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Minerals and Rocks

Minerals are natural chemical substances of inorganic origin. Most rocks are
composed of minerals, but some are of organic origin, and others consist of
natural glass.
A mineral is typically a crystalline substance, having regular atomic pattern. When
conditions are favorable, minerals develop definite geometric forms called
crystals. These are classified in six crystal systems according to the number,
relative lengths, and regular relationships of imaginary lines called axes.
Most rocks are composed of silicate minerals, consisting of a silicon atom
surrounded by four oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral pattern. Attached to the oxygen
atoms are atoms of other elements, of which sixaluminum, iron, magnesium,
calcium, sodium, potassium are the most common; oxygen, silicon, and these
six other elements make up most of the crust of the earth.
Many minerals are commercially or scientifically important even though not
essential to the forming of the common rocks. Some are ores, others are so-called
industrial (nonmetallic) minerals, and some have considerable scientific interest.
Rocks formed by the solidification of molten matter are termed igneous. These
are regarded as the primary rocks not being derived from still older rock
although none of the original crust of the earth is believed to exist, for it has
presumably been reworked more than once.
Rocks formed by the breakdown of other rock are called sedimentary. They may
accumulate as fragments, or they may deposit from chemical solutions.
Either igneous or sedimentary rock may be slowly changed into metamorphic
rock by heat, pressure, and solutions. Most metamorphism occurs as a result of
mountain building, which involves high temperatures and pressures. Contact
metamorphism takes place at margin of an intrusive body of magma.

I;

Answer these questions by paraphrasing the sentence from the


passage.

1; what are minerals ?


2; What are most rocks composed of ?
3; What are crystals ?
4; How are igneous and sedimentary rocks formed?
5; Why is igneous rock called primary rock?
6; Explain how

metamorphic rocks are formed !

1;

Mineral adalah zat kimia alami berasal dari inorganik.

2;

Sebagian besar batuan terbentuk dari mineral.

3;

Kristal adalah mineral yang mempunyai pola atom yang teratur,


yang

mengembangkan bentuk bentuk

geometris tertentu pada kondisi yang

memungkinkan. Crystals are minerals that have a regullar pattern of atoms, which
develops ( into ) certain geometric shapes in the favorable conditions.
4.. Batuan beku dibentuk oleh pemadatan lelehan sedangkan batuan sedimen
terbentuk oleh hancuran / pecahan batuan lain. Igneous rocks are formed by
compacted the molten matter while the sedimentary rocks are formed by the
breakdown of other rocks.
5..Batuan beku disebut batuan primer karena batuan tersebut tidak berasal dari
batuan yang lebih tua ( yang sudah ada )
6.. Batuan metamor terbentuk dari batuan beku dan sedimen karena panas,
tekanan, dan senyawa.

The force required to nkeep the surface in motion


Engines imported from America

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