Sunteți pe pagina 1din 2

AP Chemistry Quiz: Chapter 6

1. Explain in detail (include examples) the wave-particle duality of


electromagnetic radiation.
Electromagnetic radiation exhibits characteristics of both
waves and particles. While travelling through space, ER
exhibits wave characteristics including possession of a
wavelength and frequency. ER exhibits characteristics of
particles when it is absorbed and emitted by matter.
Specifically, ER is only absorbed and emitted in chunks called
quanta.
2. Describe the quantum mechanical model of the atom. Include in your
explanation the contributions of Bohr, de Broglie, Heisenberg, Pauli,
Planck, Rutherford, and Schrdinger.
Massive, positive nucleus (Rutherford)
Electrons in atoms exhibit wave characteristics (de Broglie)
and are only allowed in at certain fixed energies(Bohr)
To move from one energy level to another, electrons must
absorb(to move up) or emit(to drop) energy.(Bohr) This energy
can only be emitted in chunks called quanta.( Planck)
One can only determine the probable location of an electron.
(Heisenberg)
Only 2 electrons, each with opposite spin, are allowed per
orbital.(Pauli)
Orbital shapes are predicted by Schrdingers equation.
(Schrdinger)
3. What is a line spectrum? How was the line spectrum of hydrogen
important to the development of the quantum mechanical model of the
atom?
A line spectrum is a characteristic set of electromagnetic
radiation emitted by an atom when electrons drop from one
energy level to another. It was the line spectrum of the
hydrogen atom upon which Bohr based his theory of
quantized electrons in the atom.
4. For what elements is the Bohr model of the atom valid?
Any one electron system
5. Explain quantum numbers. What are they called? What do they mean?
What are their possible values?
Principal quantum number
o n
o energy level
o + integers starting at 1
Angular momentum quantum number
o l
o shape of orbital

o all integers from 0 to n-1


Magnetic quantum number
o m
o orientation of the orbital in space
o all integers between and including l to +l
Spin quantum number
o S
o spin of the electron
o +1/2 and -1/2 for every value of m
6. List all quantum numbers for the 3rd energy level.
n=3
l= 0, 1, 2
m = 0, -1,0,+1, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2
S = , -1/2 for every value of m
7. Explain in detail the difference between a 5s and 4p orbital.
The electron in the 5s has higher energy, is farther from the
nucleus, and would have a sphere shape and only one
orientation of the shape.
8. Write the orbital notation or electron configuration for
As [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p3
Cr [Ar] 4s1 3d5
Tl [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p1
Zn [Ar] 4s2 3d10
9. How many electrons are in the 3rd energy level and in the 6g orbitals?
18 in both
10.
What orbital shape is associated with L = 2?
Double-peanut
11.
What is the wavelength and energy of electromagnetic radiation
with a frequency of 6.66 x 1014 sec -1?
C = v
_ (3.00e8)/(6.66e14)
_ 4.5045e-7 (10e8)
_ 450 nm
E = hC/
_ (6.626e-34)(3.00e8)/(4.5045e-7)
_ 4.41e-19
12.
Determine the energy and wavelength of the electromagnetic
radiation emitted when an electron drops from n = 6 to n = 2 in a
hydrogen atom.
1=1 (11)
91(nl nh)
nl=2 nh=6
1/ = 2/819 === 409.5nm