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EXPERIMENT NO.

6
COMPACTION TEST
Year and
Section:
Group Number:
Group
Members:

4CE-D
2

Berona, Christelle Marie A.


Cai, Jhunscly S.
Cajayon, Pauline Ethel Ann L.
Chavez, Jervic Christopher A.

Date Started:
Date Finished:

April 21, 2016


April 22 , 2016

Date Submitted:

April 28 , 2016

Cortes, Rhon Junee B.


Crespo, Michael Jan M.
Cruz, Ryle Matthew A.
De Guzman, Neal Henry S.

1. OBJECTIVE
The experiment aims to determine the relationship between the moisture content and
the dry density of a soil for a specified compactive effort. The compactive effort is the amount
of mechanical energy that is applied to the soil mass. Several different methods are used to
compact soil in the field, and some examples include tamping, kneading, vibration, and static
load compaction.
The type of compaction test that will be employed in the experiment is the Standard
Proctor Test. In the Standard Proctor Test, the soil is compacted by a 5.5 lb hammer falling a
distance of one foot into a soil filled mold. The mold is filled with three equal layers of soil, and
each layer is subjected to 25 drops of the hammer. The type of compaction mold that will be
used for the testing is of the smaller type, which is 4 inches in diameter and has a volume of
about 1/30 ft3 (944 cm3).
2. APPARATUS AND SUPPLIES
Soil specimen 5kg passing #4 sieve
Compaction cylinder
Compaction rammer/ hammer
Moisture can

Oven
Balance
Spray

CE 424L: Soil Mechanics Laboratory | Experiment No. 6 : Compaction Test

3. PROCEDURE
1. Depending on the type of mold you are using obtain a sufficient quantity of airdried soil in large mixing pan. For the 4-inch mold, take approximately 10 lbs, and
for the 6-inch mold, take roughly 15 lbs. pulverize the soil and run it through the
#4 sieve.
2. Determine the weight of the soil sample as well as the weight of the compaction
mold with its base (without the collar) by using the balance and record the
weights.
3. Compute the amount of initial water to add by the following method:
(a) Assume water content for the first test to be 3 percent.
(b) Compute water to add from the following equation:
4. Measure out the water, add it to the soil, and then mix it thoroughly into the soil
using the trowel until the soil gets a uniform color.
5. Assemble the compaction mold to the base, place some soil in the mold and
compact the soil in the number of equal layers specified by the type of compaction
method employed. The number of drops of the rammer per layer is also
dependent upon the type of mold used. The drops should be applied at a uniform
rate not exceeding around 1.5 seconds per drop, and the rammer should provide
uniform coverage of the specimen surface. Try to avoid rebound of the rammer
from the top of the guide sleeve.
6. The soil should completely fill the cylinder and the last compacted layer must
extend slightly above the collar joint. If the soil is below the collar joint at the
completion of the drops, the test point must be repeated. (Note: For the last layer,
watch carefully, and add more soil after about 10 drops if it appears that the soil
will be compacted below the collar joint.)
7. Carefully remove the collar and trim off the compacted soil so that it is completely
even with the top of the mold using the trowel. Replace small bits of soil that may
fall out during the trimming process.
8. Weigh the compacted soil while its in the mold and to the base, and record the
mass. Determine the wet mass of the soil by subtracting the weight of the mold
and base.
9. Remove the soil from the mold using a mechanical extruder and take soil
moisture content samples from the top and bottom of the specimen. Fill the
moisture cans with soil and determine the water content.
10. Place the soil specimen in the large tray and break up the soil until it appears
visually as if it will pass through the # 4 sieve, add 2 percent more water based on
the original sample mass, and re-mix as in step 4. Repeat steps 5 through 9 until,
based on wet mass, a peak value is reached followed by two slightly lesser
compacted soil masses.
COMPUTATIONS

1. Calculate the moisture content of each compacted soil specimen by using the
average of the two water contents.
2. Compute the wet density in grams per cm3 of the compacted soil sample by
dividing the wet mass by the volume of the mold used.
3. Compute the dry density using the wet density and the water content determined
in step 1. Use the following formula:

Where:
w = moisture content in percent divided by 100, and = wet density in grams
per cm3.
4. Plot the dry density values on the y-axis and the moisture contents on the x-axis.
Draw a smooth curve connecting the plotted points.
5. On the same graph draw a curve of complete saturation or zero air voids curve.
The values of dry density and corresponding moisture contents for plotting the
curve can be computed from the following equation:
Where:
d = dry density of soil grams per cm3
Gs = specific gravity of the soil being tested
w = density of water in grams per cm3 (approximately 1 g/cm3 )
wsat = moisture content in percent for complete saturation.
6. Identify and report the optimum moisture content and the maximum dry density.

4. DATA AND RESULTS


Table 4.1 Water Content Determination
Trial

Moisture Can No.

72

82

70

12

63

19

22

MC = Can + Lid, g

26.56

26.1
7

25.98

26.30

26.83

26.47

26.21

26.63

MCMS = Can + Lid + Moist


Soil, g

84

70

56

70

59

58

64

66

MCDS = Can + Lid + Dry Soil,


g

75

64

51

62

53

53

59

58

MS = Mass of Soil Solids, g

48.44

37.8
3

25.02

35.7

26.17

26.53

32.79

31.37

MW = Mass of Pore Water, g

W = Water Content, %

18.58

15.8
6

19.98
4

22.90
9

22.92
7

18.84
7

15.24
9

25.50
2

10

10

Table 4.2 Density Determination


Trial

Water content, w%

15.86

19.984

22.927

25.502

Volume of Mold, cm3

1215.379

1215.379

1215.379

1215.379

Mass of Compacted

580.67

1257.67

1477.67

1449.67

soil, g
Mass of mold, g

2027.33

2027.33

2027.33

2027.33

Wet Density, pw g/cm3

0.478

1.035

1.216

1.193

Dry Density, pd g/cm3

0.408

0.853

1.023

0.951

5. FORMULAS AND COMPUTATIONS

Ms = MCDS - MC

Mw = MCMS MCDS

W% = (Mw/MS)x100

MCS

Pwet = MCS/Vol

P
w
1+
100
18.58
) ]=
[0.478/ (1+
100
Pd =

72

75 26.56 =
48.44g

84 75 = 9g

9/48.44 = 18.58%

82

64 - 26.17 =
37.83g

70 64 = 6g

6/37.83 = 15.86%

51 -25.98 =
25.02g

56 51 = 5g

5/25.02 = 19.984%

70

62 26.30 =
35.7g

70 62 = 8g

8/35.7 = 22.909%

12

53 26.83 =
26.17g

59 53 = 6g

6/26.17 = 22.927%

63

53 26.47 =
26.53g

58 53 = 5g

5/26.53 = 18.847%

19

59 26.21 =
32.79g

64 59 = 5g

5/32.79 = 15.249%

22

58 26.63 =
31.37g

66 56 = 8g

8/31.37 = 25.502%

580.67g

580.67/1215.379
=0.478 g/cm3

0.403
[0.478/

(1+

15.86
) ]=
100

(1+

19.98
) ]=
100

(1+

22.91
) ]=
100

(1+

22.93
) ]=
100

(1+

18.85
) ]=
100

(1+

15.25
) ]=
100

(1+

25.5
) ]=
100

0.413
2

1257.67g

1257.67/1215.379
=1.035 g/cm3

[1.035/
0.863
[1.035/
0.842

1477.67g

1477.67/1215.379
=1.216 g/cm3

[1.216/
0.989
[1.216/
1.023

1449.67g

1449.67/1215.379
=1.193 g/cm3

[1.193/
1.035
[1.193/
0.951

Pave =

P d 1+ p d 2
2

Pave2 =

0.863+ 0.842
=0.853 g /cm3
2

Pave4 =

1.035+ 0.951
3
=0.993 g /cm
2

P ave1 =

0.403+ 0.413
=0.408 g/cm3
2

Pave3=

0.989+ 1.023
=1.006 g /cm 3
2

Vol=

2
D h
4

2
( 11.55 ) (11.6)
4
= 1215.379 cm3

Density Curve

1.2
1
0.8

Dry Density

0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.18

0.19

0.2

0.21

0.22

Water
Content
6. FIGURES/DIAGRAMS/GRAPHS

0.23

0.24

0.25

0.26

Fig.1: Fill the mold with the soil mixed with the
appropriate amount of water

Fig.3: Remove soil using apparatus

Fig. 2 Compaction of soil repeated until


the mold is full

Fig. 4 Place sample in moisture can

7. SOURCES OF ERRORS

Throughout the entirety of the experiment, there were steps that presented possible
errors such as the water and the soil sample not being mixed well, therefore, the water was
not thoroughly absorbed into the dried soil or different portions of the soil contain different
amount of water. Human factors played a huge role in this experiment, thus, more chances of
error like mixing the soil resulting to decreased volume, incorrect compaction of the soil
which leads to decreased mass and lastly, the slowness of each member doing the
experiment for it causes the water to run dry.
8. CONCLUSIONS AND REMARKS
In doing the experiment regarding compaction of soil, we learned that with a
constant volume of soil sample, the weight increases as the water content increases for the
water replaces the voids filled by air but when the optimum moisture content is reached and
we continue to add water, the weight begins to decrease for the water starts to replace the
soil particles.