed to drift ice, operations with pipeline stingers and the accumulation of ice on the
stinger and hoist wires, ice in moon pools and ice loads on stationary equipment conducting
trenching or pipeline cover operations or when conducting float in / out of large modules and
or the placement of large bottom founded structures.

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Gaps have been identified in areas of:


1. Ice effects on umbilicals and appendices, such as pipeline stingers, drag arms
2. Safe speeds for non or low class ships sailing in open water conditions
3. Navigation and crew requirements for identification of hazardous ice conditions; and the
effects of the extra workload on the crew when conducting operations in the arctic, see also
section 23.1. item d)
4. Use of remote sensing and satellite imagery and the use of integrated surveillance
systems; ability of such tools to help detect small ice features makes operation in such areas
more hazardous
5. Applicable working season and the selection of safe start and end dates
6. Determination of icing loads on the vessel and her cargo (especially important with heavy
lift vessels)
7. Assessment of risks and hazards.
The criteria for minimum strengthening of the hull for ships sailing in open water conditions,
but not ice free conditions, have been discussed in ISO 19901-6 and other standards. The
guidelines warn for growlers and recommend to avoid areas with growlers and bergy bits. If
such an encounter is expected, extra bridge watch and careful navigation is advised. Canada
guidelines advise Ice-belt strengthening but dont provide criteria. Depending on the
mission of the vessel localized strengthening may be required or seasonal limitations / speed
limitations could apply.
Transport Canada supports full implementation of the IACS Unified Requirements for Polar
Classed Ships, see also the Ship Safety Bulletin:
http://www.tc.gc.ca/media/documents/marinesafety/ssb-04-2009e.pdf.
The respective Polar Classes can be found in: http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debsarctic-shipping-operations-polar-classes-1352.htm
21.4
Icebreaking services
Operations may require one or more icebreakers, pending the actual operations and pending
the type of vessel to be protected or supported, from potentially hazardous ice.
21.5
Icebreaking class and icebreaker selection
The first item to be selected is the class of the icebreakers. Class selection can be based on
safety of the system as well as expected safe performance. One or more larger vessels with
high ice class could be selected or a number of lower ice class vessels. Availability shall be
checked in advance and expected vessel performance shall be checked versus the actual
ships of opportunity.
When a vessel is intended to transit a specific route or is to be operated in one of the
controlled arctic shipping regions, the required class is set by the shipping control regime.
For example:
1) Russia NSR regulations
2) Baltic FMA escort regulations

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3) Canada Zone date system and Ice Numeral system


4) Arctic Ice Regime Shipping System
The Arctic Ice Regime Shipping System (AIRSS) is a regulatory standard currently in use
only outside the Zone/Date System(Z/DS), as a requirement of the Arctic Shipping Pollution
Prevention Regulations (ASPPR). Based on the success of the AIRSS, the potential exists for
broader application of the AIRSS , with the Z/DS acting as guidelines. Visibility, vessel
speed, manoeuvrability, the availability of an icebreaker escort, and the knowledge and
experience of the crew must be considered when applying the AIRSS.
AIRSS: http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-arctic-acts-regulations-airss-291.htm.
A simple but effective class comparison is given below, see ref 5.
Table 21-1 Class Comparison

Another Class comparison Table is obtained from DNV with approximate ice conditions
which the vessel would be able to handle from the safety of the hull point of view, see ref 6.
Other Rules will also need to be checked and compared (including those by Applonov 2007
and CNIMF).

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Table 21-2 DNV Class Comparison

Table 21-3 shows the approximate correspondence between the ice classes of the Finnish Swedish ice class rules (Baltic ice classes) and the ice classes of other Classification
Societies.
Table 21-3 Comparison of various Ice Classes
Classification Society

Ice Class

Finnish-Swedish Ice Class Rules

I Super

IB

IC

Category II

Russian Maritime Register of Shipping


(Rules 1995)

UL

L1

L2

L3

L4

Russian Maritime Register of Shipping


(Rules 1999)

LU5

LU4

LU3

LU2

LU1

American Bureau of Shipping

IB

IC

D0

Bureau Veritas

IA SUPER

IC

ID

CASPPR, 1972

Det Norske Veritas

ICE-1*

ICE-1

ICE-1B

ICE-1

ICE-C

Germanischer Lloyd

E2

E1

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Korean Register of Shipping

ISS

IS1

IS2

IS3

IS4

Lloyds Register of Shipping

1S

1A

1B

1C

1D

21.5.1 Icebreaking requirements


One of the key aspects in selecting the appropriate vessel class and her possible support
vessels, is the predicted ice performance. Class or expert ice specialists can prepare vessel
performance graphs as illustrated below, ref 6 also referred to as ice Passports.

Figure 21-1 Admissible transit speed in ice

The Ice Passport, Ref 1, or Ice Certicate is required when operating in the Northern Sea
Route or ports in Russia, when the ice conditions become more severe than those dened by
the ships ice class. The passport will provide guidance to the selection of a safe speed
subject to ice thickness and concentration, with or without icebreaker support.

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The Ice Passport includes the following:


concise information about the ship and her ice performances (including her ice class),
obtained from the design documentation, delivery trials and results of operation of ships
of the given type;
ice performance curves, diagrams of safe speeds, distances and circular motion radiuses
in the channel after the icebreaker are the main working documents allowing to
determine the safe ships motion modes in ice;
assessment of the shipside compression strength.
Two categories of diagrams constitute the basis of the Ice Passport:
a) diagrams for determination of safe allowed movement speeds in ice;
b) diagrams for determination of the safe distance between the icebreaker and the
escorted ship, where applicable.
Another method of determining safe vessel speeds can be obtained from ref 7, Ship Safety
Northern, which provides safe operating speeds based on an Ice Numeral system. This Ice
Numeral is a function of the vessel ice class and the prevailing ice conditions found on the
route. High numbers provide access to that area, negative numbers prevent access.
Additional icebreaker support will increase this Numeral. This reference provides an
indication of the safe speed for Type B, D and E ships based on actual route data. Other safe
speeds for other ice classes can be prepared on a case by case basis, by preparing ship
performance data or by using the ice passport approach.

Figure 21-2 Safe speeds in ice based on ice numerals

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The Ice Numerals, see ref 8, provide a means for predicting average transit speeds which
particular classes of vessels under actual operating conditions. Data quality do not permit
any further refinement of a dependence of transit speed on magnitude of the Transit
Numeral. The ice class regime used is the WMO egg code definition of ice conditions,
which is the best method for classifying ice regimes from the perspective of safety and
efficacy of ice navigation.
Traffic restrictions may apply to different areas. One reference for instance is HELMCOM,
ref 9, which specifies the following capabilities for 4 ice thickness ranges:
1. When the thickness of level ice is in the range of 10-15 cm, and the weather forecast
predicts continuing low temperature, a minimum ice class LU1 or equivalent should be
required.
2. When the thickness of level ice is in the range of 15-30 cm, and the weather forecast
predicts continuing low temperature, a minimum ice class IC or LU2 or equivalent should be
required.
3. When the thickness of level ice is in the range of 30-50 cm, a minimum ice class IB or
LU3 or equivalent should be required.
4. When the thickness of level ice exceeds 50 cm, a minimum ice class IA or LU4 or
equivalent should be required.
The traffic restrictions can be lightened and finally removed after the melting period of ice
has started in spring and the strength of the level ice fields has started to decrease. The
external temperature has been proven to be a good guidance for a proportional decrease of
ice strength.
21.6
Physical Ice Management
Physical ice management (IM) is the operation which involves the active processes to alter
the ice environment with the intent of reducing the frequency, severity or uncertainty of the
ice actions, ISO 19906. Other definitions, see also section 7 include the activities of
detection, tracking and forecasting as part of IM. In this section we shall refer to the physical
actions and the evaluation of threats and the alerting for and against such threats.
IM can be divided in IM for pack ice and that for of icebergs and growlers. Barents 2020
lists a number of practical physical IM activities for a variety of systems. These activities
shall be selected based on:
- ice conditions
- forecast weather and ice conditions
- system performance, mother vessel and IM vessels
- T-times
- possible risks and hazards
- effectiveness of IM activities.

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No one standard procedure can be provided for all possible scenarios and a possible start
will be given by ISO. In 2013 the ISO TC 67 SC8 and specifically Working Group 4 Ice
Management, will start to define operational needs, requirements and procedures. This
process is expected to take some 2-3 years.
IM procedures shall be selected based on the type of operation, the station keeping
requirements or the requirements for transits. Scenarios that may be selected pending the
above factors include:
- picket boat approach, strategic vessel up drift and the tactical and smaller vessel
closer in, both circling or conducting other manoeuvres.
- high speed approach, to cut through large floes of pack ice.
- use of prop wash and clearance of azimuth propelled vessels to generate a near open
water area downstream of this vessel.
- local ice clearance, use of the hull momentum and prop wash to clear ice locally.
- other physical management operations may include circling, random patterns, radial
transits, towing and moving of icebergs
- combinations of the above.
Other types of ice management which can be considered may include:
- Orienting the vessel into the ice such that one could create a lee; of use for subsea
work protecting overboard umbilicals and of use for trailing suction hopper
dredgers.
- Considerations for larger moon pools through which equipment can be lowered. This
may prevent ice from impacting overboard installations or equipment.
- Passive and active ice management tools such as deflectors, bubblers or propellers
and hull wash systems
21.6.1 IM vessel selection
The selection of the IM vessel shall be based on factors listed above. In addition selections
need to be made for vessel size, power, icebreaking features and naturally type of propulsion
and IM effectiveness. Double acting type ships can be considered for some missions,
working stern first and other more classical systems would work bow first. Availability and
cost are other factors to be considered.
No single guidance is possible since projects and ice conditions could differ. Vessel
performance and overall safety are key considerations. The technical selection process may
need to include:
- Type and size of vessel, classical hull, double acting type hull with azimuthal drives
- Type of powering, mechanical, electrical, number of engines, power controls
- Dimensions, length, beam, max beam, draft
- Special hull features, hull lubrication, special paints, icebreaking belt, heeling
system, special navigational systems and remote sensing gear
- Performance, expected and actual, speed in various ice conditions, shallow water if
applicable, thick ice, ice under pressure
- Other mechanical and electrical features.
Other aspects that can be considered are the vessel and crew experience and knowledge as
well as prior operations, vessel and crew maintenance, quality control, vessel age.

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21.6.2 IM requirements
The IM requirements are a function of the requirements of the vessel that needs IM support,
the environmental conditions and the capabilities of the IM vessels. An example has been
prepared in the following figure which shows IM capabilities for a number of icebreaking
fleets for 10/10 ice concentration, drift speed of 0.5 m/sec, flexural strength of 500KPa and
an air temperature of -30C, see ref 10. The graph shows that selection of different fleets will
result in small size floes. An assessment shall be conducted for each of such operation,
pending site specific conditions.

Figure 21-3 Outgoing equivalent ice thickness versus incoming ice thickness, for
different icebreaker fleets (10)
TFY Traditional first year icebreaker
TMY Traditional multiyear icebreaker
AFY Azimuth first year icebreaker
AMY Azimuth multiyear icebreaker
Risks and hazards must also be considered and a good example of such risk for various
operations is depicted in the next table, ref 11. For each operation one shall determine the
critical operations, the time to stop and secure such operations, the time needed to re-start
such operation. T-times, the time to secure such operation, shall be determined. Based on
actual conditions, forecast conditions, appropriate decisions can be made.

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Table 21-4 Sample of Operational risks experienced in the field, ref 11.

An integrated risk management system is to be considered, from detection and monitoring to


decision making, alerting and recording. Data storage, dissemination of the results, crew
experience and training are part of such integrated management.
21.6.3 Interfaces between IM vessel(s) and protected object
Interfaces between the vessel to be protected and those that conduct the protection will be
required in areas of communication, position data, vessel performance data, vessel radar and
visual observations and data exchanges. This may also apply to the communication and data
links to the shore. The provision of high resolution data may require large bandwidth.
Solutions may include dedicated communication systems and or processes to send and
receive larger files and attachments, for example the compression of such data or the
streaming of this data, via a LAN or cellular network.
21.7
Standby preparations (hot and cold)
Lay-up of non-arctic equipment in hot or cold conditions will be discussed in section 22.

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21.8
Other considerations
21.8.1 Structural integrity forecasting and monitoring
Structural monitoring may be considered when the vessel or system is used for a long
duration. Operational experience has shown that higher stresses may occur in areas of
frequent ice contact, like the bow and shoulder area, but also in the bilges and the stern
quarters especially for shallower draft vessels and also icebreakers. The stern areas can
expect to see ice loads when maneuvering in ice. The operational scenarios where potential
ice impacts will need to be given considerations during the planning and actual operations,
are:
A. high speed in lower ice concentrations, i.e. dredgers to haul or dump material. To be
safeguarded by the use of safe speeds, trained navigators and use of remote sensing.
B. low forward speed and station keeping, impacts from pack ice, large floes and
growlers; to be guarded by monitoring, forecasting and where needed assist vessels.
C. close quarter maneuvering, for instance by survey vessels and dredgers; to be
safeguarded through the use of detection and monitoring, forecasting and the use of
trained crew
D. Ice pressure events affecting all systems; use suitable forecasting systems as well as
integrated decision making systems, where possible.
Potential risk and hazards will need to be monitored.
21.8.2 Special considerations for non-arctic units and equipment
Non arctic vessels can be taken into the arctic or cold environments, with proper planning of
all systems, section 22 General equipment preparation, sections 23-25 HSE aspects including
crew and rescue as well as identification of the environmental conditions in section 7. An
operations plan and manual are recommended. Risks and hazards should be defined and
alternate solutions be documented. Some of the risks will involve an earlier freeze up then
expected, ice left over from the spring is still in the area of operation, lack of visibility and
the occurrence of storms and thus spray ice, and long logistical lines, see section 20.
Planning and operations shall include:
- Identification of the start and end dates of the summer and their yearly variation.
- Identification of other ice related hazards such as stamukhas, ice bergs and growlers
- Vessel requirements and their need for supporting icebreakers
- Route planning or selection of best operational areas based on current forecasts
- Detection and monitoring needs and requirements
- Crew and training.
21.8.3 Considerations for specialized units and equipment
Attention may need to be given to special units and their equipment, such as heavy lift
vessels with large cranes, submersible vessels or pipe laying spreads. These may experience
spray ice and or the freezing of deck areas (after the submerging of a heavy lift barge/vessel).
Planning must include the assessment of the planned working windows and the risk of
weather delays and or early winter. Also closure of some key navigational openings shall be
taken into account such as Point Barrow in northern Alaska. Each project will need to be
checked on a case by case basis.

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21.8.4 Navigation aspects


A number of navigation aspects shall be considered, especially when operating with no or
low ice class vessels in open water and or light ice conditions. These shall include: the use of
ice navigators or ice advisors, special navigational equipment, specialized (ice) radar,
adequate bridge watches and the use of safe transit speeds. Information overload has been
experienced during some operations and such aspects will be addressed during the ISO SC8
working groups. The use of integrated decision making systems will help reduce this
overload and enhance the overall safety. Such systems bring together all data available to the
operator, see S7, vessel positions and tracks and helps the crew in making the proper
decisions to proceed / halt / stop operations and also records all such data.
A general review of navigational systems, procedures and equipment has been conducted by
STC MAROF students, ref 12, which provides further data on technology and its
development. The study recommends the use of the European based Galileo system in
combination with the GPS system for increased accuracy and reliability of the GPS signals.
Also the use of a laser gyro compass or satellite compass is recommend for the same reasons
of high latitude operations. In the area of communication systems the study recommends to
supplement the Inmarsat system with an Iridium based system.
Considerations for atmospheric icing and marine icing effects shall be taken into account.
The state of the art for icing is described in the Guide, Volume 5, Icing Pilot Study. The
effects of both types of icing on marine operations shall be addressed.
Another navigational aspect to be considered for both ice classed ships and non-ice classed
ships, are the ice charts. These shall consist, where needed and applicable, of global ice
charts and local ice charts. The former can be regarded as strategic charts and are mostly
issued by the Governmental metocean and ice centers. The localized charts can also be
provided by the same, provided they have good access to real time localized information.
The local charts, also referenced as operational charts, shall be used in a tactical sense. Such
global and local charts may contain few areas with identified ice conditions through the ice
eggs nomenclature or they can consist of many of such eggs with supplementary conditions
like deformations, snow, rubble, ridges, pressure, stamukhas.
OCIMF OVID questionnaire introduce certain requirements/guidelines on crew experience
and navigation equipment for operations in ice and severe sub-zero conditions.
21.9
Recommendations
Key recommendations are:
Risks and hazards shall be defined for all operations and the use of an integrated risk
management system shall be considered.
The requirements for physical ice management needs shall be detailed.
Effective solutions shall be sought for all communication system at high northern
latitudes for ship to ship and ship to shore communication and data transfer.

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21.10
References
1. Vessel Rules, including BV, Lloyds register, DNV and ABS.
2. Polar Rules
3. ISO 19901-6, and 19902
4. http://meeting.helcom.fi/c/document_library/get_file?folderId=76322&name=DLFE30794.pdf
5. IACS Requirements for Polar Class Ships Overview and background, C. Daley, MUN.
6. DNV:
http://www.dnv.no/Binaries/Ship%20operation%20in%20cold%20climates_tcm155295010.pdf
7. Safe speed in ice, Ship Safety Northern, Transport Canada, 1996:
http://www.geoinfosolutions.com/projects/Safeice.pdf
8. Frederking, Isope 1999, Ice Numeral System and safe speeds in ice:
ftp://ftp2.chc.nrc.ca/CRTReports/ISOPE_99_adaptingIRS.pdf
9. Helcom 25/7: http://www.helcom.fi/Recommendations/en_GB/rec25_7/
10. Keinonen, A., Matin, E., Neville, M., Gudmestad, O.T., 2007. Operability of an Arctic
Drill Ship in Ice with and without Ice Management, Proceedings of the 19th Deep
Offshore Technology conference (DOT), Stavanger, Norway.
11. A. Keinonen, E. Martin, Ice Risk Management for Floating Operations in Pack Ice,
SNAME 2010.
12. Enhanced ice navigation in arctic climates, R. van der Bijl, J-B van der Schoor, Final
Thesis MAROF study, expected by Oct 2013.

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22.0

GENERAL EQUIPMENT PREPARATION

22.1
Introduction
This section deals with the preparation of equipment for operations in arctic conditions.
Equipment in this respect consists of the hull and shipboard systems and mission equipment.
Mission equipment is the terminology used for equipment specifically required for the actual
operations, such as cranes, pipe lay or dredging equipment.
This section aims to provide a structured approach to the evaluation of the suitability of
equipment for use in arctic marine operations and the identification of required modifications
to either equipment and/or operations based on such evaluation. It also provides guidance for
specific subjects such as winterization, repair and maintenance as well as lay-up. It does not
aim to provide (design) solutions for making equipment suitable for use in arctic conditions.
22.2
Guidelines
For general equipment preparation, numerous guidelines exist for arctic conditions, both
specifically for these conditions and general ones that are equally applicable to arctic
conditions. A distinction should be made here between guidelines for the Hull and shipboard
systems and mission equipment.
For the hull and shipboard systems (marine systems and equipment that are normally found
on all types of vessels), generally well established guidelines developed for shipping can be
applied. These cover most of the issues related to operations, except for:
Station keeping systems, such as mooring and dynamic positioning systems
Specifically when operations are dependent on ice management guidelines for station
keeping are lacking, see section 21
Sea ice loads on hull and overboard structures passing through the splash zone. Ice class
rules are geared towards ships travelling through ice, which gives different loadings
than vessel staying geostationary in the ice, especially in the zones outside stern and
bow
Icing loads due to sea spray, atmospheric icing and precipitation. General guidance for
stability loads exist in ice class rules, but a direct correlation to actual local conditions
which is required for operational considerations does not exist
For establishing sea ice loads there are no established codes or guidelines available yet. Also
analysis and model testing methods to establish sea ice loads, both global (station keeping
systems) and local (hull strength), are not yet fully established. It is therefore advised that a
best practice approach as available at the time of the planning phase of the operations is
chosen, preferably combining two or more methodologies available.
Guidelines that deal with the specific requirements for mission equipment used in offshore
operations in the arctic are less available, as most have been developed for shipping
purposes. The existing general guidelines for such equipment, such as the Lifting Appliances
guides from the major Classification societies, however provide sufficient guidance for the
specific nature of arctic operations. By combining these general equipment guidelines with

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arctic specific guidelines for shipping (by applying the principles and solutions from the
generic guidelines to the mission equipment), these can be successfully used as a good
reference on equipment preparation for the arctic.
Although guidelines can therefore be concluded to be available for arctic equipment
preparation, guidance on their application is required. Initial guidance on which guidelines
are available and suitable for this use and their general application is given in this section,
but further work can be done to develop this.
22.3
Impact of Arctic conditions on general equipment preparation
The impact of arctic conditions is highly dependent on the period in which the operations are
to take place. Although generally recognized as an area with extreme weather conditions,
summer conditions in the arctic can be comparable to winter conditions in other areas and
may thus need less or no special arctic consideration with respect to general equipment
preparation. Requirements to equipment preparation therefore need to be decided based upon
the actual conditions expected in the period of operations and evaluated accordingly.
Dependent on the above, equipment preparation for the arctic will differ to a varying degree
from equipment preparation for any operation in a remote and harsh environment area. Main
differences with respect to non-arctic preparation may follow from the following conditions
and circumstances specific to the arctic:
Design and operating temperature, specifically extreme low temperatures during start
and end of season periods
Icing, due to sea spray icing, atmospheric icing and precipitation
Interaction with sea ice floes and other floating ice, for both the hull and shipboard
systems and any equipment operating through the splash zone
Winterization requirements, to deal with the effects of the above phenomena
Remoteness of the operating areas, with limited or no infrastructure for supply and
repair or maintenance
Winter lay-up (if required)
Increased interdependency of vessels employed in the operations, as success of
operations may be dependent on e.g. ice management, ice breaking support, multiple
logistics vessels etc., with limited or no alternative options available
This has been further addressed on a subject by subject basis in this section.
22.4
Equipment selection & modification
The methodology for equipment selection and modification as proposed in this section are
aimed at existing equipment, whether this equipment has been specifically designed for
arctic operations or not. It can also be used as a methodology to assess new designs, to
provide guidance in the design stage of the unit
The methodology is based on ISO19905-1Petroleum and natural gas industries - Site-specific
assessment of mobile offshore units - Part 1: Jack-ups Site Specific Assessment, which has
been adapted for arctic operations and to include all types of units.

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The methodology is developed to evaluate the equipment against the requirements of a


specific operation in a specific area in a specific period. The main principle is that the
equipments limitations are determined, analyzed for the operational conditions and judged
on acceptability. If the equipment is not acceptable, either other equipment can be selected,
or the operational profile adjusted to allow the equipment to be used, or modifications to the
equipment can be applied. This is a main principle as it allows a wider evaluation of
equipment and provides a structured method to design the operation taking available
equipment into account. Although this is common practice, this specific methodology aims
at making it specific to the arctic and providing guidance on the topics to be addressed.
The methodology is set-up to assess the suitability of equipment for an arctic operation. It
can also be used to develop operability assessments, e.g. determining the operating limits of
existing unit and assess its operability for a given operation in the arctic. This is described in
more detail in section 22.4.8.
When preparing an assessment in accordance with this section, it should be taken into
account that operations will almost always involve multiple units with interdependencies.
The acceptability for the operation and underlying assumptions (operational windows,
acceptance criteria etc.) are preferably to match or the operations should be based on the
least capable equipment, and changes in the overall composition of the units involved should
trigger re-evaluation of all assessments. This needs to be taken into account when
performing the assessment for each unit and its equipment.
Additionally, account shall be taken of the interaction with any existing offshore installation
and/or infrastructure which may be present.
The figure below shows the flowchart for the equipment selection and modification, with the
methodology further elaborated in subsequent sections.

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22.4.1 Assessment approach


The assessment is divided in two main subjects:
Hull assessment
Equipment assessment
For the hull assessment, ISO19905-1 methodology is closely followed, as an established
basis for jack-up site specific assessment and as the basis for a similar ISO standard intended
to be developed for floating units.
For equipment assessment, the methodology is based on establishing the operability
limitations of the equipment and comparing these to the parameters of the operations
intended. This is further described in section 22.4.7.
The equipment assessment can be carried out at various levels of complexity as per below.
The objective of the assessment is to show that the acceptance criteria as referenced in
section 22.4.2 are met. If this is achieved at a certain complexity level, there is no
requirement to consider a higher complexity level.
Compare assessment situations with design conditions or other existing assessments
determined in accordance with this part of the handbook
Carry out appropriate calculations according to the simpler methods, such as ISO
19906. Where possible, compare results with those from existing more detailed/complex
calculations
Carry out appropriate detailed analysis according to the more complex methods, such as
direct calculation and/or (model)tests for the hull and risk based assessments for the
marine systems and mission equipment
22.4.2 Assessment conditions
Selection of limit states
Limit states are used for the assessment of the hull structure strength. ISO 19900, on which
this assessment methodology is based, divides the limit states into four categories as
described below
Ultimate limit states (ULS)
The assessment shall include evaluation of the ULS for assessment situations including
extreme combinations of metocean actions and arctic specific conditions. For the ULS,
the integrity of the structure should be unimpaired, but damage to the non safety-critical
(secondary) structure of the hull and equipment can be tolerated.
When the ULS conditions (both metocean and arctic) are within the defined SLS limits
for the unit (e.g. the metocean conditions are less severe than those defined for survival
conditions), the ULS assessment shall be carried out with the unit in the most critical
operating configuration
Serviceability limit states (SLS)
For arctic units, the SLS will normally be covered by the limits specified in the
operations manual and, therefore, it is not necessary to assess it unless the operational
configuration requirements for the site are outside those limits. However, the
requirements of ULS above also apply

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For non-arctic units, SLS should be established for the arctic condition where they differ
from the original design conditions / specification of the unit;
Fatigue limit states (FLS)
For arctic units, the FLS is generally addressed at the design stage. It is not necessary to
evaluate fatigue unless the unit is to be deployed for a long-term operation.
These considerations apply to non-arctic units as well, as fatigue is not considered to be
a governing factor;
Accidental limit states (ALS)
For arctic units, the ALS will generally have been addressed at the design stage and it is
not necessary to evaluate it in the assessment unless there are unusual risks at the site
under consideration.
For non-arctic units, ALS should be established for the arctic condition where they
differ from the original design conditions / specification of the unit.

Determination of assessment situations


Units can be used in various modes during the operation. In each mode, the unit can be in an
operating or survival configuration. This concept, based on Mobile Offshore Unit common
approaches, allows a unit to make certain changes and/or preparations in its configuration to
prepare itself for severe weather or other conditions that may impair the unit or its equipment
in the operating configuration.
Where more than one configuration is contemplated, the differences (e.g. loading conditions,
retrieving overboard equipment in its stored position on board) should be considered in the
assessment. The practicality of any required configuration change should be evaluated and
appropriate assumptions incorporated into the assessment. Any required restrictions on the
operations shall be included in the operating procedures. The assessment situations should be
determined from appropriate combinations of operating mode, operating configuration and
limit state.
Exposure levels
For exposure levels, reference is made to ISO19905 section 5.5. In ISO19905-1 various
levels of exposure are recognized to determine criteria that are appropriate for their intended
service. This section summarizes this approach based on ISO19905 and addresses the
changes and applicability for application to assessment of equipment for arctic marine
operations.
The levels are determined by consideration of life-safety and of environmental and economic
consequences. The life-safety category addresses personnel on the unit and, where
applicable, the likelihood of successful evacuation before an extreme event occurs. The
consequence category considers the potential risk to life of personnel brought in to respond
to any incident, the potential risk of environmental damage and the potential risk of
economic losses.
Life-safety categories
The category for life-safety (S1, S2 or S3) should be determined for the unit prior to the
assessment. When either S2 or S3 is selected, this shall be agreed with the operator and,
where applicable, the regulator:

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S1 Manned non-evacuated
The manned non-evacuated category refers to the situation when a unit (or an adjacent
structure that can be affected by the failure of the unit) is continuously manned and
from which personnel evacuation prior to the extreme event is either not intended or
impractical.
This is the expected category for units operating the arctic for operations within the
context of this handbook;
S2 Manned evacuated
The manned evacuated category refers to a unit that is normally manned except during a
forecast extreme event. The condition under which a unit may be categorized as S2 are
similar to those in ISO19905-1 section 5.5.
This category is considered not likely for units operating the arctic for operations within
the context of this handbook but may apply to adjacent structures or could be considered
for extreme events;
S3 Unmanned
The unmanned category refers to an unit that is manned only for occasional inspection,
maintenance and modification visits.
This category is considered not likely for units operating the arctic for operations within
the context of this handbook, but is included for reference.

Consequence categories
Factors that should be considered in determining the consequence category include the
following:
Life-safety of personnel either on or near the unit who are brought in to respond to any
consequence of failure, but not personnel that are part of the normal complement of the
unit
Damage to the environment; and
Anticipated losses to the unit owner, to the operator, to the industry and/or to other third
parties as well as to society in general. This category should also reflect the cost of
plugging and abandoning wells on damaged facilities
This classification includes risk of loss of human life for people other than personnel being
part of the unit's normal complement and personnel on any adjacent structure that can be
affected by failure of the unit. A primary driver for the classification in consequence
categories is damage to the environment or to society. This in particular should take into
account the specific aspects of operating in arctic areas.
The consequence category that applies shall be determined prior to the assessment and shall
be agreed by the operator and, where applicable, the regulator and operator(s) of adjacent
facilities. Matching actual situations to generic consequence category definitions woll
require a degree of judgment.
Consequence categories are:
C1 High consequence category
The high consequence category refers to units where the failure of the unit has the
potential to cause high risk to emergency response personnel and/or high consequences
in terms of environmental damage and/or economic loss.
Unless the above conditions apply, a unit should normally be categorized as C2 or C3.

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C2 Medium consequence category


The medium consequence category refers to an unit where production of hydrocarbons
on both unit (if applicable) and any adjacent facility (if applicable) is shut-in during the
extreme event;
C3 Low consequence category
The low consequence category refers to jack-ups operating in open water sites with no
existing surface or subsea infrastructure in the vicinity.

The three categories each for life-safety and consequence can, in principle, be combined into
nine exposure levels. However, the level to use for categorization is the more restrictive level
for either life-safety or consequence. This results in three exposure levels as detailed below.
The exposure level applicable to a unit shall be determined prior to the assessment and,
where applicable, shall be agreed on by the regulator and operator and by the regulator and
operator(s) of adjacent facilities.
The exposure levels are given in the table below:
Life-safety category
S1 Manned
S2 Manned evacuated
S3 Unmanned

C1 high
L1
L1
L1

Consequence category
C2 medium
L1
L2
L2

C3 low
L1
L2
L3

The following provisions apply to categories L1, L2 and L3.


L1: A manned or C1 unit shall be assessed for either the 50 year independent extremes
with partial action factor of 1,15 or for the 100 year joint probability metocean data with
partial action factor of 1,25 as per ISO19905-1 section 8.8.1 and Annex B or an
equivalent approach
L2: A lower consequence manned evacuated unit shall be assessed for the 50 year
independent extremes or 100 year joint probability metocean data that can be reached at
the site prior to evacuation being. The assessment shall use the partial factors applicable
to L1
The unmanned post-evacuation case shall also be considered according to criteria to be
agreed between the unit owner and the operator.
L3: The unmanned, low-consequence (survivability) criteria, to be agreed between the
unit owner and the operator (not expected to be for units operating the arctic for
operations within the context of this handbook)
Risk acceptance levels
Where a risk based approach is used in the assessment, risk acceptance levels should be set.
These risk acceptance levels may be based on applicable legislation or rules and regulations,
or alternatively be set by the parties involved in the operations.
It should be noted that risk acceptance levels, where already available, normally do not take
into account arctic specific conditions. A review of those risk acceptance levels and their
suitability for arctic marine operations should therefore be carried out prior to them being
used in an assessment.

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22.4.3 Data to assemble for each site


Unit data
Typical data required for the assessment are:
Unit type
Equipment type
Latest revision of the drawings, specifications and the operations manual, including any
documentation related to performance in sea ice conditions, such as an ice passport
Proposed lightship and variable load and centers of gravity for each configuration,
accounting for any changes that are not included in the latest revision of the operations
manual
Design parameters and any proposed deviations for the intended operation, specifically
including:
o Ice class/strengthening
o Performance capabilities (transit)
o Station keeping system(s) (mooring and/or dynamic positioning system)
o Design temperature
o Winterization measures applied
Details of any relevant modifications
Site and operational data
The site data should include the site coordinates, sea floor topography and water depth
referenced to a clearly specified datum, e.g. lowest astronomical tide (LAT) or chart datum
(CD). At sites where an offshore installation and/or infrastructure is already present, site
drawings, the required clearances with the installation/infrastructure, the units position(s)
and other interface data should be obtained.
Metocean data
Metocean data for the operations sites and (de)mobilization route(s) should be obtained. For
arctic areas, specific attention should be paid to the reliability and availability of such data.
Site-specific data should include at least the following:
Water depth (LAT or CD)
Tide and storm surge
Wave data:
o Significant wave height and spectral peak period
o Maximum wave height and associated period
o Abnormal wave crest elevation
Current velocity and profile
Wind speed and profile
Omnidirectional data can be sufficient but, in particular circumstances, directional data can
also be required.
For arctic marine operations additional data should be evaluated, when applicable:
Lowest daily air temperatures, etc.
Lowest water temperatures, etc.

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Icing occurrence (due to precipitation or other conditions)


Table 7.1 of this handbook gives further guidance on metocean data to be considered for
arctic marine operations. Also note the further considerations on this data as discussed in
section7.
Sea ice and iceberg data
Sea ice and iceberg data for the operations sites and (de)mobilization route(s) should be
obtained.
Typical data to be considered is given in Table 7.1 of this handbook. Also note the further
considerations on this data as discussed in section 7.
Seasonal variability
In the collection of metocean and sea ice / iceberg data, great care shall be taken to account
for seasonal variations, i.e. the applicability of the data for the period of intended period of
operations. Also yearly variations for the intended period of operations shall be considered,
as great differences may occur for the same period in different years.
Geotechnical data
Geotechnical data for the assessment of equipment is required for moored operations and/or
operations with bottom founded units. In general, data as required by ISO19905-1 Section
6.5 (bottom founded units) or API RP2SK (mooring system) should be obtained.
For arctic areas, specific attention should be paid to the reliability and availability of such
data and the potential presence of permafrost layers.
22.4.4 Actions
Typical actions to be considered are:
Metocean actions:
o Actions on station keeping systems, hull and other structures from wave and
current
o Actions on station keeping systems, hull and exposed areas from wind
Sea ice actions:
o Actions on station keeping systems, hull and other structures from sea ice
interaction
Functional actions:
o Actions from mission equipment
o Fixed actions, and
o Actions from variable load
Indirect actions resulting from responses:
o Accelerations from dynamic response
Other actions as may be appropriate:
o Icing, and
o Snow, and
o Other based on assessment of the envisaged operations

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22.4.5 Analysis
Analysis should be performed to the degree required as discussed in section 22.4.1, taking
due account of specific arctic issues such as sea ice and icing loads. Appropriate analysis
methods should be considered, including their reliability.
In general, due account should be taken of reliability of both the assembled data and
available analysis methods, which may both be lower for arctic specific locations and
analysis methods than those for non-arctic areas. When this reliability is judged to be
comparatively low, this should be reflected in the assessment, e.g. by using increased
margins and/or safety factors.
22.4.6 Adjustment of operations
If during the assessment it is concluded that the equipment is not suitable for the intended
operations, it can be considered to adjust the operations to suit the equipment. This is a
particularly relevant option when employing existing equipment on arctic operations, where
the possibility to modify the equipment to suit the operations is considered not to be feasible
or desirable.
The following options could be considered for such adjustment of operations:
Different operating season or split-up of the operation into multiple seasons
Different method of operations, e.g. splitting up or combining operational steps to
reduce the required weather window, other installation method which reduces the
exposure of the equipment etc.
Increase the number of support vessels, e.g. to reduce ice loads (by ice management) or
reduce required autonomy (by using additional supply vessels, more ice capable supply
vessels etc.)
Increase the forecasting and monitoring accuracy, thereby enabling the use of smaller
weather windows or increase the weather window
22.4.7 Modification of equipment
If it is not desirable or not possible to adjust the operations to the capabilities of the
equipment, modifications may be required to make the equipment suitable for use.
Such modifications could build on the same references as those used for the assessment of
the equipment:
Hull & shipboard systems: relevant IMO code for the unit (IMO SOLAS, MODU or
other certification) and the IMO Polar code, classification rules and regulations for ice
classed vessels and winterization notations for the establishment of limiting criteria and
the assessment of hull and shipboard systems suitability for arctic operations. Where
these are not available, insufficiently defined or considered to be otherwise not suitable
for the expected conditions or operations, a risk based evaluation can be used instead.
Mission equipment: classification rules and regulations for cargo gear, lifting appliances
and winterization notations for the establishment of limiting criteria and the assessment
of hull and shipboard systems suitability for arctic operations. Where these are not
available, insufficiently defined or considered to be otherwise not suitable for the
expected conditions or operations, a risk based evaluation can be used instead.

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If the risk based approach is chosen, it is recommended to follow an established


methodology. Proposed here is to follow the classification societies processes in place for
approval of novel designs, as these provide a methodical approach to the evaluation and
approval of newly developed solutions, a concept which is applicable to solutions provided
which are not covered by existing guidelines.
As an example, the procedure as outlined by ABS is given below. Similar processes exist
with other classification societies as well, and also several companies including operators
have their own processes on technology qualification as well, which could be utilized.

Of particular relevance in the above shown procedure are the AIP (Approval in principle)
and Detailed design approval phases. Note that this is a formal approval process, individual
processes can and should be adopted to their particular needs, as dictated by the required
involvement of stakeholders such as classifications and /or authorities and regulators.
22.4.8 Guidelines for assessment
Specific reference is made to the following guidelines for the assessment as detailed above:
IMO code relevant to the unit, i.e. SOLAS, MODU, SPS etc.
IMO A.1024(26) on Guidelines for ships operating in polar waters (to be supplemented
/ replaced by IMO Polar code when this becomes available)
Coastal state regulations for the relevant area(s)
ISO19905-1Petroleum and natural gas industries - Site-specific assessment of mobile
offshore units - Part 1: Jack-ups Site Specific Assessment
API RP2SK Design and Analysis of Station Keeping Systems for Floating Structures
DNV Rules for Classification of Ships, Part 5, Chapter 1 Ships for navigation in ice
DNV Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C101 Design of offshore steel structures, general
(LRFD method)

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DNV Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C201 Structural design of offshore units (WSD


method)
ABS Guide for vessels operating in low temperature environments
ABS Guidance notes on ice class
ABS Guidance notes on review and approval of novel concepts
Other societies rules for winterization and ice classed vessels as may be relevant (e.g.
for non-DNV or ABS classed units)

22.5
Hull & shipboard systems
In general, reference should be made to the relevant IMO code for the unit and the IMO
Polar code, classification rules and regulations for ice classed vessels and winterization
notations for the establishment of limiting criteria and the assessment of hull and shipboard
systems suitability for arctic marine operations.
Where these are not available, insufficiently defined or considered to be otherwise not
suitable for the expected conditions or operations, a risk based evaluation can be used
instead. A procedure similar to that described in section 22.4.7 can be used in those cases.
In the assessment of the hull and shipboard system, two major parts of the operation can be
distinguished which may have quite different requirements. These are:
Mobilization, which mainly involves transit of the unit to and from the site where the
actual operation(s) are to take place. Due to the general remoteness of arctic areas,
distinctly different conditions than those on site may be encountered during
mobilization
Operations, which is the actual work and supporting activities to be performed on the
site(s) where the work is to take place
Capability to mobilize
For mobilization, the following subjects should be taken into account:
Metocean conditions, taking into account intended routes and periods
Sea ice conditions, taking into account intended routes and periods
Autonomy (endurance) required to mobilize, taking into account required remaining
autonomy for operations and/or emergency conditions (i.e. unit delayed due to severe
ice conditions during (de)mobilization)
Ice breaker assistance (if applicable)
Winterization, with specific attention to sailing conditions i.e. including sea spray icing
considerations
Draught limitations
Safe havens available en route
Self aid capabilities during emergency conditions, taking into account intended routes
and periods and/or interdependency when multiple vessels are involved
Ice class and other regulatory requirements, including coastal state requirements that are
applicable on the routes to be navigated
Temperatures to be encountered, taking into account emergency conditions (i.e. unit
delayed due to severe ice conditions during (de)mobilization)

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Capability to operate
For operations, the following subjects should be taken into account:
Metocean conditions, taking into account intended operating sites and periods
Sea ice conditions, taking into account intended operating sites and periods
Autonomy (with due considerations for interruptions on supply route, if operations are
dependent on intermediate supplies)
Ice management assistance (if applicable)
Winterization, with specific attention to operation of the mission equipment and safe
operation by personnel (including human factors)
Draught limitations
Safe havens available
Self-aid capabilities during emergency conditions, taking into account intended
operating sites and periods and/or interdependency when multiple vessels are involved
Ice class and other regulatory requirements, including coastal state requirements that are
applicable on the operating sites
Ice strengthening for ice loading patterns outside the scope of ice class
Temperatures to be encountered
22.5.1 Guidelines for hull & shipboard systems
Specific reference is made to the following guidelines for hull & shipboard systems in
relation to arctic operations:
IMO code relevant to the unit, i.e. SOLAS, MODU, SPS etc.
IMO A.1024(26) on Guidelines for ships operating in polar waters (to be supplemented
/ replaced by IMO Polar code when this becomes available)
Coastal state regulations for the relevant area(s)
DNV Rules for Classification of Ships, Part 5, Chapter 1 Ships for navigation in ice
ABS Guide for vessels operating in low temperature environments
ABS Guidance notes on ice class
ABS Guidance notes on review and approval of novel concepts
Other societies rules for winterization and ice classed vessels as may be relevant (e.g.
for non-DNV or ABS classed units)
22.6
Mission equipment
In general, reference should be made to classification rules and regulations for cargo gear,
lifting appliances and winterization notations for the establishment of limiting criteria and
the assessment of hull and shipboard systems suitability for arctic operations.
Where these are not available, insufficiently defined or considered to be otherwise not
suitable for the expected conditions or operations, a risk based evaluation can be used
instead. A procedure similar to that described in section 22.4.9 can be used in those cases.
Alternatively, equivalency with the classification rules and regulations can be established for
mission equipment (by comparable criticality for shipboard systems), based on operational
requirements.

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Equipment suitability
For mission equipment suitability, the following subjects should be taken into account :
Temperatures to be encountered versus design temperatures and operational condition
(e.g. the design temperature of a crane during use or when seafastened, in relation to
temperatures encountered)
Winterization
Availability of anti-/de-icing provisions
Icing in general
For equipment working through the splash zone:
o Temperature gradients when equipment is passing from the (cold) air into the
(comparatively) warm water, and vice-versa
o Icing, when retrieving wet equipment
o Interaction with sea ice floes
For subsea installation:
o Temperature gradients when equipment is passing from the (cold) air into the
(comparatively) warm water, and vice-versa
o Icing, when retrieving wet equipment
o Interaction with sea ice floes
22.6.1 Guidelines for hull & shipboard systems
Specific reference is made to the following guidelines for mission equipment systems in
relation to arctic operations:
IMO code relevant to the unit, i.e. SOLAS, MODU, SPS etc.
IMO A.1024(26) on Guidelines for ships operating in polar waters (to be supplemented
/ replaced by IMO Polar code when this becomes available)
Coastal state regulations for the relevant area(s)
DNV Offshore Service Specification DNV-OSS-308 Verification of Lifting Appliances
for the Oil and Gas Industry
DNV Rules for Classification of Ships, Part 5, Chapter 1 Ships for navigation in ice
ABS Guide for certification of lifting appliances
ABS Guide for vessels operating in low temperature environments
ABS Guidance notes on ice class
ABS Guidance notes on review and approval of novel concepts
Other societies rules for winterization and ice classed vessels as may be relevant (e.g.
for non-DNV or ABS classed units)
22.7
Winterization
Winterization measures should generally be applied in accordance with the classification
rules for winterization (see section 22.7.1). These cover most of the marine and shipboard
systems in sufficient detail. However, for mission equipment these guidelines are generally
less detailed and/or not practicable / usable.
Two main methods can be used to determine the appropriate winterization for mission
equipment:
Determine equivalence with marine and shipboard systems and apply measures
accordingly

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Determine required winterization on a risk based approach

In general, equivalence is advised for equipment which is not related to the safety of the
operation and/or critical for the operations. For equipment which is critical to the safety
and/or continuity of the operation a risk based approach is advised.
To determine equivalence of winterization for mission equipment, the approach as per DNV
rules for classification of ships, part 5 chapter 1 Ships for navigation in ice can be used as
a guiding principle. The basic principle is to define equipment into three categories,
requiring different levels of anti- and/or de-icing provisions:
Category I: installations where anti-icing arrangements are required with sufficient
capacity to keep the equipment or areas free from ice (generally by means of heating or
cover) at all times
Category II: installations where de-icing arrangements are required with sufficient
capacity for removal of accreted ice within a reasonable period of time (normally 4 to 6
hours) under the icing conditions specified
Uncategorized: installations requiring no anti- or de-icing
In determining the appropriate category for mission equipment due consideration shall be
given to its specific purpose and criticality for safety and the operations intended.
In addition, for marine and shipboard systems covered by the classification rules for
winterization additional consideration shall be given to the continued operation under arctic
conditions. Requirements to certain equipment and systems such as access provisions etc.
may be different due to the continued operation in extreme weather conditions as opposed to
the infrequent operation required for merchant shipping.
22.7.1 Guidelines for winterization
Specific reference is made to the following guidelines for winterization:
IMO A.1024(26) on Guidelines for ships operating in polar waters (to be supplemented
/ replaced by IMO Polar code when this becomes available)
Coastal state regulations for the relevant area(s)
DNV Offshore standard DNV-OS-A201 Winterization for cold climate operations
(tentative)
DNV Rules for Classification of Ships, Part 5, Chapter 1 Ships for navigation in ice
ABS Guide for vessels operating in low temperature environments
ABS Guidance notes on ice class
Other societies rules for winterization and ice classed vessels as may be relevant (e.g.
for non-DNV or ABS classed units)
22.8
Redundancy requirements
Redundancy for the purpose of this section is defined as the ability to safely terminate
operations. This philosophy is commonly applied to dynamic positioning and mooring
systems, but for arctic operations this should be considered in relation to the whole of the
unit and taking into account the particulars of operating in the arctic.

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This means that, in addition to the station keeping system, the following should be
considered in relation to redundancy:
Systems and equipment as required by the governing rules and regulations, including
IMO Polar Code and coastal state requirements
Critical mission equipment. Although not all mission equipment can be made redundant
considerations should be given to redundancy in components and to the ability for safe
termination of operations, such as redundant power supply
Winterization (as per rules and guidelines)
Accommodation support systems, particularly when larger numbers of personnel are on
board. These systems should allow for basic life support under all circumstances. IMO
A.1024(26) provides minimum guidance, principles as per SOLAS Safe Return to Port
provide good reference for further redundancy
Particular aspects of arctic circumstances that have a potential impact as they may require an
increased level of redundancy or have the ability to degrade the redundancy normally
available are:
Influence of extreme weather conditions, which may require a higher degree of
redundancy than for non-arctic operations
Reduced ability for maintenance and repair (see also section 22.9), which may resulted
in a prolonged period of degraded redundancy due to waiting on reinstatement of the
equipment
Extreme weather considerations should be taken into account when determining the required
redundancy for (critical) operations. For safe terminations of operations, inability to
accurately predict environmental conditions for the entire period of operations, additional
loads on equipment and/or station keeping systems, more severe consequences in case of
failures may all require higher degrees of redundancy for the entire unit or individual
equipment. Alternatively, operations should be adapted such that the available degree of
redundancy suffices for the operations. When found necessary, additional redundancy
measures should be implemented in the operational planning.
The reduced ability for maintenance and repair may result in degraded redundancy until such
maintenance and repair can be carried out. This may impact both the start-up of operations
(redundancy should be in place when starting the operation) but may also impact the ability
for safe termination of operations. When safe termination is not possible for a prolonged
period due to the inability to repair, it exposes the equipment to a potentially unsafe situation
for longer period in time, which may not be acceptable. This should be addressed in
operation planning, either in providing increased redundancy or by providing planned
maintenance or enhanced / winterized repair possibilities.
22.9
Maintenance & repair
Due to the extreme climate, special consideration should be given to maintenance and repair
that may be required during arctic operations. The main considerations in this respect are:
Continued availability of critical systems, including winterization systems
Maintaining the required degree of redundancy, or quick reinstatement thereof, see
section 22.8
The need and ability to carry out maintenance and repair in extreme weather

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Availability of maintenance and repair facilities


Availability of required spares and supplies

The considerations above apply in general, however in particular equipment in exposed


locations shall be considered as maintenance and repair of such equipment may be more
difficult under the potentially extreme weather conditions and should be possible with the
means available on the unit or in its direct vicinity.
Also, when considering maintenance and repair in the arctic, it should be considered that
equipment reliability statistics (such as those contained in e.g. the OREDA database) may
not be valid in the arctic. Equipment may be less reliable due to arctic conditions, and due
consideration should be given to incorporate this in the operational planning.
22.9.1 Maintenance and repair availability / reliability in extreme climate
Maintenance is a key condition to prevent downtime. Specifically due to the challenges
associated with maintenance and repair when operating in arctic areas preventive
maintenance is highly recommended. Therefore planned maintenance systems, or
adaptations to the existing system, should be used to reduce the required maintenance to be
carried out when operating in the arctic and to avoid repairs where possible. Consideration
should be given to perform scheduled maintenance earlier to avoid maintenance to be done
during operation in arctic areas.
Potential repair work should be identified as much as possible during the operational
planning. Where considered critical for the operations (including required redundancy, see
section 22.8) it should be considered if and how such repairs can be effectively executed in
the expected conditions. If necessary, additional provisions should be made to allow a more
efficient repair, e.g. by installing winterization measures, improving access to equipment etc.
Additionally, increased redundancy (i.e. above the redundancy required for the operation
itself) can be considered such that repairs can be delayed to until after execution of the
operations and demobilization of the unit.
Also, in view of the potentially remote areas of operations, carriage of critical spares and
supplies on board should be considered to prevent additional downtime due to waiting on
such spares and supplies to be delivered.
22.9.2 Availability of maintenance and repair facilities
Operations should take into account the general unavailability and long distances to suitable
maintenance and repair facilities, both for dry-dock facilities as well as dockside repair and
maintenance. Although limited facilities do exist in some arctic areas, they are generally
suitable for smaller vessels only or not available for commercial use.
Planned maintenance and contingency plans for repairs to equipment requiring dry-docking
or dockside facilities should therefore take into account demobilization of equipment for
such planned maintenance / repair or prepare alternative methods to carry out such
maintenance / repairs. These alternative methods, if applied, shall take due account of the
arctic circumstances, in particular environmental sensitivity and low water temperatures (in
case of underwater methods).

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22.10
Lay-up
For operations in the arctic requiring equipment to work in an area for multiple seasons with
winter conditions prohibiting operations in the winter, (de-)mobilization costs to and from
the operating area may be substantial and could warrant that equipment is kept in the area
during winter. During this overwintering the equipment would effectively be laid-up, for
which due consideration is to be given to the especially harsh arctic conditions.
Where lay-up is envisaged as a part of the operations, arctic conditions shall be accounted for
in both selection of the appropriate location for lay-up and the specific preparations for layup, monitoring during lay-up and re-activation. Two main subjects need to be addressed:
Selection and preparation of the lay-up site
Equipment preparation, monitoring and re-activation
The above subjects can be addressed based on a best practice approach or risk based
analysis, or a combination thereof.
It is advised that the above considerations, preparations and procedures are laid down in a
lay-up manual or similar planning document.
22.10.1 Selection and preparation of the lay-up site
Most parameters in the selection of a lay-up site, such as degree of shelter, mooring
possibilities, water depth, tidal range etc. (see 22.10.4 referenced guidelines), are similar to
those for lay-up in non-arctic conditions. Additional parameters to be considered for the
arctic, or found to require additional consideration, are:
Prevention of damage due to ice loads
Extreme temperatures and icing
Accessibility for inspection and re-commissioning
To prevent damage due to ice loads, a sheltered spot, with a limited fetch area, to limit pack
ice driving forces is a key factor to minimizing the likelihood of damage due to ice.
Therefore locations with land fast ice are generally preferred. However there are many
locations where a unit may be in dynamic conditions come the spring break-up period
despite being in land fast ice during the winter. During this period, depending upon the
location, ice crushing forces on a vessel and/or ice loads can be sufficient to break mooring
lines and potentially damage a vessel. This shall be given due consideration and mitigating
measures should be developed. More detailed guidance on this subject can be found in the
CNRC report Overwintering of Barges in the Beaufort Assessing Ice Issues and Damage
Potential (see 22.10.4).
Conservation methods for cold lay-up should take into account the expected minimum
temperatures and precautions should take these into account. Both the stability of the unit
and the suitability of the lay-out and arrangement should be considered in view of icing.
For stability, class requirements for ice classed vessels can be taken as a starting point,
although due consideration should be given to the point of de-icing. Specifically in cold layup de-icing may be (very) infrequent and more sever icing may have to be taken into
account. Additionally, the lay-out of the unit and its vulnerability due to icing should be

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taken into account for access for inspection and re-commissioning as well as potential
damage due to excessive ice weight.
22.10.2 Equipment preparation, monitoring and re-activation
In general, for lay-up in the arctic the same considerations additional to conventional lay-up
as discussed in sections 22.4.6 and 22.4.7 for hull and mission equipment suitability apply.
These points shall be addressed for each of the actions required as identified in the various
lay-up guides available.
22.10.3 Cold and hot lay-up
In the context of the Classification guidelines, lay-up in the arctic is expected to be a cold
lay-up. Cold lay-up normally implies that manning is either reduced or the unit is unmanned
(with periodical inspection), the machinery is taken out of service and the unit is kept
electrically dead with the exception of emergency power.
This condition usually implies 3 weeks re-commissioning time or more depending on the
level of preservation and maintenance during lay-up. The level of preservation is mainly
decided based on the age and value of the vessel and the most likely re-commissioning
scenario.
For shorter periods of time (generally < 3 months) a hot lay-up may be considered, which
essentially keeps the unit operational, but operational costs are reduced.
In the context of arctic operations, this would imply berthing the unit in a protected area and
reducing manning to the minimum extent required to keep the unit in an operational state for
quick re-activation. This type of lay-up does not require specific preparation except for
selection and preparation of the lay-up site. Also, equipment suitability for the conditions in
the winter season should be included in the evaluation process as described in section 22.4 as
an additional operation.
22.10.4 Guidelines for lay-up
Specific reference is made to the following guidelines for the preparation of equipment for
lay-up under arctic conditions:
Beaufort regional environmental assessment (Overwintering of Barges in the Beaufort
Assessing Ice Issues and Damage Potential, August 2012)
DNV Guidelines No. 22 Lay-up of Vessels
ABS Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessel Rules, Part 7, Rules for Survey After
Construction
UK P&I Club LP News January 2009
Other P&I Club guidelines on lay-up of vessels

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SECTION 23
HEALTH

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23.0

HEALTH

23.1
Health
23.1.1 Introduction to health
This section elaborates the importance of health in the arctic. All employees should be
extensively informed about nutrition and the consequences of alcohol and drugs
consumption in the arctic. Research was focused only on relevant parameters, so ice
thickness or environmental aspects are not included here. This is also reflected in the matrix
in the Appendices.
23.1.2 Guidelines for health
The relevant guides are shown below, which are elaborated on in more detail in the next
section.
a) Nutrition
OGP and IPIECA, Health Aspects of work in Extreme Climates 2008
Food and water
b) Alcohol consumption
OGP and IPIECA, Health Aspects of work in Extreme Climates 2008
c) Drugs and medicine
OGP and IPIECA, Health Aspects of work in Extreme Climates 2008
23.1.3 Impact of Arctic conditions on health
Here the numbering of the different parts corresponds to the numbering of the guidelines in
the previous section.
a) Nutrition
In extremes of climate good food and water can have a significant influence on how well
people cope with their environment. Quality of food should be guaranteed from its source,
through transport, storage and the cooking or preparation process. If ambient temperatures
are high, extra vigilance is necessary to avoid deterioration or infection. Extra calories are
required while working in the extreme cold. As much as 4,000 Kcals/day (5,000+ at 20C)
may be required with an approximate distribution of 60 per cent carbohydrates, 2530 per
cent fats and 1015 per cent proteins. Fats consumed in the evening increase the bodys
temperature at night and improve sleep quality. Rapidly absorbed carbohydrates, for example
sugary foods, should be consumed when working and directly exposed to cold.
b) Alcohol consumption
Alcohol reduces a persons ability to cope with extremes of climate by interfering with
hormones which control body fluids and via its direct effect on blood vessels. Alcohol
reduces shivering as a heat source in the cold.

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c)

Drugs and medicine


Medications which may pose a problem in extreme temperatures are the medications
that,
Alter vigilance or sweating (tranquillizers, sleeping pills, antidepressants,
antihistamines)
Act on blood circulation (blood pressure and heart treatments)
Medications which alter body fluid balance. (diuretics)
Have antipyretic properties and may interfere with temperature regulation (many
analgesics or anti-inflammatories) see 22.3.1.1

d)
Work overload
From experience, it is known that operations in arctic conditions may introduce an extra
workload on the crew. As an example, sailing in open water with drifting ice and fog often
calls for additional look-out and navigators for lengthy periods. Ref can be made to GOMO
Appendix 7-A section 5 which discusses the consequence on crew while operating for
lengthy periods in areas with limited natural daylight and section 2 for cold weather
operations. Also the ISO TC 67 SC8 working will address the human capital aspects.
GOMO, Guidelines for Offshore Marine Operations, 06/11/2013.
23.1.4 Recommendations for general health
Working with liquids like petrol increases the risk for frostbite; special measures should
therefore be taken (e.g. special gloves).
Keyword
Nutrition & training

Existing guidelines
OGP & IPIECA

Alcohol consumption
Drugs and medicine

OGP & IPIECA


OGP & IPIECA

Work overload

GOMO

Recommendations
Implement basic nutrition information
to training session. Identify potential
risks.
Zero tolerance proposed.
Official list of medical conditions and
medicine that cannot be supported
offshore arctic proposed.
Coordinate with ISO TC 67 SC8

23.2
Staff & crew
23.2.1 Introduction to staff & crew
In this subsection the importance of staff and crew training is discussed. Main issues as
quality, frequency and content are raised and relevant parameters involved like weather
conditions, correct use of PPE and minimum required experience are raised. At the end of
this part gaps are identified and useful recommendations are given.
23.2.2
Guidelines for staff & crew
The list of relevant guidelines for staff & crew in arctic operations is shown below. The
impact of these regulations on arctic operations are explained in the next section.

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General
a) ABS, Guide for vessels operating in low temperature environments May 2010.
Section 9.3 Documentation;
b) OGP and IPIECA, Health Aspects of work in Extreme Climates 2008
Section about Environmental controls
c) Canadian rules, PCSP manual
d) ABS, Guide for vessels operating in low temperature environments May 2010
Section 8 Crew considerations
e) ABS, Guide for vessels operating in low temperature environments May 2010
Section 9 Training
DNV also has training standards, and guidelines for staff & crew, but they were not
considered during the gap analysis and this further investigation.
Personnel on board
f) ABS, low temperature operations
g) Barents 2020
Section 7.3. Health and stress management
Section 7.3.2. Health and stress management regimes;
h) ABS, low temperature operations

EER & ER team/Firefighting team


i) ABS Guide for vessels operating in low temperature environments
j) ISO 19906, 2012
Section 18.11
Crew selection
k) Barents 2020
Section 7.2; Fitness for work in an arctic offshore environment.
l) OGP and IPIECA, Health Aspects of work in Extreme Climates 2008
Health assessment for fitness to work
m) ABS, Low temperature operations, Guidance for Arctic shipping

23.2.3 Impact of Arctic conditions on staff & crew


Here the numbering of the different parts corresponds to the numbering of the guidelines in
the previous section.
General
a) Documentation
An operating and training manual shall be submitted in English and if needed in the working
language of the crew.
The operating section is to include, but not be limited to, the following:
General arrangement showing location of equipment (including loose items) installed
on-board to facilitate operation of the vessel in low-temperature environments.

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Specification of the equipment installed on-board to facilitate operation of the vessel in


low-temperature environments together with manufacturers recommendations of use,
operational limitations, maintenance and testing procedures, as applicable.
Relevant information related to operations in ice-covered waters, including contingency
plans in the event of damage. The typical format of an operating manual is described in
Appendix 9 and it is to include: Normal Operation, Risk Management and Emergency
Instructions.
Any special operating procedures specific to the vessel and its modes of operation.

b) Environmental controls
Heating and shelter:
General or spot heating on the work site to increase temperature.
Shielding of the work area from the wind.
Provision of heated shelters on the work site.

Local modifications:
If bare hands need to be used for more than 15 minutes, warm air jets, radiant heaters or
contact warm plates should be used. In very low temperatures hands should never be
bare.
Covering metal tools with thermal insulating material.
Protecting metal chairs.
c) Health and safety
Whenever leaving the field location, someone should be notified of the destination and
expected time of return. Travelling should take place in teams or groups of at least two
people and a radio or satellite telephone should be carried.
d) Crew considerations
Because of the significant environmental conditions that a vessel and its crew are operating
in, particular attention must be paid to the personnel so that they remain effective in
performing their duties.
Adequate supplies of protective clothing and thermal insulating materials are to be
provided for all persons on-board at any time. Head and eye protection gear is to be
provided to reduce loss of body heat and protect vision from ultraviolet rays.
The crew must be provided with clothing necessary to stay in thermal equilibrium
during cold exposure in accordance with ISO 11079, or other suitable standard.
Head and eye protection is to be compatible and usable with communications
equipment.
Foot protection gear is to be provided. Slip-resistant, insulated safety footwear is to be
provided. For heavy work, a felt-lined (or similar insulating material) rubber-bottomed,
leather-topped boot with a removable felt insole is preferred. An extra pair of safety
shoes for inside work is to be provided.
Personnel protective equipment is to be properly maintained and stored.
Suit Protection Immersion suits are to be provided for all members of the crew.
Vessel should have sufficient tools on-board for removal of icing

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The ABS Guide for Vessels Operating in Low Temperature Environments provide a
good description of crew considerations.

e) Training
Vessels operating in low-temperature environments are exposed to a number of unique
circumstances. Weather conditions are poor and navigation charts may be unreliable or not
reflect current conditions. Shipboard polar ice charts should be updated weekly upon
processing of satellite images or as frequently as required by the actual operations and the
conditions experienced and expected. Local ice conditions may differ significantly from
those depicted on charts. Maintaining manoeuvrability for the avoidance of locally heavy ice
conditions is an important consideration when using ice charts at the route planning level,
and communication systems and navigational aids present challenges to mariners. The areas
that the vessels operate in are remote, making rescue and any clean-up operations difficult.
Therefore, additional crew training must be undertaken and operations manuals must be
developed. See also section 7 for more detailed monitoring and forecasting requirements and
section 26 training.
Training to be provided should address operations and navigation in ice-infested waters and
winterisation. Training is to address means to prevent and treat potential cold weather-related
maladies of crew, including hypothermia and frostbite. Certifications are to be recorded,
where applicable, and records are to be kept up-to-date.
Personnel on board
f) Low-temperature operations
The designated person in charge and officers should know the physical characteristics and
limitations of the facility, its (hull) structure, its machinery and equipment.
g) Health and stress management regimes
Operators should establish health and stress monitoring regimes to ensure their personnel are
coping with these stressors in a healthy manner.
h) Crew welfare
Crew welfare should be one of the highest priorities of the designated person in charge of the
facility when operating in an extreme low-temperature environment. It is well-documented
that memory function decreases when suffering from (mild) hypothermia. Additional
guidance concerning crew welfare can be found in Marine Labour Convention (MLC)
requirements.
i)

PPE
Guidance is required to determine the need for personal protective devices, the types, the
amount and the storage locations. PPE shall be provided for all personnel in sufficient
numbers. It should be noted that PPE is the last line of defence; other measures should
be taken to protect personnel from ambient conditions, e.g. in the winterisation strategy.

j)

Survival suits
Guidance is required to determine the types of survival suits needed as well as their
amount and storage locations. Survival suits shall be provided for all personnel in

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sufficient numbers. Deployment locations shall include the living quarters and other
strategic areas. Devices should be provided to facilitate evacuee movement from the sea
to ice floes, if required by the EER analysis.
Emergency response team/firefighting team
k) Vessels operating in low-temperature environments
Emergency Response procedures are to be developed with an appropriate emphasis on
changes to standard procedures made necessary by operations in low-temperature
environments and ice-covered waters.
Crew selection
l) Fitness for work in an arctic offshore environment.
It has been proposed in the Barents 2020 phase 4 report that the Company is primarily
responsible for assessing the fitness of individuals for offshore work in the cold environment
of the Barents Sea. The Company should adopt the cold-related health assessment process
outlined in ISO 15743 and ISO 12894 to identify any possible medical predisposition to
harm from exposure to cold. The assessment shall inform Company decisions on accepting
or rejecting an individual for offshore work in the cold environment of the Barents Sea. This
should be applicable for other Artic/ cold regions as well.
These International Standards are intended to assist those with responsibility for such
exposures to reach appropriate decisions regarding the suitability of individuals for work in
cold environments. The International Standards should be read and used in the context of
other relevant legislation, regulation and guidance.

m) Health assessment for fitness to work


The ability to survive in extreme heat or cold is higher when medically fit and in good
health. Selection of people for work in these conditions requires a health assessment by
a doctor with knowledge of the working conditions and requirements of the job. The
same standards as those applied to work on offshore rigs or remote locations should be
applied to determine an employees fitness to work in the cold.
Psychological as well as physical aspects of fitness should be considered, bearing in
mind that isolation, boredom, living together in a camp, work/leave cycles and lack of
recreational activities may all be factors involved with working in extreme climates
including living in 24 hour darkness as these are major factors for depression/anxiety.
n) Guidance for Arctic shipping
It must be remembered that, once operating in extreme temperatures, any systems and
components will be operating at or near their design limits. This is also true for crew
members who may also quickly reach their physical limits. Performance may degrade
rapidly with a comparably rapid increase in the risks to personnel, equipment and the ship
itself.
23.2.4 Recommendations for staff & crew
The necessity of an updated and accurate training manual for the arctic is undisputable.
Issues like minimum experience required, minimum standards of PPE required (type and
amount) should be quantified.

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Knowledge and Experience


Standards should be developed on the required knowledge and skills of most
operation-critical personnel. For each function the minimum required education,
training, years of experience with working in the offshore industry and experience
with working in arctic conditions should be determined. The operational safety
depends on the skills of the people deployed; this may be even more true than in
warm climates where most personnel has gained experience.
Standards for required clothing insulation (ISO 11079) do not take wet clothing into
account. This is a knowledge gap: experiments should be conducted to extend ISO
11079 to wet clothing.
Competence
Tests should be developed to examine the sensitivity of each individual to the cold,
the range of sensitivities and what potential impacts may be.
Communication
Standards should be developed on two way communication methods and tracking
devices and the ability to use them in combination with PPE. Communication
devices need to function properly in cold environments. Personal tracking systems
may be required to enhance safety of operations.

Keyword

Existing guidelines

Recommendations

Personnel on board

(Gap)

ER team
Firefighting team

(Gap)

Competence

(Gap)

High standard training and minimum


required experience:
1-2 years for all offshore personnel and
a minimum of 5 years for all designated
persons in charge, supervisors and
personnel on the bridge;
in specific cases this can be increased to
a minimum of 10 years.
Considerations should be given to shift
durations, in accordance with safe
working practices.
Standard percentage of whole crew in
these teams to guarantee safety. Higher
percentage than standard offshore
installations proposed.
Develop tests to examine individuals
sensitivity to cold.

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24.0

SAFETY MANAGEMENT

24.1
Introduction
This section covers medical support,
emergency response, fire fighting and
operational manuals covering working
conditions.
24.2
Medical support
24.2.1 Introduction to medical support
Medical support is always an important issue
when working offshore but in the arctic many
parameters differ while new parameters appear
Figure 2 - Greenland expedition 2012
such as cold-related injuries. This section was
(Source: S van der Werff)
focused on medical support standard, training
on how to avoid cold related injuries and basic state of health to be fit to work in the arctic.
At the end of this part gaps are identified and recommendations are given.
24.2.2 Guidelines for medical support
In the next section the impact of relevant guidelines for medical support in arctic conditions
are explained in detail.
General
a) ISO 11079;
Barents 2020, section 7 Prevention and management of health problems
b. Section 7.1. Cold risk management
c. Section 7.2.1. Cold-related health assessment
d. Cold work supervision and monitoring;
e. Section 7.4.1. Medical support assessment
f. OGP and IPIECA, Health Aspects of work in Extreme Climates 2008
Section Health assessment for fitness to work
g. Canadian rules, PCSP manual
Part 3 Advice on arctic field work, health and safety
Medics on board
h. Barents 2020,
Section 7.4.2 On-board medical facilities
i. IMO- guidelines for ships operating in polar waters
Section 15.1 medical equipment
j. OGP and IPIECA, Health aspects of work in extreme climates 2008
Section First aid and access to medical support
First-aid
k. Canadian rules, PCSP manual
Part 3 Advice on arctic field work, health and safety
l. OGP and IPIECA, Health aspects of work in extreme climates 2008
Section First aid and access to medical support
m. Barents 2020, section 7.4. First aid and medical provision
Section 7.4.2. On-board medical facilities
Psychological support

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n. Barents 2020, Section 7.2.2


o. OGP and IPIECA, Health aspects of work in extreme climates 2008
24.2.3 Impact of Arctic operations on medical support
Here the numbering of the different parts corresponds to the numbering of the guidelines in
the previous section.
a) Frostbite in ambient temperature
This code indicates the risk for skin frostbite in dependency of ambient temperature,
wind speed and exposure duration. The same parameters can also be used to estimate
dexterity decrease in the cold (this is not in ISO11079, but in separate publications).
The guideline is restricted to dry cold. In contact with water, cooling becomes more
rapid and survival becomes more difficult. Immersion hypothermia becomes a high risk.
b) Cold risk management
Arctic offshore operations expose workers to cold, windy and wet conditions. Working
in a cold environment can cause several adverse effects on human performance and
health: thermal discomfort, increased strain, decreased performance and cold-related
diseases and injuries. Cold can also interfere with several other factors in the workplace,
modifying or aggravating the risk of common hazards and increasing the risk of coldassociated injuries.
c) Fitness for work in an arctic offshore environment
The cold-related health assessment outlines a three-stage medical screening conducted
by occupational health professionals. Each stage involves identification of cold-related
health risks both in the workplace as well as assessing the health of individuals.
d) Cold work supervision and monitoring
Extreme environments can only be tolerated for limited periods of time before a risk of
ill health results. Control measures are necessary to ensure the safety of those exposed,
one of which is the provision of appropriate medical supervision prior to and during
exposures.
e) Medical support assessment
Arctic offshore operations are likely to require a greater degree of self-sufficiency given
their distance from shore-side medical facilities and the potential for delays in
evacuating personnel for medical attention. The installations health management
philosophy must take into account the constraints of operations in an arctic environment
and how to meet normal health and medical support requirements given these
constraints. The health management philosophy comprises pre-mobilisation health
fitness screening (7.2), regular health fitness screening (7.3), and the provision of
adequate medical support. Adequate medical support relies on having the following:
company-approved medical professionals in strategic locations;
effective access to outside specialists/ telemedicine to advise on difficult medical
cases, treatment and actions to be taken;
adequate on-site facilities to provide first aid, emergent and interim care;
effective transport systems and management for evacuation of sick or injured
personnel;
effective communications with relevant authorities or service providers to
expedite the latter.
special medication requires special handling. Bring duplicate supplies of special
medicines.

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f) Health assessment for fitness to work


Potential contra-indications to work in extremes of temperature include:
respiratory or cardiovascular problems
severe obesity (BMI 35); this impedes the acclimatization process
metabolic disorders (e.g. thyroid disease)
alcohol abuse
pregnancy
previous heat- or cold-related illness.
Those potential contra-indications specific to cold include:
Raynauds syndrome (white finger)
cold-induced asthma
cold-induced urticaria (an itchy skin condition)
cryohaemoglobulinaemia (a rare blood condition)
Medications which may pose a problem in extremes of temperature include:
medications which alter vigilance or sweating (tranquillizers, sleeping pills,
antidepressants, antihistamines)
medications which act on blood circulation (blood pressure and heart treatments)
diuretics (medications which alter body fluid balance)
drugs which have antipyretic properties and may interfere with temperature
regulation (for example many analgesics or anti-inflammatories);
photosensitizers (both systemic and topical), which increase the skins reaction to
sunlight.
g) Advice on arctic field work, health and safety
Some considerations to assist in thinking and practicing safety:
All members of a field party should have current first aid training certificates. It is
strongly recommended that members also take wilderness first aid training.
Every field party should carry a standard field-party first aid kit. Each small party
detached from the main party should be equipped with an intermediate first aid kit.
Parties working in very remote areas where casualty evacuation may be a problem
should obtain special drug kits. These kits, which are intended to be used only when
in radio-contact with a doctor, contain supplies that will allow treatment of some
conditions while the patient awaits evacuation to a hospital.
First aid supplies should be assigned to a person holding a current first aid certificate.
That person should also be trained in, and capable of, providing artificial
resuscitation, controlling haemorrhaging and administering other emergency lifesaving first aid.
Medics on board
h) On-board medical facilities
Arctic operations are likely to require a greater degree of self-sufficiency given the
distance to onshore medical facilities and the potential for delays in evacuating personnel
for medical attention. Suggested functional standard: The company shall perform a
systematic analysis of the preconditions for providing adequate first aid, emergent and

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interim medical care. The analysis shall consider the intended geographic location of the
installation or operation, its proximity to shore side medical facilities, the conditions for
medical evacuation from the facility, and the potential for extended delays in evacuation
due to adverse arctic weather conditions. The assessment shall be used in determining
the provision of adequate medical care in the workplace design (medical facilities),
staffing (doctors, nurses, paramedics), supply (medicines, medical equipment and
supplies), communications (telemedicine), and organization of the installation or
operation.
i)

Medical equipment
All installations and vessels should be provided with an adequate number of first aid kits
and equipment with contents suitable to the onboard location and the recognized
provision for personnel safety hazards of such locations. With respect to the nature of the
voyage, ship operations and the ability to communicate and obtain timely assistance of
medical aid or medical evacuation, certain medical equipment, medicines and facilities
may be considered unreasonable and unnecessary. Crews operating in polar waters
should be provided with appropriate equipment and training to evacuate an individual in
a medical emergency from the ship safety.

j)

First aid and access to medical support


The provision of adequate medical support relies on having:
company-approved medical professionals in strategic locations;
effective access to outside specialists/telemedicine to advise on difficult medical
cases, treatment and actions to be taken;
effective transport systems and management for evacuation of casualties; and
effective communications with relevant authorities to expedite the latter. Further
details are available in OGP report
Consider the use of special medics on board each vessel and consider the modifications
to all vessels to include a small mini hospital. Consider remote support from a medical
centre. (Harsh Weather Summit, The Hague 2012).

First Aid
k) Advice on arctic field work, health and safety
Each field party member should have a valid first aid certificate at the appropriate level
for the risks involved.
First aid is the immediate and temporary care given to the victim of either an accident or
a sudden illness. Its purpose is to preserve life, assist recovery and prevent aggravation
of a condition, until you can obtain the services of medical personnel.
l)

First aid and access to medical support


First-aid training should be given to all people who will be working in extreme climates,
with particular emphasis on the recognition and management of heat and cold-related
conditions. It is advisable to have a designated first-aider on every crew, and
appropriate first aid and medical kits at every location.
In extreme climates, normal emergency care procedures are usually applicable. In
extreme cold, pressurized gases may exhibit differing physical properties and there is

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the potential for fluids to get cold (e.g. intravenous drips) or to freeze (making
ampoules difficult to open).
m) On-board medical facilities
First aid medical kits shall be located at strategic points around the facility. Medical kits
shall be located with due regard to their exposure to cold, as pressurized medical gases
may exhibit differing physical properties, and there is the potential for fluids to get cold
(such as intravenous drips) or to freeze and oxygen may give cold burns to a patients
lungs.
The offshore installation shall have facilities for providing the appropriate level of first
aid, emergent and interim medical care, as identified in the medical support assessment
and the emergency response strategy. The medical facility provision and design shall
comply with relevant legislation and regulation.
Psychological support
n) Psychological stress in the arctic
Extreme cold is only one component of the total psychological stress imposed by work
in an arctic offshore environment.
o) Health aspects of work in extreme climates
Psychological as well as physical aspects of fitness should be considered, bearing in
mind that isolation, boredom, living together in a camp, work/leave cycles and lack of
recreational activities may all be factors involved with working in extreme climates.
24.2.4 Recommendations for medical support
There is a significant gap regarding the required low-temperature environment training for
medics on-board an installation or vessel. Standards and guidance on required relevant
experience for medics working in the arctic is also lacking. It is recommended to specify a
minimal required state of health and to identify if age is a limiting parameter for working in
the arctic.
Keyword
Training of medics

Existing guidelines

Experience of medics
First aid sessions

Recommendations
Specify standards, specify amount and
specialisation. Specify duration of
shifts.
Minimum experience required based on
5 years relevant experience.
Repetitive training, e.g. once per year.

Examples of required training for medics include:


Professional qualification for qualified nurse A (Dutch qualification) or equivalent
Trauma nursing course
Pre-hospital trauma life support (incl. Advanced cardiac life support)
Offshore Medic's Course, i.e. Nogepa 2.11 a/b or equivalent

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24.3
Emergency response
24.3.1 Introduction to emergency response
An emergency is a hazardous event which cannot be handled by normal measures and
requires immediate action to limit its extent, duration or consequences; the action taken by
personnel on or off the unit (offshore installation or vessel) to control or mitigate this event
or initiate and execute abandonment is emergency response (ER).
ISO 15544 (Requirements and guidelines for emergency response) addresses the issues listed
below;
ER strategy assessment & procedures
ER plan statements, information & procedures
Command and control organization & procedures
Detection of the need for ER
Competence associated with education, training & drills
Maintenance of ER equipment
Communications
Escape, evacuation and rescue
Environmental ER
Medical ER Medevac only
As a result of this, the list is narrowed down to the following topics:
Maintenance of unit-based ER equipment; the influence on maintenance operations is
however hard to qualify & quantify; it has been assumed that maintenance will not be
done in case of a hazardous situation.
Escape, Evacuation and Rescue, which is addressed separately since its a substantial
topic
Medevac
Furthermore, operations involving emergency response resources have been included in this
assessment. Such operations may be:
Emergency repairs, assumed always to be conducted using unit-based equipment
Salvage
Recovery of a man-overboard and personnel from a ditched helicopter
Fire fighting (area and external resources)
Vessel towing
In accordance with ISO 15544, the resources that typically are involved in ER have been
divided into three categories:
1. Unit resources
Resources which are under the direction of the person in overall charge of the unit,
and which are immediately available.
2. Area resources
Resources which are not under the direction of the person in overall charge of the
unit, but which are located in the same area. The resources are made available by a
mutual aid or cooperation agreement.
3. External resources

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Resources which are not under the direction of the person in overall charge of the
unit, and which are not located in the area. Such resources may be the organization
and resources of national and international rescue services, as well as other resources
which professional bodies or others may place at the disposal of the field, installation
or vessel manager.
24.3.2

Escape, evacuation and rescue

Escape, evacuation, and rescue (EER) in the context of this report is the process of
transferring personnel from a unit, from their location at the time of an evacuation alarm to a
place of comparable safety in relation to the one evacuated, such as an emergency response
vessel. An overview of the EER framework is given in the Figure 24-2, an overview of the
EER framework [1].

Figure 24-2, an overview of the EER framework


Escape
Escape is the first stage of the overall EER process whereby personnel move away from a
hazardous event to a place on the unit where its effects are reduced or removed, preferably
the primary muster area inside the temporary refuge. A hazard in this case is a set of
conditions with the potential for initiating an accident sequence that can lead to injury,
environmental and/ or property damage or any combination thereof. Escape routes are the
normally available and unobstructed routes from all locations where personnel can be present
on the unit to the temporary refuge or alternative protected muster point. The temporary
refuge is the area in which personnel can take refuge for a predetermined period of time. It is
a place in which important issues such as the severity of a hazardous event and the condition
of the vessel can be investigated. Inside the primary muster area, personnel can be
1

Integrated Ice and Open Water Canadian Offshore Petroleum Installations EER Performance-Based Standards Transport Canada

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monitored, briefed and, if deemed necessary, equipped with life-saving equipment.


Furthermore, emergency response and preparations for evacuating the vessel can be
undertaken.
Escape is a process which takes place on the facility; therefore, the only relevant category is
assumed to be meteorology; the categories environment, oceanography, sea ice & ice bergs
and seabed are not considered.
Evacuation
The second stage of the EER process is
evacuation, whereby personnel transfer
from the muster stations to a safe
location, clear of the effects of any
immediate or potential hazardous event
coming from the unit. This could either
be a planned precautionary evacuation
or an emergency evacuation.
Precautionary evacuation is the
controlled means of removing
personnel from the unit prior to an
uncontrolled or escalating incident that
would otherwise dictate emergency
evacuation. An offshore unit should be
equipped with several means of
evacuation for redundancy reasons. In case one of the means is unavailable, personnel should
still be able to abandon the unit. Means of evacuation can be divided into dry & direct, semidry & indirect and wet evacuation.
Examples within this distinction are, respectively:
Helicopters
Survival craft and especially totally enclosed motor-propelled survival craft (TEMPSC)
deployable from the installation/ vessel or if possible from lower platforms at the sea
Chutes leading directly to the sea surface
Slides,
Amphibious vehicles,
Life rafts.
Regarding preferences, the following distinction can also be made:
Preferred means of evacuation: The first choice available method selected to evacuate
personnel based on the lowest risk associated with it. Furthermore, familiarity,
frequency of use, availability, and suitability for prevailing conditions are of major
importance. Normally this is the method used to transfer personnel to and from the
offshore location.
Primary means of evacuation: The method of evacuation which can be carried out in a
controlled manner under the direction of the person in charge and the preferred method
of leaving the unit in an emergency.
Secondary means of evacuation: The controlled means of removing personnel from the
unit which can be carried out independent of external support.

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Tertiary means of evacuation: The method of leaving the unit, which relies considerably
on the individuals own action and is an inherently higher risk method used when
primary and secondary methods are not available.

A variety of evacuation equipment is listed above. A survival craft in this context is a marine
or amphibious craft that is used by personnel on-board an offshore unit to evacuate to the sea
or ice and provides the evacuees with protection from the incident and the environment.
Embarkation stations are accessed via evacuation routes that lead from the primary muster
area to these embarkation stations at which personnel can enter the survival craft. Evacuation
routes are to be short and should provide evacuee protection from prevailing hazards. They
are assumed to be enclosed and illuminated; if not, they should be assessed as escape routes.
Back-up power and illumination are assumed to be available at all times. Furthermore,
emergency response, standby and rescue vessels are all assumed to provide illumination, all
craft are assumed to have headlights and all rafts are assumed to be equipped with flash
lights.
Rescue
Rescue is the final stage of the EER process whereby personnel leaving the facility, entering
the sea or reaching the ice surface, directly or in a survival craft, are transferred directly or
indirectly to a safe haven. Medical assistance should typically be available at these safe
havens. The rescue (and transfer) process commences when the evacuation method(s) has
moved beyond the hazard zone or clearing zone. However, in case of Direct & Dry
Evacuation means, the evacuation and rescue phases are sometimes merged, depending on
the incident scenario. The rescue process is subdivided into the survival and the recovery
components because these two components have distinct characteristics.
24.3.3 Considerations
An ideal EER system off course would allow all on-board personnel to abandon an unit
under the full range of environmental conditions. It would also not be affected by any
incident or damage conditions. The actual evacuation of personnel from the unit should be
achieved in both a timely and orderly manner, without causing injuries to anyone. The main
considerations that should be taken into account during the design of an EER system are
subdivided here into:
Structure
Logistics
Accident scenarios
Environmental conditions
Human performance
These considerations are further elaborated below. It should be noted that several issues are
mutually related. Certain extreme environmental conditions for instance could induce an
accident and logistics are correlated to a units functions.
Unit
Some of the major characteristics that are of relevance are particulars such as the type of
structure or vessel and its function. The size, shape and freeboard are of interest as well. A
ship shaped floating structure and a fixed caisson would require different approaches. For a

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free fall lifeboat, a larger extent of freeboard would imply a higher impact velocity. The
structure could either be designed as a permanent production facility or as a mobile drilling
unit. The number of personnel on board may be 4 or 400. The layout may be such that
sections of the facility become separated in case of a fire or explosion. A thorough analysis
of all aspects related to the structure is essential to both minimize risks and maximize
opportunities.
Logistics
The method of export and supply as well as logistics relating to the marine fleet involved
should be explored for the benefit of an EER strategy. Stand-by vessels, platform supply
vessels, ice breakers, shuttle tankers and their availability and capacity could be of major
interest. Furthermore, the presence of any structure or vessel, not related to the unit
concerned, in the direct vicinity and shore-based facilities could influence the strategy. For
instance, a heliport nearby would be of great convenience.
Accident scenarios
During a drill or a precautionary escape, evacuation and rescue from a unit, the conditions
during the process will usually be considered as normal (although drills should include some
realistic surprises). However, if an accident occurs and the unit must be abandoned
immediately, circumstances may not be as gentle as one would want. The structure might
have tilted due to an impact, toxic fumes may accompany extreme heat due to a fire or
explosion and at the same time a storm could be raging outside. All reasonably possible
events and scenarios that might be encountered and combinations of these should be taken
into account.
Human performance
Over the past few years, research has been performed regarding human performance during
an EER process, both physically and mentally. According to Bercha et al.2, in lifethreatening situations, people get terrified and become unable to think, referred to as
cognitive dysfunction. People also tend to get tunnel vision, referred to as perceptual
narrowing. As a result of all this, the error rate increases and this should be accounted for in
an EER system. Stressors affecting human performance are summarized in the table below.
Physical human performance is for instance affected by cold temperatures and therefore
should not be considered as a constant, but rather as a variable depending on the severity of
its stressors.

Bercha, F.G., Brooks, C.J., Leafloor, F. 2003. Human Performance in Arctic Offshore Escape, Evacuation and
Rescue. 13th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 8 p.

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Table 24.1 Arctic human performance stressors (Bercha et al.)


Environmental conditions
The environmental conditions in which emergency escape, evacuation and rescue may be
required are unknown up front and cannot be changed. The effects may impair certain
evacuation strategies. Helicopters for instance may not be able to operate in storm
conditions. However, in some cases, the effects can be mitigated and accounted for in the
design and strategy. In regions with potential for high waves, such as the Norwegian Sea,
lifeboats should not be stored in such a manner that they might be damaged by these waves.
Some of the factors, all from benign to extreme, which should be considered, include wind,
waves, currents, temperature and precipitation but also issues like marine growth and
visibility.
24.3.4 Impact of Arctic conditions on ER & EER
It generally has been recognized that additional provisions are needed in order to let ER
systems in arctic conditions function properly. The arctic region and, to some extent, subarctic regions and regions with seasonally similar conditions, such as the Caspian Sea, entail
some unique challenges.
Environmental conditions
Remoteness and darkness are assumed to be the only 2 potential hazards within the
environment-related category, since 2 out of the other 3 conditions concern the environment
and socio-economic aspects are not relevant for ER operations.
1) Remoteness
The distance from the offshore unit to shore directly relates to the feasibility of the use of
vessels and helicopters. In case of an emergency situation which requires immediate
evacuation, vessels might not arrive in time. Helicopters might not be able to make a round
trip on a single fuel tank, so there is a limit to the distance that can be covered. There is also
a limiting number of people they can transfer. In some cases, additional fuel tanks can be
installed; however, this reduces the amount of people that can be carried. The limiting factor

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of a vessel is its sailing speed; if relatively large distances have to be covered, the vessel may
not arrive at the required location in time. Meanwhile, personnel in an evacuation craft may
be forced to cover great distances before they are rescued. Other concerns related to the
remoteness which is often associated with arctic and/ or cold regions include for instance the
duration of search and recovery operations, the duration of supply and other logistical
operations. The following rearrangement has been proposed for the benefit of this
assessment:

<200 km: Helicopters are feasible, vessels may be feasible in terms of (survival)
time-distance-constraints.
200-400 km: Helicopters may be feasible, vessels are unlikely to be feasible in terms
of (survival) time-distance-constraints but can still be considered.
400-600 km: Helicopters are unlikely to be feasible and vessels are not feasible in
terms of (survival) time-distance-constraints.
>600 km: external resources cannot be relied on; autonomous systems are required.

It should be noted that since this section assesses remoteness the feasibility in the
rearrangement above is assessed only in terms of (survival) time-distance-constraints.
Dedicated vessels with a sufficient additional complement for all personnel on board the (to
be) evacuated unit are feasible if present in the vicinity of the unit.
2) Seasonal darkness
Darkness, especially in combination with conditions deteriorating visibility such as fog and
snow, may prevent detection of the potential presence of sea ice and other features in the sea.
Evacuation in such conditions may become particularly treacherous since many survival
craft are not equipped to operate in arctic conditions.
Since darkness in itself is not a cold region or arctic specific issue and since the duration of
ER operations/ events is relatively short, darkness is not further considered here. It should be
noted that the resources typically involved in ER are assumed to have capable lighting.
Meteorological conditions
1) Air temperature
The low ambient (absolute) air temperatures in the arctic obviously have an impact on
people. As indicated before, physical human performance degrades as temperatures become
lower, which affect ER operations. The cold can even lead to injuries, such as frostbites, and
hypothermia. Next, the survival time of secondary and tertiary evacuation methods could
very well be shorter. Machinery, engines, controls, electrical circuits, batteries and other
systems might also be affected and therefore require extra attention, i.e. winterization.
Furthermore, potential hazards consist of material embrittlement and freezing of fuels,
lubricants and hydraulic fluids.
Risks are eminent in the event that individuals are exposed to low temperatures for a
relatively long period of time, for instance during survival. Helicopters, vessels, fast rescue
craft (FRC) and active indirect & semi-dry evacuation means are however assumed to be
either designed for the temperatures they are likely to encounter or will provide adequate
heating (e.g. by means of the engine).

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2) Wind speed
Wind speed is assumed to be covered in other (general) guidelines and standards and is not
considered any further here.
3) Wind chill
Wind chill is assumed to be hazardous to people, if directly exposed to wind, since it can
cause serious injuries within just a couple of minutes. As a result, fast rescue craft operations
and the duration of the survival phase for individuals (i.e. wet evacuees) may entail higher
risks. Wind affects the temperatures actually experienced. A strong breeze transforms an
absolute temperature of -20C into an effective temperature of -35C. This degrades physical
human performance even further and increases the risk of personnel getting frostbites and
suffering from hypothermia.
4) Snow, hail and rain
Although snow, hail and rain, whether or not combined with sea spray, may cover or cause
ice accretion on critical equipment and escape routes, these types of precipitation are not
assessed here, since they do not exclusively occur in the arctic or in cold regions;
furthermore, snowfall and hail are generally less in the arctic compared to southern regions3.
5) Fog and ice fog
Fog reduces visibility which may impede ER operations, including all phases of an escape,
evacuation and rescue process. Helicopter and rescue vessel operations may be impeded,
obstacles in escape routes and debris in a survival crafts launching zone may remain
unnoticed and there may be a lack of reference points. Furthermore, upon contact with any
surface, the water particles may freeze causing ice accretion. Regarding medical evacuation
of sick or injured personnel from a facility, usually by helicopter, fog may represent a threat
as well. Fog is however not an arctic or cold region specific phenomenon and therefore is not
assessed any further here. Ice fog, a condition which has been added in this assessment,
however is. Ice fog (or frost smoke) consists of fog-like clouds formed by the contact of cold
air with relatively warm water. It can appear over openings in ice or leeward of the ice edge
and may persist while ice is forming. Ice fog may affect visibility, curtail airborne
operations, coat windows windshields and cause vision and breathing problems4.
6) Blizzards
Blizzards reduce visibility and entail similar problems as can be encountered with ice fog.
Although not exclusively arctic or cold region specific, blizzards are therefore assumed to be
a substantial risk.
7) Polar lows
Polar lows are also referred to as arctic hurricanes: severe, relatively short-lasting
depressions with the potential for frequently strong wind gusts, thunderstorms and
waterspouts. While passing, temperatures radically drop, thereby enormously increasing the
probability of icing5. Polar lows are difficult to predict, entail many of the phenomena
3

http://nsidc.org/arcticmet/factors/precipitation.html
Integrated Ice & Open Water Canadian Offshore Petroleum Installations EER Performance-Based Standards
Transport Canada
4

http://www.weatheronline.co.uk/reports/wxfacts/The-Polar-low---the-arctic-hurricane.htm

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previously described and therefore may be hazardous during an ER operations as well as


during drills and precautionary evacuations. Forecasting techniques may therefore be
required. A polar low is however assumed not to be a particular risk in itself; some features
associated with the phenomenon are but those assumed to be a specific cold region issue are
treated separately.
8) Atmospheric Icing & Sea Spray Icing
Ice accretion has several effects on a wide variety of components. Escape routes, passages,
portals, stairs, ladders, and other surfaces used by personnel as part of a safe transit during a
drill, precautionary or emergency situation might become slippery or impassable, thus
potentially causing injuries and even casualties. Critical life-saving and ER equipment might
be inaccessible, mechanical components, such as a fast rescue crafts deployment winches,
might become inoperable and the crafts stability might be decreased. Furthermore,
helicopter and deck operations aiding in the ER processes may be impaired.
With respect to icing, the duration of operations and events is however key. Escape is a short
process, hence it is not the rate of accretion that is of interest, but the presence and thickness
of ice in itself at the time the escape process is initiated. If no ice accretion has taken place
yet at the time a unit has to be abandoned for other reasons, but ice starts to accrete from that
moment on, all personnel on board will have been evacuated by the time a significant layer
of ice has accreted and therefore it is not a risk. A low amount of ice accretion here refers to
that which can quickly be removed during the time an evacuation takes place, while a high
amount of ice accretion refers to that which cannot be removed during the time an
evacuation takes place. For long distances, the accretion rate becomes an important issue for
resources.
9) Visibility
Visibility can be drastically hindered by precipitation, which here includes blizzards,
whiteouts & ice fog. A whiteout reduces visibility and contrast and it influences peoples
orientation abilities. It has been defined as A condition of diffuse light when no shadows
are cast, due to a continuous white cloud layer appearing to merge with the white snow
surface. No surface irregularities of the snow are visible, but a dark object may be clearly
seen. There is no visible horizon6. Qualitative distinction depends on the operation and/ or
resource concerned; a visibility range of 1 vessel length is sufficient for escape routes, but
not for helicopters. Distinction is made here between visibility of more than a vessels
length, less than a vessels length and zero visibility.
Oceanographic conditions
1) Sea water temperature
All conditions within the oceanographic category are assumed to be covered in other
(general) guidelines and standards, except for seawater temperature, which is assumed to
pose a cold region specific risk, especially in case of wet evacuation and survival.
Both in (partially) ice-covered waters and cool open water, the temperature of the water
substantially decreases the probability of survival of individuals entering the sea. Thermal
6

Sir Fuchs, V., Sir Hillary, E. 1958. The Crossing of Antarctica. Cassell, London. Glossary, page 296.

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conductivity may also be an issue for personnel in survival craft, life rafts and other
equipment entering the sea; however, active indirect & semi-dry evacuation means, such as
survival craft, are however assumed to be either designed for the temperatures they are likely
to encounter or will provide adequate heating (e.g. by means of the engine).
Seabed conditions
Seabed conditions are assumed not to have interaction with ER operations.
Sea and glacial ice conditions
A variety of ice conditions potentially affects an ER systems reliability, availability,
survivability and performance. Consequently, the strategies and overall processes are
influenced as well. Ice conditions may prevent fast rescue craft from operating. Overall risks
for Indirect & Semi-Dry and Wet Evacuation means related to ice include unintended
deceleration (crashing), crushing, (back-)slamming, tearing, cutting, puncturing, immersion,
entrainment, entrapment, instability, wave-driven ice projectiles, impairment of the ice sheet
and interaction through ice of the evacuation means or evacuees and ER vessel. On the other
hand, ice conditions may as well assist in the evacuation process and even be part of the EER
strategy. In case of a solid, safe ice cover, capable of bearing the required load, the preferred
option may be to place active and passive means of indirect and semi-dry evacuation means
on the ice directly. The evacuation means should however still be able to transfer beyond the
hazard zone. Another option, for individuals, may be to abandon the facility and transfer
beyond the hazard zone over the ice.
1) Ice Thickness
Since the quantitative definition of ice thicknesses that entail risks in this assessment greatly
depends on the system used, a qualitative approach has been proposed instead. Sea ice has
been subdivided in thin and thick ice. Thin ice will not bear (support) EER equipment and
personnel, while thick ice has sufficient bearing capacity to support a given evacuation craft
and personnel. Therefore, thick ice precludes navigation, but active & passive systems may
be used as an on-ice shelter as long as they can be transferred to beyond the hazard zone.
Thin ice allows for navigation, be it with impediment; however, manoeuvrability and speed
of passive evacuation means, such as rafts, in thin ice are expected to be low or insignificant.
Furthermore, in thin ice, the interaction through the ice of , the evacuation craft and rescue
means is a potential risk. In thick ice, this risk becomes even more significant and
accessibility of evacuees may be impaired.
It should be noted that the strength of ice can vary with its age. Multi-year ice can be
considerably stronger than first-year ice. Multi-year ice is therefore assumed to be thick ice;
since it has greater strength it may even require less thickness to qualify as thick ice. Multiyear ice is also assumed to have less surface features; entailing better on-ice transfer
possibilities.
The strength of ice can also vary due to (spring) melt. As temperatures seasonally fluctuate,
so does the extent to which ice grows and melts. During warmer periods, the ice surface
melts, affecting the integrity of the ice sheet in terms of strength and bearing capacity. Holes
and channels may develop and melted water may accumulate in pools. This implicates that
rescue vessels and survival craft may encounter less resistance while transiting through the

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ice, but direct evacuation of individuals onto the ice sheet may become too dangerous. It
should also be noticed that hypothermia can be aggravated by wet clothes.
It should be noted that evacuation craft intended for restricted seasonal operation may
experience lower risks than year-round systems which need to cope with extreme conditions.
Emergency Response Vehicles (ERVs) are not assessed here, since it has been assumed that
they have sufficient icebreaking capabilities, which accounts for EER and operations related
to (other) Emergency Response tasks.
2) Ice management
In some of the scenarios described above use can be made of ice management systems to
provide broken ice conditions which enhances the ice performance of evacuation craft as
well as rescue vessels in broken ice conditions. Such systems should however be
continuously present in the direct vicinity to allow for a quick response time which may be
required.
Ice management systems are discussed in more detail in section 21
3) Ice Floe Size
The ice floe size cannot be addressed separately, since there are many relations with other
issues.
In case of thick ice, somewhat larger diameter floes are more convenient for offering
stability and on-ice shelter possibilities. Propulsion of marine craft may however be an issue
since (brash) ice poses a hazard for thrusters, coolwater-inlets, etcetera. In case of thin ice,
small diameter ice floes are more convenient for passive systems and Wet evacuation
because they entail less resistance and leads may be easier to find and navigate. Small ice
floes, driven by waves, are hazardous.
4) Ice Coverage
Coverage cannot be addressed separately; there are many relations with other issues.
Whether or not craft and rafts can be launched and/ or embarked in certain coverage
conditions totally depends on thickness, floe size, drift speed and pressurization (if any) and
comes down to one issue: is the ice feature stable or not? Ice coverage is therefore not
assessed here. The same accounts for Touch-down and Impact in case of Individual (Wet)
Evacuation.
Some reasoning is however provided in the following.
Coverage was initially indicated as a hazard for ERVs, but it's not the coverage percentage
itself that is a hazard since it has been assumed that all ERVs have sufficient icebreaking
capabilities for this assessment. The same accounts for ERV Resource Operations related to
(other) Emergency Response tasks.
Open water sea state can also be combined with some ice conditions to create additional
environmental conditions. However, as ice coverage and floe size increase, the effect of
waves will decrease due to damping effects of the ice. In open pack ice (5/10) and severe sea

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state (Bft. 8-10 or average max. wind velocity 55 knots), ice floe projectiles are assumed to
become a significant risk7.
Low coverage ice conditions allow for navigation, while medium coverage impedes
manoeuvrability and high coverage practically precludes navigation (except when supported
by ice management systems). In-plane ice pressure may cause a fast rescue craft or survival
craft to capsize or inflict damage to it.
Whether or not an ice floe can provide a stable platform to deploy active or passive indirect
& semi-dry evacuation means on, or whether it can provide an on-ice shelter for individuals
depends on several issues, including floe size, ice thickness, ice strength and the type of
evacuation means used.
5) Ice Type (Age/ Strength)
Ice Type has been discarded as a separate condition. Ice type cannot be addressed separately;
there are too many relations with other issues.
6) Drift Speed
This category has been added since it is deemed to be of significant importance. Moving ice
floes can be very challenging for the deployment of fast rescue craft and evacuation means.
Ice floes crushing or breaking on the units boundary may furthermore be extremely
dangerous for individuals trying to enter the ice. On the other hand, in case of Indirect &
Semi-Dry Evacuation, depending on the drift direction, the moving ice floes may assist in
exiting the hazard zone by adding momentum.
Depending on the system selected, ice drift will occur on the windward or current side.
Generally lees are experienced on the leeward sides even with multi legged structures. These
so called wakes can be very long (miles) and will change with upcoming drift changes.
Therefore emergency rescue system designs shall incorporate the ice drift behaviour such
that alternating sides could potentially be used.
Initially, Touch-Down/ Impact of Marine & Amphibious Craft (Active), Launch of Rafts
(Passive) as well as Touch-Down/ Impact of Individual (Wet) Evacuation all were indicated
as potential hazards. However, since drift speed only becomes relevant after impact, during
transfer, these operations have been discarded for this category.
Fast drifting ice may entail sudden movements of unit and rescue platform, which may be
hazardous during transfer and impedes recovery. It may result in (progressive) set-back
(towards incident-related hazards) and potential crushing of active and passive systems. Fast
drifting ice may also result in crushing, puncturing, cutting, tearing, immersion, entrainment
and entrapment of active and passive systems.
High drift speeds will be hazardous for FRC operations particularly in case of thick ice. FRC
cannot sail through ice; they can only manoeuvre around ice floes if the specific conditions
allow for it.
7

See table A.3 of Integrated Ice and Open Water Canadian Offshore Petroleum Installations EER PerformanceBased Standards - Transport Canada.

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It should be noted that some issues related to drift speed cannot be addressed separately;
there are some relations with other issues. Of significant impact however can be the resulting
pressure that will be encountered when trying to move off in such drift ice conditions.
Selection of alternate positions which may offer a lee are to be preferred.
7) Ice Features
Ice features may include level and rafted ice, rubble, ridges, stamukhas, in-plane ice pressure
and icebergs. However, level and rafted ice have been discarded from this category since
they both mainly are a function of the ice thickness.
A stamukha is a grounded ridge and as such only poses as an obstacle which turns it into a
non-arctic specific feature (sandbanks, reefs or buoys are also obstacles). Account shall be
taken of such obstacles in the safe evacuation from the structure in various conditions that
provide little or no visibility. Icebergs have been disregarded since they are assumed not to
pose any additional specific risks to ER operations (see earlier comments).
Loose or floating rubble cannot be considered as stable, temporary on-ice shelters, since
these features are uncohesive/ loose and may break up. Rubble can be an additional hazard
when rubble has been accumulated against the side of a structure when landing a craft. The
dimensions of the rubble, height, width and extent, depend on many factors and due account
should be taken when lowering craft onto such rubble piles. Alternatively they should be
removed or design aspects should be modified when possible to help minimize the build-up
of such rubble.
Ridges can potentially be considered as stable, temporary on-ice shelters; however, they
could break up as well.
Dry transfer from unit to ERV as a Direct & Dry Evacuation method has been discarded
since ice is only assumed to be a potential hazard due to the risk of sudden unintended
movements caused by drifting ice.
It should be noted that some issues related to ice features cannot be addressed separately;
there are some relations with other issues.
24.3.5 Recommendations for emergency response
It is made clear that the arctic region entails many challenges in addition to those
encountered in conventional offshore regions that seriously impede ER and EER operations
and particularly the design of a suitable evacuation system. No single evacuation method is
currently available for abandonment under all environmental/ice conditions and thus far, not
all evacuation system implemented at existing facilities in the arctic region have been
seriously tested. Testing has been performed with 300-person survival craft in the Caspian
Sea, other systems have been tested in the Sea of Okhotsk, such as davit launched survival
craft launched on to the deck of a vessel, and in the Beaufort Sea, such as evacuating to a
vessel using a chute.
There is not one solution that fits all structures and all environmental conditions. Therefore it
may be questionable whether these current systems will suitably perform in case of an

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emergency evacuation in conditions such as those described in this assessment. They should
therefore be thoroughly tested and improved. In most cases, several different systems will be
required to allow for emergency response operations at all times and under all circumstances.
Some examples of arctic evacuation methods that have either been implemented or are
currently under development are given in Barents 2020 Phase 4 Report, Appendix A:
Evacuation Methods.
It is recommended to utilize all available resources for Emergency, Evacuation or Rescue in
the same area. Alignment, interfaces and procedures must be agreed before commencement
of work activities in the region.
Icing has been accounted for up to a large extent in design standards and guidelines. It is
usually part of the winterization design and strategy of a unit. Winterization measures can
assist substantially in the overall performance of an ER and EER system; however, due to
the extremely harsh environmental conditions, the best protective measure is to stow systems
and craft such, that they are protected. Personnel should remain protected from raining
conditions as long as possible and preferably not be exposed at all.
Icing has also been accounted for in the design of unit, area & external resources related to
ER operations. It should however be realized that all of these resources have operational
limitations, which is not a gap in itself.
Arctic specific considerations regarding evacuation have illustrated the need for region
specific guidelines since it has been observed that not all requirements can be standardized
for global application.
Physical and psychological human performance and integrity of materials and equipment in
conditions of low air and sea temperatures, bad visibility, wind (chill) and (blowing) snow
(blizzards), icing and ice fog are major issues and should be accounted for during an early
design stage. Important issues are Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and survival suits.
Raising awareness, providing extensive training programs and conducting realistic drills are
key.
One of the main conclusions that can be drawn regarding ice cover versus sea state is that the
problematic conditions are dynamic ice conditions. This has also been recognized by Drover
and Warrillow in 20078. ISO 19906 states decisively that Unless the water column is
completely frozen or ice covered, sea state is the key environmental condition that would
influence the behaviour of surface marine EER systems9.
Care should be taken when using rafts, as passive means of evacuation, in cold regions and
especially in ice-infested waters. If there are stable floes to sit the raft on they could provide
good shelter and warmth. Rafts should be used as a last absolute last resort if nothing else is
available. It should be noted though that the severity of conditions with respect to an
evacuation means is relative to the system selected. From seasonal or extended summer work

Drover, K., Warrillow, A. 2007. Evaluation of Evacuation Vehicle Performance in Dynamic Ice Conditions.
Presentations, Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. Nov 2007.
9
ISO Petroleum and natural gas industries - Arctic offshore structures (ISO/FDIS 19906:2010(E), ISO TC
67/SC 7), Draft January 21, 2010, p115.

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one gradually moves into more severe ice conditions with increased vessel or system
capabilities.
Rescue is defined as the process by which persons entering the sea or reaching the ice
surface, directly or in an evacuation craft, are subsequently transferred to a safe haven.
Search and rescue aspects must however be thoroughly addressed as well as other tracking
systems for personnel, equipment and craft. At the same time more details will be required to
provide the required systems and procedures to monitor and forecast weather and ice
conditions, which is discussed in more details in section 7. Without the proper information
rescue craft cannot easily find safe havens.
Medical assistance should typically be available at abovementioned safe havens. Helicopters
and emergency response or rescue vessels are often referred to as being safe havens.
However, this implies that a helicopter and a rescue vessel are places where medical
assistance is typically available, which is not always the case but this may become an
operational requirement if no other suitable safe havens can be found in areas with logistical
limits. There seems to be a lack of, and/ or inconsistency in the definitions for rescue and
there is also no definition of medical assistance available.
Trans-vessel transfer of evacuees is an issue which yet needs to be assessed. It will
(preferably) take place in sheltered but very likely ice covered waters; therefore remoteness
could be a key issue here.
The Transport Canada - Integrated Ice and Open Water Canadian Offshore Petroleum
Installations Escape, Evacuation and Rescue Performance-Based Standards (March 2006) fill
in many of the gaps related to escape, evacuation, survival and recovery, as well as some of
the gaps related to recovery operations by emergency response resources. It should however
be noted, that this is a draft standard which was not (yet) accepted and adopted at the time of
writing this report. Whether it will ever be accepted remains questionable.
The main issues for operations related to the recovery of a man-overboard, personnel from a
ditched helicopter and Medevacs by means of helicopters include ice fog, blizzards, icing
and visibility issues. The same issues are applicable for fast rescue craft operations, with the
addition of certain sea ice conditions. No regulations were found in which these issues are
dealt with and these topics are therefore still outstanding. It should be noted however, that
the OLF guidelines OLF/NR No. 096 - Guidelines for man-overboard, which were not
available at the time of writing this report, may fill in (some of) the gaps for man-overboard
related operations. In a man overboard situation the sea temperature is also a key issue for
hypothermia reducing survival times.

24.4
Fire fighting
24.4.1 Introduction to fire fighting
Fire fighting in arctic conditions is considerable different than at other locations. Fire
fighting equipment and fire fighting media need to be effective in low temperatures.
Procedures and fire fighting teams need to function while being exposed to the cold and
icing which can occur on deck and equipment. Furthermore, remoteness and low

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temperatures cause that the consequence of some risks are more severe on arctic projects
than elsewhere.
The next session, Guidelines for fire fighting, provides details on the review of regulations
and guidelines. Relevant sections were linked to the fire fighting operations and arctic
conditions to generate a schema of challenges and rules. gaps are listed and
recommendations formulated in Section 24.4.3.
24.4.2 Guidelines for fire fighting
Arctic conditions are not restricted to low temperature and ice, but include other typical
circumstances like remoteness and socio-economic aspects10. All arctic specific conditions
were identified and linked to the different steps of fire fighting. Reference is made to Table
I.3 in Appendix I.
The operations of fire fighting were divided in seven parts being fire prevention, equipment,
fire detections, fire control, fire extinguishment, monitoring and damage assessment.
Fire prevention was included in the review of fire fighting as being an important step to
reduce the likelihood of the risk. Major parts of fire prevention were identified in crew
selection, training, motivation, provision of appropriate storage facilities, housekeeping and
in the vessel design.
All fire fighting equipment & procedures need to be suitable for the anticipated
circumstances including fire detection system, fire fighting equipment, fire fighting
procedures, PPE, fire fighting team, drills & training, fire fighting & escape plans, external
support system and medical care. For medical care reference is made to chapter 24.2.
The fire detection and alarm system was further divided into smoke detectors, temperature
detectors, gas detectors, alarm buttons, internal and external communication. For
communication reference is made to work group 2.
Fire fighting and control focusses on the requirements to follow procedures and includes the
accessibility and usability of PPE, accessibility and usage of fire fighting equipment,
accessibility of the fire source and the supply of appropriate extinguish media.
The three remaining major steps fire extinguishment, monitoring and damage assess were
not specified further.
Identified rules and regulations can be found in Table I.3 of Appendix I.
24.4.3 Recommendations for fire fighting
A preliminary listing of identified rules, gaps and recommendations are given in Table24.2.

10

Socio-economic aspects is a broad term. In relation to fire fighting it is associated with broad public concerns
as well as employment of locals due to economic interest of Arctic countries. While locals may have a different
social background, limited offshore experience and no experience on the specific construction unit.

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More guidance for fire mitigation and fire fighting would be useful. Recommendations could
be developed by collecting expertise from suppliers and fire fighters in cold regions
(onshore).
Table 24.2: Gap analysis - fire fighting
Keyword
Existing guidelines
Fire prevention
Some guidelines consider fire
(crew selection,
prevention as part of the risk
training,
management.
motivation &
Barents 2020 advises
housekeeping
maximum probabilities for
vs.
specific fire risks.
socio economic
There were no guidelines
aspects,
found on fire prevention in
remoteness,
relation to arctic specific
temperatures &
conditions.
wind chill)

Fire fighting
preparation (esp.
PPE,
Fire fighting
equipment &
procedures)
vs.
Socio-economic
aspects, wind
chill, Seaspray
icing and
Atmospheric
Icing)

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ISO 19906 section 13.8:


General arctic
considerations for all
systems: Anti-freeze agents,
provision of drainage of fire
water.
At least one fire pump
connected to sea chest or to
another sea chest with deicing arrangements.
The temperature of the
environment, riming of
lenses, etc. need to be
considered
ABS Guide for vessels
operating in low temperature
environment:
Many fixed and portable fire
fighting systems can suffer
from performance
degradation due to low

166

Gap & Recommendation


Fire prevention is essential to reduce
the likelihood and therewith the risk
level of fire especially when
operating in cold and/or remote
environment.
Fire risks and fire prevention matters
can be emphasized in crew training.
Consider to prohibit smoking in
cabins.
Proper drying facilities and sufficient
sets of clothing and PPE (incl. fire
fighting related) shall be provided to
allow exchange and drying in case
layers got wet.
Usage of electrical heaters especially
in change rooms and cabins should
be minimized because electrical
heaters are attractive to dry or warm
cloth which can cause fire.
Some guidance is given especially in
ISO 19906 and ABS Guide for
vessels operating in low temperature
environment.
As next step it is recommended to
gather advise from experienced
people like fire fighters in cold
regions on land.
The following recommendations for
on-land fire fighters were found at
NOAA US weather service:
Provide sufficient salt, sand and
oil-dry to enhance footing.
Water (incl. anti-freeze adds)
circulation shall be considered
rather than keeping equipment dry.

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Fire fighting
team, training &
drills
vs.
temperature,
icing, wind chill

temperatures or to ice and


snow accumulation
It is extremely important
that the selection and
configuration of fire fighting
systems give proper
consideration to potential
scenarios under extreme
operating conditions.
Equipment, appliances,
extinguishing agents and
systems should always be
protected from freezing.
See also Table I.3.
ABS Guide for vessels
operating in low temperature
environment:
A training manual it should
cover at least
- Ice recognition
- Safe navigation in ice
- Instructions for drills
and emergency
response
Arctic Council, arctic offshore
oil and gas guidelines, 2009,
Section 6.7:
- Training programs
should provide
instruction on the
operation of
equipment, offshore
operating practices,
offshore emergency
survival and fire
fighting, local or
regional regulatory
requirements.

Fire detection vs.


low temperatures,
icing, fog

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ISO 19906: 2010 E:


certain types of fire and
gas detectors and recording
methods can be dependent
upon their own
Barents 2020:
Identified risk: Gas detectors

167

Consider shorter work periods in


extreme temperatures. Larger fire
fighting teams may be useful to allow
exchange.
Fire fighters need to have the chance
to exchange PPE and cloth after
gotten wet (sufficient PPE, sufficient
breaks / back-to-backs)
Consider taking a 2nd pair of gloves
with you. In sub-zero temperatures
gloves need to be exchanged
immediately after getting wet to
prevent frostbite.
Training and drills are even more
important in unknown/extreme
conditions and in the event of
new/unfamiliar team members.
Chance of collapsing structures due
to icing (of extinguish media) need to
be considered.
Body checks for frostbites and
hyperthermia are extremely
important when working in cold
environment.
More research is required. Suppliers
could be contacted for more advise.

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which are exposed to


atmospheric icing or heavy fog

24.5
Operations manual and procedures
Arctic conditions influence the operational manuals and procedures, i.e. work outside need to
be minimized and inspection routines must be adapted as a consequence of icing induced
risks. A gap analysis on the impact of arctic specific conditions on operational manuals and
procedures is outstanding.
A detailed operating manual shall be prepared to cover all expected and where possible
unexpected operations or conditions. Tool box talks, risk and hazard analysis shall be
included. Buddy systems shall be used for work outside. Communication shall be in place,
search and rescue parties set up. Lesson learned and close out sessions shall be included.
Proper knowledge and experience shall be available with the key personnel. Training and
enhanced simulation shall be performed.
Gaps exist in the area of Operating manuals, it is recommended to obtain further details from
the Polar Code and other related shipping codes. A proper operations manual shall be
developed to suit the specific operations. Allowance shall be made of eventualities, changes
of operation, risk analysis, communication as well as ice and environmental aspects.
24.6
Risk management
Although the risks associated with operating in the arctic and other cold regions may be
higher than those encountered in conventional offshore regions, the process of assessing
and managing these risks is assumed to be the same. It should however be noted that risk
management may require involvement of dedicated arctic or cold region specific experts.
Risk management in this case will furthermore imply reducing the likelihood of occurrence
of an undesired event rather than reducing the severity, since the severity of the arctic or cold
region specific conditions that are assessed in this project remain constant.
Impact of arctic conditions on risk management should be investigated.
24.7
Facilities and working environment
24.7.1 Guidelines for facilities and working environment
Below the relevant guidelines for facilities and working environment are shown. In the next
section their impact on working in arctic conditions is given.
General
a) ABS Guide for vessels operating in low temperature environments May 2010
Section 5.2 Heating for Survival
PPE
b) Barents 2020
Section 7.1.4. Clothing and personal protection equipment
c) ABS
Low temperature operations
d) Guide for vessels operating in low temperature environments May 2010
Crew Considerations , section 8.2 Clothing
e) Vessels operating in low temperature environments

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f) Canadian rules, PCSP manual


Section 3.3 clothing
g) OGP and IPIECA, Health Aspects of work in Extreme Climates 2008
Section about Clothing for the cold
h) Canadian rules, PCSP manual
Section 1.3.4 Health and safety
i) Barents 2020
Section 7.1.5 Work, warm-up and rehabilitation regimes;
j) IMO- guidelines for ships operating in polar waters;
Section 4 Accommodation and escape measures
Accommodation
k) IMO- guidelines for ships operating in polar waters;
Section 4 Accommodation and escape measures
l) ISO 19906:2010
Section 18.11 Personal protective equipment (PPE);
m) ISO 15027
ISO The requirements of immersion suits;
n) ISO 11079
Clothing insulation
Other
o) IMO- guidelines for ships operating in polar waters
Section 10.6 fire fighter outfits
Section 11. Live saving appliances and survival arrangements
Section 11.1.1 General
24.7.2 Impact of Arctic conditions on facilities and working environment
Here the numbering of the different parts corresponds to the numbering of the guidelines in
the previous section.
General
a) Heating for Survival
Heating systems are considered essential for safety and survival. Therefore, the
emergency generator is to be sized to maintain crew survivability. The spaces listed in
4/7.1.2 are to be able to be maintained at a minimum of 10C (50F) at the design
service temperature.
PPE
b) Clothing and personal protection equipment
Proper clothing in cold climates is an essential factor for ensuring personnel health, safety,
comfort and work performance. Working in the cold implies varying climatic conditions
and activity levels and thus varying requirements for protection. The company shall
ensure that all personnel working outside are correctly dressed for the weather conditions
and the job to be undertaken.
A multi-layered clothing system is ideal, with each layer serving a specific purpose.
Inner layer (underwear): moisture absorption and transport
Middle layer (shirt, sweater): insulation and moisture transport
Outer layer (wind breaker, arctic clothing, rain gear): protection against the external
environment and moisture transport.

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In addition, protective clothing must include appropriate head, face and neck protection;
hand protection; and foot protection.
c) Low temperature operations
These drills should be conducted with the crew wearing the full complement of cold
weather survival gear so they can become familiar with how this protective clothing can
affect their mobility and dexterity.
d) Crew Considerations , section 8.2 Clothing
Adequate supplies of protective clothing and thermal insulating materials are to be
provided for all persons on board at any time.
e) Vessels operating in low temperature environments
Adequate supplies of protective clothing and thermal insulating materials are to be
provided for all persons on board at any time.
f) Canadian rules: clothing
It is better to wear a number of thin items of clothing, which trap air between layers, than
bulky items, which restrict movement and are not as heat-efficient. Keep all clothing
clean and dry, because dirt and grease break down the insulating properties of materials.
You need to prevent sweating, because it takes heat away from your body and freezes
when activity ceases. Do not wear tight clothes, which restrict circulation and chill you.
Instead, wear layered clothing, which gives you more freedom of movement and can be
adjusted to conditions to prevent overheating. You should always be able to peel off a
layer or undo a neck or sleeve. Never wear waterproof clothing that will not breathe,
because the trapped body moisture reduces insulation.
g) OGP and IPIECA: Clothing for the cold
Clothing in cold climates is a major factor in survival. It may, however, be an additional
physiological load, especially if poorly designed. Thermal clothing may add to the
encumbrance caused by other personal protective equipment (PPE) and can also
reduce the protection offered by the PPE. The encumbered worker will take longer to
complete work tasks and even routine activities such as eating and going to the toilet.
The correct combination of activity and clothing is the key to survival and depends on an
initial analysis of the job (operation, tools, working materials) and work environment.
Clothing should be designed in a way that ensures optimal performance of each clothing
component based upon functional requirements. Convection and radiation are the main
mechanisms for heat transfer between the skin surface, through layers of clothing, and
the external environment. Heat transfer through conduction may be significant for those
parts of the body in direct contact with cold surfaces, particularly when seated or when
working in a bent posture. The compression of clothing layers accelerates local heat loss.
h) Personal Protective Equipment (PPE);
The need for and numbers, types and storage locations of personal protective devices
shall be determined in the EER analysis. PPE, as determined by the EER analysis shall
be provided for personnel in sufficient numbers. Deployment locations shall include the
living quarters and other strategic areas. Evacuee PPE shall include devices to facilitate
evacuee movement from the sea to ice floes, if required by EER analysis.

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If evacuation onto solid ice is part of the EER strategy, the evacuees shall have adequate
clothing, footwear and traction devices to provide protection and mobility until rescued.
Externally stored PPE shall account for extreme cold temperatures and snow and ice
accumulations. The need for heating storage areas shall be assessed.
i)

The requirements of immersion suits;


Suits are necessary to survive in cold water. The standard describes how these suits
should be tested and rated.

j)

Clothing insulation
Calculates the clothing insulation required to work in the cold. This is handy for arctic
environments. Clothing insulation is expressed in Clo values. To survive in arctic
regions clothing insulation of about 3.5 Clo is required.

Accommodation
k) Health and safety;
It is recommended not to allow anyone to be alone in the field. Every field party must
have at least one person in camp at all times with at least three years experience
working in the arctic.
l)

Work, warm-up and rehabilitation regimes;


Sensible work scheduling and warm-up breaks are essential for work in cold climate, not
only for preventing ill health but also for increasing productivity. In exposed work sites
and low ambient temperatures, thermal clothing alone may not be sufficient to maintain
body temperature at a comfortable and efficient level. Extra time will need to be allowed
for completing tasks and for re-warming.

m) Accommodation and escape measures


All personnel accommodation should be designed and arranged to protect the occupants
from unfavourable environmental conditions and minimize risk of injury during normal
(including ice transiting or icebreaking) operations and emergency conditions.
All personnel accommodation, public spaces and the equipment installed in them should
be designed so that each person making proper use of them will not suffer injury during
normal open water operations, designed ice transiting modes of operation, and
emergency manoeuvring conditions. Ships of Polar Classes 1 to 5 inclusive should have
sufficiently available and reliable facilities to maintain a life sustaining environment in
the event of an emergency and/or of extended ice entrapment.
n) Accommodation and escape measures
Public address systems and other safety items
The public address system and the general emergency alarm system should be audible
over the loudest ambient noise level occurring during ice transiting, icebreaking or
ramming.
Galley facilities should be provided with grab rails projecting from the front on cooking
equipment for use by the crew during ice operations.

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Other
o) Fire fighter outfits, live saving appliances and survival arrangements
It is recommended that adequate supplies of protective clothing and thermal insulating
materials should be provided, taking into account the intended voyage:
Personal Survival Kit (PSK)
Group Survival Kit (GSK)
The contents of these kits can be found in Appendix B

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24.7.3 Recommendations for facilities and working environment


A preliminary listing of identified guidelines and recommendations are given in this table:
Keyword
Accommodation
PPE - clothing

PPE - clothing

Existing guidelines

Recommendations
Specify minimum requirement, eg
insulation, size, functionality.
Polar code
Specify minimum standard of PPE and
minimum sets every employee should
receive.
Special requirements to be included for
both on deck clothing as well as
survival clothing. Various operators
have differing standards of these
survival suits which would help
enormously if this could be
standardized.
ABS
Guide
for This guide provides a good description
Vessels Operating in on clothing and PPE.
Low
Temperature
Environments.
Ref.
Appendix 3.4

Additional guidance concerning crew welfare can be found in Marine Labour Convention
(MLC) requirements.

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SECTION 25
ENVIRONMMENT

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25.0

ENVIRONMENT

25.1
Environmental Impact Pilot Project
25.1.1 Introduction
The Environmental Impact pilot project was initiated under the wings of the Artic Operations
Handbook JIP. The aim was to gain insight in and to better understand the interaction
between the ecosystem and operational activities in arctic environments. As a result of this
collaboration a Generic Framework for Environmental Assessments was developed. This
Generic Framework provides guidance to systematically address the environmental impact of
operations on ecosystems.
It should be noted that this novel approach can contribute to improving existing EIA
practises and could gain strength when adopted internationally.
This Generic Framework describes the methodology and its application for the scoping and
prioritization phases of a project. Extensive work has been carried out during this pilot study
but the Generic Framework needs to be developed further therefore recommendations are
identified for further work.
For the complete pilot project reference is made to Volume 4 the Environmental Impact
Pilot Project. A summary of the report is given below.
25.1.2 Generic Framework Methodology
In the methodology the environmental assessment per project phase and the general outline
model are described.
Environmental assessment per project phase
A stepwise approach (Therivel & Ross, 2007 [1], van der Walt, 2005 [2]) is proposed for the
elaboration of an environmental assessment in the arctic. During the development of a
marine operation several project phases can be distinguished, each of them requiring a
specific environmental assessment:
1) Scoping phase: a qualitative assessment identifying which ecosystem-components are
(potentially) affected by the proposed activities.
2) Prioritization phase: a semi quantitative or quantitative assessment in order to rank the
expected effects, prioritize the areas for
mitigation and identify potential
mitigation measures.
3) Baseline monitoring
4) EIA phase: prediction of the (main)
effects of the proposed activities as
quantitative as possible.
5) Effect monitoring: surveys of the actual
situation.
6) Effect Evaluation: a comparison between
the results of the effect monitoring and
the predictions of the EIA.

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General environmental impact model


The general environmental impact model is a combination of a CEA (cumulative effect
assessment) and an EEC (ecosystem effect chain). The basic approach of the CEA is the
assumption that effects are a function of the intensity of pressures caused by activities and of
the sensitivity of ecosystem
components to those pressures. The
EEC approach includes interactions
between populations and ecosystem
components, and may therefore also
reveal indirect impacts. Examples of
those ecosystem interrelationships
are predator-prey interactions,
cannibalism, competition,
mutualism etc.
The figure shows the combined
CEA and EEC approach based on
the cumulative effect assessment,
adapted from Karman & Jongbloed,
2008 [3].
Furthermore, most environmental assessments only include pressures in the analysis which
have a negative effect on the ecosystem components, e.g. mortality or a lower reproduction
rate. However, some pressures may also have a positive effect. In this study we will
consider negative as well as positive effects of pressures.
25.1.3 Generic Framework Application
Phase 1: Scoping
The first phase is a qualitative assessment which is used to determine which ecosystem
components are (potentially) affected by the activity induced pressures and/or by interactions
with other ecosystem components. The qualitative assessment results in a scope definition
for the next phases. External influences as the requirements of stakeholders, legislation and
the availability of data are important factors to take into account during this phase.
The 12 steps which are required for the qualitative assessment are; define business need,
define study area, identify stakeholders, identify relevant legislation & guidelines, define
objectives, define activities, define pressures, identify relevant ecosystem components,
define interactions of ecosystem components, define vulnerability ecosystem components to
pressures, qualify environmental impact and define scope and level of detail.
Prioritization phase
The next step is the prioritization phase in which the ecological impact of the various
scenarios is compared to select which scenario is the best option. This phase can be
elaborated using a semi quantitative approach or a quantitative approach.
The semi quantitative assessment is used to compare the relative impact of the various (sub)
activities. It is often used to identify and prioritize potential areas for mitigation. For the semi
quantitative assessment three steps are defined; intensity of pressures, sensitivity of
ecosystem components and determination of the environmental impact.
The quantitative assessment is used when the actual effect on the ecosystem components
needs to be established. It differs from the qualitative and the semi quantitative assessment
by the numerical quantified effect scores, indicating the expected decrease/increase of the

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population size/density of the ecosystem components. A quantitative assessment is


elaborated in 5 steps; specify intensity pressures, specify vulnerability ecosystem
components, specify ecosystem component interactions, specify recovery ecosystem
components, quantify environmental impact.
25.1.4 Recommendations for further development
The following recommendations have been identified to further develop the Generic
Framework:
The phases; baseline monitoring, EIA, effect monitoring and effect evaluation need to be
described, defined and worked out.
A sensitivity and uncertainty analysis needs to be incorporated
Species interactions in a semi quantitative assessment need to be defined
Natural variability of (marine) ecosystems needs to be addressed
Building with nature principles should be part of the mitigation process
25.1.5 References
1)
Therivel, R. and B. Ross, Cumulative effect assessment: Does scale matter? .
Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 2007
2)
van der Walt, A., The consideration of cumulative effects in environmental
assessment: South African experience in an international context, 2005, University
of Manchester.
3)
Karman, C.C. and R.H. Jongbloed, Assessment of the Cumulative Effect of
Activities in the Maritime Area. Overview of relevant legislation and proposal for a
harmonised approach, 2008, IMARES: Den Helder.
4)
Volume 4 Environmental Impact Pilot Project.
As part of the performed gap analysis on the environment the resulting tables have been
attached in Appendix C for reference. There a list of rules & regulations for an EIA are given
in Table C.05

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26.0

TRAINING

26.1
Introduction
Training is used to prepare and improve personnel awareness and performance.
26.1.1 Introduction to training
Training is used to prepare and improve personnel awareness and performance. Training is
an important key to ensure safety and high quality when operating in the arctic. For this goal
to be achieved, cooperation of different parties is essential to capture all different aspects.
Research on training was focused on identifying the gaps on the existing guidelines for
working offshore in the arctic and give useful recommendations for future guidance. The
main topics raised are training methods and techniques as well as health issues when
working in the arctic. In this section all relevant aspects are summarized, gaps in guidelines
are identified and recommendations are given as well as a matrix on training is given in
Volume 2 Gap Analysis Study Matrix.
26.1.2 Guidelines for training
There is an abundance of guidelines and training centres for working offshore who meet the
required standards. The question here is whether this kind of training is adequate for going in
the offshore arctic and which are the most important criteria to identify that. Below there is a
list with the most relevant literature. At the end of this subsection there are gaps and
recommendations identified for future use.
Relevant guides which are elaborated in the next section:
Training issues
a) ABS, Low temperature operations, Guidance for arctic shipping
b) ABS, Guide for vessels operating in low temperature environments May 2010;
Section: 9.2 Training
Section: 9.3.2 Training
c) Barents 2020
Section: 8. Training and competence
d) IMO, guidelines for ships operating in polar waters
e) Arctic council, arctic offshore oil and gas guidelines,
Section: 6.7 Training
Familiarization
f) Canadian rules, PCSP manual, Part 3 Advice on arctic field work, health and safety
Training sessions
g) IMO, guidelines for ships operating in polar waters
h) Arctic council, arctic offshore oil and gas guidelines
Section 6.7 Training
Drills
i) Arctic council, arctic offshore oil and gas guidelines
Section 7.2 Response, subsection Exercises and Drills

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j)

IMO- guidelines for ships operating in polar waters


Section 13.4 Drills and emergency instructions
k) IMO- guidelines for ships operating in polar waters
Appendix 9 Notes on training and related documentation
The DNV standards for approved Navigation training and training standards is mentioned
here for reference.
26.1.3 Impact of Arctic conditions on training
Here the numbering of the different parts corresponds to the numbering of the guidelines in
the previous section.
a) Guidance for arctic shipping
Prior to entering arctic waters, every member of the crew should be given a clear
understanding of the risks of operating in extreme cold and the protective and
preventative measures necessary for safety.
These are just some of the issues that should be addressed by a comprehensive training
and education program. Consider training modules that focus on cold deployment, but
that can also be used during normal deployment, such as serious games for cold
exposure.
b) Training for working on vessels operating in low temperature environments
Training in ice operations, navigation and winterization is to be provided. Training is to
address means to prevent and treat potential cold weather-related maladies of crew,
including hypothermia and frostbite. Certifications are to be recorded, where applicable,
and the records updated.
The training section is to cover at least the following subject matter areas:
Ice recognition
Safe navigation in ice
Procedures during escorted operations
Instructions for drills and emergency response
Cold weather-related maladies
Ice management
Arctic awareness and operations
Survival
Ice pilot, ice advisor and ice observer training
Training for marine engineers
Arctic training for shore support staff
Risk and hazard management
An updated listing of personnel certified (if applicable) in the use of specialized
equipment carried for any type of emergency response is to be maintained. A training log
is to be maintained documenting the conduct of the training and the names of the persons
attending the training.
c) Training and competence (based on the Barents Sea)
All personnel working offshore in the Barents Sea should be trained in the special
aspects of working in an arctic environment. This training should address an individuals
own health and safety as well as that of their co-workers.

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Proposed standard (Barents 2020)


All individuals on an offshore installation in the Barents Sea shall receive appropriate
training on cold weather health, safety and stress management. The following subjects
shall be included, as a minimum:
The basics of body temperature and heat exchange, including wind chill.
Effects of cold on movement, performance and judgment.
Cold climate operations and safety, including company procedures for approving
work outdoors in cold.
Hazards related to sunlight, carbon monoxide poisoning and alcohol in cold
weather
Preventive practices.
Clothing requirements, including how to properly wear and use cold climate
clothing and personal protective equipment.
The importance of proper nutrition.
Recognition of hypothermia, cold-related symptoms and cold-stress effects.
First aid procedures for cold-related injuries, illness, or concern of adverse
effects of the cold.
The potential for other illness to affect tolerance to cold.
Acclimatization. Please note that people can hardly acclimatize to cold: when
exposed to cold several times, the pain and discomfort sensation fades away,
which may lead to higher risks for cold injury.
Health, fatigue and stress management in an arctic environment.
Initial training should take place prior to an individuals arrival at the installation
or operation in the Barents Sea. Refresher training should be conducted at
suitable intervals.
d) Guidelines for ships operating in polar waters
Training in the use of all emergency equipment, as appropriate, should be included as an
element of the operating procedures and drills. Where appropriate, dedicated training
programs in the use of PPE and emergency equipment should be considered onshore.
e) Training according to the Arctic Council
Supervisory personnel should have a thorough knowledge of the operations and the
operating procedures for which they are responsible. Individuals responsible for drilling,
well completion, or work over operations should be properly trained in well control.
Individuals responsible for production operations should be properly trained in
production safety system operations.
A person designated by the operator to be in charge of the offshore operation should
have a thorough knowledge of the operations and the operating procedures they are
responsible for, and training in the following areas as appropriate:
leadership and command ability.
communication skills.
team building.
crisis management.
installation specific emergency training.

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Familiarization
f) Advice on arctic field work, health and safety
Safety considerations are paramount in the arctic. Ultimately, you are responsible for
your safety do some homework in advance to learn the rules of the road.
Training sessions
g) Employment in extreme climates
Can be used as a reference document for employee training
This should take place at induction and then as needed throughout employment in
extreme climates. The following subjects should be covered:
The basics of body temperature and heat exchange.
Hazards related to sunlight, carbon monoxide poisoning and alcohol.
Preventive practices.
Clothing requirements.
The importance of food and water.
Recognition of temperature-related symptoms and signs.
The potential for other illness to impact on tolerance to extremes of heat and
cold.
h) Training according to the Arctic Council
Appropriate training plans, programs, and practices addressing offshore arctic oil and gas
activities should be established and implemented for these personnel in accordance with
their duties and job responsibilities.
All personnel should be provided with training on basic safety and environmental issues
and procedures specific to the offshore environment prior to assuming their duties. This
training should provide personnel with the necessary skills and knowledge needed to
conduct their jobs in a safe manner, provide for health and safety of all persons, and
protect the environment. Training programs should provide instruction on the operation
of equipment, offshore operating practices, offshore emergency survival and fire
fighting, local or regional regulatory requirements. It should include arctic cultural,
social, and environmental concerns including marine mammal interactions as dictated by
an individuals job responsibilities. Where appropriate, indigenous and traditional
knowledge should be used in training programs.
Periodic refresher training should be provided to personnel as appropriate. As required,
procedures should be developed to monitor the effectiveness of training programs.
Drills
i) Response, subsection Exercises and Drills
Drills include desk-top exercises and actual equipment and operational deployment
exercises. Such drills should be conducted by operators as well as by relevant
government authorities in their areas of responsibility, such as coast guards for marine
spills.
j)

Drills and emergency instructions


On-board instruction and operation of the ships evacuation, fire and damage control
appliances and systems should include appropriate cross training of crew members with
appropriate emphasis to changes to standard procedure made necessary by operations in
polar waters.

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k) Notes on training and related documentation


A training manual should be provided on board all vessels. The contents of a manual for
vessels operating in cold regions should be an informational and educational tool for
personnel and a guide for the types of training exercise that should form part of risk
management for cold regions operation. As such, it should cover at least the following
subject matter areas:
Ice recognition
Safe navigation in ice
Conduct of escorted operations
Instructions for drills and emergency response
Drills are covered in some detail by the IMO Arctic Guidelines, which addresses
lifesaving, fire fighting, damage control and other exercises. These should be carried out
under as realistic conditions as possible consistent with maintaining the safety of those
onboard. Crew members should all be given the opportunity to undertake drills while
wearing cold weather survival gear to gain a proper appreciation of how this will affect
their mobility and dexterity. Where specialized equipment is carried for any type of
emergency response, an adequate number of crew members should be trained in advance
(and certified as necessary) in its use.
26.1.4 Recommendations for training
There is a gap in relation to site or operation specific cold weather training. This should
include specific training. Examples include training for mariners and other staff for
operations in arctic waters (ice knowledge, remote sensing, satellite imagery, ice charting,
ice and weather forecasts and other related technologies). Training which include desk
studies as well as simulation and training on ice simulators can be beneficial. Awareness
sessions and lessons learned sessions shall be included.
Other training methods could include, depending on the operations and function, crew
change, logistics and supplies, man overboard, etc.
Toolbox talks must be convened for every operation and all planned processes shall be
clarified and discussed with all personnel involved and specific roles for all personnel
involved shall be discussed. Risk and hazards to be defined and documented as well as the
necessary permitting systems. Communication shall be established.
Keyword
Familiarization

Existing guidelines
Recommendations
Canadian rules, PCSP Identify minimum standards of
manual
training and repetition frequency for;
Cold Water Bosiet or equivalent,
Survival,
Health

Project related training Canadian


sessions
manual

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PCSP Identify minimum standards of


training and repetition frequency for;
Ice and weather monitoring and
forecasting
Ice management

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Risks and hazards


Navigation in ice
And further as required.
Drills

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Arctic Council, arctic


offshore oil and gas
guidelines
IMO- guidelines for ships
operating in polar waters,

183

Gap on necessity of drills.


We advise they are very important
and should be provided to every
employee. Insist on the importance of
good communication skills.

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SECTION 27
DREDGING OPERATIONS

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27.0

DREDGING OPERATIONS

27.1
Introduction
The scope of this section includes the following
activities:
1. General dredging operations (incl.
reclamation works)
2. Pipeline trenching
In the following sections the respective activities
are discussed in the following standardized
format:

Description of activities
Specific impact from execution in arctic
environment
Recommendations

Figure 27.1 - Dredging Operation


(Source: Boskalis)

During the gap analysis no specific existing codes or guidelines for dredging operations have
been identified. This also means that no codes or guidelines have been identified specifically
for arctic environments. However, some scattered guidance for dredging operations in arctic
environments can be found in the following documents:
ISO 19906
DNV-OS-F101
API Recommended Practise 2N
BS 6349-5
Note:
The following document was published after completion of the gap analysis. It is a
comprehensive manual into dredging and reclamation operations. General and specific
guidance for designers and contractors is reported there and used in the remainder of this
section. However no reference is made in the manual to arctic environments.
CURNET publication 244 Hydraulic Fill Manual
For further details reference is made to Volume 2 Gap Analysis Study Matrix.
27.2
General dredging operation
Various dredging operations in the arctic have been carried out over the past 30 years but
were not documented. Lastly it should be mentioned that in may different areas dredgers
have worked successfully and many of these operations were in heavy ice and also in short
seasons. Icing was experienced as well as old ice. Dredge sites have been found totally
covered by ice and long distances to borrow have been experienced in ice as well, creating
sailing hazards.

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27.2.1 Description of dredging operation


In this section an overview of the three main pieces of available dredging equipment is
presented [ref. 5]:
Cutter Suction Dredger (CSD)
The principle of the CSD is based on a combination of mechanical and suction dredging. The
material to be dredged is cut with the dredgers cutter head and loosened with the erosive
action of the water which flows towards the suction mouth by the vessels pumping action.
In addition, jets attached to the cutter head, or the lower end of the cutter ladder, may be used
to loosen the material. The sand-water mixture is pumped either through a discharge pipeline
into a reclamation or disposal area or through a spreader system into a barge alongside the
dredger.
CSDs are widely used in dredging and reclamation projects and can, depending on their
installed power, dredge material ranging from silt and soft clay to moderately strong rock.
While dredging, the CSD swings sideways around a point fixed by the so-called working
spud at the vessels aft. The sideways movement is controlled with a wire anchor system
attached to the lower end of the cutter ladder. Although the larger CSDs are often selfpropelled, most CSDs are not.
Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger (TSHD)
The TSHD also uses a combination of mechanical dredging (cutting) and suction power to
loosen the material to be dredged. Unlike most other dredgers, this dredger is self-propelled.
While operating, one or two suction pipes are lowered to the seabed for dredging the soil.
The loosening of the material is a combination of cutting with the draghead attached to the
lower end of the suction pipe, jetting, and the erosive action of water flowing towards the
suction mouth. The material is pumped into the vessels hopper and the process water is
discharged overboard into the surrounding water via a controllable overflow system. Once
the hopper is filled with dredged material, the vessel sails to a designated disposal area or
reclamation site and discharges its load.
Discharging may be achieved by opening doors or valves in the bottom of the vessels
hopper, or by so-called rainbowing or pumping through a discharge pipeline. The selected
discharge method depends on many factors like existing environmental constraints, distance
to the reclamation site and water depth.
The TSHD may be used for dredging sand, silt or clayey material. The larger dredgers are
even capable of dredging (weak) rock. Dredging production will vary according to the
strength of the material to be dredged.
Backhoe dredger
The backhoe dredger is basically a hydraulic excavator installed on a pontoon. The pontoon
uses spuds to secure its position when dredging. In the dredging position the spuds elevate
the pontoon and in this way considerable excavation forces may be delivered to the seabed.
Depending on the size and capacity of the backhoe pontoon, this type of dredger may dredge
compacted sand, stiff clay and weak rock. Depending on the sophistication of the dredger,
the backhoe can be more or less integrated with the pontoon.

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For all of the three above equipment types, the transport of dredged material, either from
project excavation site to disposal area or from borrow area to project reclamation site, can
be carried out by hydraulic transport through pipelines, by hopper dredgers or by barges.
With hydraulic transport the marine pipeline may be a floating line or a sinker line, which
ever fits best in the working conditions like e.g. hindrance to/from other shipping, pumping
distances and effects of swell, waves and current. On land this pipeline is continued with
flanged sections and/or pipeline branches.
27.2.2 Impact of Arctic conditions on dredging
For the dredging operations in the arctic in general the modes of operation and construction
methods are similar to non-cold climate mode of operations and construction methods, and
hence are irrespective of climatological conditions.
The selection of the dredging plant for operations in arctic environment is not different than
in other part of the world, but the unique arctic conditions with respect to soil conditions
(permafrost and boulders), the workability and ice management system and the response to
polar lows and coldness will result in arctic favourable pieces of equipment or even may
results in special arctic dredging tools.
Soil conditions
Firstly arctic soil conditions affect the dredging design and work method. The behaviour of
permafrost and seasonally frozen grounds, especially the active layer11 and the talik12 within
the frozen ground system, is variable and may change during (long-term) dredging
operations. Also the dredging operation itself may affect the behaviour of the frozen and
possible thawing ground system. The stability and bearing strength of the ground will
change. The design and dredging work method should take this change into account.
Secondly the production rates of the dredger will be negatively affected by (subsea)
permafrost and seasonally frozen ground.
It is noted in the API Recommended Practice [ref. 3], section 10.4.2, that the placing of
frozen fill may create ice build-up and can cause large settlement and that the in-place
properties should take into account ice content. No further guidance, no reference or any
quantification is provided.
Workability and ice management
In the arctic the workability of the dredge spread is strongly affected by floating sea ice,
icebergs or pack ice and by the severe weather conditions such as polar lows. Not only the
conditions at the work site matter, but also the possibly lengthy routes for mobilisation,
demobilisation and storm avoidance have to be considered in relation to season changes (ice)
and response time (polar low).
The cold temperatures also effects the overflow losses in a TSHD.
Ice conditions influence both sailing speed, dredging efficiency and where applicable
manoeuvring in ice. Hazardous conditions may arise in cases of ice drift and hazardous ice
conditions.
11

Active layer is the seasonally thawing/freezing layer of permafrost


Talik (from Russian:
;derived from the verb tait, to melt) is a layer of year-round unfrozen ground that
lies in permafrost areas.
12

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Cold climate
It is identified that cold climate meteorological conditions (i.e. temperature, snow, icing etc)
affect the operability of the dredger, first of all through the impact, that meteorological
conditions have on people operating the dredger. Secondly, icing and low air temperature
affect the functioning of onboard systems (such as winches, wires, hydraulic systems,
hydraulic pipelines, valves and pipe couplings enabling dredging).
Under arctic conditions hydraulic transport of dredged material through pipelines needs to be
considered. Experience is that they freeze after stoppage of work and that it is difficult to
make couplings. Moreover valves/control structures within the pipelines start to freeze
during operations.
Without the correct winterization measures marine icing effects the safety on all areas were
personnel must find access and on operating systems and bridge visibility. Marine icing,
atmospheric and sea spray, can fill sheaves up with ice.
27.2.3 Recommendations for dredging
Guidelines and more information on how to deal with permafrost and seasonally frozen
ground conditions is required. A guideline and additional information should focus on the
uncertainty on the behaviour of the frozen and thawing ground, the changing conditions at
the shoreline (extent from land into sea), the effects on dredger performance and what
mitigation or precaution measures are to be taken.
Next to determining workability figures for the range of dredger types with respect to ice
conditions, also guidelines are recommended on the implementation of ice management
systems and measures such as forecasting, definition of safety zones, ice sheltering,
abandonment decision procedures etc. This has been discussed in section 21 Vessel
operation and section 7 Metocean, ice and earthquake requirements.
It is strongly recommended to generate guidance into the variability of the weather
conditions in arctic regions such as polar lows.
Guidelines on how to keep dredging systems operable under cold conditions are
recommended. In former sections equipment preparation, winterisation measures, different
operational strategies, de-icing strategies and prevention of icing are discussed.
Here are some practical examples; Submerged fairleads can minimize the impact of floating
ice on mooring lines. The impact of floating ice on overboard drag arms and cutter ladders
can be minimized by creating a lee side. Also special arrangements for the drag arms as well
as cutter ladders could be considered. Freezing of the water in the hopper tanks needs to be
prevented. Using overdesigned dredging gear mitigates the problems with sea ice and marine
icing.
Guidance on mitigating typical cold climate effects on operating people is recommended,
and these are discussed in section 23 Health and section 24 Safety management.

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Guidelines on how to deal with frozen fill are needed. Questions that have to be addressed
are: How frozen fill effects the design (load and stability) and what is acceptable and what
mitigating or precaution measures are to be taken.
New guidance is recommended on operability of hydraulic pipelines in arctic conditions.
27.3
Pipeline Trenching
27.3.1 Description of trenching
The offshore pipelines are trenched for such conditions and requirements as:
- Physical protection from ice scouring, anchor dropping or trawl dragging
- On-bottom stability
- Thermal insulation
- Approval authorities
The open trench could be covered by natural sedimentation depending on soil conditions and
current near sea bottom. However, backfilling after the trenching or burial could be required
for additional protection or thermal insulation purposes.
Trenching equipment should be selected based on sea floor soil conditions; following are
available trenching equipment in the industry:
- Ploughing
- Jetting
- Mechanical digging & cutting
- Dredging
A paper concerning Arctic and Harsh Environment Pipeline Trenching Technologies and
Challenges has been presented at the ATC in 2011, ref. 6, which highlights the challenges
facing trenching pipelines in arctic regions and the limitations of current trenching and
dredging equipment. Another paper is Vessel requirements for Arctic Pipeline trenching
and installation, W.H. Jolles 1990, ref. 7.
27.3.2 Impact of Arctic conditions on trenching
Soil conditions in the arctic are different in two ways: presence of seabed permafrost
conditions and presence of boulders. Both will have effect on the productivity and quality of
the trenching works. In principle the production rates of the trenching works and the bottom
roughness of the trench are negatively affected by the (subsea) permafrost and gouging
respectively.
Due to the risk of iceberg gouging in shallow waters, deep trenches are expected in arctic
areas. These trench depths are more difficult to achieve, sometimes even unachievable with
the current trenching tools.

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27.3.3 Recommendations for trenching


Guidelines on how to deal with permafrost and boulders in the pipeline trench routing is
recommended. Questions that need to be addressed are: How they affect trenching
production and quality, and what mitigating or precaution measures are to be taken.
A project specific study on the iceberg scouring risk in the field area is recommended to be
able to design optimum trench geometry and to develop adequate trenching equipment and
procedures to deal with various soil conditions, soil depths and ecology effects.
It is also recommended to investigate whether geological maps exist or need to be prepared
that include areas where boulders may be of abundance in the arctic areas (keynote: Glacial
or moraine deposits)
27.4
References
1) ISO 19906
2) DNV-OS-F101
3) API Recommended Practice 2N
4) BS 6349-5
5) CURNET publication 244 Hydraulic Fill Manual13
6) Jukes P., Kenny s., et al. ATC 2011. Arctic and Harsh Environment Pipeline Trenching
Technologies and Challenges.
7) Vessel requirements for Arctic Pipeline trenching and installation, W.H. Jolles 1990

13

Published after Gap Analysis

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28.0

PIPE LAY AND SUBSEA INSTALLATION OPERATIONS

28.1
Introduction
The scope of this section includes the following
activities:
General Pipe lay Operation
Subsea Structure Installation
Launch & Recovery of Equipment
Abandonment and Recovery
Anchoring
Landfalls
The impact of arctic and cold weather conditions on
Figure 28.1 pipe laying in the
pipe lay operations (for projects) are more of a
Gulf of Finland (Source: Allseas)
general nature than specific to the pipe lay
operation itself.
The general impact of arctic conditions on all kinds of operations including pipe lay are
described in the previous sections but specifically in sections 6 Organization, 7 Metocean
and Ice requirements, 12 Transportation, 20 Logistics, 21 Vessel Operation, 22 General
Equipment Preparation and in sections 23-26 HSE related. The noted gaps and
recommendations in these sections are as important as and go hand in hand with the gaps and
recommendations related to pipe lay operations stated further in this section.
Figure 28.1 - Pipelaying in the Gulf of Finland

28.2
Guidelines
During the gap analysis no general rules, regulations or standards for arctic pipe lay
operations are available. This means that no codes or guidelines have been identified
specifically for arctic environments. However, some scattered guidance for pipe lay
operations in arctic environments can be found in the following documents:

ISO 19901-6
Petroleum and natural gas industries Specific requirements for
offshore structures - Part 6: Marine operations
ISO 19906
Petroleum and natural gas industries Arctic offshore structures
DNV-OS-F101
Submarine Pipeline Systems
API RP 2N
Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing
Structures and Pipelines for Arctic Conditions
Operator requirements and project specific operational manuals prescribe the environmental
criteria in which the operation has to be possible. Guidelines for pipe laying are established
on a project basis in the form of an Operational Manual, taking into consideration all the
project specific data and circumstances. Taking into consideration the arctic conditions the
ccontractor will use general engineering practice to proof suitability and safety of the
intended operation.

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28.3
General Pipe lay Operation
28.3.1 Description of pipe lay operation
In early days, the pipeline was fabricated onshore and towed to the project field by tug boats.
Nowadays the most widely used pipe lay method is using a pipeline installation vessel
which can weld pipe joints on the deck and lower the pipes by releasing them from the
tensioners while moving the vessel. Pending on the pipelines profile from the vessel to the
sea floor it is called S-lay or J-lay. Another installation method is to fabricate the pipeline at
onshore spool base and reel the pipe onto a reel ship. Then the reel ship carries the reeled
pipe to the project field and lays the pipe onto the seabed by un-spooling the reel.
The four pipeline installation method are listed and illustrated below:
- Towing bottom tow, near bottom tow, mid-depth tow and surface tow
- S-lay
- J-lay
- Reel-lay

In shallow waters, an anchor moored barge might need to be used but a dynamic position
(DP) vessel is widely used for deepwater installation. The last generation of vessels are
basically DP, but for some arctic project in shallow water, this solution could not be feasible.
Pending on project details, combination of the two solutions (DP and moored) could
represent a useful alternative.
The initiation of laying the pipe can start with a start-up (suction)pile and flowline
termination assembly (FTA) or by deadman anchor. The lay-down of the pipe is described in
section 28.6 Abandonment, with or without FTA.

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Most if not all frontier Oil & Gas exploration and production prospects in cold climates have
seasonal ice-free periods, in which the field development construction works have to take
place, including pipe lay.
A paper concerning Reeling Arctic Export Lines has been presented at the ATC in 2012,
ref. 5, highlighting the challenges of pipe lay operations in the arctic.
28.3.2 Impact of Arctic conditions on pipe lay operation
The influence of cold climate will not directly affect the method of constructing and
installing the pipeline on the seabed. The handling of pipe joints, connecting the joints to one
continuous pipeline (bevelling, welding, coating of field joints, etc.) and the lowering to the
seabed will be similar, irrespective of the climate.
The following table lists the cold climate and related environmental conditions unique for the
arctic and their effect on pipe lay operations.
Condition

Affects

Observation

Meteorology
Air temperature

Plant / HSE

Relevant for systems on board the pipelay


vessel, e.g. enclosed working areas, material
selection and utilities, such as fuel, ballast and
fire-fighting water, hydraulic oil, HVAC.
Also, air temperature is relevant for selection of
coating (becoming brittle at low T) and for line
pipe specification & welding material (reeling /
bending / critical T should be below -40C).

Wind chill

Plant / HSE

Relevant w.r.t. protection of people, e.g.


minimise the exposure of people to wind by
enclosed working areas.

Precipitation

Plant / HSE

Relevant w.r.t. protection of people, liquid/


drainage system and additional weight, due to
snow and ice built-up.

Seaspray icing

Plant / HSE

Relevant w.r.t. protection of people, liquid/


drainage system and additional weight, due to
ice built-up. Operation of equipment and
systems (e.g. stinger) will be affected.

Atmospheric icing

Plant / HSE

Relevant w.r.t. protection of people, liquid/


drainage system and additional weight, due to
ice built-up. Operation of equipment and
systems will be affected.

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Condition

Affects

Polar lows

Plant / HSE Specific weather conditions can prevent the


/Duration
execution of certain activities. Specially in the
arctic reliable weather forecasts need to cover
the duration that is required to abandon the
pipeline, this is a challenge in arctic areas.

Sea ice and ice bergs


Sea ice (thickness)

Observation

Duration/
Design

Extend the pipe lay season and reduce risks by


ice management.
To elongate the working season and minimise
the risk, a (moderate ) ice class notation for the
vessel can be considered.

Forms of ice
Broken ice conditions

Drifting ice may hamper position keeping and


endanger pipe integrity during pipe lay.

Ice type
Ice condition (drifting)

Pipeline and stinger, subsea structures and


equipment lowered through the waterline to be
protected from ice.

Ice surface features

Also the heading of the vessel may offer some


ice pressure relief. Also using other ice load
reduction means like bubblers or jets could be
considered. Also one could consider different
hull designs for enhanced arctic efficiencies.
Seabed
Soil conditions

Design
duration

Permafrost

Design
duration

Boulders

Design
duration

Freeze-thaw settlement to be included in design


and may affect productivity.
Many scour marks are present in arctic areas.
These
seabed
anomalies
affect
the
design/routing and installation.
Permafrost
and
boulders
affect
the
design/routing and may affect productivity of the
pipe lay operation

28.3.3 Recommendations for pipe lay operation


It is recommended, within the framework of this Arctic Operations Handbook, not to focus
on drafting arctic guidelines, specifically for pipe lay operations, but to deal with this
operation on a project-by-project basis, as for pipe lay in a milder climate.
Obviously, arctic conditions will affect the pipe lay operation, as explained in Section 28.3.2.

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Further recommendations are;


Equipment selection and preparation
The cold weather will determine the workability of the pipelay vessel, which may be
improved by technical adjustments and proper precautions. Existing pipelay vessels are not
specifically designed for the cold climate conditions. This affects the pipe lay operation in
terms of safety, planning, lay speed and overall workability.
Vessel performance can, however, significantly be improved by considering the cold climate
aspects already in the design of the vessel and/or proper preparation, winterization of the
vessel. For example submerged fairleads can minimize the impact of floating ice on mooring
lines.
For further details reference is made to section 22 General equipment preparation
Workability and ice management
In the arctic the workability of the pipelay vessel is strongly affected by floating sea ice,
icebergs or pack ice and by the severe weather conditions such as polar lows.
The duration of the ice-free periods can be relatively short and unpredictable. In combination
with the wish to extend the installation season as long as practically possible, the risk exists
that the pipelay vessel will encounter some form of ice. Therefore the development and
implementation of ice and/or ice bergs management measures (incl. monitoring, forecasting,
definition of safety zones, abandonment, etc.) is recommended.
This has been discussed in detail in section 21 Vessel Operation.
Polar lows
It is also recommended to create guidelines on the variability of the weather conditions in
arctic regions such as polar lows. Due to the unpredictability and the severity of these
phenomena, they can create a threat to the pipe lay -and subsea installation operations.
Develop and implement guidelines on arctic specific weather conditions e.g. polar lows.
This has been discussed in detail in 7 Metocean, Ice and Earthquake Requirements.
Concrete coated pipelines freeze-thaw and frost damage
The integrity of the concrete coated pipelines may be at risk when laying the pipeline in the
cold climate of the arctic. It is recommended to investigate whether freeze-thaw and/or frost
damage can be an issue for concrete coating on pipelines during installation. And if so,
guidelines on how to deal with this phenomenon (how to store, handle line pipe, and what
mitigating or precaution measures are to be taken) is recommended.
28.4
Subsea Structure Installation
28.4.1 Description of subsea structure installation
Conventional (deep water) field lay-out requires the installation of several distinct subsea
structures in order to gather oil or gas and provide easy subsea tie-in connections.

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XT

Conventional
Field Lay-Out

XT
XT

Manifold
XT
FTA

XT

XT

Jumper

Spool
FTA

Flowline Termination
Assembly

Christmas Tree

Flowline

Depending on their weights and dimensions, these structures are lifted and lowered to the
seabed by the way Heavy Lift Vessel (HLV), Medium or Light Construction Vessel (MCV
& LCV).
The following common subsea structures are used:
- Manifolds
- Jumpers
- Christmas Trees
- Spools
- Flowline Termination Assemblies
- Foundations where required
28.4.2 Impact of Arctic conditions on subsea structure installation
The influence of cold climate will not directly affect the method of constructing and
installing the structures on the seabed. The lifting, lowering and stabbing operations will be
similar, irrespective of the climate. The table in section 28.3.2 lists the cold climate and
related environmental conditions unique for the arctic and their effect on installation
operations.
28.4.3 Recommendation for subsea structure installation
General recommendations for the installation of subsea structures are the same as for pipe
lay and can be found in section 28.3.3.
Additional guidance on the impact of sea spray and atmospheric icing on the operability of
wires connected to structures and umbilicals of assisting equipment is recommended.
Sea ice loads due on over boarding structures passing through the splash zone during
lowering and retrieval should be accounted for. Currently there is no guidance on how to

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calculate these loads. Therefore studies on the impact of low temperatures and high wind
speed on the ice accretion on structures passing through the splash zone are recommended.
Before lifting & lowering, the structure may have been transported and be loaded with spray
ice. Spray ice may reduce the transparency of the structure, thus increasing loads / changing
dynamic behaviour during lowering.
28.5
Launch & Recovery of Equipment
28.5.1 Description of equipment launch & recovery
During offshore subsea installation a lot of equipment and tooling needs to be launched from
the vessel and then recovered in order be able to install pipelines and subsea structures.
The following common installation equipment are used in the industry:
- ROVs
- Stingers
- Anchor & mooring lines
- Buoys
- Hydraulic hammers
- Pre-commissioning spread
28.5.2 Impact of arctic conditions on launch & recovery of equipment
The influence of arctic conditions will not directly affect the method of launch & recovery of
equipment. These operations will be similar, irrespective of the climate, unless ice and/or
icing are present. ROVs will need to be launched through a moon pool rather than via an A
frame as otherwise the umbilicals can get trapped and cut by drifting ice, as an example. The
table in section 28.3.2 lists the cold climate and related environmental conditions unique for
the arctic and their effect on launch & recovery of equipment during installation operations.
28.5.3 Recommendation for launch & recovery of equipment
General recommendations for launch & recovery of equipment are the same as for pipe lay
and can be found in section 28.3.3.
It is recommended that the working environment during launch & recovery of equipment is
covered or protected from the cold climate. The use of or implementation of moon pools for
lowering the equipment through the waterline is advocated.
Other recommendation are similar to the ones noted in section 28.4.3 for the subsea structure
installation.
28.6
Abandonment & Recovery
28.6.1 Description of abandonment & recovery operation
When required due to flooding or adverse weather conditions, the pipe may be laid down on
the seabed temporarily. For this purpose, an abandonment and recovery (A&R) head will be
welded onto the pipe. The A&R wire will be connected and the pipe lowered to the seabed
while moving the vessel. For recovery, this procedure will be reversed.

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28.6.2 Impact of arctic conditions on abandonment & recovery


The impact of arctic conditions is mentioned in section 28.3.2. Arctic abandonment and
recovery operations may be required more frequently due to the presence of floating ice and
icebergs and the severe weather conditions such as polar lows.
28.6.3 Recommendation for abandonment & recovery
General recommendations for abandonment & recovery of the pipeline are similar to the
ones described in sections 28.3.3, 28.4.3 and 28.5.3.
28.7
Anchoring
28.7.1 Description of anchoring
A moored pipelay vessel maintains its position in the lay corridor during pipe lay by
connection to different mooring lines and anchor systems which have to be moved to allow
the vessel to reach the next section of the pipeline corridor. In order to perform this
movement the pipelay vessel needs the support of AHTs (anchor handling tugs) that
relocate the pipelay vessel anchors in order to allow her to move.

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AHT 2
Anchor

Pipeline

Pipelay Vessel
Mooring line
AHT 1

Moreover, in case of deepwater flowlines, an anchor system is also required to start-up the
pipeline string and create the required installation catenary. Some anchoring could also be
required to stabilize the pipeline on the seabed.
Anchoring equipment should be selected based on sea floor soil conditions; following are
available anchoring equipment in the industry:
- Drag anchors
- Clump weight
- Suction pile
- Driven pile
28.7.2 Impact of Arctic conditions on anchoring
The general impact of arctic conditions is mentioned in section 28.3.2. Anchoring for the
pipe lay operations in the arctic requires attention due to the need to deal with freeze-thaw
settlement and the changes and variability in soil behavior of frozen ground. Especially at the
nearshore anchoring operations.
The effects of floating ice on mooring lines and the mooring line loads must be investigated
and safe relief or disconnect systems may be required. Synthetic ropes should not be used in
ice or near the waterline as ice crystals will form in the rope and rapidly abrade it. Wires or
chains should be used through the splash zone.
The workable season for different spreads may need to be determined to assess the system
with the lowest risk and highest efficiency for the intended operation.
28.7.3 Recommendation for anchoring
It is recommended to develop and implement guidelines on anchoring in permafrost for near
shore pipe lay activities taking into account the freeze-thaw settlement and the changes and
variability in soil behavior of frozen ground.
In section 13, Temporary Mooring & Station keeping Marine Operations, details and
discussion on this matter can be found that are also relevant for moored pipe lay vessels.

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28.8
Landfalls
28.8.1 Description of landfalls
Pipelines transport oil or gas from offshore fields/ platforms to onshore storage or refinery
facilities. Also, pipelines could be used to transport onshore oil or gas to offshore for
offloading to a shuttle tanker. Either case, the pipeline needs to cross the coastal lines.
If environmental restriction permits, the most cost effective beach crossing method is an
open cut using dredge or trencher. Otherwise horizontal directional drilling (HDD) could be
considered. Alternatively contractors may consider working off the ice in limited water
depths.
The following figures shows HDD principle:

28.8.2 Impact of Arctic conditions on landfalls


In addition to what has been mentioned before, the pipe pull operation and the construction
works at the shore approach need to deal with freeze-thaw settlement and the changes and
variability in soil behavior of frozen ground.
In case of an open cut landfall, the vegetation has to be removed, endangering long term
stability of the coastal line as it may take tens of years for the vegetation to restore.
28.8.3 Recommendation for landfalls
In section 27 Dredging operations details, discussions and recommendations on how to deal
with freeze-thaw settlement and the changes and variability in soil behavior of frozen
ground are given.
28.9
References
1) ISO 19901-6
2) ISO 19906
3) DNV-OS-F101
4) API Recommended Practise 2N
5) Zandwijk van C., Benard C., Faidutti D. ATC 2012. Reeling Arctic Export Lines.

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SECTION 29
FLOATING OIL & GAS PRODUCTION

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29.0

FLOATING OIL & GAS PRODUCTION

29.1
Introduction
The scope of this section includes the following activities:
Station keeping (Mooring and/or Dynamic Positioning).
Floating oil and gas production
Produced oil and gas export operations, offloading
Disconnection and re-connection operations form part of the scope when the design of
the floating production facility is based on limited station keeping capability in ice.
Pipeline operations
The production facility installation, platform hook-up and commissioning is outside the
scope of this workgroup.
In the following sections the respective operations are discussed in the following
standardized format:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Description of the operation


Existing rules, regulations, guidelines or standards covering the operation
Specific impact from executing the operation in arctic environment
Discussion of the gap between the existing rules, regulations, guidelines and standards
and the anticipated operation in arctic environment.
Finally recommendations or gaps will be addressed
Also use can be made of the other sections of this report addressing operational gaps
and recommendations

29.2
Re-connection of the floating platform facility to the field infrastructure
29.2.1 Description of the reconnection operation
It may be expected that the majority of the floating oil and gas production facilities will be
designed for a certain, project specific, level of arctic environmental conditions which may
occasionally be exceeded. Such approach would imply that the floating platform is
disconnected from the field infrastructure (moorings, risers, etc.) once the design conditions
are reached or predicted to be exceeded, and that the platform will be returning in the field at
the point in time when the re-connection criteria are met.
The aim of the platform re-connection activities is to hook-up the floating platform to the
subsea infrastructure. This hook-up activity includes the retrieval of and connection to the
mooring system and to risers and umbilicals and to re-establish the flow of well fluids to the
process facilities on the platform.
To illustrate what possible concepts comprise of:
The floating platform can be a self-propelled ship-shaped unit, which is normally
moored via a disconnectable turret mooring system, but which can be disconnected
using a submerged buoy-at the underside of the turret. This buoy will support the
disconnected mooring lines and risers when the platform is disconnected.

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In shallower water depths the floating ship-shaped platform can be moored to a


structural column, articulated at its base on the seabed, and extending above the water
surface (a so-called SALM). The upper part of the structural column also provides the
hang-off point for the flowlines to the production units. When the vessel disconnects
from the SALM, the column can be lowered to the seabed, to stay clear from any ice
loading.
Other than a ship-shaped vessel the floating production platform can be a spar-type
platform. Designs exist, for which the vertical cylindrical spar-platform is composed of
a lower part and a larger upper part, which can be detached from the lower part. The
upper part of the production platform with all its important facilities can be moved out
of the field, while the lower part, to which mooring lines and riser are connected,
remains on station (subsurface).
Furthermore, converted tankers can be applied in open water conditions during the
summer period, mainly for the function of providing storage and offloading facilities
The above described disconnectable turrets in deeper waters or SALM type moorings in
shallow water can be used for mooring these converted tankers.

In all these concepts re-connection means that the floating production platform is
mechanically connected to an infrastructure which remains in the field and which provides
(semi-) permanent mooring capacity. At the same time this infrastructure supports the flow
lines, which bring the well fluids to the platform for treatment and export.
29.2.2 Guidelines controlling the reconnection operation
For the design of the floating production platform in its operational status (i.e. connected) the
platform and its mooring and riser system has to comply with rules, regulations, guidelines
and standards as applicable for the concerning facility.
There are no general rules, regulations, guidelines or standards available that describe the
specific operation of reconnection of a floating production platform.
Operator requirements and project specific operational manuals prescribe the environmental
criteria in which the operation has to be possible.
Contractor uses general engineering practice to proof suitability and safety of the intended
operation.
29.2.3 Impact of arctic conditions on the reconnection operation
As explained in section 29.2.1. a variety of floating production and/or storage and offloading
facilities may exist.
For those facilities which are disconnectable and re-connectable, a list of more detailed suboperations is provided to better understand the potential impact of arctic conditions on the
reconnection.

Platform maneuvering and station keeping


When reconnection takes place in (partly) ice covered waters, ice loading will affect the
station keeping, and maneuvering of the floating platform.
Ice management may be needed to facilitate this part of the operation
Communication and visibility (darkness, fog) will be relevant (Visual ice detection is
typically based on helicopter operations and/or high outlook stations on the platform).
Preferably the re-connection operation is done in daylight.

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Operation of field support vessels, assisting in the reconnection operation of the floating
production platform (if any)
Aspects like ice loading, icing, visibility (darkness, fog, etc.) and communication will
affect the operability.
Cold temperatures and wind chill will affect the feasibility and schedule of the
operation, since maximum outdoor working time, outdoor walking distances, etc.,
become limited (even with special clothing and eye protection).
If reconnection support operations involve boarding buoy type structures (like a
SALM), or other operations that have their working area close to the sea level, this
activity may be treated as a diving operation and shall be executed by divers wearing
full dry suits.
ROV launching
Depending on the design of the reconnection procedure, ROV operation may be needed.
ROV launching and recovery will be effected by ice covered waters and they should be
launched through a moon pool where possible.
Mooring retrieval
In the concept of a disconnectable mooring, the solution will generally include a
disconnectable, sub-surface, mooring riser buoy, of which the reconnection cables have
to be recovered from the FPSO platform with or without the help of field support
vessels or ROVs (see above).
In the concept of a shallow water SALM mooring, the reconnection will be completely
outdoor and will be effected by ice and cold temperatures. Boarding the SALM may
require de-icing, typically using hand held tools, as no power is available on the SALM.
After re-establishment of the mooring, the risers and umbilicals have to be hooked up
to the production systems for a start-up of production
Low temperature may cause flow assurance problems after reconnection, in the
flowlines towards the platform. If any water has been used for flushing it should be
drained before abandoning the system otherwise it will freeze and block systems or it
should be blended with glycol if it is to remain in the system.

29.2.4 Recommendations for reconnection operation


In Section 29.2.2 is explained that no general rules, regulations, guidelines or standards are
available that describe the specific operation of reconnection of a floating production
platform.
Neither ISO 19901-6, nor ISO 19906 cover this quite special, field dependent procedure.
It is recommended, within the framework of this Arctic Operations Handbook JIP, not to
focus on drafting arctic guidelines, specifically for reconnection operations, and to deal with
this operation on a project-by-project basis, as for reconnections in a milder climate.
Obviously, arctic conditions will affect the operation of reconnection, as explained in
Section 29.2.3.
Documents such as
ISO 19906
Barents 2020, phase 4
Arctic FPSO - Technical Feasibilities and Challenges, OMAE2012-83028, Guang Li,
SBM Atlantia, Houston, TX, USA

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provide information with respect to the general requirements also influencing the
reconnection operation, when it has to be performed in arctic conditions.
29.3
Station-keeping of the platform facility in the field
29.3.1 Description of the station-keeping operation
In general terms station-keeping of the floating production platform can be achieved by a
passive mooring system, a hybrid system in which passive mooring is supported by a certain
level of dynamic positioning (heading control and/or active positioning) or full dynamic
positioning.
It is clear that arctic conditions, and more specifically the presence of sea ice, have an impact
on the design of the station-keeping system. The magnitude and unpredictability of ice loads
on floating platform hulls generally require passive mooring systems to be disconnectable
(see section 29.2). Design of such mooring systems is not part of the scope of this JIP.
However, the industry tends to accept that, apart from planned disconnections, and
emergency disconnections, there shall also be a procedure for disconnection because
maximum mooring capacity under ice loading has been reached. That makes passive
mooring more of an operational matter than just a design matter.
Where dynamic positioning (either partial or full) is involved, operational criteria have to be
met. Realistically speaking, full dynamic positioning for a production platform is not to be
expected in the foreseeable future for ice-covered waters.
29.3.2 Guidelines controlling the station-keeping operation
For permanent moorings in-service inspection, monitoring and maintenance is covered by
ISO 19901-7 and ISO 19904.
Some information related to the specifics of arctic environment is included in ISO 19906.
Dynamic Positioning is covered by Guidelines from the International Marine Contractors
Association(IMCA). IMCA also issues guidelines for DP assisted turret moored FPSOs.
Other documents that provide guidance for the operation of station-keeping systems:
Failure Modes, Reliability and Integrity of Floating Storage Unit (FPSO,FSU) Turret
and Swivel Systems-01:073, HSE
Barents 2020, phase 4
29.3.3 Impact of Arctic conditions on the station-keeping operation
The presence of ice loading and the fact that the ability to predict ice-loading is much more
limited than other known environmental loads (waves, wind, current) brings along additional
operational queries:
Can we reliably monitor the loads in the system? Experience has shown that mooring
line loads can be measured on arctic units (Beaufort Sea). But how can measured
mooring line loads be changed in reliable static and or dynamic responses and thus
global loads, which must be compared to the allowable excursions and line loads. Can
this be achieved reliably on board?
Which kind of hazard/risk analysis models are available to support decisions on potential
disconnect, and what input do they require?
In section 13 more details of the station-keeping operation are discussed. There an
operational ice level is defined as the ice action at which position of a stationary floating

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structure, temporary moored, may no longer be retained, due to structural or station keeping
capability.
Ice management may be required to enable station keeping. Ref. section 21.
The potential necessity to disconnect at the moment a holding capacity limit is reached, may
also bring along additional safety requirements to the availability of on-board systems (for
instance lay-out and redundancy of power generation)
For Dynamic Positioning operations forecasting models of ice loading/ ice drifting are
essential to ensure safe operation. Models shall include the platforms response to incoming
variable arctic conditions.

29.3.4 Recommendations for the station-keeping operation


Due to the lack of existing guidance guidelines need to be developed to cover the operational
aspects mentioned in section 29.3.3., and which are specific for operation in arctic
conditions.
The following can be mentioned:
Mooring integrity monitoring and assessment
Ice load forecasting to support strategies for shut-down/disconnection
Requirements on ice management systems
Ice drift and risk analysis
T-times to secure operations; design operational loads and allowable load limit
Decision making tool and information system
Safety/reliability/redundancy requirements to systems needed in a potential
disconnection scenario
Training and testing requirements
More recommendations are noted under section 13.
29.4
Floating oil and gas production
29.4.1 Description of the production operation
The oil and gas production operation can be described in more detail by the following subactivities:
Start-up the production facility, also in arctic (cold/winter) conditions
Safely operate and control the oil and gas production facilities
Maintain safety level for personnel and equipment to the highest possible standards.
Limit any possible emission of hydrocarbons, exhaust gasses, contaminated fluids, etc.
Keep the facility in sufficient good condition by (planned an un-planned) maintenance
activities, also in arctic conditions
In more general terms this operation covers the intended full functional and safe use of the
floating production facility.
29.4.2 Guidelines controlling the production operation
The following existing (arctic) guidelines, industry standards or papers are identified that can
support the oil and gas production activities.
Review of Pipeline Freezing Offshore-97:001, HSE

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Production Assurance and Reliability Management-20815, ISO


Recommended Practice for Design and Hazards Analysis for Offshore Production
Facilities RP 0014J, API
Classification using Performance Criteria determined by Risk Assessment Methodology
OSS-121, DNV
Risk Based Verification DNV-OSS-300, DNV
Guide to Quantitative Risk Assessment for Offshore Installations, Energy Institute
Model Code of Safe Practice-Part 15:Area Classification Code for Installations
Handling Flammable Fluids, MCSP Part 15, Energy Institute
Offshore Technical Guidance Catalogue with Specific Relevance to Major Accident
Hazards, Energy Institute
A Guide to the Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations, HSE
Offshore Safety/Technology/Research Reports (OTO, OTI, OTH, RR Series), HSE
ISO 13702 Control and mitigation of fires and explosions on offshore production
installations
IEC 60079, 61892-7

29.4.3 Impact of Arctic conditions on the production operation


The assessment of the expert working group identified the following impacts of the arctic
environment on the oil and gas production activities:
Cold environment impacts production start-up
To create acceptable working conditions for personnel, equipment may have to be
located in heated enclosed spaces. Drawback is increased topsides weight and
requirement for significant venting systems, when hydrocarbons are handled in the
enclosed spaces.
Desire to keep manning levels as low as possible, which will impact control and
monitoring philosophy.
Very high standards for safety integrity level (SIL) design, affecting lay-out of the
platform and operation. Ensure availability of safety critical equipment/systems, also in
(cold) winter conditions
Planned maintenance activities impact the long-term maintenance strategy (more based
on campaign maintenance in non-winter periods)
Effective communication systems in remote northern locations
Logistics related to maintaining an important number of personnel in a remote location.
Emergency control and rescue facilities
Adequate active and or passive Integrity Maintenance systems may increase cost
Effective integrated monitoring systems to be in place
Need for adequate training of all personnel involved.
29.4.4 Recommendations for the production operation
The following gaps with respect to arctic operations are identified in the existing ISO and
IEC standards. They also include certain recommendations.
ISO 13702 " Control and mitigation of fires and explosions on offshore production
installations"

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Either a separate document based on ISO 13702 or an amendment to ISO 13702 Control
and mitigation of fires and explosions on offshore production installations
Aspects to be dealt with (see ISO 13702):
Containment (prevent releases of hydrocarbons, chemicals and/or toxic substances)
Ignitions source control
Gas detection
Active fire protection
Passive fire protection
Effect of ice/snow on passive fire protection
Ventilation (natural and mechanical)
Design and proper operation of HVAC systems in cold environments.
ISO 15138 Offshore Production Installations Heating, ventilation and air
conditioning
This standard should specify requirements and should provide guidance for design, testing,
installation and commissioning of HVAC and pressurization systems and equipment for
offshore installations, fixed or floating, normally and not normally manned. The standard
includes requirements and guidance for both natural and mechanical ventilation.
The functional requirements and guidance can be used in the arctic environment as they are.
It is considered that this standard in combination with ISO 13207 and NORSOK Z-013
Annex G, gives the best guidance on the relationship between ventilation and explosion risk,
and need for simulations to investigate this relationship and provide input to design.
The standard will however be further strengthened by including or referring to the same kind
of guidance on ventilation and explosion risk in cold climate as is proposed for ISO 13207
and NORSOK S-001.
The standard should also refer to ISO 19906 for main principles with respect to design of
HVAC systems for cold regions, and to IEC 61892-7 for requirements to power supply for
HVAC systems.
IEC60079 Electrical equipment, Explosive atmospheres and IEC/ISO 80079 Nonelectrical equipment - Explosive atmosphere.
Standards for arctic application in areas as exemplified as follows
Validity for temperatures below -20 o. IEC TC31 MT to consider the operating
temperature range -20C to -60 Co, in all relevant standards listed.
Component protection according to Part 5 and 18 of IEC 60079 which must be used
inside other protections need to be fit for arctic temperatures like lighting fittings,
electronic units, amplifiers, transmitters, fuses, control units.
Requirements for temperature during installation and maintenance
Lubrication of bearings, need for special grease for low temperatures
Charging of batteries is difficult at low temperatures (below -5o C)
Fluorescent lightning will have reduced/no effect (not possible to switch on below 25o
C)
Electric heat tracing provides more accurate temperature control.
The operating procedures of equipment shall be adjusted for operation in arctic and cold
regions environments, and the criticality of such equipment or systems shall be taken into
consideration.

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Intrinsically safe characteristics can change and this must be reflected by selecting
barriers accordingly.
IEC 61892-7 Mobile and fixed offshore units, electrical installations , Part 7
Hazardous areas
IEC 61892 forms a series of International Standards intended to enable safety in the design,
selection, installation, maintenance and use of electrical equipment for the generation,
storage, distribution and utilization of electrical energy for all purposes in offshore units
which are used for the purpose of exploration or exploitation of petroleum resources.
arctic condition require that the standard need to take in new requirements for selection of
materials to be described, cable and cable installation requirements, layout to get access to
exposed equipment for maintenance purposes and heating methods of walls and structures.
Part 7 does not give any general requirements to ambient temperatures.
The standard need to take in additional requirements for arctic conditions to secure that the
artificial ventilation will function even if the main system failure. The air intakes and
capacity of the HVAC system must not be affected by snow and atmospheric or sea spray
icing. The HVAC system must also ensure that the concentration of explosion substances in
atmosphere shall not increase due to sheltering of process or drilling areas.
On these areas it is recommended that the standard refer to ISO 13207 and ISO 19906, to
give consistent guidance. ISO 19906 requires that redundancy shall be provided for
emergency power generation for all structures in cold regions (ISO19906). IEC61892 - Part
7 must describe back up sources requirements to maintain the ventilation required for area
classification or other means of protecting the plant if the system should fail. This can for
example be to require a higher level of explosion protection of operating equipment.
ISO standard for Maintenance service
Support manning of the offshore oil and gas production complex, pipeline transportation
systems, risers, anchors arrangements of buoys. Maintenance of facilities including on-site
inspection, exploratory survey, testing, reconditioning and unscheduled repairs.
Purpose:
To identify regular service operations for equipment and constructions
To define the main requirements to the industrial outsourcing
Justification:
To provide the rules for choosing, examining and training of outsourcing firms for regular
service operations for equipment and constructions.
All to be in line with the existing standards ISO 19906, ISO 10418 and ISO 13702.
29.5
Produced oil and gas export operation
29.5.1 Description of the oil and gas export operation
During the production of stabilized oil, gas or LNG, the products have to be exported from
the Floating Production facility.
The export can take place via pipelines (see section 29.7), but can alternatively be arranged
by transfer into ship-shaped carriers. The latter is called offloading, and is further discussed
in this section.
The ship-to-ship offloading in arctic waters need to be arranged in tandem configuration,
where the moored Floating Production facility has a hull wide enough to act as an ice breaker

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giving a tandem moored offloading carrier protection against drifting ice flows. Active ice
management using ice breakers will support the operation. The tandem mooring could be
based on a taut hawser mooring and Dynamic Positioning capability of the offloading carrier
can only be used to reduce risk during approach and to limit fish tailing dynamics. When ice
loads on the offloading carrier becomes larger than the capability of the hawser system,
emergency disconnection of the hawser under full load needs to be possible.
The offloading hose and mooring hawser shall be kept well above the seas and ice surface at
all times to avoid abrasion or crushing of hose sections from (sharp) ice. The torque of the
bolting of the different hose sections shall be regularly checked against their minimum
required values as cyclic temperatures tend to reduce this torque overtime.
During transfer the hoses and hawser(s) need to be kept above the ice surface and need to be
passed directly to the bow of the offloading tanker by messenger line(s). Hawsers need to be
tested on regular bases as cold temperatures can reduce the lifetime of the (nylon) hawser.
To avoid freezing or clogging of the hose from products being transferred through the
hose(s), draining procedures shall be required, These procedures need to include draining
products to the carrier as well as draining products to temporary storage on the Floating
Production Facility in case of emergency disconnection.
The offloading procedure need to include close-up inspection procedures to detect damage to
the protective covers of the hose(s) and hawser(s) from sharp ice crystals, either originating
from the ice on the seawater or from ice formation in the hawser or hose due to (sea)water
ingress.

29.5.2 Guidelines controlling the offloading operation


The following existing (arctic) guidelines, industry standards or papers are identified that can
support the oil and gas offloading activities.
Damage Resulting from Shuttle Tanker-FPSO Encounters OTO 2002/006, HSE
Risk Minimization Guidelines for Shuttle Tanker Operations Worldwide at Offshore
Location, Intertanko
MARIN under Offloading Operability Joint Industry Project Port and Terminal
Information,
OCIMF
Recommendations for Oil Tanker Manifolds and Associated Equipment, OCIMF
Tandem Mooring and Offloading Guidelines for Conventional Tankers at F(P)SO
Facilities, OCIMF
Close proximity study-97:055, HSE
Operational Safety of FPSOs Shuttle Tanker Collision Risk Summary Report RR113,
HSE
Report on Trends in Shuttle Tanker Incidents 1998-2001 RR111, HSE
Report on UKCS DP Shuttle Tanker Incidents 1998 - August 2004 RR348, HSE
Quantified Frequency of Shuttle Tanker Collision During Off take Operations-IMCA M
150 - February 1999, IMCA
Tandem Loading Guidelines Volume 1: FPSO/Tanker Risk Control During Off take,
O&GUK
Tandem Loading Guidelines Volume 2: The Use of Towing Assistance for Tandem Off
take, O&GUK
Offshore Loading Safety Guidelines with Special Relevance to Harsh Weather Zones,
OCIMF

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Guide for Building and Classing Vessels Intended for Navigation in Polar Waters, ABS
Guide for Vessels Operating in Low Temperature Environments, ABS
Planning, Designing and Constructing Structures and Pipelines for Arctic Conditions
RP 2N
, API
Rules for the Classification of Polar Class Ships NR 527 DT R00, BV
Barents 2020 Phase 1 Offshore Standards Position Paper-Norw. Baseline on HSE
Standard for Offshore Exploration, Dev. & Production, DNV
Certification of Competence Management Systems-Certification of Maritime Education
and Training (MET)-Competence of Officers for Navigation in Ice No. 3.312, DNV
Unified Requirement Polar Class, IACS
Guidelines for Ships Operating in Polar Waters, A1024 (26), IMO
Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries-Arctic Offshore Structures-ISO 19906, ISO
International Society of Polar Engineers (ISOPE) Papers, ISOPE
Provisional Rules for the Winterization of Ships 2009, LR
Rules for Ice and Cold Operations, LR
Handling Ships in Ice, Nautical Institute
Ice Seamanship, Nautical Institute
Shipping Operations in Arctic Region, OCIMF
The Use of Large Tankers in Seasonal First-Year Ice or Severe Sub-Zero Conditions,
OCIMF
Ice Manual, Witherbys

29.5.3 Impact of Arctic conditions on the offloading operation


The assessment of the expert working group identified the following impacts of the arctic
environment on the offloading activities:
Sea Ice coverage impacts the shuttle maneuvering and station keeping and Hawser/hose
handling. Need for ice management vessels. Proper systems on offloading carrier for
maneuvering and positioning in ice.
Ice drift impacts the movements and related mooring forces of both the production floater
and the shuttle tanker. Operational information systems shall provide adequate and
updated forecasting information on ice concentration, direction and ice speed, on a
regular interval.
Offloading philosophy regarding ice breaking capabilities of shuttle tanker, offloading
frequency, and probability on not being able to offload the production floater. The vessel
needs to have adequate additional capacity so that in the event of ice precluding berthing
for a certain period the vessel will not have to shut in production due to tank tops.
Up time and risk assessments; optimal spread
Winterization of offloading equipment like hawser and hose handling equipment
Hawser tension measurement is required to enable input for emergency hawser and
offloading hose disconnect.

29.5.4 Gaps for the offloading operation


The following gaps are identified in the existing guidelines with respect to arctic offloading
operations:
Ice load prediction on shuttle tankers

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Maneuverability of shuttle tankers in (broken) ice


Ice load prediction on combined storage and shuttle tanker and the effects of passive ad
or active ice management
Guidelines on offloading philosophy and downtime assessment of tandem offloading in
(broken) ice
Remote sensing techniques and risk assessments based on historic data base and
operational database(not done before other than SEIC and a few recent offloading
towers); i.e. ice drift forecasting, identification of hazardous ice, etc.
Lack of guidance with respect to; visibility, icing, ballast water, deck water, snow cover,
safe access on deck to all equipment, EER, access to and from the platform.
How to efficiently get the mooring lines to the shuttle vessel. The optimal distance
between the vessels, the size of the reel system and its exposure to cold conditions.

The industry guideline for worldwide offloading as being developed by OCIMF, includes a
section on offloading terminals in ice. This information could resolve the above gaps.
Also practical recommendations to deal with arctic conditions are stated in section 29.5.1
and 29.5.3.
29.6
Disconnection of the platform facility from the field infrastructure
29.6.1 Description of the disconnection operation
It may be expected that the majority of the oil and gas production facilities will be designed
for a certain, project specific, level of arctic environmental conditions which may
occasionally be exceeded. Such approach would imply that the platform is disconnected
from the field infrastructure (moorings, risers, etc.) once the design conditions are reached or
assumed to be exceeded, and that the platform will be returning in the field at the point in
time when the re-connection criteria are met.
The aim of the platform disconnection activities is to safeguard the floating platform from
conditions, exceeding the design criteria.
The disconnection operation is to a large extent the reverse of the reconnection operation, as
described in section 29.2.
29.6.2 Guidelines controlling the disconnection operation
For the design of the floating production platform in its operational status (i.e. connected) the
platform and its mooring and riser system has to comply with rules, regulations, guidelines
and standards as applicable for the concerning facility.
There are no general rules, regulations, guidelines or standards available that describe the
specific operation of disconnection of a floating production platform.
Operator requirements and project specific operational manuals prescribe the environmental
criteria in which the operation has to be possible.
Contractor uses general engineering practice to proof suitability and safety of the intended
operation.

29.6.3 Impact of Arctic conditions on the disconnection operation


As stated above on section 29.6.1. disconnection can generally be described as the inverse of
reconnection. Many of the aspects mentioned in section 29.2.3. will therefore also apply to
the disconnection operation.

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If the mooring system to be disconnected comprises of a disconnectable turret using a


submerged buoy, the system will be designed such that no further intervention is required
with the buoy, once the production vessel has disconnected itself. In that respect, the
disconnection operation itself may be considered less affected by arctic environmental
conditions than the reconnection. After disconnection the submerged buoy and associated
subsea infrastructure is supposed to remain below the depth affected by the design surface
ice condition.
Disconnectable turrets are used elsewhere in the world in, for instance, hurricane prone
area's. The operational manuals of these systems generally prescribe the operation to be
executed well in advance of the moment the adverse weather conditions have reached the
location of the production facility. Disconnection will thus take place well before the
mooring loads would reach limiting levels.
In that respect the scenarios applicable in arctic environment can cause an essential
difference. Design conditions for disconnectable turrets in arctic environment will include
the case that the ice loading builds up gradually, and that unexpectedly (caused by the
relatively unpredictable nature of ice conditions of the incoming ice field) the loads reach the
maximum capacity of the mooring. Then the disconnection has to take place under high load.
This effect is to be seen as a typical impact of arctic conditions, and needs mentioning here.
The design of the disconnectable mooring has to cater for this condition.
Disconnection from a shallow water mooring system, such as a SALM, will require the
mooring column to be lowered to the seabed, or even in a recess below the seabed ("Glory
hole") to avoid direct sea-ice loading on the remaining part of the mooring.
29.6.4 Recommendations for the disconnection operation
In Section 29.6.2 is explained that no general rules, regulations, guidelines or standards are
available that describe the specific operation of disconnection of a floating production
platform.
Neither ISO 19901-6, nor ISO 19906 cover this quite special, field dependent procedure.
It is recommended, within the framework of this Arctic Operations Handbook JIP, not to
focus on drafting arctic guidelines, specifically for disconnection operations, and to deal with
this operation on a project-by-project basis, as for disconnections in a milder climate.
Obviously, arctic conditions will affect the operation of disconnection, as explained in
Section 29.6.3.
Documents such as
ISO 19906
Barents 2020, phase 4
Arctic FPSO - Technical Feasibilities and Challenges, OMAE2012-83028, Guang Li,
SBM Atlantia, Houston, TX, USA
provide information with respect to the general requirements also influencing the
disconnection operation, when it has to be performed in arctic conditions.

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29.7

Pipeline operation

29.7.1 Description of the pipeline operation


The subsea pipeline operations can be described in more detail by the following sub-activity:
Inspection of pipeline to ensure its integrity
Maintenance of pipeline
29.7.2 Impact of Arctic conditions on the pipeline operation
The arctic conditions will only effect the operations of a pipeline at seabed level when sea
ice or ice bergs may hit the seabed soil. Sea ice or icebergs that hit the seabed can cause
scour. Guidelines to assess scour is covered by the ISO TC67/SC08 Arctic Construction
workgroup.
Furthermore the sea ice and icebergs can affect flexible risers which connect the pipeline at
the seabed with for example a floating production vessel. Similar to the mooring system (see
section 29.3) the flexible risers need to be disconnected when the vessel cannot maintain its
position due to excessive ice loads. Typically both the mooring and riser system are
connected to a buoy that will descent after disconnection to a sufficient low position in the
water column to avoid impact with sea ice or ice bergs.

29.7.3 Gaps for the pipeline operations


The following gaps are identified in the existing guidelines with respect to arctic pipeline
operations:

Pipeline monitoring guidelines to ensure pipeline protection against scour. These


guidelines should include frequency of inspection, acceptance criteria in case of damage
as well as time to repair objectives.
Pipeline leak detection requirements and shut-in requirements

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30.0

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Issuing Society

Abbrevia tion

American Bureau of Shipping

ABS

American Bureau of Shipping

ABS

American Bureau of Shipping

ABS

American Bureau of Shipping


American Bureau of Shipping

ABS
ABS

American Petroleum Institute

API

Arctic Council

PAME

Bureau Veritas

BV

Bureau of Minerals and


Petroleum

BMP

British Standard
Canadian Coast Guard

BS
CCG

Canadian Government
Canadian Government
Canadian Government
Canadian Government
Canadian Association of
Petroleum Producers

CAPP

Civil Aviation Authority (UK)

CAA

Det Norske Veritas

DNV

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Standards, Guidelines and Publications
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Intended for Navigation in Polar Waters
(no longer readily available)
ABS Rules for Building and Classing
Steel Vessels Part 6 Chapter 1
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Guide for Vessels Operating in Low
Temperature Environments - August
2010; Updated May 2012
Guidelines for Novel Concepts
Low Temperature Operations - Guidance
for Arctic Shipping
Planning, Designing and Constructing
Structures and Pipelines for Arctic
Conditions RP 2N
Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Guidelines April 29, 2009
Rules for the Classification of Polar Class
Ships NR 527 DT R00
Guidelines for application, execution and
reporting of offshore hydrocarbon
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in Greenland
BS 6349-5:1991
Canadian Aids to Navigation System
(ISBN 978-1-100-15842-6)
Canadian Navigable waters pollution
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Canadian transportation of dangerous
goods act
Canadian pilotage act
Canadian marine transportation security
act
Atlantic Canada Offshore Petroleum
Industry Escape, Evacuation and Rescue June 2010
CAP 437 Standards for Offshore
Helicopter Landing
Rules for the Classification of Ships, Part
1, Section 1 & Part 5, Section 1 & 7 - July
2011

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Issuing Society

Abbrevia tion

Det Norske Veritas

DNV

Det Norske Veritas

DNV

Det Norske Veritas


Det Norske Veritas
Det Norske Veritas
European Commission

DNV
DNV
DNV
EC

Winterization & Ice Operations &


Equipment Rules, Regulations,
Standards, Guidelines and Publications
Title
Certification of Competence Management
Systems-Certification of Maritime
Education and Training (MET)Competence of Officers for Navigation in
Ice No. 3.312
Barents 2020 Phase 3 & 4 Reports

Noble Denton
International Association of
Classification Societies
International Air Transport
Association
International Maritime
Organization
International Maritime
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ND
IACS

OS A101 Safety Principles


OS E406 Free Fall Lifeboats
OS F101 Submarine Pipeline Systems
Developing a European Union Policy
towards the Arctic Region SWD(2012)
183 final
Guidelines for Environmental Impact
Assessment in the Arctic 1997
Review of Pipeline Freezing Offshore97:001
Guidelines for metocean and arctic
surveys
Prevention of Fire and Explosion, and
Emergency Response on Offshore
Installations 1995
Guidelines for Marine Transport
Unified Requirement Polar Class

IATA

Helicopter Operations

IMO

International Maritime
Organization
International Maritime
Organization
International Maritime
Organization
International Maritime
Organization

IMO
IMO

Guidelines for Ships Operating in Polar


Waters, A1024 (26)
Guidelines for Ships Operating in Arctic
Ice-Covered Waters - December 2002
(2010)
Safe Operation of Ships and Pollution
Prevention
MODU Code

IMO

Polar Code 2009

IMO

MARPOL - International Convention for


the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
1973

Finnish Ministry of the


Environment
UK Health and Safety
Executive
UK Health and Safety
Executive
UK Health and Safety
Executive

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HSE
HSE
HSE

IMO

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Issuing Society

Abbrevia tion

International Maritime
Organization
International Maritime
Organization
International Maritime
Organization

IMO

Winterization & Ice Operations &


Equipment Rules, Regulations,
Standards, Guidelines and Publications
Title
ISPS / ISM code

IMO

OSV code, Resolutions A496, A863

IMO

International Maritime
Organization
International Maritime
Organization

IMO

International Maritime
Organization

IMO

International Maritime
Organization
International Marine
Contractors Association
International Organization for
Standardization
International Organization for
Standardization
International Organization for
Standardization
International Organization for
Standardization
International Organization for
Standardization
International Organization for
Standardization

IMO

IMO - 1979 International Convention on


Maritime Search and Rescue - April 27,
1979
IMO - Life-Saving Appliances - 2010
Edition
IMO MSC.1/Circ.1206 - Measures to
prevent accidents with lifeboats - May
2006
IMO MSC.1/Circ.1205 - Developing
Operation and Maintenance Manuals for
Lifeboat Systems - May 2006
SOLAS

IMCA

Sel019/M187 Lifting Operations

ISO
ISO

Petroleum and Natural Gas IndustriesArctic Offshore Structures-ISO 19906


SSA (JUP/Floaters)

ISO

ISO 15544 Emergency Response

ISO

ISO 19902 Appendix B Canada


Regulations
ISO 13702 Fire Fighting

International Organization for


Standardization
International Organization for
Standardization
International Organization for
Standardization
International Society of Polar
Engineers
Lloyd's Register of Shipping

ISO

ISO 17776:2002 - Tools and Techniques


for Hazard Identification and Risk
Assessment - February 2001
ISO 19901-5 Weight Control

ISO

ISO 19901-6 Marine Operations

ISO

ISO 31000 Risk Management

ISPE

International Society of Polar Engineers


(ISOPE) Papers
Provisional Rules for the Winterization of
Ships 2008 Notice No. 1

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IMO

ISO
ISO

Lloyd's

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Issuing Society

Abbrevia tion

Lloyd's Register of Shipping

Lloyd's

Lloyd's Register of Shipping


Lloyd's Register of Shipping

Lloyd's
Lloyd's

Lloyd's Register of Shipping

Lloyd's

Naval Environmental
Prediction Research Facility
Nautical Institute
Nautical Institute
Norsk olje og gass

Nautical
Nautical
OLF

Norsk olje og gass

OLF

Norsk olje og gass

OLF

Norsk olje og gass

OLF

Norsk olje og gass

OLF

Norwegian Maritime
Directorate
Minister of Fisheries and
Oceans Canada 2012
Oil Companies International
Marine Forum
Oil Companies International
Marine Forum

NMD

Oil & Gas Producers

OGP

Oil & Gas Producers


Oil & Gas Producers

OGP
OGP

DFO
OCIMF
OCIMF

Oil & Gas UK

Oslo and Paris Conventions

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OSPAR

218

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Equipment Rules, Regulations,
Standards, Guidelines and Publications
Title
Provisional Rules for the Winterization of
Ships 2009
Rules for Ice and Cold Operations
Technical Background for the Provisional
Rules for the Winterization of Ships 2008
Code for Lifting Appliances in a Marine
Environment
Forecasters handbook for the Arctic
Handling Ships in Ice
Ice Seamanship
OLF/NR No. 002 - Guidelines for Safety
and Emergency Training - January 2009
OLF/NR No. 064 - Guidelines for area
emergency preparedness
OLF/NR No. 066 - Recommended
Guidelines for Flights to Petroleum
Installations - February 2010
OLF/NR No. 094 - Guidelines for
survival suits
OLF/NR No. 096 - Guidelines for manoverboard
Reg. No. 853 - Evacuation and rescue
means on mobile offshore units
Ice Navigation in Canadian Water (ISBN
978-1-100-20610-3)
Shipping Operations in Arctic Regions
The Use of Large Tankers in Seasonal
First-Year Ice or Severe Sub-Zero
Conditions
Health Aspects of Work in Extreme
Climates - 2008
Report 447, Oct 2011
Aircraft management guidelines Report
No: 390 July 2008, updated August 2011
Emergency Response and Rescue Vessel
Management Guidelines - Issue 4, May
2008
Guidelines for Monitoring the
Environmental Impact of Offshore Oil
and Gas Activities Reference number:
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Issuing Society

Abbrevia tion

Russian Marine Register of


Shipping

RMRS

RussianGost

RTTG

RussianGost

RTTG

Standard Norge
Standard Norge

NORSOK
NORSOK

Standard Norge

NORSOK

Standard Norge

NORSOK

Transport Canada

TC

Transport Canada

TC

Transport Canada

TC

United States Military

US Corps of Engineers
Witherbys

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USACE
Witherbys

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Winterization & Ice Operations &


Equipment Rules, Regulations,
Standards, Guidelines and Publications
Title
RMRS - Classification, Construction and
Equipment of MODU and Fixed Offshore
Platforms - Edition 2008
SP 1.13130.2009 The systems of fire
protection. Evacuation ways and exits
PB 08-623-03 Approved by Resolution of
Gosgortechnadzor of Russia - Safety
regulations for the exploration and
development of oil and natural gas fields
on the continental shelf - June 2003
NORSOK Standards
NORSOK Z-013 - Risk and Emergency
Preparedness Assessment - Edition 3,
October 2012
NORSOK S-001 - Technical Safety Edition 4, February 2008
NORSOK N-003 - Actions and Action
Effects - Edition 2, September 2007
Transport Canada - Arctic Shipping
Pollution Prevention Regulations 1995
Transport Canada - Survival in Cold
Waters Staying Alive - January 2003
Transport Canada - Integrated Ice and
Open Water Canadian Offshore
Petroleum Installations Escape,
Evacuation and Rescue PerformanceBased Standards - March 2006
FM 04-203 Section 3 Rotary wing
environmental operations Cold weather
operations
Coastal Engineering Manual
Ice Manual

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APPENDIX
ARCTIC OPERATIONS GUIDE

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APPENDIX A GAP ANALYSIS WORKING GROUPS


ID
WG1

Work group
Logistics

Participant
Albert Aalbers (lead)
Ed Wiersema

Company
Marin
HMC

WG2

Ice Metocean and Geophysical


Intelligence

Canatec
Marin
Marin
TNO

WG3

General Equipment

Wim Jolles (lead)


Solange van der Werff
Henk van den Boom
Sander von BendaBeckmann
Alain Wassink (lead)
Clemens van der Nat
Ton de Boer
Wim Jolles
Peter Hendrickx
Nathalie Lebedeva
Alexei Bereznitski

WG4

Health, Safety and Environment

Mathijs Campman (lead)


Gus Cammaert
Bas Bolman
Peter Hendrickx
Sander von BendaBeckmann
Hein Daanen

Allseas
TU Delft
Imares
Boskalis
TNO

Gusto
Bluewater
IHC
Canatec
Boskalis
TNO
Huisman

TNO

WG5

Stakeholder management

Gus Cammaert (lead)


Frank Sliggers

TU Delft
TU Delft

WG6

Installation and removal of


structures

Frank Lange (lead)


Han Tiebout
Wim Jolles

Shell
Gusto
Canatec

WG7

Dredging and pipe lay

Peter Hendrickx (lead)


Regina Haddorp
Han Tiebout
Cor Benard
Benny van der Vegte
Ton de Boer
Jorrit de Groot

Boskalis
Allseas
Gusto
HMC
Intecsea
IHC
Boskalis

WG8

Floating oil/gas production

Clemens van der Nat (lead)


Hannes Bogaert
Benny van der Vegte
Henk van den Boom
Wim Jolles
Guido Kuiper

Bluewater
Marin
Intecsea
Marin
Canatec
Shell

WG9

Vessel Operations

Wim Jolles (lead)


Alain Wassink

Canatec
Gusto

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APPENDIX B SURVIVAL KITS

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APPENDIX C ENVIRONMENTAL REFERENCES

Table C.01 EIA & mitigation Part 1: Operations Environmental impact assessment

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Table C.02

EIA & mitigation Part 2: Pressures

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Table C.03

EIA & mitigation Part 3: Activities and mitigations

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Table C.04

EIA & mitigation Part 4: environmental impact assessment

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References to rules & regulations for the Environmental Impact Analysis as


shown in table C.03.
General
ISO 31000

Provides relevant definitions.

Environmental pressures, impacts and mitigations


General
Barents 2020 RN07 S 6.3.3
When performing voyage planning, the potential negative impact
on marine mammals, such as collisions and disturbance, shall be
taken into consideration.
Barents 20202 RN07 S 6.3.3
When performing planning of seismic survey activities, potential
negative impacts on marine life shall be taken into consideration.
Transport Canada Arctic Shipping Imares: construction standards for ships operating in Arctic waters.
Pollution Prevention Regulations Not relevant for EIA. Imares, please provide more detail.
1995
Environmental
Protection
Plan The Environmental Protection Plan (EPP) is an operators plan for all
Guidelines
project personnel, including contractor personnel, describing
responsibilities, expectations and methodologies for environmental
protection associated with an authorized work or activity. It is
based on the outcome of an EIA.
Air Exhausts gas
IMO MARPOL (not Arctic specific, For example: No discharge of residues containing noxious
but referred to in Barents 2020)
substances is permitted within 12 miles of the nearest land.
Barents 2020 RN07 S 6.1.3

Fuel turbines and boilers shall be avoided. Preferable gas driven.

Barents 2020 RN07 S 6.1.3

max. Nox and SO2 in ppm are given for production units.

Barents 2020 RN07 S 6.1.3


Barents 2020 RN07 S 6.1.3

Waste heat recovery unit (WHRU) will be a better way to generate


heat than by using boilers or heaters.
Use of water emulsion in diesel should be considered.

Barents 2020 RN07 S 6.1.3

Selective catalytic reduction or similar shall be considered.

Barents 2020 RN07 S 6.3.1

Emissions to air shall be in compliance with the provisions of


MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI and in addition according to the following
requirements:
- Marine fuels shall be of marine distillate type with characteristics
equal to the DM (X, A, Z, B) qualities under ISO 8217:2010 or
Russian GOST 305-82 Diesel fuel technical specification or
similar. Maximum sulphur content in fuels shall be 0.5% by weight.

Water controlled discharges


IMO MARPOL (not Arctic specific,
but referred to in Barents 2020)

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For example: Sewage which is not comminuted or disinfected has


to be discharged at a distance of more than 12 nautical miles from
the nearest land.
Disposal into the sea of all forms of plastics is prohibited

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Barents 2020 RN07 S 6.2.1

Barents 2020 RN07 S 6.2.1

Ballast water, storm/rain water and other liquid water contaminated


with oil: - Discharge should be in compliance with Marpol 73/78
Annex - Barents 2020 RN07 S 6.2.1: Ballast water, storm/rain
water and other liquid water contaminated with oil: - Discharge
should be in compliance with Marpol 73/78 Annex I, regulation 39.
Oil content shall be measured once a day in the period of
discharge.
Rain water from clean zones can be discharged to sea. Snow and
ice shall be handled as rain water (storm water).

Note: Different than in Alaskan regulations.


Barents 2020 RN07 S 6.2.1

Barents 2020 RN07 S 6.2.1


Barents 2020 RN07 S 6.2.1

Barents 2020 RN07 S 6.2.4

Barents 2020 RN07 S 6.2.5

Barents 2020 RN07 S 6.3.2

Barents 2020 RN07 S 6.3.2


Canadian Shipping Act 2001

Canadian Fisheries Act


Water spills
ISO 19906, 5.6

ISO 19906, 5.6

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The provisions for treatment and discharges of sewage as set out


for ships in Marpol Annex IV shall also apply to offshore
installations.
On ice and in proximity to ice discharge of black and grey sewage
water should be avoided.
The discharge of garbage shall be prohibited, except from food
waste that can be discharged subject to the discharge provisions as
set out for ships in Marpol 73/78 Annex V.
Daily registration of the amount of produced water rejected or
discharged to the sea, of the content of oil in produced water, and
total amount of oil in produced water discharged to sea. Daily
registration of oil in ballast, storm, bilge and other water
contaminated with oil during production operations, amount of
water and amount of oil in water. Daily registration of consumption
of added chemicals. Monthly internal reporting of production data,
chemical consumption and discharge, oil in water, including
discharges. Yearly report of all discharge to sea, including chemical
consumption and discharge.
Waste water shall to the extent possible be contained and any oily
discharge shall not exceed 30 mg/l. Polar Code prohibits all oil
discharges.
Ballast water discharge and management shall be in compliance
with the provisions of the IMO Ballast Water Management
Convention.
No tank residues, including tank washing residues, shall be
discharged to sea from offshore supply and service vessels.
Part of the objectives of this Act is to protect the marine
environment from damage due to navigation and shipping activities.
For example: Section 187 prohibits discharge of pollutants and
Section 190 states that the Governor in Council may make
regulations respecting the protection of the marine environment.
Throwing overboard of certain substances is prohibited.

Fluids and materials that could pollute the environment, if released,


shall be contained in tanks having double
barriers.
A careful strategy should be followed as far as practically possible
for inspection, maintenance and repair of any tanks containing

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ISO 19906, 5.6

Barents 2020 RN07 S 6.2.1

Barents 2020 RN07 S 6.3.2

Barents 2020 RN07 S 6.3.2

BS ISO 15544-2000

ISO 13702 1999

Canadian
transportation
dangerous goods act
Water aggregations
Barents 2020 RN07 S 6.2.5
Barents 2020 RN07 S 6.3.2
Fire control
Barents 2020

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of

fluids or materials that possibly could pollute.


Means for the containment and clean-up of polluting fluids shall be
available at the site and be proven to operate under the expected
physical environmental conditions.
A plan for substitution of chemicals harmful to the environment
should be developed in order to strive for continuous improvement
and development of chemicals with the best possible environmental
performance.
The leakage of lubricants from stern tube bearings, seals and main
propulsion components located outside the hull shall be minimized.
Stern tube bearing lubrication systems should utilize oil causing the
lowest possible damage to the environment, preferably the use of
sea-water based lubrication system should be applied.
Vessels shall be provided with sufficient additional storage capacity
or treatment systems for waste to account for any of the nodischarge provisions and potentially limited local waste reception
capacity.
The standard includes a chapter on environmental emergency
response. Goal is to minimize, so far as is reasonable, the harm to
the environment following an acute discharge from the installation
or facilities related to its operation. Measures shall be provided so
far as is reasonable to avoid these discharges or to reduce their
likelihood. Activities involving increased risk of environmental harm
shall be avoided as much as possible during seasons when the
environment is particularly sensitive to the effects of accidental
release. Refers to ISO 14001(principles for an environmental
management system) and ISO 14004 (guidelines on how to
implement such system). Provides further considerations for
environmental ER. We do not consider emergency response so no
conflict.
Protection of the environment is a principal objective of this
International Standard. For example it states that: Measures shall
be provided for dealing with spills in all areas which have a source
of liquid hydrocarbons so as to minimize the risk of fires and to
avoid damage to the environment.
Concerns all aspects in case of (accidental) release of dangerous
goods (e.g. emergency response, responsibilities, costs). Damage
to the environment is included.
Process equipment, vessels, tans and pipes shall preferably be
drained and cleaned prior to removal for end disposal.
Pollution from anti-fouling compounds shall be in compliance with
the provisions of the IMO Anti-fouling Systems (AFS) Convention.
The main areas to give guidance on are proposed to be:
Effect of ice/snow on passive fire protection
Condensation inside passive fire protection due to low
temperatures, causing corrosion and/or ice
formation.
Use of new materials for cold climate, with other material

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properties and hence protection requirements.


Need for change in specification tables for protection times
due higher heat radiation in enclosed areas (more reflected
heat from surroundings).
Prolonged protection times, due to potentially more critical
situation in case of escalation in remote areas where
evacuation and rescue is challenging and potentially more
time consuming.
Table C.05

References to rules & regulations for the Environmental Impact Analysis

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Front sheet picture: Reflections on the Arctic Sea 2008 Ville Miettinen

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Arctic Operations Handbook Joint Industry Project (JIP) was launched in February of
2012 supported by a number of companies and knowledge institutes. The JIP was initiated
by a number of Dutch companies in the framework of the Maritime Innovation Program
(MIP) and was awarded a subsidy from the Dutch Ministry of EL&I (Economic affairs,
Agriculture & Innovation). With it the JIP participants committed to issue an open source
document to ensure that the work from the JIP is offered to the international arctic offshore
community and the general public for further use.
The participating companies have the ambition to execute projects in arctic areas, such as
installation and operations of oil and gas production facilities. The term arctic as used here
refers to areas where ice, permafrost and low temperatures may influence offshore
operations, field development and decommissioning.
Currently, there is no specific standard for companies operating in arctic offshore areas. To
support this industry and to ensure services can be provided in a safe manner with minimum
environmental impact, it was proposed to prepare guidance/standards for such operations.
This project has taken an important step in gathering existing rules & regulations, identifying
the areas which require additional guidance, and has taken some steps in defining guidance.
The focus is on the operational activities for installation of fixed, floating and subsea units,
dredging, trenching, pipe laying and floating oil/gas production. Detailed design of facilities
& equipment was not covered in this JIP as it is already supported through ISO 19906 for
Arctic Offshore Structures.
The development of guidelines and regulations in modern industry are expected to be
functional, goal based, as much as possible relying on procedures and technology already in
general use and, in this case, focused on arctic operations.
As part of the work scope the JIP has taken the initiative to liaise with Class Societies, Arctic
Governmental Authorities and international standards organizations such as ISO. A
diversified group of Dutch operators and knowledge centers have assessed deficiencies in
existing standards and it is therefore considered useful and beneficial for the ISO TC67 SC 8
and SC 7 to use this report when preparing their new ISO norms.
This Arctic Marine Operations Challenges & Recommendations Report presents existing
rules & regulations, identifies the areas which require additional guidance, and in those cases
where possible defines recommendations for arctic operations. The index used in this report
is based on ISO 19901-6; Petroleum and natural gas industries Specific requirements for
offshore structures Part 6: Marine operations. The index has been adjusted and
complemented with aspects specific for arctic operations.

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The following key observations/guidance have been gathered within the scope of this Joint
Industry Project;
It was noted from the gap analysis that there was limited (ISO) guidance for pipe lay,
trenching and dredging operations, let alone for the arctic areas. It was therefore chosen
to provide a number of best practices for these operations, considering the arctic
environment. The efforts concentrated on the aspects that would be new in the arctic
when comparing with open water operations in non-arctic areas.
Site specific operations should be considered when planning and carrying out operations.
Considerable effort was performed to align the knowledge on weather conditions and in
particular on the requirements for monitoring and forecasting as well as the requirements
for decision based tools.
For the transportation & logistic aspects input relied heavily on the existing guidance for
arctic shipping which is further developed and was evaluated and transferred to
recommendations for the specific services of this guide.
This report provides guidance as required specifically for contractors expecting to work
in arctic areas on the aspects of health, safety, training and also stakeholder mapping.
A frame work is provided to perform environmental impact assessments both in early as
well as detailed stages of design in order to ensure that impacts can be managed and
mitigated.
Specific attention was given to the evaluation of the loads on and the operation of
disconnectable floating production units.
The other volumes of this report contain results of the gap analysis performed in the project
as well as relevant results of the pilot projects of the Arctic Operations Handbook (AOH)
JIP;
The IceStream Pilot project, described in volume 3, has shown that the egg code
(which is a method to describe characteristics of ice fields), when used as a basis to
establish a visualization of the ice field, can serve as input to numerical models with
which ice loads can be predicted on floating structures. More field data is required to
support development of new analytical models.
The Environmental Impact Pilot project, described in volume 4, has developed an
enhanced approach (interaction of linked sensitivities) for understanding the
environmental impact of operations in an early project stage in a semi-quantitative
manner. Application of such an approach is recommended to assess, evaluate and reduce
the environmental impact of operations in arctic areas.
A state of the art review for marine icing on vessels has been performed and has been
documented in volume 5, Marine icing on arctic offshore operations Pilot project. It
highlights that although there are many approaches, there is no common approach and no
industry standard for marine icing calculations. It strongly recommends more field
observations and improved prediction models to determine sea spray formation and icing
accretion.

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Key recommendations from the Arctic Operations Handbook JIP are:


Prepare more detailed operational standards including waiting on weather and ice,
uptime and risk and hazard management.
Develop equipment standards especially for the niche operations in this report.
Prepare ice management guidelines, in concert where possible with the ISO TC67 SC 8
Work group 4, ice management.
Guidance text for marine operations in arctic conditions has been prepared in this report.
It is recommended that this can be incorporation into ISO 19901-6, or other ISO
documentation.
Implementation of an operational ice level into the ISO documentation for defining the
ice action at which the (vessel) position may no longer be retained, due to structural or
station keeping capability.

List of participants
The following companies have participated in the Arctic Operations Handbook JIP;
Allseas Engineering B.V.
American Bureau of Shipping
Bluewater Energy Services B.V.
Canatec Associates International Ltd.
Delft University of Technology
Deltares
GustoMSC B.V.
Heerema Marine Contractors B.V. [Project Coordinator]
Huisman Equipment B.V.
Imares, Institute within Stichting Dienst Landbouwkundig Onderzoek
IntecSea The Netherlands
MARIN
IHC Merwede
Royal Boskalis Westminster N.V.
Shell Global Solutions International B.V.
TNO

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INDEX TO VOLUMES
Volume

Title

Doc. No.

Volume 1

Main Report

MAR11908-E/1133-RP01

Volume 2

Gap Analysis Study Matrix

MAR11908-E/1133-RP02

Volume 3

IceStream - Pilot Project

MAR11908-E/1133-RP03

Volume 4

Environmental Impact - Pilot Project

MAR11908-E/1133-RP04

Volume 5

Marine Icing on Arctic Offshore


Operations - Pilot Project

MAR11908-E/1133-RP05

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SECTION 1
ARCTIC GAP ANALYSIS VOLUME 2A

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1.0

ARCTIC GAP ANALYSIS VOLUME 2A

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13
1.14
1.15
1.16
1.17
1.18
1.19
1.20

Chapter 5 General considerations


Chapter 6 Organization, documentation and planning
Chapter 8 Weight control
Chapter 9 Stability
Chapter 10 Ballasting operations
Chapter 11 Load out
Chapter 12 Transportation
Chapter 13 Temporary mooring and station keeping for marine operations
Chapter 14 Construction and outfitting afloat
Chapter 15 Float-over topsides installation
Chapter 16 Pre-laid mooring including foundation
Chapter 17 Offshore installation operations
Chapter 18 Lifting operations
Chapter 19 Decommissioning and removal
Chapter 20 Logistics and Transport
Chapter 21 Vessel Operation
Chapter 22 General equipment preparation
Chapter 23 - 26 Health Safety, Environment and Training
Chapter 27 Dredging
Chapter 29 Floating Oil & Gas Production

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SECTION 2
WG2 GAP VOLUME 2B

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2.0

WG2 GAP VOLUME 2B

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6

Staff selection and training


Safety Management
Emergency Response
Escape, Evacuation and Rescue
Waste Management
3D Metocean & Environment

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Arctic Guide Scope list Template

Paragraph

Section

Chapter

V1 - First issue 19-10-2012


V2 - Second issue 8-11-2012
V3 - Final issue for Volume 2 from 7-10-2013

Index item (chapter)


[Index item is derived from ISO 19901-6 as a basis with
additional chapters defined from workshop input. New or
changed chapters are indicated in red]

Clarification
[What is the scope of the
index item]

Relevant other
codes /guides

Section Title
[Title of the relevant other code /
guide]

Comments
[Comments on this index item in relation to other codes / guides or in general. Comments on the
existance of GAP's]

Recommendations for new or additional guidance:


a) That a piece of guidance text will be drafted, or
b) That further study / work / assessment should be performed,
or
c) That no further action is required.

Priority:
High
Medium
Low

1
2
3
4
5
5

0
0
14

Introduction
1 Scope
2 Normative references
3 Terms and definitions
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
5 General considerations
5.14 Arctic Factory Acceptance Testing

6
6

0
14

6 Organization, documentation and planning


6.14 Environmental Impact Statement

7
7

7 Metocean and earthquake requirements


7.1 Introduction

19901-6

7.1

.. a setof limiting MO criteria shall be established (function of type and duration of operation)

7.2 Weather-restricted/weather-unrestricted operations

19901-6

7.2

operation that can be completed within the limits of a favorable weather forecast

7.3 Metocean conditions (to include Meteorology &


Oceanography)

19901-6

7.3

7.3 Metocean conditions (to include Meteorology &


Oceanography)

Barents2020

7.3 Metocean conditions (to include Meteorology &


Oceanography)
7.3 Metocean conditions (to include Meteorology &
Oceanography)

7
7
7

4
4
5

7.4 Metocean criteria


7.4 Metocean criteria
7.5 Weather windows

19901-6
19901-6

7.5

Defines operations, design impact and weather margins

review 19901-6; describe principles and ADD arctic High


conditions; Move to WG3 Design;

7.5 Weather windows

19901-6

7.5

Defines operations, design impact and weather margins

Guidance should be included / updated on the use of metocean


restrictions, which can be delayed due to occurance of ice

High

7
7

6
6

7.6 Operational duration


7.6 Operational duration

19901-6
19901-6

7.6
7.6

Defines time schedule and point of no return


Defines time schedule and point of no return

Review 19901-6; describe principles and ADD Arctic conditions;


Guidance should be included / updated on the use of metocean
restrictions, which can be delayed due to occurance of ice

High
High

7.7 Monitoring & forecasting

Guidance should be included on the use and availability of now- and


forecasting for ice & metocean

High

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

7
7

7
7

1
1

7
7

7
7

Review relevant Fabrication guidelines


Adapt for consistency
Adapt for consistency
FAT as seen important specific
for Arctic applications

Requires additional review - not picked up at this stage

Further study work; JIP;


assessment

High
Medium
Low
High
High
Low
Medium

Low
From WG6 point of view, clear guidance should be written on the use of High
EIA in performing operations.

Arctic Operations
Manual

3.1.1.

Poor visibility

7.4

add to AOH and add significant ice parameters; relevant in


WG3 Design
to design codes; consider in WP2; Add ice forecasts

Low
Low

add ice forecasts

Lists definitions and what should be included as significant weather conditions.

to design codes; several codes exist for open water conditions which
could be adapted to include ice; remains a design item WG3 Design

Low

Wind and current monitoring was not highlighted as key parameters influencing operations in harsh areas

Add a Section specifically pertaining to the needs to measure and


forecast winds, temp and current for people, workability and safety as
well as station keeping and thus not only for Ice Management

High

add ice conditions, see


Severity Table, icing, visibility,
polar low, ice conditions and
more
assessment needed; check
sea states for arctic conditions

Only some remarks on visibility wrt rescue / man over board

Check and add other references? Needs to be added

Medium

Whiteouts are a phenomenon in the Arctic that can affect operations any time of the year.
Ice crystals in the air eliminate definition of the horizon. This can pose a serious hazard to
pilots, who can lose depth perception. On the ground, you can lose a sense of direction.
When whiteout conditions exist or are approaching, remain in camp and wait it out; even
attempting to travel a fewmetres can result in disorientation. Exercise similar caution in
foggy conditions.

add to AOH

Defines criteria and return periods

ice to be added, see ISO 19906; review 19901-6

High

Add details for Arctic conditions: Add Severity Table

wi, wa, cu, speed, direction;


stations; buoys; ships; tide;
pressure; RH; precip; fog;
cloud; visibility; EO; satellite
imagery; radar, etc

19906

6.3

7.7.1 Weather monitoring


7.7.1 Weather monitoring

19906
19906

6.1
6,1,1

1
1

7.7.1 Weather monitoring


7.7.1 Weather monitoring

19906
19906

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

19906

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

7
7
7
7
7
7
7

7
7
7
7
7
7
7

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

7.7.1 Weather monitoring


7.7.1 Weather monitoring
7.7.1 Weather monitoring
7.7.1 Weather monitoring
7.7.1 Weather monitoring
7.7.1 Weather monitoring
7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ISO19901-6

meteorology

temp, wind, chill, precipitation, accretion, visibility, polar lows,

check for operations; add ice impact on operations and High


monitoring requirements

metocean requirements

see also ISO 19900 on MO information


determine normal conditions, long term distributions, extreme conditions regional oscillations

low
check if needed
no specific mention of the effects of ice on operations but low
this is included in the general requirements; design issue

6.4
6.5

oceanography
ice, icebergs

depth, waves, currents, other


wmo nomenclature, statistics, types, morphology, movement, properties, monitoring

6,5,6

ice monitoring

Ice conditions shall be considered as part of the environmental data monitoring program.
Real time information on ice conditions can be used, for example, to operate ice
management systems, and escape, evacuation and rescue (EER) procedures for the
installation. Coupled with a facility management plan for shutdown and possible removal,
during the operational phase of the structures, ice monitoring can help reduce the ice
criteria used for structural design.
When planning a marine operation in the areas described in B.2.2, the ice conditions being
considered shall be in accordance with the duration of the operation as indicated in Table
B.1.

low
low prior
check and read for operations, should suffice check with High
IICWG documents
High
consider in WP2

SB2.4.2 Ice conditions

Table B.1 General guidance for ice conditions


Duration of the operation Ice conditions
Fewer than 3 days Based on specific weather window
3 days to 1 week 1 year environmental condition (seasonal)
1 week to 1 month 10 year environmental condition (seasonal)
1 month to 1 year Extreme level environmental action (seasonal)
Greater than 1 year Extreme level environmental action

Check if Operations relevance; design issue; WG3;


It
does have operational relevance, as it indicates the
databases that should be assembled, and which data to
include

Paragraph

Section

Chapter

Index item (chapter)


[Index item is derived from ISO 19901-6 as a basis with
additional chapters defined from workshop input. New or
changed chapters are indicated in red]

Clarification
[What is the scope of the
index item]

Relevant other
codes /guides

Section Title
[Title of the relevant other code /
guide]

Comments
[Comments on this index item in relation to other codes / guides or in general. Comments on the
existance of GAP's]

Where sea ice or icebergs are present or forecast, an ice management plan shall be
developed, describing the actions it is necessary to take in response to such ice conditions.
This plan shall specify when it is necessary to suspend operations and the method or order
of suspension. This plan should also make provision for unexpected or unusually severe ice
conditions.
Operations that it is necessary to suspend or structures that it is necessary to move in the
event of sea ice or icebergs should have forecast durations adequate to safely suspend
operations or disconnect and move from location
Contingency plans should address ice conditions that exceed forecasts and operational
limits. Operations under limited visibility should be given due consideration. Capabilities to
detect icebergs and sea ice by survey vessels and advance scouting in case of reduced
visibility should be provided where appropriate.
Communications equipment should be compatible with that of the ice patrol or
reconnaissance aircraft. Due account should be taken of replacement supplies for all types
of essential equipment.
Where operations are sensitive to local (near-site or on-site) environmental conditions or to
changes in these, real-time measurement, as well as regular forecast, both prior to start and
during operations, shall be considered.
Metocean parameters limiting environmental conditions shall comply with ISO 19901-1.
With regards to marine operations, reference shall be made specifically to ISO 199011:2005, 5.9, which deals with metocean parameters for short-term activities.
A set of limiting metocean criteria that is dependent on the type and duration of the
operation shall be established. Such criteria shall include, but not be limited to,
- wind magnitude and direction,
- wave height and period,
- current magnitude and direction,
- swell magnitude and direction.
A weather-restricted operation is a marine operation that can be completed within the limits
of a favourable weather forecast. The reliability of weather forecasts is such that weatherrestricted operations should generally be completed within 72 h.

Recommendations for new or additional guidance:


a) That a piece of guidance text will be drafted, or
b) That further study / work / assessment should be performed,
or
c) That no further action is required.

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ISO19901-6

SB2.4.3 Ice management plan

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ISO19901.6

SB2.4.4 Ice forecast lead

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ISO19901.6

SB2.4.5 Contingency plans

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ISO19901-6

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ISO19901-6

S7.1

Introduction

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ISO19901-6

S7.1

Introduction

7
7
7
7
7

7
7
7
7
7

1
1
1
1
1

7.7.1 Weather monitoring


7.7.1 Weather monitoring
7.7.1 Weather monitoring
7.7.1 Weather monitoring
7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ISO19901-6

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ISO19901-6

S7.3.1 Wind

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ISO19901-6

S7.3.2 Wave and swell conditions

Wave conditions shall be considered in the planning and engineering of marine operations. Design item, delete
For the description of the wave and swell parameters, reference is made to ISO 19901-1.

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ISO19901-6

S7.3.2 Wave and swell conditions

If swell has a noticeable effect on the operation, the response of the vessel to combined
Check for the effects of waves and ice; spray ice
wind-driven seas and swell should be evaluated. In shallow water, lateral surge motions due
to shoaling swell and second order wave drift actions should be considered.

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ISO19901-6

S7.3.2 Wave and swell conditions

Not relevant for AOH

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ISO19901-6

S7.3.2 Wave and swell conditions

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ISO19901-6

S7.3.2 Wave and swell conditions

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ISO19901-6

S7.3.3.1 Current

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ISO19901-6

S7.3.3.1 Current

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ISO19901-6

S7.3.3.3 Current

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ISO19901-6

S7.3.3.3 Current

For operations involving phases that are sensitive to large or extreme wave heights, such
as temporary on bottom
For precise operations that are sensitive to small fluctuations of the sea level, even under
calm sea state conditions, the occurrence of long period, small amplitude swell on the site
should be checked.
Attention should also be paid to particular site conditions that are prone to current acting
against the waves, which can amplify wave steepness.
Current conditions shall be considered in the planning and engineering of marine
operations. For the description of the current parameters, reference is made to ISO 199011.
For marine operations, data and forecasts should be provided for current speed and
direction including, as appropriate, current profiles from the surface to the sea floor.
for sites where tidal current dominates, measurement during at least one complete lunar
cycle during the same season of the year as the actual planned operation;
for sites where the complexity of the bathymetry (topographical current) can generate
unstable flow, real-time current measurements with devices that record the current velocity
and direction, with readouts at various depths; an example is the shedding of current
stream around land obstacles that can introduce macro vortices in the main current flow.

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ISO19901-6

S7.3.4 Other metocean factors

Check parameters individually and in combinations

7
7
7
7

7
7
7
7

1
1
1
1

7.7.1 Weather monitoring


7.7.1 Weather monitoring
7.7.1 Weather monitoring
7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ISO19901-8
ISO19901-9

S7.3.4
S7.3.6
S7.3.7
S7.3.4

7
7
7
7
7

7
7
7
7
7

1
1
1
1
1

7.7.1 Weather monitoring


7.7.1 Weather monitoring
7.7.1 Weather monitoring
7.7.1 Weather monitoring
7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ISO19901-11
ISO19901-12
ISO19901-13

Other factors and combinations of factors that can be critical and shall be considered
include :
- combinations of wind, wave and current;
water level, including tide and surge;
restricted visibility;
- sea ice, icebergs, snow and ice accretion on topsides and structure, exceptionally low
temperatures;
tropical cyclones, dust storms and wind squalls;
water density and salinity;
precipitation;
- air temperature;
- water temperature.

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ISO19901-6

S7.3.5 Temperature

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ISO19901-6

S7.4.1 Design and operational criteria

S7.7.3 On site monitoring

S7.2.1 Weather-restricted operations

S7.2.2 Weather-unrestricted operations

S7.3.9
S7.3.10
S7.3.11
S7.3.4
S7.3.4

Priority:
High
Medium
Low

Further study work; JIP;


assessment

WG3

Use and enhance

Medium

WG 3 ? Could serve as a support for "7.3.1. visibility"


issues (ice detection during reduced visibility)

See Row 258

This is the main support for this Section IMO monitoring

High

Check for ice / operations; see Priority listing

Low

to be enhanced

?? Should be in WG 3 or under Equipment

add visibility and temperature, see priority


This is the main support for this Section IMO monitoring

High

to be enhanced; to
include
detection,
monitoring,
recording
and forecasting

Weather-unrestricted operations can safely take place in any weather condition that can be Not for AOH, except for The weather condition's shall reflect Medium
encountered during a season. The weather condition's shall reflect the statistical extremes the statistical extremes for the area and season concerned.
for the area and season concerned.
Wind conditions shall be considered in the planning and engineering of marine operations. Design item, delete
For the description of the wind parameters, reference is made to ISO 19901-1.

Not different for arctic operations, delete for AOH

Delete from AOH? Check ice and currents


Design issue. Delete from AOH

Standing requirement for WP2


Helps in monitoring ice drift patters\

Medium

Helps in monitoring ice drift patters\

Medium

wind and current focus (ice drift; seasons)


not key, same as o.w.
second level priority
Highest priority
n.a.
n.a.
key importance on personnel, WG4
impact on freezing of water and ice growth; end of summer
season
See WG 3

The occurrence of extreme high and low environmental temperatures shall be considered
for their effect on equipment, operations and personnel.
For each specific phase of a marine operation, the design and operational metocean criteria check for ice impacts; most is WG 3 and rest in Design
shall be defined as follows :
aspects

High
Medium
High

check
impact
combined effects

of

Paragraph

Section

Chapter

Index item (chapter)


[Index item is derived from ISO 19901-6 as a basis with
additional chapters defined from workshop input. New or
changed chapters are indicated in red]

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

7
7

7
7

1
1

7.7.1 Weather monitoring


7.7.1 Weather monitoring

7
7

Clarification
[What is the scope of the
index item]

Relevant other
codes /guides

Section Title
[Title of the relevant other code /
guide]

ISO19901-6

S7.4.2 Return periods

19906

6,5,1

Sea ice - General

Arctic O. O&G
ASPPR

S 4.1
S6.3

Environmental monitoring

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ASPPR

D 6.3

Vessel navigation

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ASPPR

S 6.3.1 Vessel navigation, post trip

7
7

1
1

7.7.1 Weather monitoring


7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ASPPR
ASPPR

All
S 6.3

Zone date system


Zone date system

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

IMO Polar

12.11

Ice routing equipment

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

IMO Polar

13,4,2 Evacuation

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

IMO Polar

14,1,2 Ice navigators

7
7

7
7

1
1

7.7.1 Weather monitoring


7.7.1 Weather monitoring

IMO Polar
ONS 12

1.2
5.2

Ice navigators
Risk management i practice

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

ONS 12

5.2

Risk management i practice

7.7.1 Weather monitoring

pre, post surveys

ISO19901-6

Vessel navigation

S7.4.4 Probability distributions of sea

state parameters

7.7.2 Forecasting

7.7.2 Forecasting

ice and weather, structure and


systems, ice management

19906

17.1

Ice management - general

19906 17,2,3 IM performance

Comments
[Comments on this index item in relation to other codes / guides or in general. Comments on the
existance of GAP's]

The design criteria are that set of values for the metocean parameters (wind, wave, current,
water level, visibility, water density, water salinity, water temperature, marine growth and
icing), for which design, calculations are carried out, and against which the structure and/or
operation is checked.
For the design metocean parameters, the directionality of waves, wind and current shall be
considered.
For weather-unrestricted operations, the operational metocean criteria are the same as the
design criteria, although lower values can be set for practical reasons.
For weather-restricted operations, the operational metocean criteria are that set of values
for the metocean parameters (wind, wave, current, water level, visibility, water density,
water salinity, water temperature, marine growth and icing), which are not exceeded at the
start of the operation and which are forecast not to be exceeded for the duration of the
operation, allowing for contingencies.
Metocean criteria for marine operations depend on the planned duration of the operation
including
contingency. Generally, operations with a planned duration of up to three days may be
considered as
weather-restricted operations for which a specific weather window may be defined, while
operations with a
planned duration of more than three days should be considered as weather-unrestricted
operations. Return
periods of the metocean parameters for weather-unrestricted operations may be estimated
as a multiple of the
operational duration; a minimum 10 times the duration of the operation may be used.
In areas with consistent weather patterns, the duration of a weather-restricted operation
may be extended
beyond three days, if such an extension can be justified by appropriate documentation.
The choice of return periods should be based on the consequence of failure of the
operation. The regional
hazard curve of the sea state should also be considered. As general guidance, the periods
in Table 2, which
are based on North Sea weather conditions, may be applied. Return periods can depend on
location.
Table 2 General guidance for return periods of metocean parameters
for weather-unrestricted operations (based on North Sea conditions)
Duration of the operation Return periods of metocean parameters
Up to 3 days Specific weather window to be defined
3 days to 1 week 1 year, seasonal
1 week to 1 month 10 year, seasonal
1 month to 1 year 100 year, seasonal
Statistics shall be compiled in a form useful for probabilistic analysis. Data can be obtained
from direct observations at a location, interpretation of satellite imagery, historical
information at the geographic region of the installation, and interpretation of historical
information from a nearby site or from a similar geographical region.
Priority monitoring of extreme weather and ice events
No ship shall be permiited entry. Unless the master has taken into account the weather
conditions
A vessel may enter a zone outside its zone date system if the master has taken into effect
the probability of change in ice conditions during the intended transit and the probable effect
of the change
If a vessel sailed outside the zone, then the master must send in 30 d after the transit
details of the vessel, trip and weather conditions and visibility as well as ice conditions
Provides allowable entry dates, in principle for Canadian waters
No vessel carrying > 453 m3 of oil may navigate in any zone outside the zone date system,
unless, the ice numeral =>zero and the master has taken several aspects into account

Recommendations for new or additional guidance:


a) That a piece of guidance text will be drafted, or
b) That further study / work / assessment should be performed,
or
c) That no further action is required.

Priority:
High
Medium
Low

Further study work; JIP;


assessment

adopt, add ice


Extend to ice

High
Medium

more work required

Adopt

Medium

Adopt

Medium

Design items, not for WG2 and not for AOH

Is this also FEED / Design and not oper's

Zone/Date System (Z/DS) in Canadian Arctic waters:http:/

Can be used as reference for AOH; Discuss


Adopt

Zone/Date System Map and Dates of Entry Table: http://w

All ships should be provided with eq't if receiving ice and weather charts and displaying ice
imagery.
Crew members to be given special instructions for the use of lifesaving apliances in severe
weather and severe sea conditions and ice
All officers and crew should be made familiar with cold weather survival training ; ships crew
should be trained in ship operations in ice covered waters
Continuous monitoring of ice conditions by an Ice navigator should be available
Weather conditions in Arctic are not well understood and long term developments are
uncertain; special design considerations lead to more severe conditions

Adopt, see also WG 3 Design, see also 7.7.3 IT and High


Comm.
see also WG 4 HSE

WG 3 Design

Arctic is a more vulanarable environment; introduce more safety barriers; adopt narrow
operational windows and seasonal operations; check increased consequence of incidents

adopt with added ice and weather monitoring; use and


expand in WG4 HSE. And in WG3 Design and planning

In order to understand the relationship of sea state parameters, such as the significant
wave height and peak period, the unit- and bi-variable distributions should be examined.
This includes the joint frequency distributions of significant wave height and period, and
wind speed, wave height and current speed versus direction. For those parameters that
dictate operability, weather windows should be computed.
IM may include detection and forecasting.

A Similar approach is possible for ice conditions. High


Develop joint probabilities and Add ice (during monitoring).
Part of weather monitoring

see also WG 4 HSE


Adopt, see also WG 4 HSE
Add ice and ice island monitoring (CAD Arctic)

check and expand

The expected performance of ice detection, tracking and forecasting capabilities and the
use, operations aspects
associated uncertainties shall be documented, and should reflect the actual performance of
the types of systems or devices that will be used in the context of expected metocean
conditions, visibility and offshore operations.

High
High

High

High

further work needed

further work needed;


build long term criteria
and build database

more work required

Paragraph

Section

Chapter

Index item (chapter)


[Index item is derived from ISO 19901-6 as a basis with
additional chapters defined from workshop input. New or
changed chapters are indicated in red]

Clarification
[What is the scope of the
index item]

Relevant other
codes /guides

Section Title
[Title of the relevant other code /
guide]

7.7.2 Forecasting

19906 17,3,1 IM capabilities - requirements

7.7.2 Forecasting

7.7.2 Forecasting

7.7.2 Forecasting

7.7.2 Forecasting

7.7.2 Forecasting

7.7.2 Forecasting

ISO19901-6

S7.7.1 Metocean forecast - General

7.7.2 Forecasting

ISO19901-6

S7.7.1 Metocean forecast - General

7
7
7
7
7
7

7
7
7
7
7
7

2
2
2
2
2
2

7.7.2 Forecasting
7.7.2 Forecasting
7.7.2 Forecasting
7.7.2 Forecasting
7.7.2 Forecasting
7.7.2 Forecasting

Weather forecast EE

ISO19901-6

S12.2.8 Weather forecast

ISO19901-6

S7.7.2 Forecast parameters

Comments
[Comments on this index item in relation to other codes / guides or in general. Comments on the
existance of GAP's]

Recommendations for new or additional guidance:


a) That a piece of guidance text will be drafted, or
b) That further study / work / assessment should be performed,
or
c) That no further action is required.

Priority:
High
Medium
Low

Further study work; JIP;


assessment

ice detection incl tracking and forecasting

basic need for this WG

High

more work required, see


above to support IM, incl
detection,
recording,
monitoring
and
forecasting

The transportation shall not start unless the forecast is for stable weather, predicting
favourable environmental
conditions for a period of 48 h as recommended in Clause 7. The forecast should be made
by a competent
forecaster who has the necessary data at his disposal to make a highly specific
recommendation for the particular tow.
The forecast should show the operational weather conditions, taking into account the
margin defined in 7.5.3.
If the transportation is a weather-unrestricted operation, departure should still take place on
a favourable forecast in order to allow time to obtain adequate sea room.
Forecasts shall be obtained before and during marine operations. The forecast shall be
issued at suitable regular intervals dependent on the operation, with the intervals not
exceeding 12 h.
For complex and/or long weather-restricted operations, forecaster's) with local experience
shall preferably be present on-site to check the local situation and provide regular weather
briefing based on forecasts from two independent sources. This applies to major marine
operations such as these examples
- float-over topsides;
- float-out;
- GBS tow out;
- offshore installation and lifting;
- sensitive barge towing.
The forecast should cover short- and medium-term and outlook periods, and should include
:
- synopsis, barometric pressure, temperature;
- wind direction and speed, where the speed should be given for 10 m and 50 m heights
above sea level;
- the wind speed should indicate 1 min and 1 h means and also indicate wind gusts;
- waves and swell, including significant and maximum height, direction and period;
- loop currents and wind squalls;
- visibility, rain, snow, sleet, icing and sea ice;
- confidence level of the forecast.

add ice and other operational priorities


adjust by equipment capabilities, operations specific
add to AOH, ice observer needs

High

add ice and other operational priorities

High

yes; enhance due to its importance in all operations

High

add ice requirements and local and global monitoring High


needs; add ice forecasts; use ISO text since it is applicable

High
High
High
High
add dredging etc and add floaters
High
revise and adjust for in ice operations and priorities from all Medium

7
7

7
7

2
2

7.7.2 Forecasting
7.7.2 Forecasting

7
7
7
7
7

7
7
7
7
7

2
2
2
2
2

7.7.2 Forecasting
7.7.2 Forecasting
7.7.2 Forecasting
7.7.2 Forecasting
7.7.2 Forecasting

7.7.2 Forecasting

Barents2020

3.2.1

Data on ice and icebergs

Less reliable weather forecasts combined with small scale, very local atmospheric
phenomena, such as polar lows, increase the probability of failing or disrupted operations.

7.7.2 Forecasting

Barents2020

3.2.3

Ice management

7.7.2 Forecasting

Barents2020

7.7.2 Forecasting

Arctic O. O&G

S 3.5

Environmental Impact Assessment EIA

7.7.2 Forecasting

Arctic O. O&G

S 7.2

Response (oil spill)

High
Improve weather-, ice- and iceberg forecasts by improved observational network for
add ; important operation
weather forecasting and meteorological databases for Barents Sea.
It may be anticipated that the icebreakers conducting the ice management operation will
reference; add to WG3 on equipment and IM
have problems operating during the heavy ice conditions that drive the design. A lack in the
ISO rules is the including of IM in the design.
Add weather, ice aspects See WG HSE 4
The EIA shall be based on the forecasting methods used to assess the effects on the
environment and any limitation
The Ice management plan should include details regarding ice detection, ice surveillance,
Good section, adopt; See also S 7.7,3 IT and comm.; All High
data collection, forecasting and reporting of encroachment, hazards and loading
users must have access to the same data and systems
must be in place to send such data back and forth;
Consider in WG3 design since it is equipment related

7
7

7
7

2
2

7.7.2 Forecasting
7.7.2 Forecasting

IMO Polar

14.2

Navigator qualifications

7
7

7
7

2
3

7.7.2 Forecasting
7.7.3. IT Information and communication techn

7.7.3. IT Information and communication techn

19906 15,1,3,2, Topsides - Communication


1

At least two independent communication system technologies shall be provided on the


facility to ensure redundant communication to shore-based facilities under adverse Arctic
environmental events.

7.7.3. IT Information and communication techn

19906

7.7.3. IT Information and communication techn

7.7.3. IT Information and communication techn

These requirements could include a minimum period of site specific data (according to
country regulations), the type of data to be collected, and a definition of extreme design
criteria.
A reference is given to the Russian code (GOST 50829-95) where common requirements
and test methods are provided. GOST 52454-2005 is about global navigating satellite
system and global system of positioning.
Although available measured data and results from numerical models do not show worse
metocean design criteria related to wind, waves and currents in the Barents Sea than
further south on the Norwegian shelf (the North Sea, mid-Norway), less knowledge about
the physical environment in the Barents Sea introduces larger uncertainties into the
estimates of values with annual recurrences of 10-2 and 10-4.

4.1.4.4. Ice management

If appropriote the IM plan to include forecasting of oil in ice drift.


ice navigator should be trained including the use of ice forecasts and other interrelated
aspects

communication, data storage,


handling, data management,
remote sites

further work needed

WG's

adopt; ice specific is function of operations; add some High


scenarios (best and worst cases)
add ; polar lows are important to operations; why do they Medium
occur, how to forecast and fill in the GAP.

Good section, adopt


Adopt, see also WG 4 HSE

High
High

further work needed


further work needed

develop

same
to WG4 HSE

This section should be also show under WG 3 Equipment and Operations Medium
and be included in Monitoring

6,1,1

MO - MO requirements

Barents2020

App.1

Telecommunication

Barents2020

App.1

Database of metocean elements

add ice and remoteness and ice worthiness' of ops. Check Medium
Oper impact on Comm. Add a note that all Contractors and
Companies should work together iin Feed stage and in
Operations Phase with the sharing of data, maximize
bandwidth, exchange data gathered
Seems FEED work, not in AOH?

Operations or Equipment?

More measurements are needed? Is this FEED and EIS High


related? Larger uncertainties -> more requirements to
monitoring system?

further work required for


high
arctic
comm
systems

Paragraph

Chapter

Section
3

Index item (chapter)


[Index item is derived from ISO 19901-6 as a basis with
additional chapters defined from workshop input. New or
changed chapters are indicated in red]

Clarification
[What is the scope of the
index item]

Relevant other
codes /guides

Section Title
[Title of the relevant other code /
guide]

7.7.3. IT Information and communication techn

7.8 Earthquake

7.9 Sea Ice and icebergs

10

7.10 Environment & Eco-system monitoring

10

7.10 Environment & Eco-system monitoring

Barents2020

4.6.5

10

7.10 Environment & Eco-system monitoring

BMP (SEIA for the


Greenland part of
the Baffin Bay
area)

10.1.1 Noise assessment, noise from seismic


surveys

10

7.10 Environment & Eco-system monitoring

BMP (SEIA for the


Greenland part of
the Baffin Bay
area)

10

7.10 Environment & Eco-system monitoring

10

7.10 Environment & Eco-system monitoring

10

7.10 Environment & Eco-system monitoring

10

7.10 Environment & Eco-system monitoring

10

7.10 Environment & Eco-system monitoring

BMP (SEIA for the


Greenland part of
the Baffin Bay
area)
BMP (SEIA for the
Greenland part of
the Baffin Bay
area)
BMP (SEIA for the
Greenland part of
the Baffin Bay
area)
BMP (SEIA for the
Greenland part of
the Baffin Bay
area)
OSPAR 2004

10

7.10 Environment & Eco-system monitoring

10

Comments
[Comments on this index item in relation to other codes / guides or in general. Comments on the
existance of GAP's]

Database of metocean elements

ISO19901-6

mammals; noise, vegetation,


impacts pollution, seabed
disturbance and turbidity

Barents2020

S7.8

Earthquake

App.1, Ground motions


sec 7

Underwater noise

Recommendations for new or additional guidance:


a) That a piece of guidance text will be drafted, or
b) That further study / work / assessment should be performed,
or
c) That no further action is required.

High

further work needed


specifically
on
hazardous
ice
conditions, icebergs and
others

WG4 action: more work


pertaining to the effects
of
noise
and
disturbances on wildlife
in Arctic conditions;

Possible effects of earthquakes (not metocean effects as tsunamis) on structures during


marine operations, if applicable, should be taken into account.

use for set down and Oper of systems (anchors, GBS's)


WG 6 Set down

no specific references to ice bergs

Add section on monitoring of icebergs, requirements, criteria and


operational limits and impact;
sea ice monitoring pretty
well covered by Manice and others

Only earthquake-induced ground motions addressed in detail in ISO19901-2; other


geologically-induced hazards only mentioned and briefly discussed; probabilistic seismic
hazard analysis (PSHA)

Check standards of local Governments, i.e. BMP

Underwater noise is posing negative risk on marine mammals and posing negative risk on
marine mammals and fish. The issue is generally addressed by the IFC/World Bank
Standard, but not at the very detailed level.

Check standards of local Governments, i.e. BMP High


http://www.bmp.gl/ - (SvBB: specific guidelines for u.w.
noise by seismic surveying exist, but no guidelines for
drilling noise for instance. The BMP SEIA does state that
displacement due to drilling noise for certain species and
certain times/location are to be expected, and mitigation by
avoiding sensitive areas/times is proposed (see BMP
below)
seismic specific, relevant to our scope? Currently outside
the scope

Seismic sounds in the marine environment are neither completely without consequences
nor are they certain to result in serious and irreversible harm to the environment (DFO
2004). Short-term behavioural changes are known and in some cases well documented, but
longer-term changes are debated and studies are lacking.
A SEIA forms part of the basis for relevant authorities decisions, and may identify general
restrictive or mitigative measures and monitoring requirements that must be dealt with by
the companies applying for oil licences. It is important to stress that an SEIA does not
replace the need for sitespeci c Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs).

Assessment of exploration

No severe impacts are expected if adequate mitigative measures are applied, activities in
Is this part of monitoring, or more related to EIS in WG4?
sensitive areas are avoided in the most sensitive periods and no accidents such as oil spills
occur.

Assessment of development and


production

Noise from drilling platforms has displaced migration routes of bowhead whales in Alaska.
Depending on the location of installations, displacement of migrating and Depending on the
location of installations, displacement of migrating and staging whales and walrus must be
expected.
Careful planning in combination with thorough environmental background studies, BEP,
BAT and application of the Precautionary Principle can do much to limit and mitigate
impacts from development and production, e.g. by avoiding the most sensitive areas and
avoiding activities in the most sensitve periods.
Mitigation measures generally recommend a soft start or ramp up of the airgun array each
time a new line is initiated. Secondly it is recommended to bring skilled marine mammal
observers onboard the seismic ships.

Is this part of monitoring, or more related to EIS in WG4?;


USE EXISTING STANDARDS

10.1.1. Assessment of noise

Further study work; JIP;


assessment

This is an important requirement for future operations /


monitoring. All offshore operations must be monitored such
that all users have access to key information and the most
reliable access and use; exchange of data is key to safe
operation; certain data must be exchanged other my be
exchanged. Systems should be in place to monitor data
received, allow system to be sorted anf filed, alow all data
to be exchanged effectively and can be sent around; data
formats to be checked and standardized

Environmental impact assessment

Assessment of development and


production

Priority:
High
Medium
Low

adopt, but rephrase?

Medium

Is this part of monitoring, or more related to EIS in WG4?


USE EXISTING STANDARDS

seismic specific, relevant to our scope? Not at present USE


EXISTING STANDARDS

10

Monitoring programme

Monitoring programmes should comprise both baseline surveys prior to any petroleum
development and follow-up surveys during exploration, production and decommissioning.

adopt

Medium

OSPAR 2004

11

Field specific monitoring

Field specific monitoring should be based on a baseline survey and should address spatial adopt
and temporal trends in contamination and effects within the impact zone of an offshore
petroleum field or installation. The focus should be on the verification of predicted impacts
at individual fields. These monitoring programmes should start shortly after drilling activities
have started. Consecutive field specific monitoring should be integrated into wider area
(regional) monitoring programmes where these are in place.

Medium

7.10 Environment & Eco-system monitoring

OSPAR 2004

12

Coordinated wider-area (regional)


surveying

10

7.10 Environment & Eco-system monitoring

OSPAR 2004

13

Regional monitoring

10

7.10 Environment & Eco-system monitoring

OSPAR 2004

14

Comparability of monitoring surveys

10

7.10 Environment & Eco-system monitoring

OSPAR 2004

16

Monitoring station planning

In order to put offshore industry installation impacts into a more holistic context, coordinated wider area (regional) surveys should be conducted. Such monitoring should
describe general environmental background levels in addition to data from the field specific
monitoring in the region and will provide information on large-scale environmental patterns
and enable the added effects of adjacent installations in areas of intense offshore activity to
be assessed.
The regional monitoring should describe general environmental levels distant from the
installations and the integrated impact of offshore activities in a wider area.
To facilitate inter-annual comparison, fieldwork for baseline and monitoring surveys should
be carried out in the same season each year. Sediment surveys should preferably be
carried out in spring in order to avoid problems related to newly settled juveniles of benthic
fauna.
The orientation and extent of the station pattern should be based on the predicted area of
influence as determined by dispersion modelling, discharge scenarios and local
environmental conditions.

not sure whether we need to add this. Not sure whose


responsibility it is to coordinate (government?).

not sure whether we need to add this. Not sure whose


responsibility it is to coordinate (government?).
Medium
adopt

adopt

Medium

Paragraph

Section

Chapter

Index item (chapter)


[Index item is derived from ISO 19901-6 as a basis with
additional chapters defined from workshop input. New or
changed chapters are indicated in red]

Clarification
[What is the scope of the
index item]

Relevant other
codes /guides

Section Title
[Title of the relevant other code /
guide]

10

7.10 Environment & Eco-system monitoring

OSPAR 2004

19

Monitoring station planning

10

7.10 Environment & Eco-system monitoring

OSPAR 2004

20

Number and positioning of sampling


stations

10

7.10 Environment & Eco-system monitoring

10

7.10 Environment & Eco-system monitoring

10

7.10 Environment & Eco-system monitoring

OSPAR 2004

21

Sampling requirements

10

7.10 Environment & Eco-system monitoring

Arctic O. O&G

S3

EIA

10

7.10 Environment & Eco-system monitoring

Arctic O. O&G

S4

Environmental monitoring

10

7.10 Environment & Eco-system monitoring

Arctic O. O&G

S3

EIA

7
7

10
11

7.10 Environment & Eco-system monitoring


7.11 Seabed

7
7
7
7
7

11
11
11
11
11

7.11 Seabed
7.11 Seabed
7.11 Seabed
7.11 Seabed
7.11 Seabed

11

7.11 Seabed

11

7.11 Seabed

11

7.11 Seabed

ISO 19906

11

7.11 Seabed

ISO 19906

7
7

11
11

7.11 Seabed
7.11 Seabed

Barents2020
Guidelines to
environmental
mitigation assessment
of seismic activities in
Greenland waters

12

7.12 Surveys

12

Comments
[Comments on this index item in relation to other codes / guides or in general. Comments on the
existance of GAP's]

Recommendations for new or additional guidance:


a) That a piece of guidance text will be drafted, or
b) That further study / work / assessment should be performed,
or
c) That no further action is required.

Medium
The station network for field-specific monitoring should be finalised once the installation(s) adopt
and final discharge point(s) have been established. It should include as many as possible of
the stations established for the baseline survey. It is desired that consistency in the
distribution of sampling stations be maintained throughout the monitoring period to facilitate
interpretation of spatial and temporal trends. If initial results show that the impact
associated with a field extends beyond the outermost stations, the station network should
be extended accordingly. New industrial activities and results from monitoring may also call
for the establishment of new stations.
Medium
The number and positioning of sampling stations necessary to describe the environmental adopt
conditions in a wider region covering several offshore fields cannot yet be advised with any
certainty. The use of power analysis to support survey design will be critical. Stations should
be positioned at a variety of distances from known or planned discharge points. It will be
essential that trials are undertaken and the experience gained from those trials is used to
improve subsequent survey practice.
Focus on monitoring part? A lot is already covered in WP4 ;High
Check with HSE team
For regional monitoring on the Norwegian shelf, where the regions are defined by whole
Could be Norway specific.; Adopt this rule and make the
degrees latitude, a minimum of 10 such stations are established in each region on basis of number of stations a function of the remoteness and the
a regional baseline survey. If a new field is developed in the region, the need for additional area of operations / severity of conditions
reference stations should be considered.

Sampling equipment, sample collection, and treatment and storage of samples should be in
accordance with the JAMP Guidelines for monitoring contaminants in sediments
(Agreement 2002-16) and the JAMP Eutrophication Monitoring Guidelines: Benthos
(Agreement 1997-06). The following conditions of the sediment should be monitored: visual
description of the sediment surface;presence of large and/or conspicuous fauna, sediment
colour,smell, grain size distribution, total organic carbon, hydrocarbons and synthetic drilling
fluids, metals and benthic macrofauna.
Environmental monitoring programs to be adequate and intercompatible so that the results
may be compared from one yr to another and from one place to another
includes special sections and subsections on the Aim, areas to be monitored, monitoring
methods, standards and follow up
EIA should include the effects of ice dynamics

adopt, add noise (could refer to EU noise standardization as Medium


part of MSFD)?

Adopt

Medium

Adopt; can be of use in WG HSE and Pilot on EIS

Medium

Adopt and expand with other key weather and ice factors Medium
within this section
Guidance should be included on the approach of EIA

local and global

19906

6,6,4

Sea bed - Ice gouge

19906

9,2-1

Site investigations

19906

9,2,3

Geophysical survey

9.4.10
9.5.3
9.5.4
9.6.7
9.7.1
9.7.3.2
3.2.3 Ice management
Sec. 6 Recommendations for best

practice of conducting seismic


surveys

ISO19901-6

S7.5.1 Weather-restricted operations

7.12 Surveys

ISO19901-6

S7.5.1 Weather-restricted operations

12

7.12 Surveys

ISO19901-6

S7.5.1 Weather-restricted operations

12

7.12 Surveys

ISO19901-6

S7.5.3 Margins on weather

Priority:
High
Medium
Low

High

Data on ice induced seabed gouging shall be obtained to determine frequency of gouge
occurrence, depth, width, length, and direction.
The near-field investigation shall include as a minimum:
- a bathymetry survey
- a geophysical survey, including ice scour delineation where applicable
- a geotechnical investigation
High resolution geophysical survey methods and equipment shall be chosen with due
consideration for site conditions and the intended purpose. The capabilities of the
equipment with regard to the depth of penetration and resolution shall also be considered.

this is a FEED item

The areal extent, spacing, and orientation of the geophysical survey lines shall be
compatible with the purpose of the investigation and the type (near-field or far-field), and
with the nature of the seafloor and seabed features.
Additional features pertinent to arctic conditions include; the depth, frequency and
distribution of ice gouges and the presence or otherwise of shallow permafrost and gas
hydrates. In areas of shallow permafrost, consideration shall be given to the use of special
geophysical investigation techniques such as the incorporation of shorter receiver arrays or
the application of resistivity methods.
Construction and installation to be compatible with soil criteria
Long term soil effect on foundations
Installation and removal
Installation piled structures
Floating Structures refers for foundations to 19901-7
Installation of suction anchors
Establish methods for inspection of subsea equipment in areas with sea ice.
Safety zone, ramp-up, acoustic monitoring and observations, use of airguns, models of
impact assessment

seems relevant here; adopt

Medium

seems relevant here; adopt

Medium

survey is required if ice was on site prior operations

Feed work? Check. Also applicable to WG 3 Equipment

Operations WG6 Installation

Operations WG6 Installation


yes, keep; Oper and equipment specific WG 8
seismic specific, relevant for our scope? Not at Present

Weather-restricted operations shall be planned using reliable time history data that indicate Check on ice impact , Feed work
not only the probability of not exceeding the limiting criteria but also the persistence of such
conditions for the season considered.
Consideration shall be given to applying a reduction factor to the limiting criteria in order to Design issues outside of AOH
account for remaining uncertainties. The reduction factor should be determined as a
function of the duration of the operation, the number of data sources and the quality of the
available data.
Weather windows should be developed based on thresholds of the key sensitive
Design issues outside of AOH
parameters of the operation.
For example, based on known limiting thresholds
for wind and wave, the duration statistics for favourable conditions should be computed.
A margin shall be added to the design weather criteria, if these are based on statistical
Design issues outside of AOH
maxima. The margin accounts for inaccuracies in the calculation model and the probability
of exceeding the maxima. For precise operations, a margin of 20% on critical parameters is
recommended. For other operations, it is a matter of judgement.

Further study work; JIP;


assessment

add noise monitoring

Check
the
relation
between the # of stations
and the operation, area
and other variables

Paragraph

Section

Chapter

Index item (chapter)


[Index item is derived from ISO 19901-6 as a basis with
additional chapters defined from workshop input. New or
changed chapters are indicated in red]

12

7.12 Surveys

7
7

12
12

7.12 Surveys
7.12 Surveys

12

7.12 Surveys

12

7.12 Surveys

12

7.12 Surveys

12

7.12 Surveys

7
7

12
12

7.12 Surveys
7.12 Surveys

7
7

12
12

Clarification
[What is the scope of the
index item]

Relevant other
codes /guides

Section Title
[Title of the relevant other code /
guide]

Comments
[Comments on this index item in relation to other codes / guides or in general. Comments on the
existance of GAP's]

Recommendations for new or additional guidance:


a) That a piece of guidance text will be drafted, or
b) That further study / work / assessment should be performed,
or
c) That no further action is required.

ISO19901-6

S7.6.1.2 Time schedule

The forecast window duration shall be in excess of the total critical operational schedule.
This should be evaluated against a background of the planned operation and the
consequences of exceedance. As a guideline, the following points should be considered:

check for ice; check for operations

- extra allowance for operations with vulnerable or critical equipment;


- reduced allowance for operations with a time schedule based on previous similar
operations;
- extra allowance for operations in geographical areas and/or seasons where conditions are
difficult to predict.
Weather-restricted operations shall be divided into a series of phases where the operation
Discuss; Feed work and WG 3 Operations
can be aborted and brought to a safe condition within the remainder of the existing weather
window. The weather window in which conditions remain below operational criteria shall be
of sufficient duration to reach a safe condition before proceeding beyond the point of no
return (PNR).
The reliability of the weather window is crucial for the critical period during an operation
between any PNR and the structure reaching a safe situation.
In particular, when the temporary construction mooring is set up close to the shore, special
Discuss; Feed work and WG 3 Operations
consideration shall be paid to :
- change of wave direction when rounding the shore contour;
- instability of the tidal current in speed and direction due to the bathymetry close to
headlands;
- increase in wind speed and change of direction when close to landscape highs.
"Collection of metocean data" in the NORSOK N-002 standard presents functional
use, add ice, see priorities
requirements and common principles for collection of meteorological and oceanographic
data
Intended as an initial reference for offshore operators when planning metocean monitoring use, add ice, see priorities
equipment on offshore installations
Sea ice, icebergs, icing and wind chill are new elements that may increase both frequency use, add ice, see priorities
of accidents and the consequences thereof. Data on ice and iceberg are insufficient.

Priority:
High
Medium
Low

ISO19901-6

S7.6.2 Point of no return

ISO19901-6

S13.2

7.12 Surveys
7.12 Surveys

Barents2020

App.1, Collection of metocean data


sec 7

12

7.12 Surveys

NORSOK N-002

N-002 Collection of metocean data

12

7.12 Surveys

Barents2020

3.2.1

12

7.12 Surveys

Barents2020

4.1.4.3 Ice data collection

use, add ice, see priorities

Medium

12

7.12 Surveys

Barents2020

4.4.4.10

use, add ice, see priorities

Medium

12

7.12 Surveys

NORSOK N-003

6.4.2.1

use, add ice, see priorities

Medium

12

7.12 Surveys

NORSOK N-003

6.4.2.3

use, add ice, see priorities

Medium

12

7.12 Surveys

Barents2020

4.1.4.3

use, add ice, see priorities

Medium

12

7.12 Surveys

Barents2020

4.1.4.4

12

7.12 Surveys

Arctic Operations
Manual

2.2.1

12

7.12 Surveys

Arctic Operations
Manual

2.2.1

12

7.12 Surveys

BMP Guidelines for


application, execution
and reporting of
offshore hydrocarbon
exploration activities
(excluding drilling) in
Greenland

12

7.12 Surveys

ISO19901.6

7.7

Environmental criteria

Data on ice and icebergs

Measurement methods should be documented in such a way that results from different
measurement campaigns are compatible.
Icing
Ship codes and offshore standards give guidelines for calculation of ice accretion but they
are rudimentary.
Ice accretion
In absence of a more detailed assessment, values for thickness of accumulated ice caused
by sea spray or precipitation may be selected as indicated in the given table for latitude and
height above sea level.
Ice occurrence
For planning of operations, the monthly extreme ice limit with annual probability of
exceedance of 10-2 may be used.
Interpretation of measurement data
Have guidance on how to interpret the data, a check list with possible pitfalls, requirements
for representativeness and for documentation
Ice Management
Not sufficient data on pack ice with a high rate of ridges etc. It may not be possible to
reduce the design ice actions using IM until qualified assumptions on the performance and
reliability connected to IM operations can be made. Use both numerical and physical
modelling for determining minimum guidelines for IM in design.
Weather observations and forecasts
Access to satellite weather imagery that gives nearly real-time pictures from orbiting
satellites. The PCSP uses this information to plan daily aircraft operations and to identify
sea-ice conditions.
Weather observations and forecasts
Basic weather information will involve cloud ceiling, visibility, precipitation, and wind speed
and direction, for example. Weather observation guides are available from the PCSP base
manager (see Section 2.1.1, Contacts)
Meteorological, Oceanographic and Ice The licensee shall, upon BMP request, keep a logbook of meteorological, oceanographic
Observations
and ice observations made during exploration activities. Reporting shall be done in
accordance with the following Chapter 8 of these guidelines and any other specific
requirements on format, as defined by BMP.

Medium

Medium
Medium

Discuss; need to conduct more monitoring and data High


analysis, see also ONS 12 and Barents 2020; Adopt in
WG3 Design
for design and equipment specs WG3

for design and equipment specs WG3

Greenland specific ? This may apply to other locations as Medium


well i.e. Canada

SB2.4.6 Site and route surveys and preparation Appropriate route surveys and environmental measurement programmes should be

low

performed. Where navigational charts are of questionable accuracy or are for areas subject
to changes in seabed topography, a survey s hould be carried out as close to the expected
date of operations as possible. Anticipated tow routes (corridors) and alternate routes
should be sufficiently wide to accommodate deviations of the tow that can be necessary to
avoid encounters with large ice floes or heavy ice features.
Codes are missing, Requirements are missing since technology falls short
Add section on describing spill planing, clean up options High
and monitoring & forecasting needs of spills in ice and
especially under ice and in ice/open water areas. New and
enhanced models are required. Field data and remote
sensing information should be used and integrated.

13

7.13 Oil Spill Monitoring

7
7

13
13

7.13 Oil Spill Monitoring


7.13 Oil Spill Monitoring

19906
19906

13

7.13 Oil Spill Monitoring

13

7.13 Oil Spill Monitoring

19906 10,3,1,4, Spill containment


3
19906 13,9,3,1 Floaters - deck surfaces

5,6,3
5,6,5

Produced water
Spill containment and clean up

clean to environ acceptable standards, before release to sea


Means for the containment and cleanup of polluting fluids should be available at the site
and be proven to operate under the expected environmental conditions.
gravel island to be designed to contain spills, where possible

check for arctic (see BMP below)


no mention of arctic (for increased severity expected in
Arctic see BMP 12.3), Design and Operation WG3
apply to floaters and structures? Design item WG 3

spillage measures from main deck to include..

no monitoring is mentioned; add

Further study work; JIP;


assessment

low

further work required

Paragraph

Section

Chapter

Index item (chapter)


[Index item is derived from ISO 19901-6 as a basis with
additional chapters defined from workshop input. New or
changed chapters are indicated in red]

Clarification
[What is the scope of the
index item]

Relevant other
codes /guides

Section Title
[Title of the relevant other code /
guide]

13

7.13 Oil Spill Monitoring

13

7.13 Oil Spill Monitoring

13

7.13 Oil Spill Monitoring

Barents2020

3.2.2

Risk of oil spill

13

7.13 Oil Spill Monitoring

Barents2020

4.5.1

Risk of oil spill in Barents Sea

13

7.13 Oil Spill Monitoring

Barents2020

4.5.4

Oil spill procedures

13

7.13 Oil Spill Monitoring

ISO 19901-6

13

7.13 Oil Spill Monitoring

BMP (SEIA for the


Greenland part of
the Baffin Bay
area)

12.3

Accidents

13

7.13 Oil Spill Monitoring

ISO 19901-6

S 5.4

13

7.13 Oil Spill Monitoring

Iso 19901-5

13

7.13 Oil Spill Monitoring

13

7.13 Oil Spill Monitoring

13

7.13 Oil Spill Monitoring

11.1.3 Oil spills


BMP (SEIA for the
Greenland part of
the Baffin Bay
area)
11.1.3 Oil spills
BMP (SEIA for the
Greenland part of
the Baffin Bay
area)
BMP (SEIA for the 11.1.3 Oil spills
Greenland part of
the
Baffin
Bay
area)

13

7.13 Oil Spill Monitoring

BMP (SEIA for the 11.2.9 Mitigation of oil spills


Greenland part of
the
Baffin
Bay
area)

13

7.13 Oil Spill Monitoring

Arctic O. O&G

S 7.2

Response contingency planning

7
7
7

13
13
13

7.13 Oil Spill Monitoring


7.13 Oil Spill Monitoring
7.13 Oil Spill Monitoring

Arctic O. O&G
Arctic O. O&G
ASPPR

S 7.2
S 7.2
S 3.2

Response contingency planning


Response contingency planning
Navigation access to zones

13

7.13 Oil Spill Monitoring

ASPPR

S 3.2

Navigation access to zones

8
9
9

0
0
3

8 Weight control
9 Stability
9.3 Stability calculations

9.4 Intact stability

ISO 1901-6

9.5 Damage stability

10

9.10 Loadout operations

11

9.11 Watertight integrity and temporary closures

19906 13,9,6 Inspection maintenance

Comments
[Comments on this index item in relation to other codes / guides or in general. Comments on the
existance of GAP's]

Recommendations for new or additional guidance:


a) That a piece of guidance text will be drafted, or
b) That further study / work / assessment should be performed,
or
c) That no further action is required.

Operation in a cold climate requires dedicated inspection and maintenance schedules,


Part of WG 2? Better in WG 3
plans and procedures. The severity and criticality of equipment failure shall be taken into
consideration in the assessment of priorities.
An Operational Manual shall be prepared for the proper inspection and maintenance of
Best Location?
equipment.
The main environmental challenge when moving into the area is related to oil spill risks and check recent Oil spill standards / monitoring needs, HSE
improvements and standard harmonization/ development should primarily target this.
WG4 ?

Priority:
High
Medium
Low

low
low

low
Identify relevant standards, identify possible gaps and recommend possible modifications to
same, see also WG 4 HSE
these standards in order to secure safe operation and minimize environmental risk of
accidental oil spills.
low
Oil Company shall provide on oil terminals and offshore platforms adequate preparedness
to respond to oil spill sizes up to 1500 tons. Near terminal and offshore platform shall be
stand-by vessel with oil spill response equipment. Oil film shall be localized in 4 hours. REF:
Russian Register of shipping: Volume 2, part 8.
Review requirements for ice accretion and other Arctic severity classes.
adopt; include the effects and impact of icing on deck, on High
equipment and on all oil spill equipment; personnel need to
have proper access to systems, systems must be able to
handle the effects of iceing, systems must be operable and
monitoring must be feasible during times of oil spills;

The lack of adequate response methods in ice-covered waters and the remoteness and
lack of infrastructure in large parts of the assessment area will add to the severity of an oil
spill.

more relevant to WG4?

Ice accretion during construction and transportation : Allowance for possible weight
Adopt for scenarios during oil spills
increase and centre of gravity shift during fitting out (if performed in an arctic or cold regions
environment) and transportation due to ice accretion should be included in the weight and
the stability characteristics of the structure depending on the time of the year the activity
may occur.
weight control during engineering and construction
apply to offshore operations and its impact on oil spill
systems, see above
Oil spill trajectory modelling was carried out by DMI as a part of this SEIA. In most of the
part of monitoring or EIS (then move to WG4)?
modelled oil spill drift scenarios oil does not reach the coasts, but stays offshore. However, Implement such models into monitoring system to respond
three of the 24 scenarios indicate 11 that under certain conditions, oil may reach shores up
to oil spills quicker?
to several hundred kilometres from the spill site.
The high sensitivity of the coastal zone is also related to the fact that oil may be trapped in oil spill tracki ng in ice
bays and fjords where high and toxic concentrations can build up in the water.

High

The spread of an oil spill will, at least in the beginning, tend to be contained and limited by adopt
the presence of sea ice, unlilke in the open sea. Oil will be contained between the ice oes
and on the rough underside of the ice. However, oil caught in or under the ice may be
transported in an almost un-weathered state over long ranges, far from the spill site when
the ice melts.
An important tool in oil spill response planning and implementation is oil spill sensitivity adopt
mapping, which has not yet been carried out in the assessment area.

Medium

Contingency planning process is one of the best practices to evaluate the effects of adopt
response options under varrying weather conditions
Hazards to include heavy weather
adopt
Alert criteria should include heavy weather
Adopt
A type B ship carrying oil as cargo can enter zone 6 from Aug 1-24 if escorted by an adopt; need for selection proper class (WG3) and assess
icebreaker provided she has adequate oil spill equipment
and monitor ice conditions to document the ice numeral and
then confirm entry
A type B ship carrying more than 453 m of oil between Aug 1-24 in Zone 6 provided an adopt; need for selection proper class (WG3) and assess
icebreaker is close to zone 6.
and monitor ice conditions to document the ice numeral and
then confirm entry

Medium

ISO 19901-5

Review requirements for ice accretion and other Arctic severity classes.

ISO 1901-6

Reference is made to chapter 8 - where ice effect needs to be included.


Add consideration for element submergance (refer to clauses in GL Noble Denton)
Effect of ice build up on floating structures to be taken into account based on severity classes.
Update note on extra actions chapter 9.4.1 for ice
Table 10-1 Intact Stability Range indicates requirement of 36 degrees for Inland and sheltered water (in ice
areas)

High
High
Low

GL Noble Denton;
GUIDELINES FOR
MARINE
TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND Rev 4 - 31
March 2010

10.1

Intact stability

GL Noble Denton;
GUIDELINES FOR
MARINE
TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND Rev 4 - 31
March 2010

10.2

Damaged stability

Add guidance for icing on transport & installation


Add guidance for icing on transport & installation

High
High

High

Medium

Medium
Medium
Medium

Medium

Low
Low

Relaxations as defined in 10.2.4 & 10.2.5 are not deemed applicable for ice-affected areas. This is important for
GBS's.

Low

Specific to ballasting of barges / vessels


Add considerations for ice / snow based on severity classes (refer to wight control)

Low
Low

Further study work; JIP;


assessment

Paragraph

Section

Chapter

Index item (chapter)


[Index item is derived from ISO 19901-6 as a basis with
additional chapters defined from workshop input. New or
changed chapters are indicated in red]

12

9.12 Inclining tests

10

10 Ballasting operations

10
10
10

2
3
5

10.2 Ballast system


10.3 Protection against damage and deterioration
10.5 Control and indicating systems

10
10

6
7

10.6 Pumps
10.7 Valve arrangements

10
10
11

8
9
0

10.8 Vent systems


10.9 Air cushion system capacity
11 Loadout

11
11
11
12

1
2
7
0

11.1 Introduction
11.2 Categories of loadout
11.7 Moorings
12 Transportation

Clarification
[What is the scope of the
index item]

12

12.2 General considerations

12

12.3 Towline pull required, fleet composition and towing arrangement

Relevant other
codes /guides

12.6 Offshore tow

13

13 Temporary mooring and stationkeeping for marine operations

13

13.1 Introduction

13
13
14

2
5
0

13.2 Environmental criteria


13.5 Sizing of anchors
14 Construction and outfitting afloat

Comments
[Comments on this index item in relation to other codes / guides or in general. Comments on the
existance of GAP's]

Recommendations for new or additional guidance:


a) That a piece of guidance text will be drafted, or
b) That further study / work / assessment should be performed,
or
c) That no further action is required.

In an Arctic enviornment (depending on severity class) review need to perform intermediate inclining test
GL Noble Denton;
GUIDELINES FOR
MARINE
TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND Rev 4 - 31
March 2010

ABS Low temperature


guide May 2012
ABS Low temperature
guide May 2012

22.12

11
3

Review ballast equipment requirements regarding freezing of pipes and compartments


Add winterisation considerations

Operations
Notations, Cold weather effects

Additional considerations for freezing up of pipes compartments


10.3.2 Gives description of effect of freezing
Depending on severity classes requirements need to be added on the operability of control and monitoring
equipement
Ability to access / control / work at ballasting control areas and winch control areas
Review required of capacity of pumps for ice (parts)
Review required of capacity of valves for ice (parts)
Identify manual override options applicable for arctic climate
Additional considerations for freezing up of air vents (also for various equipment types)
Review requirement to dry air for low temperature areas
Mostly referring to mechanical systems
CCO NOTATIONS, impact on personnel

GL Noble Denton;
GUIDELINES FOR
MARINE
TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND Rev 4 - 31
March 2010

22

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE


TOWAGE OF VESSELS AND STRUCTURES
IN ICE COVERED WATERS

ABS Low temperature


guide May 2012

11
3

Operations
Notations, Cold weather effects

ABS Low temperature


guide May 2012

10

Ice removal

SOLAS consolidated
edition 2009
GL Noble Denton;
GUIDELINES FOR
MARINE
TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND Rev 4 - 31
March 2010

Specific to load-out onto barges / vessels


Overlap with GL Noble denton on tow bridles
Noble Denton code provides segments on transporting through ice.

No action at present

Emphasis on the operational aspects during ballasting and having good


access to all systems engaged in ballasting to the operators centres.

TANDEM TOWS

Low

Low
Low
High

Low
Low

No action at present

Update guidance based on input from Arctic related shipping


documents.

Mostly referring to mechanical systems


CCO NOTATIONS, impact on personnel

Low
Low
Low

Low
Low
Low
High

Low

Low

Transportation motions, tow forces and see also 19902-2007, 8 and 22 and iso 19903-2006, 11
tug efficiency, dry tow cribbage
see also section 11 on Pump capacities
Conditions mentioned only relate to metocean and not to ice.
Aspects of tug classes should include polar class
Review ukc based on recent seabed survey (ice gauging)
Cribbing friction factors possibly influenced by severity classes
Chapter Regulation 6. Ice Patrol Service
Ships transiting the region of icebergs guarded by the Ice Patrol during the ise season are required to make use
V
of the services provided by the Ice Patrol.
13.2.10
In particular circumstances, where the available towing vessel is oversized with regard to TPR (see Section
12.2), and the towline connections are already fitted to the tow, then the towline connections (but not the
towline itself) may be related to the required BP rather than the actual BP. Such relaxation shall be with the
express agreement of the Master of the tug, and shall be noted in the towing arrangements. It shall not apply
for towages in ice areas.

18.4

Priority:
High
Medium
Low
Low

Review by appropriate parties

GL Noble Denton;
GUIDELINES FOR
MARINE
TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND Rev 4 - 31
March 2010
12

Section Title
[Title of the relevant other code /
guide]

Low

Low
Low

18.4.1
These are normally only acceptable in very benign areas or in ice conditions where the towed barges will
follow each other.
18.4.2
In ice conditions the towlines between tug and lead tow and between tows will normally be short enough for
the line to be clear of the water. Care must be taken to avoid tows over-running each other, or the tug.

Low

Emphasis on operational windows and support fleet requirements for


High
getting through NSR or NE Passages. What are the norms and standards
by Canadian, NA and Russian regulators, to be defined, if they exist?
Reliability of positioning / DP system based on DGPS at high lattitudes

Barents2020

RN02

Recommendations for ISO19906

Include requirements / aspects for Ice management


Apply GL Noble Denton clauses regarding tow wire
review effect of working mooring based on ice severities
see clause 7; include ice aspects
Review soil aspects with respect to permafrost
All descriptions are general and indicate limited impact of Arctic conditions

Study use of ice management on operational design criteria for


temporary moored (or DP) construction vessels. These need to go hand
in hand with 7.5 Weather Windows and 7.6 Operational Duration.

High

Low
Low

No action at present

Low
Low
Low

Further study work; JIP;


assessment

Paragraph

Section

Chapter
15

Index item (chapter)


[Index item is derived from ISO 19901-6 as a basis with
additional chapters defined from workshop input. New or
changed chapters are indicated in red]

Clarification
[What is the scope of the
index item]

15 Float-over topsides installation

Relevant other
codes /guides

ISO 19901-6

ISO 19906

15

15.4 Clearances

15
16

6
0

15.6 Operational aspects


16 Pre-laid mooring including foundation

Section Title
[Title of the relevant other code /
guide]

2
3
4
5
6
0

16.2 Installation planning


16.3 Fluke anchor installation
16.4 Plate anchor installation
16.5 Suction anchor installation
16.6 Anchor pile installation
17 Offshore installation operations

ISO 19906

9.4.10
9.5.3
9.5.4
9.6.7

ISO 19906

9.7.1
9.7.3.2

Includes removal of temporary ISO 19906:2010


structures
Barents 2020 - RN02
Barents 2020 - RN02

18
19
19

0
0
3

18 Lifting operations
19 Decommissioning and removal
19.3 Preparation for removal

20
20

0
2

20 Logistics and Transport


20.2 Crew change

20

20.3 Supply base

Recommendations for new or additional guidance:


a) That a piece of guidance text will be drafted, or
b) That further study / work / assessment should be performed,
or
c) That no further action is required.

Referring to 15.2 due consideration to be taken for: hydraulic systems, load transfer systems, ballast systems,
fendering systems, control systems, winches and temporary grillage/load bearing structures.
Reference to be made to 19906 for load bearing structure design with regards to severity classes

Thorough review and update of Float-over guidance in Arctic conditions medium

13.8 Floating structures mechanical systems


13.8.1.3 Icing and snow protection and removal
13.9 Operations - describes safe functioning
of systems, manuals

10.5
12.6
13
Ch 2
Ch 3

Table 1

Priority:
High
Medium
Low

Low

Based on severity classes consideration to be taken on ice "blockage"


Make freeboard severity class dependant
Refer to DNV approach regarding operational times based on severity classes
Construction and installation to be compatible with soil criteria
Long term soil effect on foundations
Installation and removal
Installation piled structures

GL Noble Denton;
GUIDELINES FOR
MARINE
TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND Rev 4 - 31
March 2010
16
16
16
16
16
17

Comments
[Comments on this index item in relation to other codes / guides or in general. Comments on the
existance of GAP's]

Low
Low
Guidance to be updated for cold temperature operations and storage of High
mooring lines. What is imporant is the accessibility of systems during
operations. Think of the SBM access in the SEIC operations. How to deal
with icing and how to monitor and forecast and manage such with
proper risk analysis (operationally).

Floating Structures refers for foundations to 19901-7


Installation of suction anchors
Review requirements for arctic on wires

Low

Refer to severity classes


Review soil aspects with respect to permafrost
Review soil aspects with respect to permafrost
Review soil aspects with respect to permafrost
Review soil aspects with respect to permafrost
Conditions mentioned only relate to metocean and not to ice.
Definitons required on status of temporary moored units.

Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
High

Low

Guidance to be updated for cold temperature operations.

Relation to ice management

Low
Add guidance for icing during installation
No action at present

Structural decommissioning

Priority high. No special requirements are posed to the crews of construction vessels compared to those of
other operations. The difference may be that dredgers and pipelyaing vessels could operate alone or almost
alone and will thus be dependent on the local facilities and services provided by the client or local
infrastructure. A proper plan must be in place as part of the Project Planning, pertaining to crew changes in
remote and arctic locations. This to include shelter, alternative landing locations, fuel, overnight
accommodation and emergency search and rescue operations.

High
Low
Low

Transfer to guidance

Low
High

Transfer to guidance

High

Design of suitable supply basis is a project design issue and project requirement. Operationally many things
could go wrong is unsuitable materials were brought up, no rair facilities exist, sailing distances are large so
seasons are lost and communication is difficult. This item to be treated with priority High since it will effect all
dredging and pipelaying operations (if slightly more than mid summer come and go; if the weather worsens
and stingers break or dragarms disappear proper plans shall be prepared to minimize the effects on the
environment. Much the same as a failing Ice Management system.
20

20.4 Transport logistics for structures

21
22
23
27

0
0
0
0

21 Vessel Operation
22 General equipmenpreparation
23 - 26 Health Safety, Environment and Training
27 Dredging

Including transport of supplies

Low

See separate tables


API Recommended
Practice 2N

27

BS 6349-5:1991

27

BS 6349-5:1991

27

BS 6349-5:1991

10.3.2
10.3.3
10.3.4
10.3.6
10.4.2

Planning
Ice Management
Icing
Icebreaker assistance
Earth fill Structures

section 4 Characteristics of dredging plant and


and operational aspects
Appendi
xA
section 5 Guidenace on selection of dredigng
plant.
Section Environemtnal considerations
10

10.3.2: Code implies that ice management and ice forecasting system should be in place including prediction of
fog and polar lows.
10.3.3: It contains a description of the Ice forecasting, Ice surveillance, early warning Alert System and Ice
Clearing Procedures with some useful references on where to obtain ice data.
10.3.4: Some references are made to different forms of icing. This phenomenon can occur at any offshore
construction situated above waterline in cold climates.
10.3.6: Icebreaker Assistance is suggested as an option but provided info is very limited.
10.4.2: It is suggested that dredging can take place in ice covered waters with an adequate ice management
system in place.
The above items are relevant to all offshore activities in this chapter.
gives descriptions of the principal types of dredging plants in common use. In annex A the operational aspects
are described. No entry on arctic conditions affecting operations

gives guidance on selection of dreding plant. We could think of additional considerations when selecting plant
in the arctic.
very generic description of potentioanl effects that dredging may have on the environment

Add guidance for temporary moored construction vessels


More quantitative guidance is required in the estimation of icing
accretion.

Low
Low
High
Low

More guidance is required in defining the allowable ice regime


(including IM) for specific dredging activities
More guidance on selecting ice management systems and determining
its performance should be generated

additional guidance on how on deck systems are affected by icing, cold


temperatures etc (i.e. winches, valves, anchor wires etc.)

Low

Guidance on additional consideration on plant selection for arctic


conditons

Low
Low

Further study work; JIP;


assessment

Paragraph

Section

Chapter

Index item (chapter)


[Index item is derived from ISO 19901-6 as a basis with
additional chapters defined from workshop input. New or
changed chapters are indicated in red]

Relevant other
codes /guides

Hydraulic fill manual


(still to be published)

27

27

Clarification
[What is the scope of the
index item]

27.1 Dredging bottom sediments

27

ISO 19906:2010

API Recommended
Practice 2N

Section Title
[Title of the relevant other code /
guide]

A)
10.3.1.4.
2 B) 9.1
+ 14.2.5

Dredging equipment

Comments
[Comments on this index item in relation to other codes / guides or in general. Comments on the
existance of GAP's]

Recommendations for new or additional guidance:


a) That a piece of guidance text will be drafted, or
b) That further study / work / assessment should be performed,
or
c) That no further action is required.

give operational limitation. Indicates that ice may effect dredging

It is experienced that in the arctic suddenly changing wheather


Low
conditions are surprising the operations and caused damage. Additional
guidance on how to deal with this typical rather unpredicted features in
the arctic
Low

10.3.4: Some references are made to several forms and applications of icing. This phenomenon can occur at
any offshore construction situated above waterline in cold weather.
10.4.2: It is noted that the selection of the borrow site should take into account any possible ice content

More quantitative guidance is required in the estimation of icing


accretion.

A) Consider factors in ships orientation,


including: wave and ice actions, wave
topping, prevailing and extreme winds,
currents and ice movements B)
Boulders and quick (highly sensitive)
clays may be present due to glacial
nature of area & Permafrost present

10.3.4 Icing
10.4.2 Earth fill Structures

27

27

1.1.1 Mechanical dredging by Grab dredge

27

1.2

Transport dredged material


1.2.1 Hydraulic transport through pipeline

27

1.2.2 Loading and transport of dredged material by Barges

27

section Maritime structures part 5 - code of


3.2, practice for dredging and land
table 10 reclamation

gives guidance on factors affecting dredging plant and specifies maximum ice thickness to operate

additional guidelines in performance of dredging in different ice


thicknesses.

Low

ISO 19906:2010 ; ISO


19901-6:2009

A)
A.17.3.4.
3 B)
14.2.4 ;
ISO
199016:2009 13

ISO 19901-6:2009 - Temporary mooring is described; dredge also requires a certain mooring.

guidance on impact of permafrost on dredging production is


recommended, how does permafrost extend underwater. Experience
here is that permafrost hampers production and causes unpredictable
ingress of dredging faces

Low

Hydraulic fill manual


ISO 19906:2010

4
5.4.3

ISO 19906:2010

ISO 19901-6:2009

1.3

1.2.3 Transport of dredged material by TSHD or barge


Placement dredged material

Guidance on how to incorporate existance of boulders in arctic area.


Low
Recommended to include areas where boulders may be of abundance in
arctic areas (morene afzettingen)

BS 6349-5 1991

A) Iceberg management
recommendations on towing
techniques B) special consideration
should be given to trenching or digging
in seabed soils containing permafrost ;
ISO 19901-6:2009 - Temporary mooring
and stationkeeping for marine
operations (including all paragraphs)
dredging equipment

gives overview of available transport methods

limiting environmental conditions


specified, associated weather windows
to be taken into account.

27
27

Low

Low
In areas where ice may develop or
where ice bergs may pass or where the
soil may freeze sufficient statistics shall
Offshore standard DNV- Sec. 3 - be established in order to enable
OS-F101
C400 calculations of relevant loads.
BS 6349-5 1991
section Maritime structures part 5 - code of
gives guidance of estimation of boulder content.
2,
practice for dredging and land
paragrap reclamation
h 2.10.3
soil
classifica
tion,
table 6,
commen
ts on
table 6

27

27
27

Priority:
High
Medium
Low

ISO 19906:2010
API Recommended
Practice 2N

27

Hydraulic fill manual

27

BS 6349-5:1991

27

ISO 19901-6:2009

27

1.3.1 Under water placement by TSHD's and barges (bottom doors, split
hull, valves)

ISO 19901-6:2009

27

1.3.2 Under water placement through diffuser, spreader pontoon

ISO 19901-6:2009

5.4.3

new additional guidance recommended on operability of hydraulic


pipelines in arctic conditions. Experience is that they freeze after
stoppage of work and that it is difficult to make couplings. Morover
valves/control stuctures within the pipelines start to freeze during
operations

limiting environmental conditions


specified, associated weather windows
to be taken into account.
12
Transportation
Transport of offshore equipment on barges show similarities with barges containing dredged material. Also
covered in WG Logistics?
5.4.3 Disposal of dredged amterial
gives guidance on disposal of dredged amterial
10.4.2 Earth fill Structures
It is noted that the placing of frozen fill may create ice build-up and can cause large settlement and that the in- Good comments on the frozen fill but no further guidance, no reference
place properties should take into account ice content.
or any quantification. Generating additional guidance is recommended
6

Construction methods reclamation area nothing metntioned on artic conditions

3.6

Low
Low

Low

Low
Low
Low

Low

code of practice dredging and land


this section gives guidance on disposal of dredged material. Nothing mentioned regarding the artic.
reclamation
17
Offshore installation operations > 17.13 Placement of dredged material is similar activity
Underbase grouting
13 & 17 13 Temporary mooring and
stationkeeping for marine operations
17 Offshore installation operations

Low

13 & 17 13 Temporary mooring and


stationkeeping for marine operations
17 Offshore installation operations

Low

Low
Low

Further study work; JIP;


assessment

Paragraph

Section

Chapter

Index item (chapter)


[Index item is derived from ISO 19901-6 as a basis with
additional chapters defined from workshop input. New or
changed chapters are indicated in red]

Clarification
[What is the scope of the
index item]

Relevant other
codes /guides

Section Title
[Title of the relevant other code /
guide]

13 & 17 13 Temporary mooring and


stationkeeping for marine operations
17 Offshore installation operations

Comments
[Comments on this index item in relation to other codes / guides or in general. Comments on the
existance of GAP's]

27

1.3.3 Under water placement by grab crane or backhoe

ISO 19901-6:2009

27

1.3.4 Under water placement by rainbowing from TSHD of pontoon

ISO 19901-6:2009

27

1.3.5 Under water placement trough suction pipe TSHD

ISO 19901-6:2009

16 & 17 16 Pre-laid mooring including


Mooring structures may be required for hydraulic pipe line connections
foundation. Paragraph 17.15
Attachment to pre-laid mooring system

ISO 19906:2010

10.3.4.3. Size should be enough to prevent


2
movement of individual boulders
17
17 Offshore installation operations >
17.13 Underbase grouting

27
27

17

2.1.1 Installation of rock

17 Offshore installation operations

Low
Low

Low

ISO 19901-6:2009

27

2.1.2 Placement of rock by Side Stone Dumping Vessel

ISO 19901-6:2009

17

27

2.1.3 Placement of rock by Split hull

ISO 19901-6:2009

17

27

2.1.4 Placement of rock by Fall pipe vessel

ISO 19901-6:2009

27

2.1.5 Placement and leveling of rock by Multi purpose pontoon

27

Pipeline Trenching

Priority:
High
Medium
Low
Low

Installation underwater Rock protection


2.1

27

Low
Placement of dredged material is similar activity

Low

17 Offshore installation operations >


17.13 Underbase grouting & 17.15
Launching
17 Offshore installation operations >
17.13 Underbase grouting

Low

17

17 Offshore installation operations >


17.13 Underbase grouting

Low

ISO 19901-6:2009

17

17 Offshore installation operations >


17.13 Underbase grouting

Low

API Recommended
Practice 2N

10.3.2
10.3.3
10.3.4
10.3.6

Planning
Ice Management
Icing
Icebreaker assistance

Low

10.3.2: Code implies that ice management and ice forecasting system should be in place including prediction of
fog and polar lows.
10.3.3: It contains a description of the Ice forecasting, Ice surveillance, early warning Alert System and Ice
Clearing Procedures with some useful references on where to obtain ice data.
10.3.4: Some references are made to different forms of icing. This phenomenon can occur at any offshore
construction situated above waterline in cold climates.
10.3.6: Icebreaker Assistance is suggested as an option but provided info is very limited.
The above items are relevant to all offshore activities in this chapter.

More quantitative guidance is required in the estimation of icing


accretion.

Low

More guidance is required in defining the allowable ice regime


(including IM) for specific dredging activities
More guidance on selecting ice management systems and determining
its performance should be generated
Low

27

27
27

Recommendations for new or additional guidance:


a) That a piece of guidance text will be drafted, or
b) That further study / work / assessment should be performed,
or
c) That no further action is required.

3.1

Pre and post trenching of pipeline

Effects from the following phenomena


are the minimum to be considered
Offshore standard DNV- Sec. 4 - when establishing functional loads:
OS-F101
B100 changed axial friction due to freezing
code of practice dredging and land
BS 6349-5:1991
sec 3.2.3 reclamation
ISO 19901-6:2009
17
17 Offshore installation operations >
17.11 Precise positioning on the sea
floor by active and passive means

gives channel width recommendations on ttrench widths, no difference in arctic

Low
Low

27

3.1.3 pre-trenching by Grab dredge

ISO 19901-6:2009

13 & 17 13 Temporary mooring and


stationkeeping for marine operations
17 Offshore installation operations

Low

27

3.1.4 pre-trenching by Backhoe dredge

ISO 19901-6:2009

13 & 17 13 Temporary mooring and


stationkeeping for marine operations
17 Offshore installation operations

Low

27

3.1.5 post-trenching by Backhoe dredge

ISO 19901-6:2009

13 & 17 13 Temporary mooring and


stationkeeping for marine operations
17 Offshore installation operations

Low

27

3.1.6 pre-trenching by CSD

ISO 19901-6:2009

13 & 17 13 Temporary mooring and


stationkeeping for marine operations
17 Offshore installation operations

Low

27

3.1.7 post-trenching by Jet pontoon

ISO 19901-6:2009

13 & 17 13 Temporary mooring and


stationkeeping for marine operations
17 Offshore installation operations

Low

Backfilling trench
3.2.2 backfilling by placement through spreader / diffuser pontoon

ISO 19901-6:2009

13 & 17 13 Temporary mooring and


stationkeeping for marine operations
17 Offshore installation operations

ISO 19901-6:2009

13 & 17 13 Temporary mooring and


stationkeeping for marine operations
17 Offshore installation operations

Low

ISO 19906:2010

11.3.3 & Ice interaction may cause vibrations to


15.2.7.6 structure

Low

27
27

27

27

3.2

3.2.3 backfilling by placement dredged material by grabdredge or


backhoe dredge

Man-made islands

Low
Low

Further study work; JIP;


assessment

Paragraph

Section

Chapter

Index item (chapter)


[Index item is derived from ISO 19901-6 as a basis with
additional chapters defined from workshop input. New or
changed chapters are indicated in red]

ISO 19901-6:2009

27
4.1

27
27
27

4.2

4.3

27

27

27
27

Reclamation operations

4.1.2 installation of pipelines (floating and landlines)

27

27
27

Relevant other
codes /guides

API Recommended
Practice 2N

27

27

Clarification
[What is the scope of the
index item]

10.3.2
10.3.3
10.3.4
10.3.6

14

4.2.5 Positioning of floating equipment by anchoring

ISO 19901-6:2009

13

13 Temporary mooring and


stationkeeping for marine operations

Ground improvement operations


4.3.2 Underwater placement of suitables (sand, rock, other foundation
material)

Hydraulic fill manual


ISO 19901-6:2009

7
17

Ground improvement
17 Offshore installation operations >
17.13 Underbase grouting

4.3.4 Installation of preconstructed vertical drains

ISO 19901-6:2009

17

17 Offshore installation operations

API Recommended
Practice 2N

10.3.2
10.3.3
10.3.4
10.3.6

10.5

ISO 19901-6:2009

27

5.1.2 Onshore backanchor installation

ISO 19901-6:2009

16

27
27
27

5.1.5 Pipe pull out


5.1.7 Wire lay operations
5.2.1 Piling operations

ISO 19901-6:2009
ISO 19901-6:2009
ISO 19901-6:2009
API Recommended
Practice 2N

11
17
17.14
10.3.2
10.3.3
10.3.4
10.3.6

28

28

6.1

Introduction / assumptions / remarks

Low

Low
Low
Low

Construction of man-made islands in ice


covered regions shall be planned to
include consideration of the limited
construction windows and other
logistical limitations.

Planning
Ice Management
Icing
Icebreaker assistance

Low

Gives overview of ground improvement techniques. Nothing on working conditions in the arctic

Low
Low

Low
10.3.2: Code implies that ice management and ice forecasting system should be in place including prediction of
fog and polar lows.
10.3.3: It contains a description of the Ice forecasting, Ice surveillance, early warning Alert System and Ice
Clearing Procedures with some useful references on where to obtain ice data.
10.3.4: Some references are made to different forms of icing. This phenomenon can occur at any offshore
construction situated above waterline in cold climates.
10.3.6: Icebreaker Assistance is suggested as an option but provided info is very limited.
The above items are relevant to all offshore activities in this chapter.

More quantitative guidance is required in the estimation of icing


accretion.

Low

More guidance is required in defining the allowable ice regime


(including IM) for specific dredging activities
More guidance on selecting ice management systems and determining
its performance should be generated
Low
Low

Pre-laid mooring including foundation

Low

Loadout
Offshore installation operations
Piling
Planning
Ice Management
Icing
Icebreaker assistance

Low
Low
Low
Low

10.3.2: Code implies that ice management and ice forecasting system should be in place including prediction of
fog and polar lows.
10.3.3: It contains a description of the Ice forecasting, Ice surveillance, early warning Alert System and Ice
Clearing Procedures with some useful references on where to obtain ice data.
10.3.4: Some references are made to different forms of icing. This phenomenon can occur at any offshore
construction situated above waterline in cold climates.
10.3.6: Icebreaker Assistance is suggested as an option but provided info is very limited.
The above items are relevant to all offshore activities in this chapter.

More quantitative guidance is required in the estimation of icing


accretion.
More guidance is required in defining the allowable ice regime
(including IM) for specific dredging activities
More guidance on selecting ice management systems and determining
its performance should be generated

Construction and outfitting afloat > 14.3


Construction spread
17 Offshore installation operations >
17.4 Systems and equipment > 17.4.3
Positioning monitoring system

Low

17 Offshore installation operations >


17.2 Installation site
11 Loadout

Low

17

ISO 19901-6:2009

11

Low

Low
additional guidance on impact of icing on operability of umbilicals and
wires connected to ROV
additional guidance on performance of exposed winches in cold
conditions

Stinger handling
Production activities onboard (pipe fabrication)
6.4.1 Transport pipe joints from storage to production line including
upending (j-lay)

Low

14

ISO 19901-6:2009

6.4

More guidance on selecting ice management systems and determining


its performance should be generated

ISO 19901-6:2009

6.1.2 Trench and seabed preparation completed and


inspected/surveyed/approved
6.1.5 Offshore transfer of pipe joints, pipe crates or reels not (yet) part
of pipelay scope
Launch & Recovery of Equipment

28
28

More guidance is required in defining the allowable ice regime


(including IM) for specific dredging activities

Low

28

6.3

Low

7 Metocean and earthquake


requirements > 7.2 Weatherrestricted/wheater-unrestricted
operations & 7.5 Wheater windows

17

28

More quantitative guidance is required in the estimation of icing


accretion.

ISO 19901-6:2009

6.2

10.3.2: Code implies that ice management and ice forecasting system should be in place including prediction of
fog and polar lows.
10.3.3: It contains a description of the Ice forecasting, Ice surveillance, early warning Alert System and Ice
Clearing Procedures with some useful references on where to obtain ice data.
10.3.4: Some references are made to different forms of icing. This phenomenon can occur at any offshore
construction situated above waterline in cold climates.
10.3.6: Icebreaker Assistance is suggested as an option but provided info is very limited.
The above items are relevant to all offshore activities in this chapter.

ISO 19901-6:2009

6.1.1 Positioning reference systems assumed to be available (already


installed and working)

28

Priority:
High
Medium
Low

9, 13 & 9 Stability, 13 Temporary mooring and


16
stationkeeping for marine operations
(including all paragraphs), 16 Pre-laid
mooring including foundation

28

28

Recommendations for new or additional guidance:


a) That a piece of guidance text will be drafted, or
b) That further study / work / assessment should be performed,
or
c) That no further action is required.

Construction and outfitting afloat > 14.3


Construction spread

ISO 19906:2010

Pipelay and subsea installation

Comments
[Comments on this index item in relation to other codes / guides or in general. Comments on the
existance of GAP's]

does not give any guidance on land reclamation in arctic conditions


Gives guidance on land reclamation and
8
beach replenishment
10.2.1 Steel Structures
Concludes that low temperature should be taken into account for steel and welding procedures

Pipe-pull
5.1.1 Offshore anchor pontoon installation

28

Planning
Ice Management
Icing
Icebreaker assistance

Installation shore protection


4.2.1 Quarrying (dimension stone)

Land Falls

5.1

BS 6349-5:1991
API Recommended
Practice 2N

Section Title
[Title of the relevant other code /
guide]

Low
Low
Low
Low

Icing shall be considered for the loading


Offshore standard DNV- Sec. 8 - capacity of temporary linepipe storage
OS-F101
F400 and transportation

Further study work; JIP;


assessment

Paragraph

Section

Chapter

Index item (chapter)


[Index item is derived from ISO 19901-6 as a basis with
additional chapters defined from workshop input. New or
changed chapters are indicated in red]

28
28
28

6.4.3 Work station activities:

28

6.4.4 Move vessel (on DP or on anchors) one multi-joint length, pay-out


pipeline

Clarification
[What is the scope of the
index item]

Bevel pipe ends


Welding (root, filler, gap multiple stations)

28

28

6.6

28

6.7

28

Landfalls
6.6.1 Boka scope

6.8

28
28

Anchor point pipeline

ISO 19906:2010

10.2.1 Steel Structures

Concludes that low temperature should be taken into account for steel and welding procedures

10.2.2 Concrete Structures

Highlights the possible freeze-thaw attack because of the saturation of the concrete. This could maybe be an
issue with concrete coated pipelines going through the waterline

13

11

Investigate or freeze-thaw can be an issue for concrete coating on


pipelines during installation.

11

ISO 19901-6:2009

16

Low
Low

Low

Low
Low

11 Loadout > 11.8 Grounded loadouts

9.7.3.1 Installation suction anchoring; anchor


height in excess of the target
penetration depth. Unreduced
penetration resistance higher due to
permafrost: larger under pressures.
Check if soil plug does not move up
inside the anchor

ISO 19901-6:2009

Priority:
High
Medium
Low
Low
Low
Low

Temporary mooring and stationkeeping


for marine operations (including all
paragraphs)

guidance on anchoring in arctic conditions. A lot of is anchroing done


Low
related to our operations (mainly temporary). How is anchoring different
in permafrost soil conditions?

11 Loadout > 11.8 Grounded loadouts

Low
Low

Abandon & Recovery

mainly a design issue

guidance on impact of sea ice and ice bergs on abandonment of pipeline Low
during laying; I.e. guidance on when to abandon in approach of ice bergs
or ice fields
Low
additional guidance on effect of icing and cold conditions on friction
Low
reduction and ice obstruction mechanisms
guidance on hydraulic fluidity in cold temperatures and obstruction
Low
mehcnisms
Recommendation regarding Impact of arctic environment on operability Low
of these kind of systems and possible obstructions and what to do about
it to keep them operational
Low
Low

mainly a design issue

Low

6.8.4 Abandonment R-lay


Close Hang-off Clamp
Open tensioners

28

Open HOC (Hang-Off Clamp)

6.9

Recommendations for new or additional guidance:


a) That a piece of guidance text will be drafted, or
b) That further study / work / assessment should be performed,
or
c) That no further action is required.

16 Pre-laid mooring including


foundation > 16.1 Installation planning
till 16.7 Gravity anchor installation

28

Pipe Lay Activities (J,S,R lay)


Sec. 4
B100

Offshore standard DNVOS-F101


28

Comments
[Comments on this index item in relation to other codes / guides or in general. Comments on the
existance of GAP's]

additional guidance on impact of exposed winches and wires going


through water surface

ISO 19901-6:2009

6.7.1 This is a fixed anchor point on the seabed against which the vessel
can pull to initiate the pipelay.
6.7.2 Several solutions exist: suction pile, anchor, deadman anchor,
driven pile, existing structure (jacket, template)

28

28
28

API Recommended
Practice 2N
API Recommended
Practice 2N
ISO 19901-6:2009

Section Title
[Title of the relevant other code /
guide]

Intermittent re-positioning of
anchors --> anchor handling
procedure

28
28

28

Relevant other
codes /guides

Sec. 4 - B100 Effects from the following


phenomena are the minimum to be
considered when establishing
functional loads: changed axial friction
due to freezing

Sec. 4 C400 Sec. 4 - C400 In areas where ice may


develop of drift, the possibility of ice
loads on the pipeline system shall be
considered. Guidance note: Ice loads
may be due to ice frozen on the
pipeline system itself, or partly due to
Offshore standard DNVfloating ice, or combination of these
OS-F101
two.

Further study work; JIP;


assessment

Paragraph

Section

Chapter

Index item (chapter)


[Index item is derived from ISO 19901-6 as a basis with
additional chapters defined from workshop input. New or
changed chapters are indicated in red]

Clarification
[What is the scope of the
index item]

28

28

28
28

6.9.5 J-lay

28
28
28

6.9.6 R-lay
6.9.7 Towing Methods

Move vessel one joint length,


thus pulling pipeline from
stinger
Weld second end to pipeline
(PLET / A&R head)

API Recommended
Practice 2N
ISO 19906:2010

A) 11.11 A) Welding consumables shall be


B) 12.5.4 selected with due consideration given
to minimizing preferential corrosion of
welded connections. B) Materials and
welding procedures adapted to the
actual temperatures during welding and
during the design service life on site
shall be used.

Weld and coat new multi-joint


to suspended pipeline (ref.
24.4)

ISO 19906:2010

A) 11.11 A) Welding consumables shall be


B) 12.5.4 selected with due consideration given
to minimizing preferential corrosion of
welded connections. B) Materials and
welding procedures adapted to the
actual temperatures during welding and
during the design service life on site
shall be used.

Towing operation (involving


lead tug, trail tug and
survey/patrol vessel)
1
11

28
28
28
29

Comments
[Comments on this index item in relation to other codes / guides or in general. Comments on the
existance of GAP's]

Recommendations for new or additional guidance:


a) That a piece of guidance text will be drafted, or
b) That further study / work / assessment should be performed,
or
c) That no further action is required.

12
13
0

Install Inline structures


Subsea Tie-in Activities
6.11.2Deploy equipment for metrology (measurement of flange
orientations and relative positions)
6.11.4Lower spool piece with connection running tools from vessel
Subsea Production Systems
Pre-commissioning Pipeline System
29 Floating Oil & Gas Production

ISO 19901-6:2009
API Recommended
Practice 2N

10.2.2 Concrete Structures

12
Transportation
10.3.7 Towing

ISO 19901-6:2009

17

Offshore installation operations

ISO 19901-6:2009

17

ISO 19901-6:2009

18

17.3 Action on and motions of floating


units
Lifting operations

Highlights the possible freeze-thaw attack because of the saturation of the concrete. This could maybe be an
issue with concrete coated pipelines going through the waterline

Priority:
High
Medium
Low
Low

Low

Low

6.9.4 S-lay

28

28
28
28

Section Title
[Title of the relevant other code /
guide]

Sec. 4 - C - 402 The possibility of ice


Sec. 4 - scouring and impacts from drifting ice mainly a design issue
C 402 shall be considered for shore
t/m 405 approaches and areas where ice may
interfere with the seabed and the
submarine pipeline system. 403
Increased hydrodynamic loading due to
presence of ice shall be considered. 404
In case of ice frozen to parts of the
submarine pipeline system or vessels,
(e.g. due to sea spray) the following
forces shall be considered: weight of
the ice; impact forces due to thaw of
the ice; forces due to expansion of the
ice and increased wind, waves and
current forces due to increased
exposed area. 405 Forces from floating
ice shall be calculated according to
recognized theory. Due attention shall
be paid to the mechanical properties of
the ice, contact area, shape of
structure, direction of ice movements,
etc. The oscillating nature of the ice
forces (build-up of lateral force and
fracture of moving ice) shall be taken
into account. When forces due to
Offshore standard DNVlateral ice motion will govern structural
OS-F101
dimensions, model testing of the iceSec. 4 - Sec. 4 - C406 Combinations of
mainly a design issue
C406 characteristic environmental loads in
terms of return period. Ice 100-year for
Offshore standard DNVboth permanent and temporary
OS-F101
conditions.
Sec. 8 F400 Sec. 8 - F400 Icing shall be considered
Offshore standard DNVfor the loading capacity of temporary
OS-F101
linepipe storage and transportation

28

28
28

Relevant other
codes /guides

Investigate or freeze-thaw can be an issue for concrete coating on


pipelines during installation.

Low
Low

Low

Low
Low

Small section in which requirements for towing are set out including ice reconnaissance and temporary
anchoring when ice is present. No particular requirements for the towing of submerged or floating pipe.

Low
Low
Low

Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low

Further study work; JIP;


assessment

Paragraph

Section

Chapter

Index item (chapter)


[Index item is derived from ISO 19901-6 as a basis with
additional chapters defined from workshop input. New or
changed chapters are indicated in red]

29

29.3 Offloading (tanker)

29

29.5 Disconnection Facility

Clarification
[What is the scope of the
index item]

Relevant other
codes /guides

Section Title
[Title of the relevant other code /
guide]

Comments
[Comments on this index item in relation to other codes / guides or in general. Comments on the
existance of GAP's]

Recommendations for new or additional guidance:


a) That a piece of guidance text will be drafted, or
b) That further study / work / assessment should be performed,
or
c) That no further action is required.

Priority:
High
Medium
Low

The following gaps are identified in the existing guidelines with respect to Arctic offloading operations:
Ice load prediction on shuttle tankers in free sailing condition as well as when moored to the floating
production vessel, including effects of passive ad or active ice management (see other WP)
Maneuverability of shuttle tankers in (broken) ice, especially when approaching the moored production
vessel.
Ice load prediction on combined storage and shuttle tanker and the effects of passive ad or active ice
management (see other WP)
Guidelines on offloading philosophy and downtime assessment of tandem offloading in (broken) ice
Remote sensing techniques and risk assessments based on historic data base and operational database (not
done before other than SEIC and a few recent offloading towers); i.e. ice drift forecasting, identification of
hazardous ice, etc.
Check for above additions
Visibility, icing, ballast water, deck water, snow cover, safe access on deck to all equipment, EER, access to
and from

Adopt

High

In Section 2.6.2 is explained that no general rules, regulations, guidelines or standards are available that
describe the specific operation of disconnection of a floating production platform.
Neither ISO 19901-6, nor ISO 19906 cover this quite special, field dependent procedure. Obviously, Arctic
conditions will affect the operation of disconnection, as explained in Section 2.2.3. The following documents
provide information with respect to the general guidelines for Arctic (disconnection) operations:

The above guidelines are not developed for disconnection operations. As Low
guidelines for disconnect operations in non-Arctic climates are
developed on a project-by-project basis, it is recommended to develop
the guidelines or procedures for this operation in arctic conditions also
on a project-by-project basis.

ISO 19906
Barents 2020, phase 4
Arctic FPSO - Technical Feasibilities and Challenges, OMAE2012-83028, Guang Li, SBM Atlantia, Houston, TX,
USA
29

29.7 Stationkeeping

Adopt

High

Guidelines are needed to cover the operational aspects mentioned in section 2.3.3., and which are specific for
operation in Arctic conditions.
The following topics can be mentioned as potential gaps:
Mooring integrity monitoring and assessment
Ice load forecasting to support strategies for shut-down/disconnection
Requirements on ice management systems
Ice drift and risk analysis
Safety/reliability/redundancy requirements to systems needed in a potential disconnection scenario.
Training and testing requirements
29

29.8 Re-connection Facility

Annex A (informative) Additional information and guidance


A.1 General
A.2 Guidance for 6.6.2: Required or recommended documentation
A.3 Guidance for 11.16: Loadout manual
A.4 Guidance for 12.8: Transport manual
A.5 Guidance for 17.18: Installation manual
A.6 Guidance for 18.8.4: Bumper and guide loads
Annex B (informative) Regional information
B.1 Introduction
B.2 Canada
Bibliography

The above guidelines are not developed for re-connection operations. As Low
guidelines for reconnect operations in non-Arctic climates are developed
on a project-by-project basis, it is recommended to develop the
guidelines or procedures for this operation in arctic conditions also on a
project-by-project basis.

Further study work; JIP;


assessment

Arctic Guide Report


Volume 2 Gap Analysis Study Matrix
Version 14-Oct-2013

SECTION 2
WG2 GAP VOLUME 2B

Report no MAR11908-E/1133-RP02

10

Joint Industry Project - Arctic Operations Handbook

Arctic Guide Report


Volume 2 Gap Analysis Study Matrix
Version 14-Oct-2013

2.0

WG2 GAP VOLUME 2B

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6

Staff selection and training


Safety Management
Emergency Response
Escape, Evacuation and Rescue
Waste Management
3D Metocean & Environment

Report no MAR11908-E/1133-RP02

11

Joint Industry Project - Arctic Operations Handbook

Staff selection and training

CONDITIONS

GENERAL NOTES
General
MEDICAL SUPPORT

Medics on board

Training
Experience

Staff selection and training

OPERATIONS

First aid
Psychological support
General
Selection
SELECTION AND TRAINING
Training

FACILITIES

STAFF AND CREW

General
Nutrition
Alcohol consumption
PPE

Gender
Ethnicity
Age
Familiarization
Training session
Drills
Documentation

Other
Clothing

Accommodation
Other
General
Personnel on board
Personnel on bridge
EER & ER team\Firefighting team (other matrises)
= Major challenge

Boulders

Seabed scouring effect

Permafrost

Soil condition

Seabed
Other classes as fuction of season

Ice surface features

Ice condition (drifting)

Ice type

Broken ice conditions (coverage)

Sea ice and icebergs

Forms of ice (diameter)

Tidal currents

Ocean currents

Waves

Water depth

Oceanography

Sea ice (thickness)

Vol 2B Sec. 2.1

Fire prevention

Fire fighting

Safety management

Fire dection/alarm

Fire control

Hospital and medical


care

OPERATIONS

Fire fighting preparation

Barents 2020

SO 19906

ISO 13702 1999

Boulders

Soil condition

Other classes as fuction of season

Ice surface features

Ice condition (drifting)

Ice type

Broken ice conditions (coverage)

Seabed scouring effect

Seabed

Sea ice and icebergs

Sea ice (thickness)

Tidal currents

Ocean currents

Waves

Water depth

Polar lows

Visibility

Atmospheric icing & marine icing

Seaspray icing

Precipitation

Wind chill

Wind speed

Crew selection
Training
Motivation
Storages
Housekeeping
Vessel design
fire fighting equiqment
fire fighting procedures
PPE
Fire fighting team
Training & Drills
Fire fighting & escape plan

5, 7, 8
13.8.1.2

13.8.1.2

14, B12

External support system


Hospital
Smoke detectors
Temperature detectors
Gas detectors
Alarm button
Internal communication
External communication
Access & use PPE
Access fire
Access & use equipment
Supply extinguishing media

6, 10
10

13.8.2
4.2.1

10

12

15, B14

= Major challenge

2.1.2
2.1.4 a
2.1.4 b
2.1.4 c

Oceanography

Extinguish fire
Monitor & prevent re-spark
Assess damage
Number of medics
Hospital capacity
Supplies and storage
Hospital temperature
Medication and supplements
Psychological support
Rescue services and medical suport
Special practives amd experience

Specific guidelines
G 2.1.1
G
G
G
G

Temperature

Meteology

Daylight hours

Darkness

Remoteness

Socio-economic aspects

Environmental vulnerability

Eco system sensitivity

Environment

CONDITIONS

Permafrost

CONDITIONS

Forms of ice (diameter)

Vol 2B Sec. 2.2


Safety Management

= Minor challenge

ISO 19906 13.8.1.2


General, i.e. consider anti-freeze agents
ISO 19906 13.8.2.1
At least one fire pump connected to sea chest e) or to another sea chest with de-icing arrangements.
ISO 13702
Not Arctic specific
Barents 2020 4.2.1
Risk Identification for the Barents Sea
Practise: sufficient salt, sand,gas
oil-dry
detectors which are exposed to atmospheric icing or heavy fog.
Practise: drain pipes, circulate water in pumps
Practise: provide sufficient PPE to allow change of wet clothing

Availability
&
Reliability
Resource
operations

Emergency response

OPERATIONS

MOB & helicopter


Helicopter operations (area/external)
ditch/crash
Recovery, fire
ER Vessel operations
fighting, towing,
MOB & helicopter
FRC operations (unit)
ditch/ crash
Unit-based ER
Maintenance, inspection & repair
equipment
Including rigging,
Emergency repairs
scaffolding, welding,
= Major challenge

Boulders

Seabed scouring effect

Sea ice and icebergs

Permafrost

Soil condition

Other classes as fuction of season

Ice surface features

Ice condition (drifting)

Ice type

Broken ice conditions (coverage)

Forms of ice (diameter)

Oceanography

Sea ice (thickness)

Tidal currents

Ocean currents

Temperature seawater

Meteology

Water depth

Polar lows

Emergency Response

Visibility

Atmospheric icing & marine icing

Seaspray icing

Precipitation

Environment

Wind chill

Wind speed

Temperature

Daylight hours

Darkness

Remoteness

Socio-economic aspects

Environmental vulnerability

Eco system sensitivity

Vol 2B Sec. 2.3


CONDITIONS
Seabed

Escape, Evacuation and Rescue

CONDITIONS

Escape
Evacuation

Vessel (ERV) [C]

Indirect
and SemiDry [B]

Marine &
Amphibious Craft
(Active)
Rafts (passive)

Wet

Survival
Rescue

Escape, Evacuation and Rescue

OPERATIONS

Helicopter
Direct/
Dry

Individual
Indirect & Semi-Dry

Wet
Recovery by
Helicopter
Recovery
Recovery by
Vessel [D]
Other

Transvessel transfer

Alarm & Communication


Escape Routes
Temporary Safe Refuge
Route to Evacuation Points [A]
Escape/ Muster Plan
Chain of Commands
Initial accessibility (base to unit)
Embarkation
Take-off
Transfer to beyond hazard zone
Initial accessibility & Station keeping
Dry transfer from the facility to the vessel
Transfer to beyond hazard zone
Embarkation
Launch
Touch -down/ Impact
Transfer to beyond hazard zone
Launch
Embarkation
Transfer to beyond hazard zone
Abandonment
Touch -down/ Impact
Transfer to beyond hazard zone
Active
Passive
Individual
Indirect & Semi-Dry
Wet
Indirect & Semi-Dry
Wet
Indirect & Semi-Dry
Wet
= Major challenge

Boulders

Seabed scouring effect

Permafrost

Soil condition

Seabed
Other classes as fuction of season

Ice surface features

Ice condition (dirfting)

Ice type

Broken ice conditions (coverage)

Sea ice and icebergs

Forms of ice (diameter)

Tidal currents

Ocean currents

Seawater temperature

Water depth

Oceanography

Sea ice (thickness)

Vol 2B Sec. 2.4

Vol 2B Sec. 2.5


Waste Management

CONDITIONS

Black and gray water

Oily water

6. Waste management

OPERATIONS

Metals

Incineration residues

Organic waste

Paints and solvents

Paper, card and wood

Plastic

Tracking
Handling
Storage
Disposal
Tracking
Handling
Storage
Disposal
Tracking
Handling
Storage
Disposal
Tracking
Handling
Storage
Disposal
Tracking
Handling
Storage
Disposal
Tracking
Handling
Storage
Disposal
Tracking
Handling
Storage
Disposal
Tracking
Handling
Storage
Disposal

ARCTIC COUNCIL
ARCTIC OFFSHORE OIL AND
GAS GUIDELINES

IMO MARPOL

Polar lows

Visibility

Atmospheric icing & marine icing

Seaspray icing

Precipitation

Wind chill

Wind speed

Temperature

Meteology

Daylight hours

Darkness

Remoteness

Socio-economic aspects

Environmental vulnerability

Eco system sensitivity

Environment

1) Annex 1, 10, 2

2) Annex 1, 10, 3
3)
Chap. 6,2

4) Annex 1, 10, 3

= Major challenge
G1; Annex 1, 12
Definitions:
Tracking When is waste produced, how much is produced, waste contents, where is it stored
Handling Lifting materials, pumping, man handling, processing (schredding, burning, filtering)
Storage
Storage condition (on deck, in container, at a certain temperature,
in open waste skip), storage duration, stored amount
Disposal Over board, ship to shore, incinerate, recycle
Sources:
1)
2)
3)
4)

IMO MARPOL
Annex 1, 10, 2
IMO MARPOL
Annex 1, 10, 3
ARCTIC COUNCIL ARCTIC OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS GUIDELINES
IMO MARPOL
Annex 1, 10, 3

Chap. 6,2

Vol 2B Sec. 2.6

3D Metocean & Environment

Precipitation
Ice Fog

Alarm & Communication

Escape

Escape Routes

Direct & Dry


Evacuation

Helicopter
Vessel (ERV)

Wet
Rescue

Individual

Survival

Wet

Recovery

By Helicopter
Helicopter operations

Emergency
Response

Blizzard

Resource operations
Availability, Reliability &
Competence

FRC operations
Emergency Repairs

Initial accessibility (base to unit)


Take-off
Transfer to beyond hazard zone
Dry transfer from unit to ERV
Abandonment
Transfer to beyond hazard zone
Individual
Indirect & Semi-Dry
Wet
MOB & ditch recovery, Medevac
MOB & helicopter ditch/ crash personnel
recovery

Transport Canada Perf. Based Standard EER

Barents 2020 RN04

Sources (numbered)
1

Filling in the gaps:


6.2.2.2

Filling in the gaps:


Escape Specific Standards

2
3
4
5

6.2.3.2
7.1.2.2 (b)
7.1.2.2 (b)
7.1.2.2 (b)

not satisfactory
ice fog only
ice fog only
ice fog only

High potential risk


Possible risk
No risk

Visual alarms, signs, emergency plan postings, arrows, or other visual indicators, shall be protected from the
Auditory alarm or communication devices such as loud speakers shall be
Selection of optimal escape routes and procedure for cold temperature including minimizing external routes, or
alternate escape plan for cold temperature.
Aircraft operations are often suspended in ice fog, so that the preferred evacuation option
(helicopter) is usually eliminated. Alternative preferred evacuation means need to be defined.

Craft shall be designed to compensate for the effects of ice fog.

8.2.2.3 (ii)

Rigging, scaffolding, welding, diving, etcetera


Atmospheric & Seaspray Icing
Accretion rate [cm/hr]
Presence
Low amounts High amounts
Heavy 2-4
Extreme >4
Escape Routes

Evacuation

Direct & Dry

Helicopter
Vessel (ERV)

Rescue

Survival

Indirect & Semi-Dry

Emergency
Response

Resource operations

Helicopter operations
ERV operations
FRC operations

Routes to evacuation points


Initial accessibility
Dry transfer from unit to ERV

External escape routes need: de-icing, need ice anti-slip provisions (e.g. sand) if de-icing not done in time,
cover with canopy to shield from impacts of dropping ice fragments (from rig, etc), route protection/location to
Route from TSR and access to embarkation point shall be maintained clear and passable in cold conditions to
avoid slipping, ice obstructions, or falling ice fragments.

6.1.2 (j), 6.2.3.2, 7.1.2.2, 7.1.2.3

Escape

7.1.2.3

Evacuation system needs to be provisioned with ice/snow removal equipment usable after launch if snow/ice
build-up continues should be operable from inside craft.

9
Active

7.1.2.3
10

Passive
MOB & ditch recovery, Medevac
Recovery, fire fighting, towing, salvage,
MOB & helicopter ditch/ crash personnel
recovery

8.2.2.3 (iii)
RN04-3.2.1 Not satisfactory,
RN04-3.2.3 N.s.

7.1.2.3,

If craft is floating during ice and snow accumulation conditions require


means to clear ice and snow from superstructure, antenna, exhausts,
and windows.

Evacuation system shall be maintained clear of ice build-up, including

Visibility (precipitation)
> Vessel

< Vessel

No

Alarm & Communication

Escape

Escape Routes
Initial accessibility
Helicopter
Direct & Dry

Take-off

Vessel (ERV)
Evacuation
Marine & Amphibious Craft
(active)
Indirect & Semi-Dry
Rafts (passive)

Wet

Survival

Embarkation

Individual
Indirect & Semi-Dry
Wet

Transfer to beyond hazard zone


Initial accessibility & Stationkeeping
Dry transfer from unit to ERV
Embarkation
Touch-down/ Impact
Transfer to beyond hazard zone
Launch
Embarkation
Transfer to beyond hazard zone
Abandonment
Touch-down/ Impact
Transfer to beyond hazard zone
Active
Passive
Individual
Indirect & Semi-Dry

Rescue

By Helicopter
Recovery

Transvessel Transfer
Helicopter operations

Emergency
Response

Resource operations

ERV operations
FRC operations

Availability, Reliability &


Competence

Rescue

Wet
Survival

There shall be provisions to eliminate or manage to ALARP Ice fog

12

5.2 (d), 6.1.2 (i)

13

7.1.2.2

14

7.1.2.2

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

High potential risk


Possible risk

7.1.2.2
7.1.2.2
7.1.2.2
7.1.2.2
7.1.2.2
7.1.2.2
7.1.2.2
7.1.2.2
7.1.2.2
7.1.2.2
7.1.2.2
7.1.2.2
7.1.2.2
8.2.2.3
8.2.2.3
8.2.2.3

Compensation for reduced visibility in ice fog area, including fog lights and audio signals.
Suitable lighting shall be provided, as under normal provisions visibility will be reduced and searchlights have
limited range.
Aircraft operations are often suspended in ice fog, so that the preferred evacuation option (helicopter) is usually
eliminated. Alternative preferred evacuation means need to be defined.
Thin ice layer on surfaces has the effect of: Canopy, window visibility reduction - Antenna icing. - Lights, colour,
dimmed. And shall be compensated for in design.

31

No risk

8.3.3, 8.3.6.3.1 (b), Appendix B.3.c

Emergency Repairs

32
33
34

Indirect & Semi-Dry


Wet
Direct & Dry (bridge, gondola, bucket, etc.)
Indirect & Semi-Dry (TEMPSC, FRC, raft)
MOB & ditch recovery, Medevac
Recovery, fire fighting, towing, salvage,
diving
MOB & helicopter ditch/ crash personnel
recovery

Individual
Indirect & Semi-Dry
Wet

8.3.3, 8.3.6.3.1 (b), Appendix B.3.c


8.3.3
8.3.3

Air Temperature [C]


-10 to -20
-20 to -30