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# AIRPORT PLANNING

AND DESIGN

TAXIWAY DESIGN
TAXIWAY DESIGN

TAXIWAY:
hangar.

Taxiway

Runway

Taxiway

## Factors controlling Taxiway Layout

Arrangements :
Taxiways should be arranged that the aircrafts
which have just landed & taxiing towards
apron should not interfere with the aircrafts
taxiing for take-off.
Busy airports :
The taxiway should be located at various
points along the runway so that the landing
aircraft leaves the runway as early as possible.
Such taxiways are called exit taxiways.

## High turn of speed:

Exit taxiways should be designed for high turn
off speeds of aircrafts so that runway
occupancy time gets reduced.
Route :
The route should be a shortest distance from
the apron to the runway end.
Crossing:
Intersection of taxiway & runway should be
avoided.

## GEOMETRIC DESIGN STANDARDS

Length of taxiway
Width of taxiway
Width of safety area
Rate of change of longitudinal gradient
Sight distance

## Geometric Design Standards For Taxiway

Length should be as short as practicable.
Width lower than the runway width. This is because the
aircraft run on the taxiway are not airborne and the speed of

## the aircraft on taxiway is lower. Hence pilot can easily ma

oeuvre the aircraft over a smaller width of taxiway.
Width of safety area it includes width of taxiway pavement
plus shoulder on either side. The width of the shoulder is 7.5m
on each side and are paved with light strength material.

Whenever there is change in direction of a taxiway, a

## horizontal curve is provided. The curve is so designed that the

aircraft can negotiate it without significantly reducing the
speed. Circular curve with larger radius is suitable for this
purpose.
The radius is given by R = V2/127f
where; R is radius in m, V is speed in kmph and f is 0.13.
Subsonic jet transport min. 120m.
Supersonic jet transport min. 180m.

## According to Horonjeff the radius of the taxiway should be so

provided that the distance of the oleo strut of the near by main

## gear is not less than 6m from the pavement edge.

Horonjeff formula:R = (0.388W2) / (T/2 S)
Where;R is the radius of the taxiway in meterW is
the wheel base of aircraft in meter T is the Width of taxiway
pavement in meterS is the distance between midway point

meter.

## If the existing airport has to be upgraded to accommodate

supersonic transport, it may be feasible to widen the pavement
Widening is done by providing a compound curve of radii
R1and R2. the value of R1and R2 is obtained using;

R2= R ((0.388W2/ R) + S)
If exp. ((0.388W2/ R) + S) < T/2, no widening is needed. If it is >
T/2, the radius R1 is R1=(Dr2+(T/2)+0.3R- R22-RT/2(R- R2)
where Dr = 3W-0.4R
if Dr<W then use W instead of Dr

## TAXIWAY GEOMETRICS AS PER ICAO

Classifica
tion by
ICAO

Taxiway width

Max.
Longitudinal

Mini.
Transverse

Max. rate of
change of
longitudinal
30m (100ft)
in %

Meter

Feet

22.5

75

1.5

1.5

1.0

22.5

75

1.5

1.5

1.0

15.0

50

3.0

1.5

1.0

9.9

33

3.0

2.0

1.2

7.5

25

3.0

2.0

1.2

Safety area
width

Turfed or
paved
shoulders
are not
mandatory
but are
suggested
if need
exists.

EXIT TAXIWAYS
Factors controlling location of exit taxiways:
Air traffic control
Location of runway
Number of exit taxiways
Exit speed
Type of aircrafts
Weather conditions
Topographical features
Pilot variability

ARRIVAL RATE

BALANCE
PT.

WAVE-OFFS

ACCEPTANCE
RATE

ARRIVAL RATE

## The acceptance rate of runway with a system of

exit taxiways = Arrival rate of aircrafts

## The point beyond which the acceptance rate

deviates from the ideal relationship of equal
arrival and acceptance rate is balance point.
Balance point occurs when the runway is
loaded to its full capacity and such situation is
runway saturation.
At higher arrival rates, the runway cannot
accept all aircrafts and hence few are waved
off.
For a given set of conditions, the exit taxiways
should yield the highest possible rate of
acceptance. Such location of exit taxiway is
Optimum location.

## Design of exit taxiways:

Angle of turn
Compound curve
Exit speed
Length L1 and L2
Occupancy time
Shape of taxiway
Stopping sight distance

TERMINAL AREA
PLANNING

## TERMINAL AREA-GENERAL CONCEPTS

Terminal area includes terminal and operational
buildings, vehicle parking and aircraft service
hangars.
Serves as focal point for activities on the airport.
The airport entrance or access road from a
highway must be located in such a way to
accommodate future development.
done in Terminal apron.
Aircrafts can be fueled and parked in Terminal
apron.
Provision of hangars will also comes under
terminal area planning.

BUILDING FUNCTIONS
In a commercial airport, building can be categorized
into Terminal and Operational.
Terminal building:
Mainly used for passengers, airline and
Offers the enplaning passengers a convenient and
direct access from vehicle parking area to booking
room, waiting room & finally to apron.
Deplaning passengers are provided a direct route
from aircrafts to baggage claim counter and then to
vehicle platform.

Operational area:
Control tower, weather bureau and other
government services related to aviation comes
under operational category.
Mostly, terminal building will itself fulfils the
function of operational building also.

## Facilities provided in airport buildings:

Passengers & baggage handling counters for
booking
Baggage claim section
Enquiry counter
Space for handling & processing mail, express
and light cargo
Public telephone booth
Waiting hall for passengers and visitors
Toilet facilities
Restaurants and bars
First aid room

Cont.
Space for magazines, news papers,
Office space for airport staff
Weather bureau
Post office and banking facilities
Custom control
Passport and health control
Control tower

CHECK IN COUNTER

ESCALATOR

## GLASS PARTITION FOR DOMESTIC /

INTERNTIONAL - DEPARTURE

## PRE SECURITY HOLD SEATING AREA

RUNWAY

SITE SELECTION
The selected site should be in accordance with following
requirements:
Sufficient area for the first stage of building
development with possibility of future expansion.
Layout of above items providing functional relationship
with each other
Central location with respect to runway
Proximity & easy installation of utilities such as
telephone, electricity, water, sewage, etc.

Cont
Favourable orientation with respect to the
topography and prevailing wind
Good subsoil water characteristics including
the natural drainage.

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## TERMINAL BUILDING PLANNING

PRINCIPLES
Passengers walking distance should not be
more than 180m from surface transportation
to their boarding into the aircraft.
The airline passengers should not have to
carry the baggage by more than 22.5m from
the road transportation to the check-in-point.
Passengers should be able to check-in without
waiting.

Cont
The maximum check-in time should not
exceed 3 minutes.
On arrival of aircraft, the baggage delivery
speed should correspond to the walking time
of passengers from the aircraft to claim area.
If volume of cargo is large, a separate building
for handling and storage of cargo may be
required.

## PASSENGER TERMINAL BUILDING

CIRCULATION
DEPARTURE CIRCULATION
D1 DROP OFF AREA
ARRIVAL
CIRCULATION
D2 ENTRANCE
BAGGAGE CIRCULATION
A1 TICKETING
ARRIVAL GATE
D3
B1
GATE)
A2 (DEPARTURE
BAGGAGE CLAIM
D4
CHECK
C1 SECURITY
VISITORS LOUNGE
A3 BAGGAGE
ARRIVAL CONCOURSE
B1
D5
HALL
C2 CHECK-IN
VIP LOUNGE
(ARRIVAL
GATE)
A4 EXIT
D6
COUNTER
C3 CHECK-IN
CIP LOUNGE
B3 BAGGAGE HANDLING
D7 SYSTEM
SECURITY CHECK
D8 DEPARTURE LOUNGE
D9 DEPARTURE GATE
LEGEND
DEPARTURE
ARRIVAL
BAGGAGE
LOUNGE

North
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## DEPARTURE FLOW-GROUND FLOOR LEVEL-BENGALURU AIRPORT

Check-in Counters

## To Departure level for security check

Passengers proceed to check-in

-Ticketed Entry

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Swing Gate
Area

Domestic
Boarding Lounge

## Domestic Commercial Area

Domestic Security

Domestic

International
Boarding Lounge

Security

International

Immigration

## Departing pax from Check-in at ground floor

to Security at departure level (1st floor)

- Aerobridge departures,

- Domestic Gates,

- International Gates,

## VEHICULAR CIRCULATION AND

PARKING AREA

the terminal building.
One way traffic wherever possible
A minimum of driveway intersection.
overtaking.
Sufficiently and clearly defined parking and
circulation routes.
Well lighted routes for pedestrians and
vehicles.

AIRPORT

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ARRIVAL LEVEL

46

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## PARKING CONFIGURATION IN NEW

BENGALURU AIRPORT
PARKING

NUMBERS

213

Pick up area

202

283

## Long term parking

1093

2 wheeler parking

182

Bus bay

10

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Runway of 4.43 kms, the longest in Asia & 2nd longest in world which
caters to Code F aircrafts with 25kms of taxiway-DELHI AIRPORT

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## 6.4 km of Baggage Handling System(BHS) at basement level which

handles 12400 bags/hour with sophisticated mechanism for power
saving purpose-DELHI AIRPORT

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## HANGAR SITE SELECTION

The site should be such that there is a
aprons and terminal buildings.
Proximity to and easy installation of utilities such
as telephone, electricity, water, sewage, etc.
The site should not be along the direction of
frequent storms as this is likely to damage the
hangar doors.

Cont
Sufficient area to provide car parking facilities
for working personnel.
Favourable topography providing good natural
drainage.
Adequate site area for future expansion of
hangar facilities.

LAYOUT

## Landing, taxiing and taking off as independent

operations without interference.