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AIRPORT PLANNING

AND DESIGN

TAXIWAY DESIGN
TAXIWAY DESIGN

TAXIWAY:
Taxiway provides access to the aircrafts from
the runways to the loading apron or service
hangar.

Taxiway

Runway

Taxiway

Runway and Taxiway

Factors controlling Taxiway Layout


Arrangements :
Taxiways should be arranged that the aircrafts
which have just landed & taxiing towards
apron should not interfere with the aircrafts
taxiing for take-off.
Busy airports :
The taxiway should be located at various
points along the runway so that the landing
aircraft leaves the runway as early as possible.
Such taxiways are called exit taxiways.

High turn of speed:


Exit taxiways should be designed for high turn
off speeds of aircrafts so that runway
occupancy time gets reduced.
Route :
The route should be a shortest distance from
the apron to the runway end.
Crossing:
Intersection of taxiway & runway should be
avoided.

GEOMETRIC DESIGN STANDARDS

Length of taxiway
Width of taxiway
Width of safety area
Longitudinal gradient
Transverse gradient
Rate of change of longitudinal gradient
Sight distance
Turning radius

Geometric Design Standards For Taxiway


Length should be as short as practicable.
Width lower than the runway width. This is because the
aircraft run on the taxiway are not airborne and the speed of

the aircraft on taxiway is lower. Hence pilot can easily ma


oeuvre the aircraft over a smaller width of taxiway.
Width of safety area it includes width of taxiway pavement
plus shoulder on either side. The width of the shoulder is 7.5m
on each side and are paved with light strength material.

Turning radius
Whenever there is change in direction of a taxiway, a

horizontal curve is provided. The curve is so designed that the


aircraft can negotiate it without significantly reducing the
speed. Circular curve with larger radius is suitable for this
purpose.
The radius is given by R = V2/127f
where; R is radius in m, V is speed in kmph and f is 0.13.
Subsonic jet transport min. 120m.
Supersonic jet transport min. 180m.

According to Horonjeff the radius of the taxiway should be so


provided that the distance of the oleo strut of the near by main

gear is not less than 6m from the pavement edge.


Horonjeff formula:R = (0.388W2) / (T/2 S)
Where;R is the radius of the taxiway in meterW is
the wheel base of aircraft in meter T is the Width of taxiway
pavement in meterS is the distance between midway point

of the main gears and the edge of the taxiway pavement in


meter.

If the existing airport has to be upgraded to accommodate


supersonic transport, it may be feasible to widen the pavement
rather than increasing the radius.
Widening is done by providing a compound curve of radii
R1and R2. the value of R1and R2 is obtained using;

R2= R ((0.388W2/ R) + S)
If exp. ((0.388W2/ R) + S) < T/2, no widening is needed. If it is >
T/2, the radius R1 is R1=(Dr2+(T/2)+0.3R- R22-RT/2(R- R2)
where Dr = 3W-0.4R
if Dr<W then use W instead of Dr

TAXIWAY GEOMETRICS AS PER ICAO


Classifica
tion by
ICAO

Taxiway width

Max.
Longitudinal
gradient (%)

Mini.
Transverse
gradient (%)

Max. rate of
change of
longitudinal
gradient per
30m (100ft)
in %

Meter

Feet

22.5

75

1.5

1.5

1.0

22.5

75

1.5

1.5

1.0

15.0

50

3.0

1.5

1.0

9.9

33

3.0

2.0

1.2

7.5

25

3.0

2.0

1.2

Safety area
width

Turfed or
paved
shoulders
are not
mandatory
but are
suggested
if need
exists.

EXIT TAXIWAYS
Factors controlling location of exit taxiways:
Air traffic control
Location of runway
Number of exit taxiways
Exit speed
Type of aircrafts
Weather conditions
Topographical features
Pilot variability

AVERAGE ACCEPTANCE RATE

Optimum location of Exit Taxiways:


ARRIVAL RATE

BALANCE
PT.

WAVE-OFFS

ACCEPTANCE
RATE

ARRIVAL RATE

The acceptance rate of runway with a system of


exit taxiways = Arrival rate of aircrafts

The point beyond which the acceptance rate


deviates from the ideal relationship of equal
arrival and acceptance rate is balance point.
Balance point occurs when the runway is
loaded to its full capacity and such situation is
runway saturation.
At higher arrival rates, the runway cannot
accept all aircrafts and hence few are waved
off.
For a given set of conditions, the exit taxiways
should yield the highest possible rate of
acceptance. Such location of exit taxiway is
Optimum location.

Design of exit taxiways:


Angle of turn
Compound curve
Exit speed
Length L1 and L2
Occupancy time
Shape of taxiway
Stopping sight distance
Turning radius

TERMINAL AREA
PLANNING

TERMINAL AREA PLANNING

TERMINAL AREA-GENERAL CONCEPTS


Terminal area includes terminal and operational
buildings, vehicle parking and aircraft service
hangars.
Serves as focal point for activities on the airport.
The airport entrance or access road from a
highway must be located in such a way to
accommodate future development.
Loading and unloading of passengers and cargo is
done in Terminal apron.
Aircrafts can be fueled and parked in Terminal
apron.
Provision of hangars will also comes under
terminal area planning.

BUILDING FUNCTIONS
In a commercial airport, building can be categorized
into Terminal and Operational.
Terminal building:
Mainly used for passengers, airline and
administration facilities.
Offers the enplaning passengers a convenient and
direct access from vehicle parking area to booking
room, waiting room & finally to apron.
Deplaning passengers are provided a direct route
from aircrafts to baggage claim counter and then to
vehicle platform.

Operational area:
Control tower, weather bureau and other
government services related to aviation comes
under operational category.
Mostly, terminal building will itself fulfils the
function of operational building also.

Facilities provided in airport buildings:


Passengers & baggage handling counters for
booking
Baggage claim section
Enquiry counter
Space for handling & processing mail, express
and light cargo
Public telephone booth
Waiting hall for passengers and visitors
Toilet facilities
Restaurants and bars
First aid room

Cont.
General store and gift shops
Space for magazines, news papers,
advertisement display.
Office space for airport staff
Weather bureau
Post office and banking facilities
Custom control
Passport and health control
Control tower

CHECK IN COUNTER

ESCALATOR

PUBLIC CONCOURSE AREA

SERVICE COMPLEX AREA

GLASS PARTITION FOR DOMESTIC /


INTERNTIONAL - DEPARTURE

PRE SECURITY HOLD SEATING AREA

RUNWAY

SITE SELECTION
The selected site should be in accordance with following
requirements:
Sufficient area for the first stage of building
development with possibility of future expansion.
Sufficient area for roadways
Adequate car parking area
Layout of above items providing functional relationship
with each other
Convenient access to the main highway
Central location with respect to runway
Proximity & easy installation of utilities such as
telephone, electricity, water, sewage, etc.

Cont
Favourable orientation with respect to the
topography and prevailing wind
Good subsoil water characteristics including
the natural drainage.

37

TERMINAL BUILDING PLANNING


PRINCIPLES
Passengers walking distance should not be
more than 180m from surface transportation
to their boarding into the aircraft.
The airline passengers should not have to
carry the baggage by more than 22.5m from
the road transportation to the check-in-point.
Passengers should be able to check-in without
waiting.

Cont
The maximum check-in time should not
exceed 3 minutes.
On arrival of aircraft, the baggage delivery
speed should correspond to the walking time
of passengers from the aircraft to claim area.
If volume of cargo is large, a separate building
for handling and storage of cargo may be
required.

PASSENGER TERMINAL BUILDING


CIRCULATION
DEPARTURE CIRCULATION
D1 DROP OFF AREA
ARRIVAL
CIRCULATION
D2 ENTRANCE
BAGGAGE CIRCULATION
A1 TICKETING
ARRIVAL GATE
D3
B1
BAGGAGE LOADING
GATE)
A2 (DEPARTURE
BAGGAGE CLAIM
D4
CHECK
C1 SECURITY
VISITORS LOUNGE
A3 BAGGAGE
ARRIVAL CONCOURSE
B1
UNLOADING
D5
HALL
C2 CHECK-IN
VIP LOUNGE
(ARRIVAL
GATE)
A4 EXIT
D6
COUNTER
C3 CHECK-IN
CIP LOUNGE
B3 BAGGAGE HANDLING
D7 SYSTEM
SECURITY CHECK
D8 DEPARTURE LOUNGE
D9 DEPARTURE GATE
LEGEND
DEPARTURE
ARRIVAL
BAGGAGE
LOUNGE

GROUND FLOOR PLAN

North
40

DEPARTURE FLOW-GROUND FLOOR LEVEL-BENGALURU AIRPORT

Check-in Counters

To Departure level for security check


Passengers proceed to check-in

Meeters and Greeters Area


-Ticketed Entry

Passenger entry - Departures

- Bus Gate departures,

41

DEPARTURE FLOW-FIRST FLOOR LEVEL-BENGALURU AIRPORT

Swing Gate
Area

Domestic
Boarding Lounge

Domestic Commercial Area

Domestic Security

Domestic

International
Boarding Lounge

Duty Free shopping

Security

International

Immigration

Departing pax from Check-in at ground floor


to Security at departure level (1st floor)

- Aerobridge departures,

- Domestic Gates,

- International Gates,

VEHICULAR CIRCULATION AND


PARKING AREA

Ease of passenger unloading and loading at


the terminal building.
One way traffic wherever possible
A minimum of driveway intersection.
Adequate driveway width to permit
overtaking.
Sufficiently and clearly defined parking and
circulation routes.
Well lighted routes for pedestrians and
vehicles.

CAR PARKING LAYOUT-HYDERABAD

DEPARTURE LEVEL IN HYDERABAD


AIRPORT

45

ARRIVAL LEVEL

46

TAXI WAITING AREA

47

PARKING CONFIGURATION IN NEW


BENGALURU AIRPORT
PARKING

NUMBERS

Drop off area

213

Pick up area

202

Short term parking

283

Long term parking

1093

2 wheeler parking

182

Bus bay

10

48

49

Runway of 4.43 kms, the longest in Asia & 2nd longest in world which
caters to Code F aircrafts with 25kms of taxiway-DELHI AIRPORT

50

6.4 km of Baggage Handling System(BHS) at basement level which


handles 12400 bags/hour with sophisticated mechanism for power
saving purpose-DELHI AIRPORT

51

HANGAR SITE SELECTION


The site should be such that there is a
convenient road access to it from the site to the
aprons and terminal buildings.
Proximity to and easy installation of utilities such
as telephone, electricity, water, sewage, etc.
Reasonable proximity to the loading apron.
The site should not be along the direction of
frequent storms as this is likely to damage the
hangar doors.

Cont
Sufficient area to provide car parking facilities
for working personnel.
Favourable topography providing good natural
drainage.
Adequate site area for future expansion of
hangar facilities.

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD AIRFIELD


LAYOUT

Landing, taxiing and taking off as independent


operations without interference.
Shortest taxiway distances from loading apron to
runway end.
Safe runway length
Safe approaches
Excellent control tower visibility
Adequate loading apron space
Sufficient terminal building facilities
Sufficient land area to permit subsequent
expansion.
Lowest possible cost of construction.