No
Subject
Page
1.1
Introduction
1.2
Objective
1.3
Learning Outcome
1.4
Theoretical Background
2.1
Problem Statement
3.1
Apparatus
3.2
Procedure
910
4.1
Result
1012
4.2
Analysis
1314
4.3
Discussion
15
4.4
Conclusion
16
4.5
Experimental precaution
16
4.6
References
16
4.7
Appendix
17
38
EXPERIMENT TITLE
Determination of Metacentric height.
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1
Level 1 laboratory activity refers to condition where the problem and ways & means are
guided and given to the students. However the answers to the assignment are left to the
students to solve using the group creativity and innovativeness. The activity is hope to
slowly introduced and inculcate independent learning amongst students and prepare them
for a much harder task of openended laboratory activities.
In this laboratory activity students will be exposed to the equipment that used to measure
the metacentric height of pontoon. For static equilibrium of the pontoon, the total weight,
W, ( which acts through the centre of the gravity, G) must be equal to the buoyancy force
which acts through the centre of buoyancy, B, which is located at the centroid of the
immersed crosssection. When the pontoon heels through a small angle, the metacentre M
is identified as the point of intersection between the lines of action of the buoyancy force
( always vertical ) and BG extend. For stable equilibrium, M must be above G.
Figure 5.0: A floating body is stable if the body is (a). The centre of gravity G is below
the centroid B of the body; (b) The metacentre M is above G; (c) Unstable if M below G.
1.2 OBJECTIVE
To identify the position of the metacentre (M) of a floating body, by referring the distance
from the centre of gravity (G).
Since the pontoon is a simple rectangle, the shape of the displaced liquid is also a
rectangle with it centre at the geometrical centre namely the centre of buoyancy, B. The
buoyancy force, F acts upwards through B. Note that W and F act collinearly with G
situated some distance above B.
Figure 5.2: A pontoon floating with an imposed angle of tilt, showing the righting couple
Figure 5.3: A pontoon with a raised G and an imposed angle of tilt, showing the
overturning couple caused by W acting outside
It a relatively tall piece of weight is placed on the pontoon as shown in Figure 4, the
combined weight, W of the pontoon and its load acts through the centre of gravity, G
which is relatively high. When G becomes higher and the angle of tilt increases, W acts
further and turn further to the left. This means that at the some point the movement of
buoyancy force, F from B to B* is unlikely to be large enough to produce a righting
couple. What we now have is the situation depicted in Figure 5, where the line of action
4
of W is outside (nearer the edge of the pontoon) than the line along which F acts. Thus W
is trying to overturn the pontoon. The two forces F and W form an overturning couple.
Thus it is unstable.
When considering the stability of floating body, it is usual to assume that the angle of
tilt small. This is necessary to simplify the theory by making the assumption that
radians = sin = tan = radians.
Considering the restoring moment that rights a rectangular pontoon to an even keel
when it is tilted, the equation:
BM = Iws / V
5
Where:
V = the volume of water displaced by the body
Iws = the second moment of the area
Figure 5.5: Plan of the pontoon where the tilt takes place about the longitudinal axis XX
LB 3
Iws =
12
It should be apparent that BM depends only upon:
a.
I and b, the dimensions of the pontoon which govern the value of Iws .
b.
V, the volume of displaced water which depends only upon the weight of the
pontoon.
Referring to Figure 7, you should be able to see that BM = BG + GM or, GM = BMBG. If we can calculate BG, then we can obtain GM and hence determine if the body is
stable or unstable. Now, B is the center of buoyancy, and with the pontoon floating on an
even keel B is located at a height equal to half the depth of immersion (h/2) above the
point O on the bottom of the pontoon.
The magnitude of GG* depends upon how far the jockey weight is moved and its size
relatively to the total weight of the pontoon. Using the ratio of weight and x ,
wj
x
W
GG*
W d
GM
3.1 APPARATUS
a. Metacentric Height Apparatus
1. Pontoon Body
2. Cross  bar
3. Adjustable Mass
4. Mast
5. Sliding Mass
6. Plumb  line
7. Linear Scale
Figure 1.0  Metacentric Height
apparatus
3.2 PROCEDURE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
dx
for each sliding mass height is obtained,
d
the metacentric height, GM and distance between the centre of buoyancy and the
metacentre is calculated.
4.1 RESULTS
Total weight of floating assembly (W)
Weight of adjustable mass ()
Weight of sliding mass (1)
Breadth of pontoon (B)
Length of pontoon (L)
Second moment of area (I)
Volume of water displaced (V)
Height of metacentre above centre of buoyancy (BM)
Depth of immersion of pontoon (IP)
Depth of centre of buoyancy (CB)
2.343
0.208
0.511
200
350
2.333104
2.343103
0.0996
0.0335
0.0167
kg
kg
kg
mm
mm
m4
m3
m
m
m
Height of
Reading of list for adjustable weight lateral displacement from sail centre line,
adjustable
20
30
40
50
weight, y1
50
40
30
20
10
(mm)
0
10
(mm)
0
54
42
30
20
10
10
20
31
42
56
66
50
62
32
18
46
60
100
50
68
10
60
Table 1: Lateral displacement of ropefor each height of adjustable weight from sail centre
line
Height of
Angles of list for adjustable weight lateral displacement from sail centre line, x1
adjustable
(mm)
0
10
weight, y1
50
(mm)
0
40
30
20
10
1.91
20
30
40
50
3.81
5.90
7.97
10.8
12.4
10.2
50
0

6.09
6.09
8.72
11.6
100
11.3
60
8

9.46
12.7
7
11
Height of
adjustable
50
40
30
20
30
40
50
60
weight, y1
(mm)
0
50
8.79
8.34
26.70
8.34 11.74 13.56
100
5.41
8.05
12
= 1.06
= 5.25
13
LB 3
10 12
12
350 200 3 10 12
12
2.333 10 4 m 4
103
2.343 103 m3
mx
m p sin
( 0.208 )( 50)005)
10.20
( 2.343 ) sin
1 iii)
25.07 mm
Metace
ntric
Height
KKKK
KKKK
KKKK
KKKK
KKKK
KKKK
KKKK
KKKK
KKKK
KKKK
KKKK
KKKK
KKKK
KKKK
KKKK
KKKK
KKKK
KKKK
KKKK
KKKK
KKKK
KKKK
KKKK
KKKK
14
2.343 10 3
0.0996m
BM
350 200
0.0335m
IP
2 350 200
0.0167m
CB
4.3 DISCUSSION
i.
The effect of changing the position of G on the position of the metacentre (M).
Changing the position of G on the position of the metacentre (M) will cause change
ii. Why the values of GM at lowest values of the angle () are likely to be less accurate.
15
The angle(s) obtained during the experiment are directly related to GM. Typically,
the angle occur when more of the hull on one side get deeper into the water, and the hull
on the other side moves out of the water. The result is that the center of buoyancy shifts
to the side where more water is displaced, while the center of gravity remains in the same
place at the pontoon since the pontoon itself has not changed. When the centre of
buoyancy change, this make the result GM less accurate and negative GM may be
resulted.
iii. What is the most sensitive parameter that affects the accuracy of the results?
Make sure the water is in steady condition to prevent existence of large waves on the
water before taking the reading. Besides, when taking the reading of the angles for
adjustable weight lateral displacement from sail centre line, the eyes must be
perpendicular to the pontoon to get accurate reading.
16
4.6 REFERENCES
1. Sir Embam Ak Daud, Laboratory Manual of Hydraulics and Water Quality,
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Uitm Samarahan 2.
2. Suhaimi Abdul Talib, Hamidon Ahmad, Turahim ABd Hamid and Junaidah
Ariffin, Fluid Mechanics, 2nd Edition, 2002
3. John.F.Douglas, Janusz M.Gasiorek, John A.Swaffield, and Lynne B.Jack , Fluid
Mechanics, Pearson, 5th Edition, 2006.
4. http://www.codecogs.com/library/engineering/fluid_mechanics/floating_bodies/st
abilityandmetacentricheight.php
5. http://www.engineering.uiowa.edu/~cfd/pdfs/57020/stability.pdf
APPENDIX
17
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