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DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF PERIPHERAL

DOCKING MECHANISM
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
Bachelor of Technology
in
Aerospace Engineering
by

ADITYA KARAN
SC08B007

Department of Aerospace Engineering


INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SPACE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
THIRUVANANTHAPURAM
MAY 2012

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that this project report entitled DESIGN AND

DEVELOPMENT OF PERIPHERAL DOCKING MECHANISM,


submitted

to

Indian

Institute

of

Space

Science

and

Technology,

Thiruvananthapuram, is a bonafide record of work done by Mr. ADITYA


KARAN under my supervision at the VIKRAM SARABHAI SPACE CENTRE
from 16th Jan 2012 to 2nd May 2012.

K Kurien Issac

K.G. Vinod
Dy. Manager

Senior Professor

Mechanisms Lab

Head of Aerospace Engineering

AMFD/ASMG/MVIT

Indian Institute of Space Science &

VSSC, Valiamala

Technology
Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram

U.A. Subramanian
Division Head
SSMD/ASMG/MVIT
Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Valiamala

Place: Thiruvananthapuram
Date: 2nd May, 2012

Declaration by author
This is to declare that this report has been written by me. No part of the report is plagiarized
from other sources. All information included from other sources has been duly
acknowledged. I aver that if any part of the report is found to be plagiarized, I shall take full
responsibility for it.

Place: Thiruvananthapuram
Date: 2ndMay, 2012

ADITYA KARAN
SC08B007

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
A small step in the field of technology requires great support & expert guidance. It was a very
rich experience for me to do my final year project at Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC).
This project is a culmination of the studies and efforts of lot of people along with myself and I
would like to thank all of them profusely. First of all, I would like to thank Dr. R.V. Ramanan,
Adjunct Professor, Dept. of Aerospace, IIST, for having facilitated the availability of resources
and guidance for the realization of my project.
I sincerely thank to M. Premdas, Group Head, ASMG and P. Purushothaman, Division Head,
AMFD for their full support during the project.
I would like to deeply thank Sri U.A. Subramanian, Division Head, SSMD/ASMG/MVIT,
VSSC, Sri K.G. Vinod, Deputy Manager, Mechanisms Lab, AFMD/AFMG/MVIT, VSSC and
Dr. K. Kurien Issac, HOD, Dept. of Aerospace, IIST, for their invaluable guidance and support
throughout the duration of this project and their patience in helping to achieve the objectives. I
express my thanks to K P Venkateswaran, ASMG/MVIT for his helpful discussion time to time.
I would also like to thank Sri K. Thomas Varghese, IIST, and Shri Vinil Kumar for their
priceless support during the design stages (both on-paper and hardware designs). I would also
like to extend my thanks to Messrs. Aman Raj Verma, K. Kiran Sagar, Lala Surya Prakash,
Nitish Kumar, Sane Aakash, my colleagues from the Dept. of Aerospace and Mr. Kushagr
Gupta, from the Dept. of Avionics, for their support and help in this project. Last, but far from
least, I would like to thank those whose names have escaped mention above, but who have all
contributed in the successful completion of this project.

iv

ABSTRACT
Docking technology has got wide range of applications in ISROs future missions. The objective
of this project is to configure and design a docking mechanism suitable for a piggyback payload.
The misalignments specified have to be corrected and docking has to be made through reception,
guiding, capture and hard docking. For this the initial reception and guiding is achieved by a
typically outward petals and integrated capture and hard docking through a four bar mechanism.
This report elaborates on the misalignment range, configuration of petal and how it is arrived at.
Also detailed mechanism synthesis with velocity and acceleration profile is also presented. Both
the capture and docking is integrated into one mechanism and is driven by a variable speed
motor with redundancy. The mechanism is located inside the petals. Force analysis is done to
estimate the input torque. Further plan of action for making this concept as an autonomous
docking module is also designed.

Table of Contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................................ iv
ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................................................v
LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................... viii

INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................................2
1.1 Problem Statement ..................................................................................................................2
1.2 Rendezvous and Docking/Berthing (RVD/B) Of Spacecraft ....................................................2
1.3Docking& Berthing ..................................................................................................................2
1.3 Differences &Similarities between Docking & Berthing ..........................................................3
1.4 Docking Operations.................................................................................................................3
1.5 Design Driving Requirements .................................................................................................5
1.5.1

Type of Mission ............................................................................................................5

1.5.2

Capture Envelope (initial contact conditions) for Docking.............................................5

1.6 Types of Docking System........................................................................................................6


2

Docking Mechanism Development ...........................................................................................7


2.1 Probe & Drogue ......................................................................................................................7
2.2 Ring and Cone.........................................................................................................................9
2.3 Gemini Docking System..........................................................................................................9
2.4 Inflatable Probe .....................................................................................................................10
2.5 Inflatable tunnel ....................................................................................................................10
2.6 V Latches ..............................................................................................................................11
2.7 Androgynous Peripheral Docking System .............................................................................11

Designing the Docking System ................................................................................................14

vi

3.1 Mission/Docking Requirement ..............................................................................................14


3.2 Guiding System.....................................................................................................................15
3.2.1

Initial Proposed Designs for guiding system ................................................................15

3.2.2

Configuration of Fixed type outward Petals .................................................................16

3.2.3

Euler Transformation ..................................................................................................18

3.2.4

Contact Analysis with ADAMS software. ...................................................................22

3.3 Capture/Docking Mechanism ................................................................................................24


3.3.1

Initial Proposed Designs for Capturing/Docking Mechanism.......................................24

3.3.2

Configuring four bar mechanism .................................................................................26

3.3.3

Toggle Condition ........................................................................................................27

3.3.4

Position, velocity & Acceleration Analysis .................................................................28

3.4 Other Subsystems ..................................................................................................................44


3.5 Fabrication/Integration ..........................................................................................................45
4

CONCLUSION .......................................................................................................................47

Appendix 1 ....................................................................................................................................48
Appendix 2 ....................................................................................................................................55
Appendix 3 ....................................................................................................................................59
Appendix 4 Fabrication Drawing .................................................................................................63
REFERENCES .............................................................................................................................70

vii

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.2.1 Space Shuttle Docked with ISS courtesy NASA ...................................................................... 2
Figure 1.2.2 Dragon Spacecraft during Berthing with ISS courtesy NASA .................................................. 3
Figure 1.6.1 Central Docking Mechanism Schematic ................................................................................ 6
Figure 1.6.2 Peripheral Docking Mechanism Schematic Ref (1) ................................................................ 6
Figure 2.1.1 Probe-Drogue Docking System [2] ........................................................................................ 7
Figure 2.1.2Probe & Drogue Docking System courtesy NASA ................................................................... 8
Figure 2.1.3 Docking Sequence in Central Probe type System [3] ............................................................. 8
Figure 2.2.1 Ring & Cone Docking System [2] ........................................................................................... 9
Figure 2.3.1 Gemini Docking System [2] ................................................................................................... 9
Figure 2.4.1Inflatable Probe [2] ............................................................................................................. 10
Figure 2.5.1 Inflatable Tunnel [2] ........................................................................................................... 10
Figure 2.6.1 V-Latch ............................................................................................................................... 11
Figure 2.6.2Positioning of V-Latches [1] ................................................................................................. 11
Figure 2.7.1 APDS Schematic [2] ............................................................................................................ 11
Figure 2.7.2 Active side of APDS [4] ....................................................................................................... 12
Figure 2.7.3 Passive Side of APDS [4] ..................................................................................................... 12
Figure 2.7.4 Active Capture Latch [1] courtesy ESA ................................................................................ 13
Figure 2.7.5 Screw type latch (courtesy ESA).......................................................................................... 13
Figure 3.2.1 Expandable Cone type Guiding System ............................................................................... 15
Figure 3.2.2 Rotating type outward Petal configuration before contact ................................................. 16
Figure 3.2.3 Initial Petal configuration with Docking Coordinate system ................................................ 17
Figure 3.2.4 Petal Configuration after Euler Transformation with increased length ................................ 18
Figure 3.2.5 interference 1 between petals =46 config ........................................................................ 19
Figure 3.2.6 interference 2 between petals =46 config......................................................................... 19
Figure 3.2.7 interference 3 between petal and ring =46 config............................................................. 20
Figure 3.2.8 guiding system configuration =55 &=73 ......................................................................... 20
Figure 3.2.9 final petal configuration with all lateral (along different directions) & angular misalignments
.............................................................................................................................................................. 21
Figure 3.2.10 Snapshots of Simulation of Contact & Guiding by petals ................................................... 23
Figure 3.3.1 schematic of One of three probe with cone ....................................................................... 24
Figure 3.3.2 Schematic of rotating arm catching petal ........................................................................... 25
Figure 3.3.3 rotating arm Locked Position .............................................................................................. 25
Figure 3.3.4 locus of mechanism output link .......................................................................................... 25
Figure 3.3.5 locus of capturing point final configuration ........................................................................ 26
Figure 3.3.6 Toggle condition in coupler point( no torque position) ....................................................... 27
Figure 3.3.7 Stable position , torque on input link is having tendency to close the mechanism............... 27
Figure 3.3.8 Mechanism position, velocity &.......................................................................................... 28
Figure 3.3.9 Locus of links from 106 deg to 285 input angle ................................................................... 29
Figure 3.3.10 Capture/ready position of Mechanism (input angle 122 deg)............................................ 29

viii

Figure 3.3.11Retracted position of Mechanism ...................................................................................... 29


Figure 3.3.12 Time taken for Mechanism to reach its capture position from Retracted position with input
RPM as 50 ............................................................................................................................................. 30
Figure 3.3.13 Vertical Velocity of Capture Point ..................................................................................... 31
Figure 3.3.14 Vertical Acceleration of Capture Point .............................................................................. 33
Figure 3.3.15 Force due to accln. of joint 6 (all mechanisms capturing simultaneously).......................... 34
Figure 3.3.16 Force due to accln of joint 6 (single mechanism capturing) ............................................... 34
Figure 3.3.17 force acting on output link ............................................................................................... 36
Figure 3.3.18 FBD of output link ............................................................................................................ 36
Figure 3.3.19 FBD of link 2 ..................................................................................................................... 36
Figure 3.3.20 FBD of Input Link .............................................................................................................. 37
Figure 3.3.21 Vertical velocity of joint 6 from contact position till final position ..................................... 38
Figure 3.3.22 Vertical acceleration of joint 6 from contact position till final position .............................. 38
Figure 3.3.23 Total force on one mechanisms output link (all mechanisms capturing)........................... 39
Figure 3.3.24 torque on one mechs input link (all mechanisms capturing) ............................................ 39
Figure 3.3.25 total torque on input link of one mech (all mechanisms capturing)................................... 40
Figure 3.3.26 torque due to friction at joints (all mechanisms capturing) ............................................... 40
Figure 3.3.27 total force on one mechs output link (single mech. capturing) ......................................... 41
Figure 3.3.28 torque on one mechs input link (single mechanisms capturing) ....................................... 42
Figure 3.3.29 torque due to friction at joints (single mechanisms capturing) ......................................... 42
Figure 3.3.30 total torque on input link of one mech (single mechanisms capturing) ............................. 43
Figure 3.3.31 mechanism at270 & 285 deg(resting position) .................................................................. 44
Figure 3.5.1 Schematic of all subsystems of docking system of one Spacecraft (not to scale) ................. 45
Figure 3.5.2 No interference between Petal and Mechanism ................................................................. 45
Figure 3.5.4 Mechanism in retracted position ........................................................................................ 46
Figure 3.5.5 Mechanism at capture/ready position ................................................................................ 46
Figure 3.5.3 Mechanism and petal assembly.......................................................................................... 46
Figure 3.5.6 Mechanism at final position ............................................................................................... 46

ix

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Problem Statement
As Future Missions of ISRO, where assembly of Modules may take place in the orbit, Docking
Technique is going to be a key element. This project deals with Design & Development of
Docking Mechanism which can Capture, Guide, Dock & Undock 600kg & 160 kg Spacecrafts
in the orbit.

1.2 Rendezvous and Docking/Berthing (RVD/B) Of Spacecraft


In the 60s Space Race started between United States and Soviet Union for supremacy in space
exploration. After Manned Mission (Mercury and Gemini) in Low Earth Orbit, goal was set to
send men to the Moon. For achieving this difficult and seemingly impossible Target, much
bigger Space Module was needed. This Bigger Module had to be accommodated in the Rocket
available. It was found that with a single module, it is not possible to accommodate this Module
in the Rocket. Even Saturn Rocket, which is one of the biggest Launch Vehicle ever, was not
enough for this. Then the idea of sending the Module in different segments and assemble them
together in Space was explored. Thus the concept of Rendezvous and Docking of Spacecrafts
came.
2|Page

A space rendezvous is an orbital maneuver during in which two spacecraft arrive at the
same orbit and approach to a very close distance (e.g. within visual contact). Rendezvous
requires a precise match of the orbital velocities of the two spacecraft, allowing them to remain
at

constant

distance.

Rendezvous

was

first

successfully

accomplished

in Dec

1965when Gemini 6 spacecraft was brought within 1 foot (30 cm) of its sister craft Gemini 7.
RVD/B systems are key elements in missions such as
Assembly in orbit of larger units& Re-supply of orbital platforms and stations (eg. ISS, Mir)
Exchange of crew in orbital stations
Capture, Repair& placing of spacecraft in orbit (Hubble Telescope repair by Space Shuttle)
Retrieval, i.e. capture and return to ground, of spacecraft; eg EURECA Spacecraft
Re-joining an Orbiting Vehicle using a lander in the case of Lunar and Planetary return
Missions; eg Apollo Mission
Rendezvous may or may not be followed by physical contact between Spacecrafts. As a general
term for the process of achieving rigid connection between two Spacecrafts, the term mating is
used. This includes Docking and Berthing.

1.3Docking& Berthing
The term Docking is used
When the GNC (Guidance,
Navigation
System

of

&
the

Control)
Chaser

controls the required Vehicle


state parameters necessary to
ensure

that

its

capture

interfaces enter into those of


the

Target

Vehicle,

and

where the Capture Location


is also the location for
Structural Connection. The
first Docking between two

Figure 1.2.1 Space Shuttle Docked with ISS courtesy NASA

2|Page

spacecraft took place onMarch1966, when Gemini vehicle was docked with an unmanned Agena
target vehicle.
In case of Berthing, the GNC system of
the Chaser delivers the vehicle at
nominally zero relative velocities and
angular rates to a meeting point, where
a manipulator, located either on the
target or chaser vehicle, grapples it,
transfers it to the final position and
inserts it into the interfaces of the
relevant target berthing port.

Figure 1.2.2 Dragon Spacecraft during Berthing with ISS

courtesy NASA

1.3 Differences &Similarities between Docking & Berthing


For docking, the functions for capture and attachment are located at one location on each vehicle
and integrated into one system, Due to this feature, the transfer from the capture position to the
attachment position is very short.
For berthing, the functions for capture and attachment are at different locations on both vehicles.
Capture is performed by robotic arm which captures the according interface on the other vehicle.
From the capture position, the captured body can be transferred to many possible attachment
locations. Berthing allows attachment to locations on the target vehicle where docking may not
be possible. As capture in berthing takes place at nominally zero relative velocity between the
two vehicles, impact shocks and forces will be small.

1.4 Docking Operations

Reduction of approach velocity and misalignments.

During and/or after

acquisition of the docking axis, the chaser reduces its approach velocity to the final value.
The last part of the approach is done with constant Velocity. During the last few meters
of approach the chaser GNC must achieve the lateral and angular alignment which is
3|Page

necessary to place docking interfaces of chaser and target into each others reception
range.

Reception. This is the range within which physical contact between the two vehicles
occurs and capture of the according interfaces is possible. The reception range must be
large enough to cover all remaining misalignments of the chaserw.r.t. the target vehicle.

Impact attenuation. After the first contact, remaining kinetic energy of Chaser has to
be absorbed for avoiding its rebound. With Spring damper devices velocity change
occurs over a longer distance which reduces shock load on structures and increase time
available for capturing process

Capture. After entering into their reception ranges, the capture interface structures of
both sides can guide each other into the conditions of alignment, at which capture can be
completed. The term capture simply means that the vehicles can no longer escape from
each other. It does not imply, however, that a rigid connection has been established.
Operation of the capture latches can be achieved either by springs latches (passive type
latches) and the kinetic energy available from the residual velocity between chaser and
target or by actuation of active latches initiated by sensors (can be contact, force or visual
type sensors).

Retraction and structural alignment. After capture, the two spacecraft are still only
relatively loosely connected to each other, and the axial distance, the lateral and angular
misalignments in general may not allow immediate engagement of the structural latches.
On the other hand, in most designs, the springs of the shock attenuator system will push
the two bodies away from each other. For this reason, in most designs a retraction
mechanism is necessary to pull the docking interface planes of the two craft together also
improving the misalignment necessary for structural connection.

Structural connection. Once Spacecrafts are properly aligned, the structural latches
can be engaged. They press the two interface planes together under a pre-load to ensure a
stiff structural connection under all load conditions which potentially could occur during
operation as a combined spacecraft. Structural latches also have to apply the compression
forces for the sealing rings when pressurized connection is needed between spacecrafts.

4|Page

Utilities connection. After accomplishing rigid connection between spacecrafts,


electrical connections for power and data are needed. Now both spacecrafts can be
monitored and operated by any of two Vehicles.

Pressurization& opening of hatches. In the case of manned mission, pressurization


is necessary between Spacecrafts. It is done by the gas tight seal presented on the
interface of Docking System.

1.5 Design Driving Requirements


The design and size of mating mechanisms are determined by a number of factors, which depend
on the mission objectives and the dynamic conditions at contact of the chaser and target halves of
the mechanism.

1.5.1 Type of Mission


In Unmanned mission generally no pressurized transfer tunnel is needed. Unpressurized mating
mechanisms are much simpler in design, as no air-tight connection has to be established. In
manned missions, for the transfer of crew or goods, a tunnel has to be formed after mating,
which provides a pressurized passage. The diameter of the docking mechanism is mainly
dependent on the size of the tunnel required for transfer of crew and goods. The minimum cross
section of hatch and tunnel should allow the passage of an astronaut in his space suit.

1.5.2 Capture Envelope (initial contact conditions) for Docking


At the time of reception, Spacecrafts may have lateral or angular misalignments. Docking system
should be able to capture even when some misalignments are present.

Velocity and

misalignments allowed for a typical docking system are as following.

Approach velocity= 0.03-0.3 m/s

Lateral Alignment= 0.05-0.2 m

Lateral velocity = 0.010.05 m/s

Angular misalignment = 15 deg (w.r.t Docking Coordinate System)

Angular rate = 0.050.25 deg/s

5|Page

1.6 Types of Docking System


In general, Docking System can be classified into two types.

Central Docking System

Peripheral Docking System

Central Docking system consists of one


rod (Probe) on one spacecraft & Cone
(Drogue) on the other spacecraft. Usually
chaser Spacecraft has the probe and the
target has the drogue. Effective alignment
for capture after the first contact can most

Figure 1.6.1 Central Docking Mechanism Schematic

easily be implemented by a central Docking system.


After the docking completion in Central Docking System, the probe and cone assembly has to be
removed and stored somewhere to open the tunnel as they are in the way of transfer tunnel. To
avoid this disadvantage, Peripheral Docking System has been preferred. In this type of Docking
system reception, guidance and capture
functions are placed on the periphery
of the docking rings. Whereas a central
system will always have a male and a
female side, a peripheral system can be
arranged such that these functions are
available on both sides. This gives the
redundancy to the system. If docking
system on one spacecraft fails, docking
still can be done by activating same

Figure 1.6.2 Peripheral Docking Mechanism

system on other spacecraft. This type of design is called Androgynous Peripheral Docking

System (APDS).
APDS technology came when Apollo-Soyuz program started. This mission consisted of Docking
of American Apollo Command Module with Russian Soyuz Module as to check compatibility of
both countries technology before starting for an orbital Station Mission and still used in ISS &
Space Shuttle Docking.
6|Page

2 Docking Mechanism Development


The following is an overview of the evolution of docking mechanisms. It presents the concepts
developed for the Gemini, Apollo and ASTP programs as well as some of the concepts that were
proposed but later eliminated.
The systems can be identified as either impact or non-impact in nature. The impact systems
required that the active vehicle initiate a closure rate within a specific velocity range such that
kinetic energy could be employed to capture. The non-impact systems, on the other hand,
required the active vehicle to keep near the target vehicle such that a tether could be extended to
capture the target vehicle, allowing it to be retracted back to the active vehicle. The following
description and analysis of the seven concepts evaluated.

2.1 Probe & Drogue


It is a central docking system with a
reception cone with a capture hole in
the centre on the target side and a
spherically suspended rod with shock
attenuation on the chaser side. After
first contact with the reception cone,
the conical tip of the rod will be
pushed into thecapture hole. The tip is
connected via a spherical bearing to
the rod, allowing alignmentwith the
surface of the reception cone. Upon

Figure 2.1.1 Probe-Drogue Docking System [2]

entering into the capture hole, the springloadedcapture latches on the tip of the rod will engage
on the flange inside the entranceof the hole. Alignment between the two vehicles is achieved
during retraction of the rod.

7|Page

through a number of arms which


form a cone and are connected to
the base of the rod. 12 structural
Latches are on the periphery of the
tunnel

which

engage

after

retraction for final connection. This


system
Mission

was
and

used

for

ATV

Apollo

(automatic

transfer vehicle of ESA).

Figure 2.1.2Probe & Drogue Docking System courtesy NASA

Figure 2.1.3 Docking Sequence in Central Probe type System [3]

8|Page

2.2 Ring and Cone


The ring and cone docking system
consists of a ring mounted on the Chaser
and a cone mounted on the Target. The
tubular ring is supported by six identical
impact attenuators. The cone consists of
four structural elements and capture
latches to engage the ring. After initial
capture latching, the two vehicles are
pulled together to the hard-dock position
by three electrical reel-in mechanisms.
The cone serves as the guide for the ring
from

contact

to

capture

latch

Figure 2.2.1 Ring & Cone Docking System [2]

engagement and is removable, after hard docking, to provide for crew transfer. In addition a slot
in the cone was provided such that a guide bar on the capsule provided accurate rotational
alignment of the vehicles.

2.3 Gemini Docking System


The Gemini docking system consists of
a structural ring on the target and a cone
on the chaser. This system is a reversal
of the ring and cone system in that the
cone is reversed (similar to drogue) and
is supported by the impact attenuators.

Figure 2.3.1 Gemini Docking System [2]

9|Page

2.4 Inflatable Probe


The inflatable probe system uses an extendible inflatable tube and support structure mounted on
the chaser and a conical
drogue mounted on the
target.

The

tube

is

extended to 20 feet and


made

rigid

by

gas

inflation. The capture latch


mechanism is mounted on
the forward end of the tube
for engagement of the
latches

in

the

drogue.

Figure 2.4.1Inflatable Probe [2]

After capture, the tube is reeled in to achieve hard docking.

2.5 Inflatable tunnel


The inflatable tunnel is a flexible device that is stowed in the chaser tunnel and releases and
extends by gas pressure. After capture latch engagement with the target drogue, the tunnel is
retracted to achieve a hard dock configuration.

Figure 2.5.1 Inflatable Tunnel [2]

10 | P a g e

2.6 V Latches
For uncompressed Docking, this type of Mechanism is
used. This was used in ETS-7 satellite of Japan. This can
be central of peripheral type. This typically consists of
three or four latches arranged on the mating ring of the
active vehicle, with handlebars as interfaces for the
latches on the side of the passive vehicle. The latch
consists of a V-shaped guiding structure and two arms,
which after closure will prevent escape of the handlebar
and will pull it down into its seat.

Figure 2.6.1 V-Latch


Figure 2.6.2Positioning of V-Latches [1]

2.7 Androgynous Peripheral Docking System


As already discussed in types of
Docking mechanism, In this system
each side can beactive or passive, and
each half mechanism could be mated
with a copyof it.
Each system has 2 rings. Contact
Ring & Structural connection ring
(docking ring). The contact rings are
separated

from

the

structuralconnection ring (docking

Figure 2.7.1 APDS Schematic [2]

ring) bysix dampers arranged in a Stewart platform setup.On the active side, the dampers are
extended; on the passive side theyare retracted. Each contact ring has 3 Petal, which can be
11 | P a g e

placed outward (apollosoyuz Project) or inward


(Space-shuttle).

These

petals are used for guiding


the ring after first contact
till

capture.

carries

Eachpetal

spring-loaded

capture latch, which acts


on a latch-catch on the
oppositering.

After

contact, the active contact


ring will be pushed toward

Figure 2.7.2 Active side of APDS [4]

the passive one andwill be


aligned with it so that the
capture latches will engage
their

corresponding

catches.After

successful

capture, retraction of the


contact ring is performed.
For structural connection,
12 double-hook type latches
on

the

docking

ringare

used.
Capture latches in APDS
can be passive or active.

Figure 2.7.3 Passive Side

of APDS [4]

Magnetic latch is example of passive latches. Active type latches are motor driven which
actuates with the help of sensors.
One active latch used for Hermes-Columbus docking system by ESA is four bar mechanism
(figure 2.7.4).

12 | P a g e

Figure 2.7.4 Active Capture Latch [1] courtesy ESA

This four bar mechanism has extended coupler link which capture the other spacecraft and bring
it closer for docking mechanism to take over for rigid connection.
Structural latch can either be of hook type or screw type. In screw type latches, both bolt and nut
are mounted on spherical bearings to
compensate misalignments.

Figure 2.7.5 Screw type latch (courtesy ESA)

13 | P a g e

3 Designing the Docking System


ISRO is planning a Docking Demonstration Mission in near future. In this mission, docking will
take place between 600kg & 160 kg satellites. 160kg (chaser) satellite will be carried as piggy
bag payload. In the orbit it will dock with the 600kg satellite (target). Usually when both
spacecrafts are unmanned, unpressurized docking takes place but considering manned
spacecrafts docking in the future, this mission will also have pressurized docking feature.

3.1 Mission/Docking Requirement


As discussed in the previous chapters Peripheral Docking System has advantages over Central
Docking System; proposed Docking system is Peripheral Docking System.
Mission Specification & Docking System requirements given are as following.
Target Spacecraft - 600 kg
Chaser Spacecraft -160 kg

Allowable relative axial velocity of Chaser w.r.t target is 5-10cm/s. lateral velocity
below 5cm/s & angular velocity below 0.5 deg/s.

When both spacecrafts Docking rings are at 100mm (Axial Reception), allowable
lateral misalignment is 85mm.

Allowable roll, pitch & yaw at 100mm is 5 deg each about Coordinate System, the
origin of which lies in the intersection of Longitudinal Axis of Spacecraft & mating
plane of Docking system.

Tunnel Size 400mm Dia.

Tunnel pressure is 1 Bar. gas tight seal

At the end of docking process, there must be a rigid connection between the modules. Any
disturbance should not lead to failure/opening of this connection. No power should be provided
to keep this rigid connection. Power should be used only in docking/undocking process. All
mechanisms should be driven by single motor with redundant motor. In previous mission, in
which peripheral docking system was used, separate mechanisms have been used for Capturing
& Docking Purpose. In the proposed Mechanism, Same mechanism should be able to perform
Capture & Dock (rigid connection).
14 | P a g e

3.2 Guiding System


After first contact, guiding is needed to reduce the misalignments of the Spacecrafts so that
mechanism can capture the other ring. In peripheral type docking system this guiding is done
by petals. Given the space available, petal configuration can be outward or inward. Inward
petals are removable to make the passage free after docking. Outward petals configuration
depends upon the space available in Launch vehicle. This configuration has ability to correct
bigger misalignment than Inward petal configuration. Apollo-Soyuz Mission used outward
configuration. NDS (NASA Docking System) uses Inward petal configuration.

3.2.1 Initial Proposed Designs for guiding system


For this project, following ideas about guiding systems were explored and best one was
selected.

3.2.1.1 Expandable Cone type Guiding System


This uses advantages of central type docking. Chaser has an expandable cone which is made
by 3 or 4 petals. Tunnel on
the target

will work as

drogue. Initially they are


configured

as

shown

in

Figure 3.2.1. When Spacecrafts come closer, this cone


guides them. When they are
sufficient closer, cone will
expand and get locked on the
inner wall of target. This lock
can be treated as capture after
which rigid connection can
be made. This configuration
has additional attachments
for locking the petals which
is

penalty

in

mass

and

Figure 3.2.1 Expandable Cone type Guiding System


Initial & locked position

15 | P a g e

complexity. Also this locking will take a lot of space inside the tunnel. This configuration
doesnt fulfill our requirement of single Capture & Docking system.

3.2.1.2 Rotating type outward petals configuration


This

configuration

consists

of

petals which can be rotated. When


spacecrafts are in reception range,
petals will rotate from initial
position and capture the other
spacecraft.

When

these

petals

rotate, they will reduce the lateral


and

angular

misalignments.

Remaining axial distance can be


reduced with the screw type latches
which

work

as

structural

connection too.
Figure 3.2.2 Rotating type outward Petal configuration
before contact

3.2.1.3 Fixed type Petal on ring periphery


This is the most common guiding system used in peripheral docking systems. Petals are
connected on the periphery of rings. Configuration can be outward (fig 2.7.1) or inward (fig
2.7.2).Outward petal config gives more freedom to increase the size of petal to correct bigger
misalignment. Rotating or expandable type petals add complexities into the design. To make
the passage way free, outward petals configuration is adopted.

3.2.2 Configuration of Fixed type outward Petals


Fixed type outward petal configuration has been selected for guiding system. Minimum 3 nos of
petals are needed. There can be more than 3 petals but increasing the number of petals gives
increment in all components and lesser space for accommodation. In general, petal made by solid

plate is used. There is arrangement for latches in the petal.so that petal can fall into latch catch
located on the other ring to get a capture. Proposed capture/docking mechanism has to be

16 | P a g e

accommodated within the petal. So design of hollow petal is proposed. Hollow petal either can
be made by plate or by bending tube in desired shape. Due to the time constraint, tube type petal
design is taken in consideration. For making tube type petal, only bending of tube and
arrangements for fixtures with ring is needed. Other time taking fabrication activities can be
avoided in this configuration. Petal should be strong enough for impact load when petal-petal or
petal-ring comes into contact.
As reception range given is 100mm, which means if petal length along longitudinal axis is more
than 50mm, spacecrafts cant escape each other except in the case of rebound. For starting the
configuring petals, initial vertical length of petal is taken as 50 mm. Petal can correct lateral
misalignment equal to its radial length. As 85mm lateral misalignment is to be corrected, petal
radial length is 85mm. this is the initial configuration of petals.
Now this system should be able to correct angular misalignment. At 100mm angular
misalignments (5deg each in roll, yaw & pitch) will give additional radial & longitudinal
distance which should be covered by petals.

Figure 3.2.3 Initial Petal configuration with Docking Coordinate system

Coordinate system for docking system is defined as located on the center of the ring interface
with Z axis along the vehicle longitudinal axis. All misalignments are w.r.t this coordinate
system.

17 | P a g e

3.2.3 Euler Transformation


Euler transformation is given as following.
( cos z cos y + sin z sin x sin y )
( sinzcosx ) ( cos z sin y + sin z sin x cos y )

A=
( cos z )
( sin z sin y + cos z sin x cos y )
( sin z cos y + cos z sin x sin y )

( cos x sin y )
( sin x )
( cos x cos y )

X '
X


Y ' = A Y , where x, y & z represents yaw, pitch & roll
Z '
Z


X , Y & Z coordinates of po int s on ring or petal before transformation
X ', Y '& Z ' coordinates of po int s on ring or petal after transformation

MatLab program was developed for transformation (see Appnedix-1). 12 points on rings & edge
points on petals were taken. Then the ring 2 was given all angular misalignments w.r.t Docking
coordinate system and the displacements were found radially and axially ring to ring and petal to
petal. With these

R petalMAX = 8.05 mm
R ringMAX =15.21mm
Z petalMAX = 46.70mm
Z ringMAX = 36.42 mm
New Petal configuration is as following.

ZPetal =+
50 46.70 =
96.70mm
R Petal =+
85 15.21 =
100.21 mm

= 46.02 from Z azis, =75


L Petal = 139.2 mm

Figure 3.2.4 Petal Configuration after Euler Transformation with increased length
18 | P a g e

to have an initial value for the base line configuration of petals, Euler transformation is used.
Later different combinations of lateral & angular misalignments were tried graphically and an
acceptable configure is arrived at with almost zero interferences for the misalignments specified.
This is also accounted the space required for accommodating capture/docking mechanism.

Figure 3.2.5 interference 1 between petals =46 config

Figure 3.2.6 interference 2 between petals =46 config

19 | P a g e

Figure 3.2.7 interference 3 between petal and ring =46 config


Final configuration of petal is as following
55 deg, 73 deg (See appendix 1). Final Petal length is 185mm. Drawing of petal is in
appendix (drawing no AE DMP 8-a & 8-b).No major interferences were found for this
configuration as following.

Figure 3.2.8 guiding system configuration =55 &=73

20 | P a g e

Fig-a

Fig-b

Fig-c

Fig-d

Figure 3.2.9 final petal configuration with all lateral (along different directions) & angular misalignments

21 | P a g e

3.2.4 Contact Analysis with ADAMS software.


It is necessary to show that the final configuration of petals & ring works as expected when all
kinds of initial misalignments and velocities are given to the spacecrafts. For this, Dynamic
Contact Analysis is done with the ADAMS software.
For simulating contact dynamics between spacecrafts, their mass & inertia should be known. For
this analysis, 600kg spacecrafts dimensions are taken as (1000x1000x1000mm) and for 160 kg
spacecraft, dimensions are (500x500x500mm) and the inertial quantities are calculated assuming
uniform density. These mass and inertia properties are added into those of ring & petal system.
Chaser is the smaller spacecraft. Rings are given all relative misalignments (lateral & angular)
and chaser has given 100 mm/s longitudinal velocity, 50 mm/s along lateral direction and 5 deg/s
angular velocities. Simulation shows that petal configuration is good enough to guide the rings
so that they come closer and from here onwards the mechanism can actuate and capture the
chasers ring so that they cant escape each other. Parameters in the simulations are as following.
Impact Force Parameters
Stiffness: 1.0E+005 N-mm
Damping: 30.0 N-sec/mm
Exponent: 2.2
Dmax

: 0.1 mm (penetration depth)

Coulomb Friction
Mu Static
Mu Dynamic

: 0.3
: 0.1

Stiction Transition Velocity: 100.0 mm/sec


Friction Transition Velocity: 1000.0 mm/sec
Chaser axial velocity 100 mm/s
Lateral velocity 50 mm/s
Angular velocities 5 deg/s each

22 | P a g e

Figure 3.2.10 Snapshots of Simulation of Contact & Guiding by petals

23 | P a g e

3.3 Capture/Docking Mechanism


3.3.1 Initial Proposed Designs for Capturing/Docking Mechanism
Three mechanisms for single capturing/docking were proposed. 4 bar mechanism with extended
coupler link was selected. Mechanisms proposed are as following with their advantages &
disadvantages.

3.3.1.1 Probe/Cone on the periphery of the ring


Using the advantage of central type docking, this
mechanism contains 3 probes on the one ring and cones on the
other ring. This mechanism uses kinetic energy of spacecrafts to
penetrate the probes into their corresponding tapered holes
located on the other ring. Probe consists of one cylinder. At the
end of this cylinder there is a rack and 2 pinion arrangements.
These pinions are as shown in Figure
3.3.1. Pinion has projection as shown in
figure. Initially their position is like they
make a cone which helps them to enter
into the hole. After entering, the linear
actuator activates and rack goes forward
which rotates the pinion. Pinion will get
locked when stopper on the pinion

(a)

contacts with inner wall of hole. For


undocking bring the rack outward which
will rotate the pinions and probe will get
unlocked.
This mechanism was ruled out as the probe
dimensions may exceed the thickness of
the ring (100mm) as they have to correct
(b)
the misalignments at the time of contact.

Figure 3.3.1 schematic of One of three probe with cone


on the mating surface of 2nd ring (a) while insertion into
the cone (b) Locked condition of probe

24 | P a g e

3.3.1.2 Rotating Arms catching the Hollow Petals


This mechanism consists of 3
rotating arms which are actuated by
motor. The shape of Arm is shown
in Figure 3.3.2. Arm captures the
petal and when it rotates, it bring
down the 2nd spacecraft. With the
virtue of shape of the arm, it gets
locked

when

spacecrafts

come
Figure 3.3.2 Schematic of rotating arm catching petal

together as shown in figure.


This design was rejected as
for structural connection;
this design may need other
locking mechanism.

Figure 3.3.3 rotating arm Locked Position

3.3.1.3 Four Bar Mechanism with Extended coupler link


Minimum requirement of the
mechanism for capturing is that it
should have lateral as well as
vertical

range.

Before

first

contact between both spacecrafts


guiding

system,

docking

mechanism should be in retracted


position and when rings come
into capture range, mechanism
should actuate and capture the

Figure 3.3.4 locus of mechanism output link

25 | P a g e

ring of other spacecraft.


At first point of contact, spacecrafts may have lateral and angular misalignments. This is why
mechanism should have lateral range so that it can capture the ring even if there is some lateral
misalignment. In literature Survey, it was found that ESA uses active latches for HermesColumbus Docking mechanism. They use 4 bar mechanism extended coupler link as capturing
mechanism (fig 2.7.4). This design was adopted for our capturing and docking mechanism as per
our requirements specifications.

3.3.2 Configuring four bar mechanism


For configuring a 4 bar with
extended

coupler

link

graphical approach was used


(see

appendix

configuration

of

2).

Final

four

bar

mechanism is as following.
l1=52.50 length of the link 1
l2=76.25 length of the link 2
l3=77.49 length of the link 3
l5=89.59 length of the link 4
fixed with link 3(coupler)
l4=62.27 length of capturing
link 5
This mechanism has axial
capture range as 100mm.
This design also gives the

Figure 3.3.5 locus of capturing point final configuration

advantage of Toggle Condition.

26 | P a g e

3.3.3 Toggle Condition


Toggle condition is defined here w.r.t. coupler output point. This condition shows that at toggle
condition, if any disturbance force comes on
the output point, mechanism will not be
opened. This condition is achieved when
coupler point (Point 6 in Figure 3.3.6) is
located where line joining joint 1, 2 & line
joining joint 4, 3 are intersecting each other as
shown in Figure (3.3.6). This is neutral
condition. If mechanism is given little more
input angle, any disturbance cant open the
mechanism because torque coming on input
link will change its direction and try to close
the mechanism instead of opening (fig 3.3.7).
This mechanism provides both capturing &
locking.

Figure 3.3.6 Toggle condition in coupler point( no torque


position)

Figure 3.3.7 Stable position , torque on input link


is having tendency to close the mechanism

27 | P a g e

3.3.4 Position, velocity & Acceleration Analysis


3.3.4.1 Position Analysis
Angle of linkages from X axis is shown in Figure (3.3.8).

0= tan 1 ( x3 x1 y3 y1 )
x1 =0,y1 =0
x 2 =l1 cos(1 ) (joint 2)
y 2 =l1 sin(1 )
J 2 =complex(x 2 ,y 2 ) coordinate of joint 2
J 2 -J 3 represents J 3J 2 vector
e=abs(J 2 -J 3 ) magnitude of J 3J 2 vector
=
4 angle( J1 J 3 ) angle( J 2 J 3 )

5 acos ((e2 + l2 2 l32 ). / (2el2 ))


=
=
(1.5 + 0 5 4 ) vector J 4 J 3 w.r.t. X axis
6
x=
x3 + (l2 cos 6 )
4
y=
y3 + (l2 sin 6 ) joint 4
4
J 4 = complex( x4 , y4 )

3 =angle(J 4 -J 2 )
f 1 =34.80 /180 fixed angle between J 4 J 5 & J 4 J 6
(l4 2 + l52 )0.5
lJ 4=
J6

f 2 =126.53 /180 angle between J 5J 4 & J 4 J 2

Figure 3.3.8 Mechanism position, velocity &


acceleration analysis

J4J6 = f 2 -( -3 + f 1 )
J4J5 = f 2 -( -3 )
co ordinates of capture point (output point 6)
x 6 =x 4 +(lJ4J6 cos J4J6 )
y6 =y 4 +(lJ4J6 sin J4J6 )
coordinates of point 5
x 5 =x 4 +(l4 cos J4J5 )
y5 =y 4 +(l4 sin J4J5 )

28 | P a g e

Mechanism will be kept initially at


106 deg input angle (fig 3.3.11). this
is chosen to avoid hitting between
links and other spacecrafts ring or
petal. First contact should only take
place either petal to petal or petal to
ring. Mechanism will be actuated by
means of sensors when rings are
within the range of mechanism.
Ring of 2nd spacecraft will not able
to escape from mechanism when
Mechanism comes into the position
as shown in Figure (3.3.10) at input
angle 122 deg.

Figure 3.3.11Retracted position of

Figure 3.3.9 Locus of links from 106 deg to 285 input angle

Mechanism

Figure 3.3.10 Capture/ready position of Mechanism


(input angle 122 deg)

29 | P a g e

3.3.4.2 Velocity
As shown in above figures that mechanism will be kept in retracted position from where it
actuates to acquire its capture position so that in any case of rebound, ring of 2nd spacecraft cant
escape. Assuming impact time as 100ms, mechanism should be fast enough to get its capture
position from retracted position within 50ms. This requirement defines the input rotation of
mechanism. From figure (3.3.12) input RPM is taken as 50. After reaching the capture position,

Figure 3.3.12 Time taken for Mechanism to reach its capture position from Retracted position with input RPM
as 50

its RPM can be reduced to avoid high impact load between link and ring. With input RPM as
50, velocity of output link can be found as following.
In Figure (3.3.8), replacing links 1, 2, 3 & fixed link (J3J1) by their corresponding vectors and
taking vector summation, Equation is as following.

J 3 J1 + L1 + L3 L2 =
0

------(1)

in complex form
0 ----(2)
J 3 J1e j ( pi /2+0 ) + L1e j (1 ) + L3e j (3 ) L2e j (6 ) =
as J 3 J1 is a fixed link, first time derivative of Eqn (2) is

jL1 e

j (1 )

+ jL3 e

j (3 )

jL2 e j (6 ) = 0
6

seperating in corresponding real & imaginary terms with

=
w=
w4
1 w=
2 , 3
3 , 6
30 | P a g e

w3 =

l1 w 2 (sin(1 - 6 )
----------(3)
l3 sin( 6 -3 )

w4 =

l1 w 2 (sin(1 -3 )
----------(4)
l2 sin( 6 -3 )

Link 3, 4 & 5 are having the same rotation velocity as w3. With relative vector, output velocity
can be found as following.
VJ2 =(w 2 J 2 J1 )

J 2 J1represents vector from J1 to J 2

VJ4 =VJ2 +(w 3 J 4 J 2 )


velocity of output link joint 6
VJ6 =VJ4 +(w 3 J 6 J 4 ) ----------(5)

Figure 3.3.13 Vertical Velocity of Capture Point

31 | P a g e

3.3.4.3 Acceleration/Force Analysis


Normal accln of links
A nJ

2J1

A nJ

4J 2

=w 2 (w 2 J 2 J1 )
=w 3 (w 3 J 4 J 2 )

A nJ4J3 =w 4 (w 4 J 4 J 3 )
A nJ

6J 4

=w 3 (w 3 J 6 J 4 )

Tangential accln
At= J
AtJ

2J1

=0 constant w 2

AtJ J= 3 J 4 J 2
4 2
t
A J J=
4 3

4 J 4 J 3 (unknown 3 & 4 )

total accln of joint 4 w.r.t joint 1


A J 4 =A nJ

+ AtJ

2J1

4J 2

+AtJ

4J 2

--------(6)

total accln of joint 4 w.r.t joint 3


A J 4 =A nJ

4 J3

+ AtJ

--------(7)

4 J3

from eqn (6) & (7)


A nJ

2J1

+ AtJ

4J 2

+AtJ

4J 2

=A nJ

4 J3

+ AtJ

4 J3

seperating i & j components gives


A = B where
----------(8)
A n (i)+A n (i)-A n (i)
J 4J 2
J4J3
J 4 J 2 (j) -J 4 J 3 (j)
J 2J1
& 3
A =

, B= n
n
n
A J J (j)+A J J (j)-A J4J3 (j)
-J 4 J 2 (i) J 4 J 3 (i)
4
4 2
21

3 & 4 can be found by Eqn (8)

AtJ

4J 2

= 3 J 4 J 2

AtJ =AtJ
4

4J 2

+AtJ

2J1

AtJ J= 3 J 6 J 4
6 4
t
A J6 =AtJ
4

+AtJ

6J 4

absolute tangential accln of joint 6

32 | P a g e

A nJ =A nJ
4

4J 2

+A nJ

A nJ =A nJ +A nJ

2J1

absolute normal accln of joint 6

6J 4
n
A 6x =A J (x)+AtJ ( x)
6
6
n
t
A 6y =A J (y)+A J ( y )
6
6
6

Figure 3.3.14 Vertical Acceleration of Capture Point

The mechanism will bring both spacecrafts closer by this acceleration.


There are two extreme possibilities for capturing. 1st only one mechanism captures the ring and
starts bring it closer or all three mechanisms capture the ring simultaneously. This acceleration is
relative acceleration of both spacecrafts. Force generated by this acceleration can be calculated
as following (from capture position till final position).
when one mechanism starts capturing
F

A , A output link acc ln in y, M & M spacecraft mass
M +F M =
6y
6y
1
2
1
2

when all three mechanism starts capturing

+F
A
3 F
M =
6y
M
1
2

where F denotes force acting on one mechanism ' s output link

33 | P a g e

Figure 3.3.16 Force due to accln of

Figure 3.3.15 Force due to accln.

joint 6 (single mechanism capturing)

of joint 6 (all mechanisms capturing simultaneously)

This force will be added for torque requirement of input motor.

34 | P a g e

3.3.4.4 Torque Requirement


Torque is needed to overcome following forces coming on the mechanism.
1. Mechanism will swing and catch the ring of other spacecraft and bring down. As gas leak
proof tunnel is given as requirement, one D-shape seal has been put on the ring 1. This seal is
of 14mm height, 2mm thick and 16mm wide.7mm compression is needed for airtight seal.
This seal is fully qualified with VSSC Requirements. Approximately 1000N force is needed
to get the 7mm compression. This force will come when ring are 7mm apart. Mechanism
should be able to provide this much of force.
2. For undocking, chaser needs some kinetic energy so that after undocking it can travel some
meters after which it can start its propulsion to go further. For imparting 5cm/s velocity to
chaser, kinetic energy needed is

1 mv 2 0.5
=
=
1600.052 0.2 J
2
This energy has to be imparted by means of three spring attached on the interface of ring.

0.2 = 0.5k x 2 3
for x=10 mm stroke of spring
k=1333 N/m
which gives total F=k x 3=40N

3. Force coming due to acceleration of output link


As discussed in acceleration analysis, this force will come since the 1st contact between ring and
output link till the ring reaches final position Figure (3.3.15 & 3.3.16).
4. Chamber Pressure
As after docking tunnel will get pressurized with 1 bar, it will create force on the linkages which
are holding the rings together. This is static force
and at this position mechanism will be resting.
This force wont contribute in torque requirement.
As inside diameter of tunnel is 400 mm.

35 | P a g e

5
P 10
=
N/m (1 Bar), r 0.2m

total
=
force

P r )
(=
2

105=
0.22 12566.37 N

each mechanism will face one third of this force.

Forces except coming from chamber pressurization


will come in torque requirement. Force coming due
to chamber pressurization will decide the linkages
thickness so that mechanism is strong enough to bear
this load without failure.1st& 2nd forces will be
divided equally among all three mechanisms. Links
joints have friction which also has to be taken care of
input motor.

Figure 3.3.17 force

Figure 3.3.18 FBD

acting on output link

of output link
Figure 3.3.19 FBD

of link 2

36 | P a g e

Given Fy ,Fx
2 force & 1 Moment Equilibrium Equations
Fy2 + Fy3 =
Fy ------------Eqn. 9
Fx2 + Fx3 =
Fx----------------Eqn. 10
M joint4 =0 gives

[ Fx( y6 y4 ) + Fy ( x6 x4 )]--------Eqn. 11
Fx2 ( y2 y4 ) + Fy2 ( x2 x4 ) =
as link 2 is free to rotate. no moment is applied on this link.
load on this link will be only axial type which givesFx3 (tan( + 6 )) Fy3 = 0--------------Eqn. 12
which gives us
A1 F = B1 ------(13)where
1

0
A1 =
( y2 y4 )

( x2 x4 )

tan( + 6 )

1
1

Fx

Fx 2

Fx3
Fy

B1 =
& F=
Fy 2
-(Fy(x 6 -x 4 )+Fx (y6 -y 4 ))

Fy 3
by solving Equation (13), Fx 2 ,Fy 2 ,Fx 3 ,Fy3 can be found.
Torque on link 1

link1 =(Fy 2 x 2 -Fx 2 y 2 )

Torque due to friction at joints


frictionJo int =

r Ri wi
winput

r pin radius
friction coefficient
Ri reaction force at i th joint =
( Fxi 2 + Fyi 2 )
wi relative w of links at i th joint

total = link1 + frictionJo int

Figure 3.3.20 FBD

of Input Link

37 | P a g e

MATLAB program was developed for torque calculation and for both cases (single mechanism
capturing & all mechanisms capturing simultaneously) torque needed for motor is as following.
Velocity & acceleration profile for contact part (input angle 122 deg to 285 deg)

Figure 3.3.21 Vertical velocity of joint 6 from contact position till final position

Figure 3.3.22 Vertical acceleration of joint 6 from contact position till final position

38 | P a g e

Torque requirement for all mechanisms capturing simultaneously

Figure 3.3.23 Total force on one

Figure 3.3.24 torque

mechanisms output link (all mechanisms capturing)

on one mechs input link (all mechanisms capturing)

39 | P a g e

Figure 3.3.26 torque due to friction at joints (all mechanisms capturing)

Figure 3.3.25 total torque on input link of one mech (all mechanisms capturing)

40 | P a g e

Figure (3.3.25) shows the toggle condition at 270 deg. at this angle torque coming on input angle
is zero. Beyond this point torque coming on this link changes its direction which means if
mechanism is kept beyond this point, any force coming on output point would not be able to
open the mechanism (clockwise torque is needed for opening the mechanism, beyond this point
any disturbance force on output link, mechanism will face anticlockwise torque.) this is why
mechanism will rest at 285deg input angle. Vertical displacement from 270 to 285 deg is only 1
mm. peak in the force & torque graph (Figure 3.3.23 & 3.3.24) at 228 deg is coming as at this
point spring/seal compression will start.

Torque Requirement for Single Mechanism Capturing

Figure 3.3.27 total force on one mechs output link (single mech. capturing)

41 | P a g e

Figure 3.3.28 torque on one mechs input link (single mechanisms capturing)

Figure 3.3.29 torque

due to friction at joints (single mechanisms capturing)

42 | P a g e

Figure 3.3.30 total torque

on input link of one mech (single mechanisms capturing)

Torque shown above are for one mechanism only. Maximum Torque needed for one mechanism
in single capturing case s approx. 16Nm. So motor (which will drive all mechanism) should have
48Nm torque.
Calculating min Area & Inertia of Links/Pins

thickness/height of links calculation


Al = 385MPa
F2 = ( Fx 2 2 + Fy 2 2 )
Alink 2 Min = F2 / Al link 2 is having only axial force
at joint 5,4 of coupler link
1 Fy ( x6 x5 ) Fx ( y6 y5 ) moment at joint 5 of link J 5 J 6( M jo int 5 = 0)
M=
M 2 = M 1 Fy ( x5 x4 ) + Fx ( y5 y4 )) moment at joint 4 of link J 4 J 5
I J 4J 5

(h / 2)

M2

Al

similarly area / area moment can be found for other links.

43 | P a g e

pin radius calculation(hardened steel )


max = 485MPa shear strength
pin jo int1 will have torsion & shear other pins will have only shear.
Apinmin = R pin / max , R pin = reaction force at jo int
rpinmin = Apinmin / min radius of pin
r joint1min = 3 (2Ttotal / ( max ) min radius of pin 1
Total force at final position is sum of forces due to chamber pressurization, seal & spring
compression. Each mechanism will experience one third of this force at output point (J6).
Friction between output point & ring will
also come.

Fy = (12566 + 1000 + 40)

= 4535.3N
Fx =
=
Fy , 0.1(assumed )
rpinmin = 1.75 mm
rpin1min =3.80 mm
with fa c tor of m arg in
rpinmin = 3 mm (FoM=1.7)
rpin1min =5 mm (FoM=1.3)
link 1 & coupler link cross section(10x10mm)
link2 cross section(5x14mm)
Figure 3.3.31 mechanism at270 & 285 deg(resting position)

3.4 Other Subsystems


Other subsystems are shock attenuation system, undocking springs, sensors & motor. For shock
attenuation, Stewart platform is widely used. Due to time constraint, it is not possible to study,
accommodate & use this platform. Spring damper can be introduced either in the joints between
petal and ring or interface between the ring and spacecraft. One schematic of all subsystems on
the docking ring of one spacecraft is shown in figure (3.5.1).

44 | P a g e

3.5 Fabrication/Integration
Fabrication drawings are generated for
Guiding

Petal,

mechanism.

capturing/docking

Accommodation

of

mechanism is done on the docking ring.


Mechanism is kept in the space available
within

the

petal

(figure

3.5.1).

Interferences between mechanism &


petal is checked with full assembly on
one docking ring and no interferences
were found as following. For reducing
friction between output link and ring, a
roller has been introduced.

Figure 3.5.1 Schematic of all subsystems of docking system


of one Spacecraft (not to scale)

Figure 3.5.2 No interference between Petal and Mechanism

45 | P a g e

Figure 3.5.3 Mechanism and petal assembly

Figure 3.5.1 Mechanism in retracted position

Figure 3.5.4 Mechanism at final position


Figure 3.5.2 Mechanism at capture/ready position

46 | P a g e

4 CONCLUSION
Wide Literature survey was carried out for docking systems [1, 2, 3]. Various options for guiding
and docking systems were explored and compared based on their advantages and disadvantages.
The design which fulfills the mission requirements was chosen for further analysis. Typical
outward type petal is chosen for guiding system and configured for the misalignments given.
ADAMS analysis was done to check the performance of guiding petals when misalignments are
present and was found working satisfactory. For integrated capturing and docking system, four
bar mechanism with extended coupler link was chosen and sizes were determined according to
capture range requirement. Three such mechanisms are used. Based on force analysis total torque
required for driving the mechanism by a single motor is found to be 48 Nm. Cross section of the
linkages of the mechanism are determined by structural analysis of individual linkages.
Mechanisms are located within the space available inside the petal. Fabrication drawings are
generated for both the systems and assembled. The fabrication of docking rings is completed and
that of mechanism and petals is in progress.
Future Plans

Impact attenuation system is to be designed.

Configuration of the mechanism with single motor drive.

Sensors for range, proximity and attitude

Testing facility has to be developed.

Contact dynamics

47 | P a g e

Appendix 1
Euler transformation for Petal/Ring
clear all
clc
% initial Petal Design parameters
% Z=50 mm because Axial Range is 100 mm (petal edge distance from origin
in Z direction)
% lateral Misalignment =85 mm, thus radial length of Petal 85 mm
% angle of the petal from Z axis beta 59.53 deg outward
% Roll Misalignment as 5 deg which gives alpha angle as 68 deg inward
% angle projected by extreme points (on the edge of the petal) on the
center of the circle (made by petals edge points) 17.35 deg
% with these initial parameters, pitch & yaw (5 deg each) given when rings
are 100 mm apart%
%-------------------------------------------Petals on RING 1-----------------------------------------%
R1=385; % radius of the circle nade by extreme points of the petals
(center of this circle is 0,0,50)
th1_petal=[-8.675 8.675 111.325 128.675 231.325 248.675 ]'; % angle by
these points on the center
Z1=50; % vertical length of the petal %
for i=1:3
for j=1:6
if i==1
R1_petal(i,j)=R1*cosd(th1_petal(j));
end
if i==2
R1_petal(i,j)=R1*sind(th1_petal(j));
end
if i==3
R1_petal(i,j)=Z1;
end
end
end

% --------------------points on the periphery of Ring 1----------------------------------------------%


th_ring1=0:5:360;
R=300;
Z_ring1=0;
for i=1:3
for j=1:73
if i==1
R_ring1(i,j)=R*cosd(th_ring1(j));
end
if i==2
R_ring1(i,j)=R*sind(th_ring1(j));
end
if i==3

48 | P a g e

R_ring1(i,j)=Z_ring1;
end
end
end

%-----------------------------------------------------Petals on RING 2-------------------------------%


th2_petal=60+th1_petal; % angle by the extreme points of petals (of the
2nd Ring) on center of the circle made by the these points.%
R2=385;% radius of the circle nade by extreme points of the petals (center
of this circle is 0,0,50)
Z2=50; % vertical distance of the petals on ring 2 while ring 2 is itself
at 100 mm Z %
alph=0;
k=1;
for i=1:3
for j=1:438
if i==1
R2_petal(i,j)=R2*cosd(th2_petal(k));% with 85 mm %misalignment
in x direction
end
if i==2
R2_petal(i,j)=R2*sind(th2_petal(k));
end
if i==3
R2_petal(i,j)=Z2;
end
k=k+1;
if rem(j,6)==0
alph=alph+5;
k=1;
end
end
alph=0;
end

%---------------euler
%
tx=5*pi/180;% pitch
ty=5*pi/180;%yaw
tz=5*pi/180;%roll
cx
sx
cy
sy
cz
sz

=
=
=
=
=
=

transformation--------------------------------------

cos(tx);
sin(tx);
cos(ty);
sin(ty);
cos(tz);
sin(tz);

49 | P a g e

A=[(cz*cy+sz*sx*sy) sz*cx (-cz*sy+sz*sx*cy)


-sz*cy+cz*sx*syczsz*sy+cz*sx*cy
cx*sy -sx cx*cy];
R2_petal_NEW=A*R2_petal;
% --------------------------points on ring 2-------------------------------th_ring2=0:30:360; %----------at 12 points on periphery of the ring2-------%
R=300;% radius of the circle nade by extreme points of the petals (center
of this circle is 0,0,50)
Z2=100;
alph=0;
k=1;
for i=1:3
for j=1:12*73
if i==1
R_ring2(i,j)=R*cosd(th_ring2(k));% with 85 mm %misalignment in
x direction
end
if i==2
R_ring2(i,j)=R*sind(th_ring2(k));
end
if i==3
R_ring2(i,j)=Z2;
end
k=k+1;
if rem(j,12)==0
alph=alph+5;
k=1;
end
end
alph=0;
end
R_ring2
R_ring2_NEW=A*R_ring2;
p=1:12*73;
% coordinates of the 12(30 deg apart) points of the petals at periphery of
ring2%
x1_ring2=R_ring2(1,p);
y1_ring2=R_ring2(2,p);
z1_ring2=R_ring2(3,p);
% coordinates of the 12 (30 deg apart) points of the petals at periphery
of ring2 after pitch & yaw%
x1_ring2_NEW=R_ring2_NEW(1,p);
y1_ring2_NEW=R_ring2_NEW(2,p);
z1_ring2_NEW=R_ring2_NEW(3,p);

50 | P a g e

R2_disp_ring2=(x1_ring2.^2+y1_ring2.^2).^0.5(x1_ring2_NEW.^2+y1_ring2_NEW.^2).^0.5
z1_ring=(z1_ring2-z1_ring2_NEW) % don't be confused..this is for 2nd ring,
not for 1st ring.%
%----------------------------------------------------------------------------%
% coordinates of outer most edges of petals attached to ring1%
g=1:6;
x1_petal=R1_petal(1,g);
y1_petal=R1_petal(2,g);
z1_petal=R1_petal(3,g);
%----------------------------------------------%
m=1:438;
% coordinates of outer most edges of petals attached to ring2%
x2_petal=R2_petal(1,m);
y2_petal=R2_petal(2,m);
z2_petal=R2_petal(3,m);
% coordinates of outer most edges of petals on ring2 after pitch & yaw%
x2_petal_NEW=R2_petal_NEW(1,m);
y2_petal_NEW=R2_petal_NEW(2,m);
z2_petal_NEW=R2_petal_NEW(3,m);
%---------------------------------------------------------%
p=1:73;
% coordinates of the mid points of the petals at periphery of ring1%
x1_ring1=R_ring1(1,p);
y1_ring1=R_ring1(2,p);
z1_ring1=R_ring1(3,p);
R1_petal;
R2_petal
R2_petal_NEW
R_ring1;
%-------displacement of 2nd rings & points on the petals--------%
R2_disp_petal2=(x2_petal_NEW.^2.+y2_petal_NEW.^2).^0.5(x2_petal.^2.+y2_petal.^2).^0.5
R2_disp_ring2=(x1_ring2_NEW.^2+y1_ring2_NEW.^2).^0.5(x1_ring2.^2+y1_ring2.^2).^0.5
R2_petal_MAX=max(abs(R2_disp_petal2))
%R2_ring_MAX=max(abs(R2_disp_ring2))
[R2_ring_MAX,indx_Rring]=max(abs(R2_disp_ring2))
z2_petal_MAX=max(abs(z2_petal-z2_petal_NEW))
[z2_petal_MAX,indx_ZPetal]=max(abs(z2_petal-z2_petal_NEW))
%z1_ring_MAX=max(abs(z1_ring))
[z1_ring_MAX,indx_Zring]=max(abs(z1_ring))
%----------------------------Result---------------------------------------

R petalMAX = 8.05 mm
R ringMAX =13.65 mm
Z petalMAX = 46.70mm
Z ringMAX = 36.42 mm

51 | P a g e

-------------------final Petal Design------------------------------------

New Petal configuration is as following.


ZPetal =+
50 46.70 =
96.70mm
R Petal =+
85 15.21 =
100.21 mm

= 46.02 from Z azis, =75


L Petal = 139.2 mm

Fig 3.2.5 Petal Configuration after Euler Transformation

4.1 Calculation of alpha angle


is the angle which take care of roll misalignment as shown in following figure.
To compensate Roll misalignment as 5 deg in initial configuration,

=
=
r 300,
lPetalRadial 85
=
a

2 300 )
(=
( 23)

314mm

( r+l petalradial ) =34mm


d 34mm
b =a 2d =246mm

= 680 inward

Fig A 1.1 Roll misalignment

52 | P a g e

When 55 deg as taken for beta angle, alpha angle calculation is done again. Yaw, pitch and
lateral misalignment will also contribute in deciding alpha as following which is not taken in
initial calculation.
a = 298.14mm,
R1 = 300mm,
R 2 = 371.4mm

= 550
initial = 650
b = 216.85mm
Iteration

for

alpha is done

Fig A 1.2 petal with rings schematic

so that

5 deg yaw rotation


Fig A 1.3 Contribution of yaw in finding alpha angle

2 R 2 (6b)
(contribution of lateral , roll & (pitch or yaw) misalignments) =
0
6

53 | P a g e

contribution of lateral misalignment = 85mm,

( R2 5 )

180 = 32mm roll contribution

11.39mm yaw or pitch contribution by figure

( 2 R 2 (6b) ) ( 32+85+11.39
( 2 371.4 (6216.85) ) ( 32+85+11.39
=
=
)
)
6

43.68

Calculation was repeated for angle 65 to 75 to bring the remaining as zero. And 73 was
selected as alpha for beta as 55 deg.
final petal configuration is as following .
l petal = 185mm

= 730
= 550
a = 298.14mm

Drawing of petal is in AE DMP 8-a & 8-b.

54 | P a g e

Appendix 2
Four Bar Mechanism Development
Following figures shows the development of the mechanism which gives different locus of the
output point on coupler link.

Configuration 1 shows the path


of output point on coupler link.
This configuration shows if
100 mm capture range is
needed, the distance between
joint 1 & joint 2 should also
roughly 100 mm as seen in the
figure (3.3.6). As Ring is only
25mm thick, accommodation
of links may be a problem with
keeping the fact that joint 1 has
to be attached with motor to
rotate the mechanism. This
gives the important output for

Fig A 2.1 Experimental configuration 1 of four bar


mechanism

further design that distance between fixed joint


should be small while trying to increase the
distance between the joint 2 & farthest point on
the locus of output point.

Fig A 2.2 Experimental configuration 2 of


four bar mechanism

55 | P a g e

Configuration 3 this configuration also gives very low axial range.

Fig A2.3 Experimental configuration 3 of four bar


mechanism

Configuration 4- This configuration gives


wider axial range with smaller distance
between joints but this design shows that the
output point of link is not coming down
almost

vertically.

This

means

when

mechanism is bringing the rings closer, the


output point will slide on the surface of ring 2
which gives friction. This friction will give
additional torque on the motor, driving the
mechanism. This configuration shows more
vertical the locus is, lesser the torque
requirement will be.

Fig A 2.4 Experimental configuration 4 of four


bar mechanism

56 | P a g e

Configuration 5 This configuration almost fulfill given requirements. This has axial as well
as lateral range and the locus of the output point
is very similar to our required mechanism axial
& lateral range (figure 3.3.5).

Among 5 configurations of four bar mechanism


discussed above, last one has been selected for
detail study. This design also gives the
advantage of Toggle Condition with little
modification.

Fig A 2.5 Experimental Configuration 5 of four


bar mechanism

4.2 Sizing the Mechanism


Docking system has reception range as 100mm. when rings are 50mm apart, their maximum
angular misalignment will be less than 5 deg in yaw & pitch (this is misalignment at 100mm.
misalignments will get corrected up to some limit when rings reaches 50mm axial distance). 5
deg for both yaw and
pitch

(or

5 2 = 7.071deg

about any axis which


is perpendicular

to

longitudinal axis of
ring.)

gives

37mm

displacement

for

300mm radius ring as


Fig A 2.6 min/max distance between rings when 7.07 deg rotation is given

57 | P a g e

shown in figure.
Coupler point will capture the 20mm thick ring which has to be added into the mechanisms
capture range. This gives 107 mm as a capturing range of mechanism.
Configuration has been done with 100mm as capturing range assuming some angular
misalignment would get corrected when rings reaches 50mm axial distance. Lengths of links are
as following
(refer A2.7).
l1=52.50 length of the link 1
l2=76.25 length of the link 2
l3=77.49 length of the link 3
l4=89.59 length of the link 4
fixed with link 3(coupler)
l5=62.27 length of capturing
link 5

Figure A 2.7 locus of capturing point

58 | P a g e

Appendix 3
MatLab Code for four bar mechanism
clear all
clc
%-----------references are given with respect to the design in SAM Software----%
l1=52.50; % lenght of the link 1
l2=76.25785; % lenght of the link 2
l3=77.49747; % lenght of the link 3
l4=89.59612; % length of the link 4 fixed with link 3(coupler)
l5=62.27176; % length of capturing link 5
th0=(atan(18.75/56.25)); % angle between fixed joints 1 & 3
%th1= input(' input angle for link 1');
%th1=210*pi/180; %final position after toggle point. o/p link is at 1.7 mm
%vertical disstance from toggle point
% th1=(228*pi/180);% compression of seal/spring starts
% th1=(122.7*pi/180):0.01:(270*pi/180);
th1=linspace(122.7*pi/180, 285*pi/180,500)
th1l=length(th1);
m1=600; %target spacecraft mass
m2=160;%chaser spacecraft mass
for s=1:th1l
J3=complex(-18.75,56.25); % co ordinates of fixed joint 3
x3=-18.75;y3=56.25;
J1=complex(0,0); % co ordinates of fixed joint 1
x1=0;y1=0;
x2=l1*cos(th1(s)) % position of end of input link (joint 2)
y2=l1*sin(th1(s))
J2=complex(x2,y2); % coordinate of joint 2 in complex form
e=abs(J2-J3); % e is the magnitude of vector from J3 to J2
th4=(-(angle(J2-J3)-angle(J1-J3)));
th5=(acos((e.^2+l2^2-l3^2)./(2*e*l2)));
th6=((1.5*pi)+th0-th5-th4); % angle made by vector J4J3 w.r.t. X axis
th34=th6-pi; % angle made by vector j3j4 w.r.t X axis
x4=-18.75+(l2*cos(th6))
y4=56.25+(l2*sin(th6)) % coordinate of joint 4
J4=complex(x4,y4); % coordinate of joint 4
%----some pblm below & in J4 also.... CORRECT ONLY FOR INPUT ANGLE 108 TO 270
DEG-------------------%
th3=(angle(J4-J2));
th_fixed1=34.80036*pi/180; % angle between J4J5 & J4J6
l_J4J6=(l4^2+l5^2)^0.5; % representative length of single link from J4 to J6
inplace of links 4 & 5
th_fixed2=126.53112*pi/180; % angle between J5J4 & J4J2;
th_link46=(th_fixed2-(pi-th3+th_fixed1)); % angle of link joining joint 4 & 6
w.r.t. X axis
th_link45=(th_fixed2-(pi-th3)); % angle of link joining joint 4 & 5 w.r.t. X
axis
% co ordinates of capture point (output point 6)
x6=x4+(l_J4J6*cos(th_link46))
y6=y4+(l_J4J6*sin(th_link46))

59 | P a g e

% coordinates of point 5
x5=x4+(l4*cos(th_link45));
y5=y4+(l4*sin(th_link45));
%------------link Acceleration Analysis----------------------%
%-----------moment analysis for each part of links----------------%
% w2=input('insert the angular velocity (RPM)for input link 1');
w2=50;
w2=w2*2*pi/60;
w3=(l1*w2*(sin(th1(s)-th6))/(l3*sin(th6-th3))) % absolute angular velocity of
link 3
w4=(l1*w2*(sin(th1(s)-th3))/(l2*sin(th6-th3))) % absolute angular velocity of
link 2
% ----------link J5J6-------------------%angular velocities of link 3,4 & 5 are same.
% velocity of points on link
W2=[0 0 w2]; % vector form of angular velocity of link 1
W3=[0 0 w3];
W4=[0 0 w4];
R_J2J1=[x2 y2 0]*10^-3; % vector representation of link 1
R_J4J2=[(l3*cos(th3)) (l3*sin(th3)) 0]*10^-3; % link 3
R_J4J3=[(l2*cos(th6)) (l2*sin(th6)) 0]*10^-3; % link 2
R_J6J4=[(l_J4J6*cos(th_link46)) (l_J4J6*sin(th_link46)) 0]*10^-3; % link46 or
J4J6
% linear velocity of joints on links
V_J2=cross(W2,R_J2J1)
V_J4=V_J2+cross(W3,R_J4J2)
V_J6=V_J4+cross(W3,R_J6J4)%velocity of output link joint 6
V_J4J3=cross(W4,R_J4J3) % velocity of point 4 w.r.t. joint 3
V2x(s)=V_J2(1);V2y(s)=V_J2(2);V4x(s)=V_J4(1);V4y(s)=V_J4(2);
V6x(s)=V_J6(1);V6y(s)=V_J6(2);
% relative accln of joints
An_J2J1=cross(W2,cross(W2,R_J2J1)); % normal accln of link 2 ---(w2x(w2xR_J2J1)) double cross product
An_J4J2=cross(W3,cross(W3,R_J4J2))
An_J4J3=cross(W4,cross(W4,R_J4J3))
An_J6J4=cross(W3,cross(W3,R_J6J4))% normal accln of joint 6 w.r.t joint 4
At_J2J1=0; % constant W2
% alph=[alph3 aplh4];
A=[R_J4J2(2) -R_J4J3(2)
-R_J4J2(1) R_J4J3(1)];
B=[An_J2J1(1)+An_J4J2(1)-An_J4J3(1)
An_J2J1(2)+An_J4J2(2)-An_J4J3(2)];
alph=inv(A)*B;
alph3=[0 0 alph(1)] % angular accln of link 3,4 & 5 in vector form (there
angular velocity is same so the angular accln)
alph4=[0 0 alph(2)] % angular acclnn of link 2
At_J4J2=cross(alph3,R_J4J2)
At_J4=At_J4J2+At_J2J1
At_J6J4=cross(alph3,R_J6J4)
At_J6=At_J4+At_J6J4 % absolute tangential accln of joint 6
An_J4=An_J2J1+An_J4J2
An_J6=An_J4+An_J6J4 %absolute normal accln of joint 6
A6x=An_J6(1)+At_J6(1)

60 | P a g e

A6y(s)=An_J6(2)+At_J6(2)% relative accln in the global Z direction between


both spacecraft.
%------------------force analysis for torque requirement------------------% Fy=4522.12;%force at final position @ 273 deg. 3 deg from toggle point
% Fy=231.28+346.67
% Fy=F6y %from 122.70 deg to 274.5 deg
Flink6=A6y(s)*m1*m2/((m1+m2)*3);
if th1(s)>=228*pi/180
Fy=Flink6+346.67
else
Fy=Flink6
end
Fy6(s)=Fy
%Fy=346.67% force at compression of seal/springs
mu=0.1 % friction coefficient
Fx=mu*Fy;
A1=[1 1 0 0
0 0 1 1
(-(y2-y4)*10^-3) 0 ((x2-x4)*10^-3) 0
0 tan(th34) 0 -1];
B1=[Fx -Fy (-(Fy*(x6-x4)*10^-3 )-(Fx*(y6-y4)*10^-3 )) 0]';
% equation as Fx Fy Momenteqn link 3(no moment )
% F=[fx2 fx3 fy2 fy3]
F=inv(A1)*B1
Fx2=F(1)% on joint 2 of link 3
Fx3=F(2)% on joint 4 of link 3
Fy2=F(3)% on joint 2 of link 3
Fy3=F(4)% on joint 4 of link 3
% torque needed (Nm)
T_needed(s)=(Fy2*x2-Fx2*y2)*10^-3

M1=(Fy*(x6-x5))-(Fx*(y6-y5)) % moment at joint 5 of link J5J6 (sigma M=0)


M2=M1+(Fy*(x5-x4))+(Fx*(y5-y4)) % moment at joint 4 of link J4J5
M3=0; % moment at joint 2 of link J2J4
%torque to overcome pin joint friction
R1=sqrt(Fx2^2+Fy2^2); % reaction force at joint
R2=R1;
R3=sqrt(Fx3^2+Fy3^2);
R4=R3;
r=5 % radius of pin joint in mm
T_joint(s)=(R1*w2+abs(R2*(w3-w2))+abs(R3*(w4-w3))+R4*w4)*r*mu*10^-3/(w2)
T_total=T_joint+T_needed
end

plot(th1*180/pi,V6y)
xlabel('input theta1','FontSize',12)
ylabel('Vy 6 (m/s)','FontSize',12)
title('\it{vertical velocity of joint 6}','FontSize',12)
figure(2)
plot(th1*180/pi,T_needed)% with out friction of links
xlabel('input theta1','FontSize',12)
ylabel('T needed (Nm)','FontSize',12)
title('\it{T needed without friction on joints}','FontSize',12)

61 | P a g e

figure(3)
plot(th1*180/pi,T_joint)
xlabel('input theta1','FontSize',12)
ylabel('T joint (Nm)','FontSize',12)
title('\it{T joint}','FontSize',12)
figure(4)
plot(th1*180/pi,T_total)
xlabel('input theta1','FontSize',12)
ylabel('T total (Nm)','FontSize',12)
title('\it{Total Torque needed}','FontSize',12)
figure (5)
plot(th1*180/pi,A6y)
xlabel('input theta1','FontSize',12)
ylabel('A6y (m/s2)','FontSize',12)
title('\it{Y component of accln of joint 6}','FontSize',12)
figure (6)
plot(th1*180/pi,Fy6)
xlabel('input theta1','FontSize',12)
ylabel('Fy6 (N)','FontSize',12)
title('\it{Y component of force of joint 6}','FontSize',12)

62 | P a g e

Appendix 4 Fabrication Drawing

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5 REFERENCES
[1]. Fehse, W, Automated Rendezvous and Docking of Spacecraft, Cambridge
University Press, 2003
[2]. Space Tug Docking Study, Supporting Analyses Final Report, NASA-CR-144242, 4,
Martin Marietta Corp.
[3]. Cislaghi, M and Santini, C, The Russian Docking System and the Automated Transfer
Vehicle-a safe integrated concept, 3rd IAASS Conference, 2008
[4]. http://dockingstandard.nasa.gov/images_NDS_Image_Gallery_1.html
[5]. Langley R D, Apollo Experience Report The Docking System , NASA Technical Notes
D-6854 Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, 1972
[6]. Ezell, E C and Ezell, L N, The partnership-Apollo Soyuz Test Project The NASA
History series, 1978
[7]. International Docking System Standard (IDSS)-Interface Definition Document (IDD),
2011
[8]. Uicker Jr, J J, Pennock G R and Shigley, J E, Theory of Machines and Mechanisms
Oxford University Press, pp. 103-148, 2009

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