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PATHOPHYSIOLOGY CONCEPT MAP

EXPECTED
DIAGNOSTIC TESTS

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Acquired


Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Etiology: HIV is a retrovirus transmitted by direct contact with infected
blood and body fluids. Significant concentrations of the virus are
present in blood, semen, vaginal and cervical secretions and
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of infected individuals. It is also found in breast
milk and saliva. Sexual contact is the primary mode of transmission.
HIV is also transmitted through contact with infected blood via needle
sharing during injection drug use or by transfusion. Approximately 15%
to 30% of infants born to HIV-positive mothers are infected perinatally.
Risk Factors: older adult, debilitated, severely immunodeficient
people, injection drug users, persons with Hemophilia, recipients of
blood transfusions, immigrants from Haiti and homosexuals.
HIV enters into the body

Enzyme-linked
The virus infects cells which have the CD4 antigen
immunosorbent

assay (ELISA) is
Once inside the cell, the virus sheds its protein coat
the most widely used

screening test for


Uses an enzyme called reverse transcriptase to convert the RNA to DNA
HIV infection. it tests

for HIV antibodies.


This viral DNA is then integrated into host cell DNA and duplicated
during normal processes of cell division
Western blot

antibody testing
Within the cell, the virus may remain latent or become activated to
the clients serum is
produce new RNA and to form virions
mixed with HIV

ALL SIGNS AND


SYMTPOMS

proteins to detect
reaction. If
antibodies are
present a detectable
antigen-antibody
response will occur.

Although the virus may remain


inactive in infected cells for years,
antibodies are produced to its
proteins (seroconversion)

The virus then buds from the cell


surface, disrupting its cell
membrane and leading to
destruction of the host cell

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY CONCEPT MAP


EXPECTED
DIAGNOSTIC TESTS
HIV viral load
tests measures
the amount of
actively replicating
HIV.
CBC is performed
to detect anemia,
leukopenia and
thrombocytopenia,
which are often
present in HIV
infections.
CD4 cell count used to monitor the
progress of the
disease and guide
therapy. The CD4
cell count correlates
so closely with the
immunodeficiency
disorders seen in
AIDS.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

These antibodies are usually detectable 6 weeks to 6 months after initial


infection

Helper T or CD4 cells are the primary cells infected by HIV. It also infects
macrophages and certain cells of the CNS.

Loss of these helper T cells leads to the immunodeficiencies seen with


HIV infection

Following this acute illness, clients enter a long-lasting asymptomatic


period (8-10 years)

With the development of significant constitutional disease, neurologic


manifestations or opportunic infections or cancers, the client has
manifestations that are characteristic of AIDS and a very poor prognosis

ALL SIGNS AND


SYMTPOMS
Fever
Sore throat
Arthralgias &
Myalgias
Headache
Rash
Lymphadenopathy
Nausea, Vomiting &
Abdominal cramping

Malaise & Fatigue


Low grade fever
Night sweats
Involuntary weight
loss
Skin dryness or rash
Diarrhea
Oral lesions

AIDS Dementia
Complex and
Neurologic effects

Opportunistic
Infections

Pneumocystis Carinii
Pnneumonia
Tuberculosis
Candidiasis
Mycobacterium Avium
Complex
Other Infections
- CMV

Secondary Cancers

Kapasis Sarcoma
Lymphomas
Cervical Cancer