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International Journal of Computer Science Engineering

and Information Technology Research (IJCSEITR)


ISSN(P): 2249-6831; ISSN(E): 2249-7943
Vol. 6, Issue 4, Aug 2016, 33-44
TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

EFFICIENT IMAGE COMPRESSION USING KEKRES TRANSFORMS


TERENCE JOHNSON1, YOHANN FERNANDES2, DION FERNANDES3,
SHRAVAN VERENKAR4 & NIHAL MELWANI5
1
2,3,4,5

Head, Department of Computer Engineering, Angel Institute of Technology and Design, Assagao, Goa

B.E. Students, Department of Computer Engineering, Agnel Institute of Technology and Design, Assagao, Goa

ABSTRACT
Lossy or Lossless data compression is required to reduce the storage requisite and improve data transmission
rate. Among the finest image compression methodsis the wavelet transforms. Beingrelatively novelwavelet transforms have
many benefits over others. In our paper we have used the Kekres wavelets to achieve the transform of an image and the
results have been deliberated and examined. The study has been carried out in terms of PSNR found and time taken for
breakdown and rebuilding and was found to adhere to the recognized standards for near to lossless image compression.
KEYWORDS: Geographical Indications, Marketing Management, Intellectual Property Rights, Product Differentiation,
GI Registration

INTRODUCTION
At actic to moderate the problem of significant storage capacity and broadcast bandwidth in uncompressed
multimedia data is the condensation of multimedia data mass propaga ted through various channels by way of using

Original Article

Received: Jun 23, 2016; Accepted: Jul 11, 2016; Published: Jul 16, 2016; Paper Id.: IJCSEITRAUG20164

several data compression techniques such as JPEG, JPEG2000 and MPEG In each of these cases greater
compression ratio is obtained without sacrificing the eminence of images. But the said Compression Techniques
overlook the energy consumption during compression and RF transmissions as well as the processing power needed
at the two sides. As images form a substantial portion of forthcoming data, this paper focuses on evolving an
improvised image compression model. In order to achieve this, we put forward an application of Effective Image
Compression Using Kekres Wavelet Transforms.

PROPOSED ALGORITHM
Data Flow Diagram

Figure 1

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Terence Johnson, Yohann Fernandes, Dion Fernandes,


Shravan Verenkar & Nihal Melwani

Kekres Transform
This paper implements the Kekres Wavelet (KW) Transform which is spawned from Kekres transform. Kekres
transform matrix may be of any magnitude SxS, and may not be an integer power of 2. All the upper triangular diagonal
elements of a Kekres transform matrix will be 1, in then mean while lower triangular diagonal elements except the
elements just beneath diagonal are zero. A generalized Sx SKekre transformation table is given as,

Example: KT4x4=
Table 1

Kekres Wavelet Transform (KWT)


Example: KT4x4=
Table 2

KWT16x16 from a KT4x4=


Table 3

Impact Factor (JCC): 7.1293

NAAS Rating: 3.63

Efficient Image Compression Using Kekres Transforms

35

A (2S) x (2S), (3S) x (3S) (S2) x (S2)Kekre Wavelet transformation table can be obtained from the SxS Kekre
transformation table.. So the Kekre Wavelet transformation table of size 10x10, 15x15, 20x20 and 25x25 can be found
from 5x5 the Kekre transformation table. Usually the Tx TKekre Wavelet transformation table can be fashioned from the
SxS Kekre transformation table, where T = S * Q where Q is some whole number amongst 2 and S that is, 2 Q S.
Example: -KWT8x8 from a KT4x4=
Table 4

IMG8x8 =
Table 5

Therefore, [K]=[KWT8x8][IMG8x8 ] [KWT8x8]T=


Table 6

Quantization
Quantization is a technique that lessens the number of divergent colours in an image with the purpose that the new
image will be as visually alike as possible to the original image. Colour quantization is necessary for showing images with
many colours on displays that will only display a in adequate number of colours because of memory limitations.
Quantization Matrix
A common quantization matrix is Quantum(i,j):
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Terence Johnson, Yohann Fernandes, Dion Fernandes,


Shravan Verenkar & Nihal Melwani

The actual formula for quantization is displayed below:

Example: -KWT (i,j)=


Table 7

Therefore,
Quantized Values (i,j)= [L]=
Table 8

Encoding/Decoding
Run-Length Encoding (RLE) keeps streams of data in a single data value and sum, instead of the original
stream. It is used when the input stream comprises long sub streams of identicalvalues. For example, assume a display
comprising of black script on a snowywall.
snowywall Manyextensivestreams of snowy picture elements in the blank zone, and numer
oustinystreams of dark picture elements will be observed.
observed A dummy stream, with B signifying a darkpicture element and W
signifyingsnowy picture element will be as follows:

RLE data compression applied to the above dummy streamcan be reduced as follows:

Impact Factor (JCC): 7.1293

NAAS Rating: 3.63

Efficient Image Compression Using Kekres Transforms

37

The run-length stream embodies the original 67 letterings with as less as 18


Reordering of KWT Coefficients

Figure 2: Zigzag Scanning Pattern


The zig-zag scanning pattern is shownabove, where the top left corner is the DC term. Example: -[L]=
Table 9

Therefore,
[L]= Data Set = 630,10,28,3, -32, -6, -2, -11, -9,1,1,0,0, -1,1,0, -1, -1,0, -1,1,0, -1,0,0,0,0, 1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0
Modified Run-Length Encoding
In our paper we use an array of numbers that need to be encoded and we found out that the maximum number we
can get is 1020. So we have modified the RLE to our need thus reducing the number of elements.We have chosen 1024 as
our count identifier. So any number above 1024 will give the count of the next value. We never give count value as
1025,we directly give the value since it will be repeated only once thus reducing the data. Given below is an
example.Example: [L]

630,10,28,3,

-32,

-6,

-2,

-11,

-9,1,1,0,0,

-1,1,0,

-1,

-1,0,

-1,1,0,

-1,0,0,0,0,

1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 (64 Elements)


Therefore,
[L] = 630,10,28,3, -32, -6, -2, -11, -9,1026,1,1026,0, -1,1,0, 1026, -1,0, -1,1,0, -1,1028,0, -1,1060,0 (28 Elements)
Modified Run-Length Decoding

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Terence Johnson, Yohann Fernandes, Dion Fernandes,


Shravan Verenkar & Nihal Melwani

When we scan through the array and we find a value greater than 1024, we subtract 1024 from it and we will get
the count on the next element.
Example:
- -9,1026,1,1026,0, -1,1,0, 1026, -1,0, -1,1,0, -1,1028,0,
1,1028,0, -1,1060,0 (28 Elements)
[L] = 630,10,28,3, -32, -6, -2, -11,
Therefore,

[L]

630,10,28,3,

-32,

-6,

-2,

-11,

-9,1,1,0,0,

-1,1,0,

-1,
1,

-1,0,

-1,1,0,

-1,0,0,0,0,

1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 (64 Elements)


Regenerating Zigzag Scanning Pattern
We need to now get the matrix back from the array of elements, so we use the zigzag pattern againg to get back
the matrix from thr array.

Figure 3
Example: [L]= Data Set = 630,10,28,3, -32, -6, -2, -11, -9,1,1,0,0, -1,1,0, -1,
1, -1,0, -1,1,0, -1,0,0,0,0, 1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0
Therefore, [L]=
Table 10
630
28
3
1
1
1
0
0

10
-32
-9
0
-1
-1
0
0

-6
-11
0
0
0
0
0
0

-2
-1
-1
0
0
0
0
0

1
1
-1
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

-1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Inverse Quantization
Every deciphered KWT coefficient is inverse quantized by multiplication to the matching values from the
weightedtable and the quantization scaling
scal
feature prior to this action being implemented,, the KWT coefficients must be
reshuffled from zigzag scanning order to a linear array.
Quantum (i,j)=

Impact Factor (JCC): 7.1293

NAAS Rating: 3.63

Efficient Image Compression Using Kekres Transforms

39

Example: Quantized Values (i,j)= [L]=


Table 11
630
28
3
1
1
1
0
0

10
-32
-9
0
-1
-1
0
0

-6
-11
0
0
0
0
0
0

-2
-1
-1
0
0
0
0
0

1
1
-1
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

-1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Therefore, KWT (i,j)=[K]=


Table 12
10077
333
42
20
26
25
6
2

109
-387
-114
-8
-22
-35
-6
2

-56
-156
0
10
-7
13
6
8

-26
-14
-14
0
-3
1
4
0

20
-28
-13
-1
2
-3
-1
0

11
-17
-1
1
-1
-1
-1
-2

-26
-14
-14
0
-3
1
4
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Inverse Kekres Wavelet Transform


Calculate Diagonal matrix D as, [D] = [KW][KW]T
Table 13

Therefore, [D] =

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Terence Johnson, Yohann Fernandes, Dion Fernandes,


Shravan Verenkar & Nihal Melwani

Table 14
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
24
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
12
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2

Inverse is calculated as
[k] = [KW]T [ Kij / Dij ] [KW]
Where Dij = Di * Dj ; 1 i N and 1 j N
Example: [Kij]=
Table 15
10077
333
42
20
26
25
6
2

109
-387
-114
-8
-22
-35
-6
2

-56
-156
0
10
-7
13
6
8

-26
-14
-14
0
-3
1
4
0

20
-28
-13
-1
2
-3
-1
0

11
-17
-1
1
-1
-1
-1
-2

-26
-14
-14
0
-3
1
4
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

-3.187
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

[Kij/Dij]=
Table 16
157.5
1.75
0.4375
0.4375
1.125
1.5
0
0

0.572
-0.667
-0.406
0
-0.4583
-0.729
0
0

-0.625
-0.534
0
0
0
0
0
0

-1
-0.1979
-0.5
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Therefore,
[k]=
Table 17
139
144
152
159
160
160
161
161
Impact Factor (JCC): 7.1293

145
150
153
161
162
162
163
163

152
154
161
162
161
161
162
162

152
154
161
162
161
161
162
162

159
160
161
162
162
162
163
163

152
154
154
156
156
156
157
157

155
156
157
159
156
156
157
157

155
156
157
159
156
156
157
157
NAAS Rating: 3.63

Efficient Image Compression Using Kekres Transforms

41

RESULTS
The sub-image 8x8 to the left depicts the originalsub image and the 8x8 sub imageto the right is the rebuilt one.
Table 18

8x8 Original Submatrix

8x8 Reconstructed Submatrix

Software Flow Diagram

Figure 4: Compression Phase

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Terence Johnson, Yohann Fernandes, Dion Fernandes,


Shravan Verenkar & Nihal Melwani

Figure 5: Decompression Phase

CONCLUSIONS
The efficiency using Kekre wavelet transformation
transform
for image compressionin comparison to other methodologies
is higher.. The quality of compressed image is also preserved. On working on test set of color images we have achieved a
lossless compression on BMP files ranging from 30% - 70% with an average
ge of 50% lossless compression. We have
successfully implemented the Compression and Decompression phases for the test set of color images using Kekres
Wavelet Transform and successfully achieved
achieve lossless Compression.
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M. MozammelHoqueChowdhury, AminaKhatun, Image


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Impact Factor (JCC): 7.1293

NAAS Rating: 3.63

Efficient Image Compression Using Kekres Transforms


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