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Options for masters degree physics modules

© All Rights Reserved

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5 vizualizări26 paginiOptions for masters degree physics modules

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Stage 4

Term 1-2

Module Co-Ordinator Professor R W Godby

Dr I Wilson-Rae

Credit Value

20

Credit Level

7 (M)

Workload

Lectures:

Closed exam:

Problem Classes:

Private Study:

TOTAL:

Assessment

Closed Examination

Closed Examination

Reassessment task

Closed Examinations (1.5hrsx2)

Pre-Requisites

Core of Physics

36 hours

3 hours

6 hours

155 hours

200 hours

50%

50%

100%

Aims

The overall aim of the module is to develop in students a knowledge of key advanced topics

in quantum mechanics that bridge the gap between earlier courses and physics research.

Specifically:

1. Advanced Quantum Mechanics: To study the consequences of the time-dependence of

the wavefunction in quantum mechanics, the emergence of the basic laws of classical

mechanics from quantum mechanics, the quantum mechanics of many-particle systems,

and second quantisation.

2. Further Quantum Mechanics: To study the quantum theories of angular momentum and

scattering, and the role of symmetries and the algebraic approach in quantum mechanics.

Learning outcomes: at the end of this module successful students will be able to:

Advanced Quantum Mechanics

Calculate the time-dependence of a wavefunction, and its consequences for

observables.

Derive and apply the results of time-dependent perturbation theory up to first order.

Derive and apply Fermi's golden rule, and explain the relevance to selection rules for

atomic transitions.

Explain the origin of the laws of classical mechanics using simple calculations of the

types given in lectures.

Explain and apply the laws of quantum mechanics for many-particle systems and the

main techniques used to study their implications.

Derive the main results of second quantisation.

Describe, and apply to unseen problems, all the topics in the syllabus.

Comprehensive lecture notes should be taken down from the blackboard during lectures,

and will be supplemented by a one-page hand-out distributed on paper. This hand-out,

2016/17

Stage 4

Term 1-2

together with audio recordings of lectures and a record of problems set, lecture

rescheduling and similar information, will be made available through the VLE.

Further Quantum Mechanics

Illustrate the relation between symmetries and conservation laws.

Deduce and apply the general theory of angular momentum.

Deduce and apply the Born approximation and the method of partial waves in

potential scattering theory.

Apply creation and annihilation operators of the harmonic oscillator.

Construct solutions to complex unseen problems in all of the aforementioned topics.

Comprehensive lecture notes should be taken down from the blackboard during lectures.

Supplementary notes will be provided and made available through the VLE.

Syllabus

Advanced Quantum Mechanics

Time-dependence: Brief review of time-dependent Schrdinger equation; stationary states;

time-evolution of general wavefunctions; time evolution operator; time-energy uncertainty

relation. Time-dependent perturbation theory. Fermi's golden rule; selection rules for

atomic transitions re-examined. Ehrenfests theorem. [5 lectures]

The classical limit: Classical mechanics of particles as a limit of quantum mechanics, mostly

studied through wavepacket motion. [2]

Many-particle systems: Identical particles and exchange symmetry, fermions and bosons,

the Pauli Principle; use of Slater determinants. Variational principle for many-electron

systems; the Hartree and Hartree-Fock approximations. Density-functional theory and the

local-density approximation. [5]

Second quantisation: Creation, annihilation and number operators; their use for manyparticle systems; anti-commutation relations; field operators; Heisenberg picture.

Introduction to many-body perturbation theory. Introduction to quantisation of the

electromagnetic field. [6]

Further Quantum Mechanics

Symmetries and angular momentum: Symmetries and rotations Angular momentum

multiplets (Ladder operators) Addition of angular momenta and selection rules including

Parity (Clebsch-Gordan coefficients and the Wigner-Eckart theorem).

Potential scattering: Lippmann-Schwinger equation, scattering amplitudes and the Born

approximation Partial waves, phase shifts and resonances.

Quantum states of the harmonic oscillator: Creation and annihilation operators Coherent

states and squeezed states.

2016/17

Stage 4

Term 1-2

Reading List

Advanced Quantum Mechanics

Rae A I M: Quantum mechanics (Taylor & Francis)***

Merzbacher E: Quantum mechanics (Wiley, 1998) **

Schiff L I: Quantum mechanics (McGraw-Hill) **

Ziman J M: Elements of advanced quantum theory (CUP)*

Further Quantum Mechanics

Weinberg S: Lectures on quantum mechanics (Cambridge, 2013)

Sakurai J J: Modern quantum mechanics (Addison Wesley, 1994)

Messiah A: Quantum Mechanics Volume II (Dover, 1999)

Landau L D and Lifshitz E M: Quantum Mechanics (Non-relativistic Theory) (ButterworthHeinemann, 1977)

2016/17

Stage 4

Term 1-2

Module Co-Ordinator

Credit Value

Credit Level

Workload

Assessment

Reassessment task

Pre-Requisites

Dr Matt Probert

20

7 (M)

Lectures:

Practicals/ Problem classes:

Assessment:

Private Study:

TOTAL:

Physics Practice Questions

HPC (Assignment 1)

HPC (Assignment 2)

HPC open book assignment

HPC apps open book assignment

None

30 hours

18 hours

40 hours

112 hours

200 hours

20%

40%

40%

40%

40%

Aims

The aim of this module is to show how the historical developments in high performance

computing (HPC) have come about, how these impact on current technologies, how best to

utilize these technologies for numerically intensive calculations, and what future

developments are likely. The second half of the module focuses on applications of HPC to

scientific problems, and aims to show how to take a problem in physics and devise,

implement and test a HPC solution. Specific aims are: to introduce a range of common HPC

methods and their fields of application; analyse HPC techniques to understand how their

performance varies according to both the size of the problem they are applied to and the

HPC resources available; understand how to devise appropriate validation and verification

for a given implementation of a HPC method.

The lectures will be supplemented by practical workshops where some of the key principles

will be put into practice.

Learning outcomes: at the end of this module successful students will be able to:

Subject content

Term 1

Hardware

Introduction to hardware for a typical computer

Introduction to networks

Software

Benchmarking

Computer languages

Floating point numbers

Introduction to programming

2016/17

Stage 4

Term 1-2

Use of tools in programming

Use of software profiling

Coding

Optimizing a serial program

Introduction to parallel programming - how to think parallel

Writing a parallel program using OpenMP

Introduction to GPU programming

Writing a parallel program using MPI

Example applications

Summary

Current state-of-the-art supercomputers

Future possibilities

Term 2

HPC Methods

A range of common HPC methods will be covered, which will include:

Parallel Fast Fourier Transforms

Iterative diagonalisation of matrices

Particle-tracking, PIC and continuum methods

Monte Carlo

Multiscale and multigrid

Finite Element Modelling

Parallel data input and output

Each method will be illustrated by at least one application in a specific field of physics

selected from

classical molecular dynamics

High energy physics

Neutron and radiative transport

density functional theory and quantum mechanics

nuclear superfluidity

fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics and kinetic plasma simulations

spin dynamics

Bose-Einstein condensation, superconductivity and superfluidity

informatics, data mining and Big Data

climate modelling

HPC software validation and verification which will include

unit tests

regression tests

coverage testing

formal methods

convergence and the Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS)

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Term 1-2

Team working and advanced version control

At the end of this module successful students will be able to:

Describe the different types of HPC hardware and make informed decisions as to

what will be best in any particular situation;

Use simple profiling tools to identify hotspots in a code and develop strategies for

overcoming the hotspots;

Design efficient coding solutions to a variety of numerical problems;

Create a parallel program for an MP machine using message-passing techniques

Apply HPC techniques to solve scientific problems;

Analyse a scientific problem to determine an appropriate parallel strategy;

Analyse a HPC algorithm to determine how the computational resources it requires

will scale with the size of the problem, and the number of parallel processes

employed;

Design an appropriate verification set for a given implementation of a HPC method.

Assessment

The module will be assessed by practical challenges, and by two assignments, set at the end

of Term 1 and Term 2. The practical challenges enable you to practise the different skills

required to successfully complete the Term 1 assignment. The major component of the

Term 1 assignment will require writing and testing a parallel program to solve a particular

set problem.

Suggested preparation

It is recommended that all students prepare for this course by making sure they have a basic

working knowledge of numerical programming in either Fortran or C. As a simple exercise,

you should make sure that you can write a program that can calculate an approximate value

of by evaluating the following function with different values of N:

The marked assignments will be returned to the students, indicating where marks have

been lost, made mistakes and/or where improvements could be made.

2016/17

Stage 4

Term 1-2

Reading List

For each lecture, students will be provided with a complete set of handouts and students

will be expected to annotate these with additional comments arising from the lecture. Full

colour copies of the notes will also be available on-line after each lecture.

Introduction to High Performance Computing for Scientists and Engineers by Georg Hager &

Gerhard Wellein (Chapman & Hall / CRC 2010) **

Writing Scientific Software: A Guide to Good Style by S. Oliveira & D.E. Stewart

(Cambridge University Press, 2006)

2016/17

Stage 4

Term 1-2

Module Co-Ordinator Dr David Jenkins

Dr Alison Laird

Credit Value

20

Credit Level

7 (M)

Workload

Lectures:

Practicals:

Closed exam:

Private Study (incl. Physics Practice

Questions):

TOTAL:

Assessment

Closed Examination

Assignment 1

Assignment 2

Reassessment task

Closed Examination

Assignment 1

Assignment 2

Pre-Requisites

Core of Physics

3 hours (NPII), 3 hours (NA)

1.5 hours (NPII), 1.5 hours

(NA)

77.5 hours (NPII), 77.5 (NA)

200 hours

50%

20%

30%

50%

20%

30%

Aims

In this module we will consider some of the key advanced topics in nuclear physics, and

begin to examine how these topics are addressed in contemporary nuclear physics research.

We will examine the key models that underpin nuclear structure associated with both

single-particle and collective modes of excitation. The module then aims to develop

understanding of the quantum mechanical mechanisms underlying nuclear decays and,

hence, to examine what nuclear structure information can be extracted from such

measurements. In all of the above, published data will be used regularly to illustrate and

test the ideas presented.

We will also consider the synthesis of nuclei in astrophysical environments with the aim of

developing an understanding of how the elements which we and our surroundings are made

of were created. We will discuss nucleosynthesis in various astrophysical environments,

ranging from steady state solar interiors to the more energetic conditions found in novae,

supernovae and X-ray bursts.

Learning outcomes: at the end of this module successful students will be able to:

Subject content

Describe the significance of nuclear charge and current distributions in regard to

nuclear structure and decays.

Discuss the variety of mechanisms that result in the generation of excited states in

nuclei.

Predict angular momentum and parity quantum numbers of excited states in nuclei,

based on nucleonic single-particle configurations.

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Stage 4

Term 1-2

collective models, demonstrating how information on the different types of

excitation are extracted from the data.

Discuss the quantum-mechanical basis for the three modes of nuclear decay.

Describe the key models and methods used to predict nuclear decay rates.

Perform sample calculations of alpha, beta and gamma-decay rates, based on the

models presented.

Interpret nuclear decay data, through an understanding of these models, in terms of

nuclear structure phenomena.

Describe how the abundance pattern of the elements we see around us reflects

nucleosynthesis in different astrophysical environments.

Describe these astrophysical sites and the specific reaction processes which occur in

each site.

Demonstrate an understanding of the underlying nuclear physics, via calculation or

discussion, as appropriate.

Describe and compare the experimental techniques used to measure reactions rates.

Discuss the limits of our understanding and areas of current research activity.

Reading List

Krane K S: Introductory nuclear physics (Wiley) ****

C. C. Iliadis: Nuclear Physics of Stars (Wiley VCH) ***

C.E. Rolfs and W.S. Rodney: Cauldrons in the Cosmos (University of Chicago)

2016/17

Stage 4

Term 1-2

Module Co-Ordinator Prof Nigel Woolsey

Dr David Dickinson

Credit Value

20

Credit Level

7 (M)

Workload

Lectures:

Practicals:

Closed exam:

Private Study (incl. Physics Practice

Questions):

TOTAL:

Assessment

Closed Examination (PPfF)

Closed Examination (APP)

Continuous Assessment (PPfF)

Reassessment task

Closed Examination (PPfF)

Closed Examination (APP)

Continuous Assessment (PPfF)

Pre-Requisites

Core Undergraduate Physics

36 hours

6 hours

1.5 hours x2

155 hours

200 hours

42.5%

50%

7.5%

42.5%

50%

7.5%

Aims

This module has two components. The first provides a basis for understanding the physics of

plasmas in general and includes a discussion of laboratory plasmas and in particular the

application of plasma physics to fusion. The second applies this knowledge to describe space

and astrophysical plasmas. This module will convey how our understanding of plasma

physics extends to a description of a huge diversity of systems over hugely varying scales of

space, time, density, and temperature.

Plasma Physics for Fusion (PPfP): Fusion, whether by inertial confinement or magnetic

confinement, requires deuterium and tritium to be heated to such high temperatures that

the electrons are stripped from the ions. The resulting conducting gas is called a plasma.

Plasmas are common place around the universe so the topic of plasma physics is important

in many branches of science including astrophysics and solar physics, as well as having

industrial applications. This course aims to introduce the basic plasma physics principles

through a combination of physical pictures and mathematical analyses, often using

examples from fusion to provide specific applications. This course draws on the considerable

research expertise in York

Astrophysical Plasmas (APP): Plasma fills much of space from the interior of the Sun to the

upper layers of the Earth's atmosphere, the Solar System, Galaxy and beyond. We start from

an energy budget of the interstellar medium and a description of astrophysical plasmas and

then quickly move from basic plasma physics parameters of astrophysical plasmas to hydroand magnetohydro- dynamics. The focus is on the dynamics of the interstellar medium, the

processes that heat and cool interstellar medium, and the effects of stellar winds, shocks

associated with supernova remnants, and jets. This includes a discussion of the role of

2016/17

Stage 4

Term 1-2

magnetic fields and the acceleration of cosmic rays. Finally, we identify and use

dimensionless scaling of plasma models to link laboratory plasmas to the study of

fundamental plasma processes that occur in astrophysical plasmas.

Learning outcomes: at the end of this module successful students will be able to:

PPfF Subject content

Describe, both through physical pictures and mathematics, the orbits of individual

particles in magnetic and electric fields: the cyclotron frequency, the guiding centre,

the ExB drift, the gradB and curvature drifts and the polarisation drift.

Write down expressions for the quantities that are conserved when a charged

particle moves in a magnetic field: energy and magnetic moment. Use this principle

to show how charged particles can be trapped in a magnetic mirror. Understand the

limitations of a magnetic mirror for confining plasma for fusion.

Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of magnetic confinement in a

toroidal magnetic field configuration, including the roles of both the poloidal and

toroidal magnetic fields. Describe the basic principles of tokamak operation.

Describe the process of inertial confinement fusion.

Describe the physics of Debye shielding and be able to derive the Debye length

mathematically. Write down the definitions of a plasma.

Demonstrate an understanding of the distribution function and how to derive

plasma density and flow by integrating over velocity space.

Without rigorous mathematical derivation, describe how plasma fluid equations can

be obtained from the kinetic equations for plasma evolution. Given the fluid

equations, describe the physics of the individual terms. Derive the ideal MHD

equations from the 2-fluid equations. Describe, without proof, the concept of

frozen in magnetic field.

Given the fluid equations, derive the diamagnetic drift. Provide a physical

explanation for the origin of the diamagnetic drift, including why it is not

experienced by a single particle.

Demonstrate an understanding of equilibria for cylindrical and toroidal plasma

systems. Derive the equilibrium relations for cylindrical systems. Describe

qualitatively the features of toroidal equilibria including the origin of the GradShafranov equation (without rigorous proof); the concept of toroidal flux surfaces,

and definitions of equilibrium quantities such as aspect ratio, safety factor, major

and minor radius, etc.

Perturb and linearise the equilibrium equations. As examples, be able to derive

expressions for the frequency of basic plasma waves: Langmuir wave, ion sound

wave. Describe the physics responsible for the wave.

APP Subject content

State typical characteristics of various astronomical plasmas.

2016/17

Stage 4

Term 1-2

Outline the sources and losses of radiation in astronomical systems and effects this

has on the systems.

Understand the effect of stellar radiation emitted on the surrounding interstellar

medium.

Explain the role of collisions in gases and plasmas and the Coulomb logarithm.

Explain the phenomenon of collisionless plasmas and effective collisions.

Determine when a fluid approximation can be applied to plasma.

Explain the meaning of ideal magneto-hydrodynamics or MHD, and know when such

models are applicable.

Explain the need for an equation of state (in polytropic form) and Ohms law and be

able to use them.

Describe viscosity, thermal conductivity and magnetic field diffusion and identify

situations when these are not important. Outline the approximations used to derive

hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models

Explain the concept of flux freezing and the impact this has on astrophysics.

Derive Rankine-Hugoniot relations and be able to apply them to astrophysical

phenomena in the shock and stellar frame. Explain the effects radiation and

magnetic fields can have on shocks.

Describe the evolution of supernova remnants and the impact these systems have

on the interstellar medium.

Explain evidence that suggests supernova remnants are the source of Galactic

cosmic rays, diffusive shock acceleration and the importance of cosmic rays in the

interstellar medium.

State the origin of stellar winds, and explain why the solar wind is supersonic and

describe the interaction with a magnetosphere.

Through scaling of the ideal hydrodynamic and magneto-hydrodynamic equations

show how laboratory experiments can simulate dynamical aspects of astronomical

plasmas.

Syllabus

PPfF Syllabus

Charged particle orbits and drifts

Magnetic mirror and toroidal magnetic confinement

Debye shielding and formal definition of a plasma

Inertial confinement

Distribution functions and velocity space integration

Kinetic equation and fluid equations, diamagnetic drift

Ideal magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD), plasma equilibrium

Plasma waves: Langmuir wave, sound wave

APP Syllabus

The diversity of space and astrophysical plasmas and the interstellar medium

2016/17

Stage 4

Term 1-2

dimensionless scaling

Kinetically driven systems: stellar winds, Supernova explosions, remnants, and blast

waves

Radiation driven systems: nebulae and Strmgren spheres

Relativistic particles: cosmic rays

Laboratory facilities and type of experiments undertaken

Lecture Notes

Students are expected to take their own notes during lectures. A set of skeleton notes will

be made available online at the end of the course.

Reading List

PPfP

Chen F F: Introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion (Plenum) ***

Wesson: Tokamaks, Oxford Science Publications ***

Atzeni and Meyer-ter-Vehn: The physics of inertial fusion (Oxford Science) **

Boyd T J M & Sanderson J J: The physics of plasma (CUP) **

Cairns R A: Plasma physics (Blackie) **

Dendy R O: Plasma dynamics (OUP) **

Goldston & Rutherford: Introduction to plasma physics (IoP) **

APP

Choudhuri A R: Physics of Fluids and Plasmas (CUP 1998)

Drake R P: High-Energy-Density Physics: Fundamentals, Inertial Fusion, and Experimental

Astrophysics (Springer 2006)

Dyson J E, Williams D A: The Physics of the Interstellar Medium (PUP 1997) ***

Frank J, King A, Raine D: Accretion Power in Astrophysics (CUP 2002)

Kulsrud R M, Spergel D: Plasma Physics for Astrophysics (PUP 2005)

Longair M S: High Energy Astrophysics (CUP 2011) ***

Parks G: An Introduction Physics of Space Plasmas (Perseus 2003)

Shu F H: The Physics of Astrophysics: Gas Dynamics (University Science Books 1992)

2016/17

Biophysics

Stage 4

Term 1-2

Module Co-Ordinator Dr Mark Leake

Dr Robert Greenall

Dr Laurence Wilson

Credit Value

20

Credit Level

7 (M)

Workload

Lectures:

Practicals:

Closed exam:

Private Study (incl. Physics Practice

Questions):

TOTAL:

Assessment

Closed Examination

Reassessment task

Closed Examination

Pre-Requisites

Core of Physics

36 hours

6 hours

3 hours

155 hours

200 hours

100%

100%

Aims

Interdisciplinary physical/life sciences research is emerging as a prime area in academia

and industry. Key to recent advances has been development of pioneering experimental

physical science techniques and methods of theoretical analysis/modelling applied to

addressing challenging questions from the biosciences. This modern armoury of the

physicist constitutes a toolbox which can be used to tackle a multitude of bioscience

questions.

In this module we will review in detail several important modern physical science

concepts, models, laws, tools and techniques that can be applied to addressing real

biological questions, with a thorough discussion of the underlying physics. Physical science

methods historically have been key to providing enormous breakthroughs in our

understanding of fundamental biology - stemming from the early development of optical

microscopy in understanding of the cellular nature of life, through to complex structural

biology techniques to elucidate the shape of vital biomolecules including essential

proteins and DNA, the coding molecule of genes.

In the first half of this module we will introduce the key biological macromolecules, the

forces that are involved in maintaining their structure and how structure is determined.

More advanced topics, based upon students knowledge of thermodynamics and

statistical mechanics will be addressed, including the helix-coil transition, protein folding,

ligand binding, allostery, self-assembly and biomechanics.

More recently, physical science developments have involved methods to study single cells

in their native context at the single- molecule level with key improvements in temporal

and spatial resolution permitting dynamic and mechanistic biological information to be

investigated with unprecedented precision, as well as providing ground-breaking

2016/17

Biophysics

Stage 4

Term 1-2

developments in areas of artificial tissue bioengineering and synthetic biology, and

biosensing and disease diagnosis.

In the second half of this module we will in particular discuss tools and techniques that,

broadly, permit the detection and characterization of biological material using (i) visible

light, (ii) non-visible electromagnetic radiation, and (iii) methods used to manipulate and

quantify biological forces, with particular emphasis throughout placed on real applications

of the physical science tools and techniques. Examples of such tools which will be

discussed include super-resolution optical microscopy, advanced fluorescence imaging

methods, optical and magnetic tweezers for single biological molecule manipulation, ion

channel measurements in living cells, Raman spectroscopy of biological matter, surface

probe microscopy techniques, nanophotonics for biosensing, digital holography of

swimming cells, modern electron microscopy tools, as well as non-linear spectroscopy

approaches. We will also discuss the core physics concepts of several fundamental

biological processes which are studied using these modern biophysics tools and

techniques.

Learning outcomes: at the end of this module successful students will be able to:

The module will focus on a number of concepts, models, laws, tools and techniques of

physical science that underpin biophysical methods. It will address a broad range of

challenging biological questions. The aims of this module are to assist students in gaining an

understanding of:

The use of physical concepts and laws to produce models of biological systems.

Quantitative analyses of these models.

Critical analysis of the validity of the assumptions made in these models and their

impact on the validity of the results.

The physical basis of experimental techniques used to study the systems introduced

and the key results.

The key features and biological significance of the systems introduced.

The breadth of modern physical science tools and techniques used to investigate

biology.

The key physical principles behind several important biological processes of living

matter.

Real industrial and biomedical applications of modern biophysical tools and

techniques.

Reading List

Leake MC: Single-Molecule Cellular Biophysics (CUP, 2013)

Nelson P: Biological Physics: Energy, Information, Life (W H Freeman, 2004)

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Biophysics

Stage 4

Term 1-2

Phillips R, J. Kondev and J. Theriot: Physical Biology of the Cell (Garland Science, 2009)

Sneppen K and Zocchi G: Physics in Molecular Biology (CUP, 2005)

2016/17

Stage 4

Term 1-2

Module Co-Ordinator Professor Jun Yuan

Dr Gonzalo Vallejo Fernandez

Dr Vlado Lazarov

Credit Value

20

Credit Level

7 (M)

Workload

Lectures:

Closed exam:

Problems classes:

Private Study (incl. Physics Practice

Questions):

TOTAL:

Assessment

Closed Examination

Continuous Assessment

Reassessment task

Closed Examination

Resit Assessment

Pre-Requisites

Core of Physics

36 hours

3 hours

8 hours

153 hours

200 hours

85%

15%

85%

15%

Aims

On Introduction to Nanophysics:

To introduce the fundamental physics important at the nanoscale such as tunnelling, surface

proximity effect, quantum size effect, and Coulomb blockade; as well as important

nanomaterials and nanosystems of current interests such as atomic clusters, quantum dots,

nanowires, quantum wells as well as single electron devices.

To give an overview of the nanotechnology of fabrication and characterisation, with

specialized module on electron microscopy (See below for more details).

To give a flavour of the state-of-art developments as well as the challenges in fundamental

science and applications of nanophysics, a rapidly developing area of science in the new

century, with special section on magnetic nanomaterials (See below for more details).

On Electron Microscopy:

The properties of nanomaterials and microfabrications depend critically on the structureproperty relationships. Electron microscopy techniques, including diffraction, atomic

resolution imaging, and spectroscopy offer the most powerful tool for investigating matter

down to the scale of a single atom. The module introduces the general concepts and physics

background of electron microscopy, develops system components and surveys selected

applications in the physical sciences. It is intended as a stand-alone course and as an

introduction to the use of state of the art tools for characterising the nanoworld. A number

of applications from real world (including graphene based devices) will be demonstrated in

the York-Nanocentre that host premium suite of electron microscope. Finally through

tutorials the taught material will be reinforced.

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On Magnetic Nanomaterials:

To develop an understanding of the key properties of magnetic materials , especially the

behaviour of magnetic materials on a reduced length scale (1nm or below). To understand

the different magnetic interactions present in magnetic materials. To understand the

requirements for applications of such materials in information storage and biomedical

applications.

Learning outcomes: at the end of this module successful students will be able to:

Introduction to Nanophysics

Discuss the importance of length and energy scales governing the transitions from bulk to

nanoscale physics

Calculate the De Broglie wavelength important for size quantization effect and the

corresponding device operation temperature.

Explain the concept of coherence length in quantum conductance and interference

Discuss the concept of surface-to-volume ratio

Describe the statistical fluctuation in finite particle systems and their physical consequence.

Describe the general approaches in nanofabrication and specific examples of construction

for quantum corral, quantum dots and nanowires

Explain the basic physics behind the characterization techniques of electron microscopy,

scanning probe microscopy

Discuss the features of carbon nanostructures and their physical origin and Eulers

geometric description

Discuss the knowledge of the common non-crystallographic structures in atomic clusters

and the magic atomic number effect and its geometrical origin

Describe what is meant by low dimensional systems; give examples of quantum wires, dots

and wells.

Derive expressions for the energy levels and density-of-states of quantum dots and

quantum wires and quantum wells and the operation of solid-state lasers based on

quantum structures.

Use the shell model to understand the electronic magic number effect in metallic atomic

clusters.

Outline what is meant by exciton and be able to calculate the condition for the localization

of excitons in quantum-size confined structure

Qualitatively describe the difference in electron conduction in bulk materials and

mesoscopic structure.

Use quantum tunnelling theory to explain the physical principle of scanning tunnelling

microscope

Outline the physical origin of quantum conductance in 1D

Outline what is meant by Coulomb blockade and be able to estimate the temperature and

size range within which this is important.

Describe the operations of single electron devices.

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Magnetism

Describe in detail the various types of exchange interaction both direct and indirect.

Demonstrate in depth knowledge of the role of exchange and dipolar interactions on the

hysteretic properties of magnetic materials.

Explain the underlying physics of magnetics technology and information storage, in

particular STT-MRAM.

Understand the physics behind MRI and MRI contrast enhancement.

Be aware of other biomedical applications of magnetic materials such us magnetic

hyperthermia.

Syllabus

Introduction to Nanophysics

I.

Overview and review (2)

Scale and scaling laws in nanoscale

o Characteristic lengths: de Broglie wavelength, Coherence

o Characteristic energy: thermal, electrostatic, quantum

o Finite particle systems, surface-to-volume ratio

o Scaling in Physics

Fabrication and Structural Characterization

o Top-down: lithography, Microelectronics

o Bottom-up: Directed and Self-organized structures

o Diffraction and Microscopy (to be expanded in terms of EM module)

II.

Structure and Stability of Nanosystems (3)

Review of bonding and stability of bulk materials

o Metallic, inert gas, covalent, ionic

Structure of fullerene and carbon nanotubes

Structure of atomic clusters

o Non-crystalline structure, magic number effect

III.

Electrons in quantum confinement (4)

Review of electrons in solids

o Free Fermi gas,

o Nearly-free electrons and excitons in periodic potential

Electronic shell model for metallic clusters

o Electronic magic number effect

Quantum dots and quantum wells

o Density of states of low dimensional systems

o Excitons in confinement

IV.

Nanoelectronics (4)

Review of semiclassical conduction

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o Tunnelling and mapping of wavefunctions of artificially created quantum

states

o Quantum conductance

o Coulomb blockade and single electron devices

Electron Microscopy

Introduction

Basic introduction to Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron

Microscopy (SEM) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM)

Vacuum environment

Beam specimen interaction basics for signals, preservation and nanofabrication

Electron optics

Main types of electron sources

Electron gun principles thermionic and field emission, brightness, coherence

Magnetic lenses, properties, attributes, apertures and major aberrations (spherical,

chromatic, astigmatism)

Microscopy Modes

Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)

Electron scattering

Diffraction and basic image formation in transmission

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

High resolution TEM imaging (HRTEM/HREM) basics

Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM)

Major signals in TEM, STEM and SEM

Z-contrast STEM, atom column by atom column analysis

Signal types, characteristics, information content and application examples

Performance (resolution, intensity, sensitivity)

Performance measure definitions resolution, probe intensity, analysis sensitivity

Phase contrast and the Contrast Transfer Function (CTF)

Practical requirements

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Selected Application Topics

Atomic resolution imaging TEM

Dislocation and other defect analysis

Atomic resolution imaging and analysis STEM

Electron Diffraction as major analytical tool and in support of imaging

Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX/EDS) elemental microanalysis

Basic corrections for data quantification

Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) and Energy Filtered TEM (EFTEM)

Magnetism

1.

Basics

Heisenberg exchange (1)

Ferromagnetism (1)

Indirect RKKY interaction (1)

2.

Phenomena

Hysteresis (Zhu + Bertran) (1)

Dipolar interactions (1)

Exchange bias (1)

3.

Applications

Magnetoresistance (AMR + Mott) (1)

GMR (1)

Tunnelling TMR (1)

Heads + STT-MRAM (1)

4.

Novel applications

MRI imaging (1)

MRI contrast enhancement (1)

Magnetic hyperthermia (1)

Reading List

Nanophysics

C. Kittel: Introduction to Solid State Physics (8th edition, Wiley and Sons)

N.W. Ashcroft and N.D. Mermin: Solid State Physics (Saunders College Publishing)

Electron Microscopy

Williams and Carter, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Springer, 2009

Egerton, Electron energy Loss Spectroscopy in the Electron Microscope, Plenum, 1996

Goodhew, P.J. and Humphreys, F.J., Electron Microscopy and Analysis, 2nd Edition, Taylor &

Francis, 1988

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Goldstein et al, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis, Springer, 2003

The following web-links can be used as complementary/interactive resources:

http://www.matter.org.uk/tem/

http://www.matter.org.uk/diffraction/Default.htm

Magnetism

Jiles D: Introduction to Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 2nd Ed (Chapman & Hall)

Cullity B D and C Graham. An Introduction to Magnetic Materials. IEEE Press.

Feedback

Marks for the individual exams from the supervisor. Detailed model answers will be

provided on the intranet. Feedback within assignment.

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Module Co-Ordinator Dr Roland Krger

Dr Erik Wagenaars

Credit Value

20

Credit Level

7 (M)

Workload

Lectures:

Practicals/ Problem classes:

Closed exam:

Private Study:

Assessment

Reassessment task

Pre-Requisites

36 hours

6 hours (3 L&M, 3 PASD)

3 hours

77.5 hours L&M

77.5 hours PASD

TOTAL:

200 hours

Closed Examination (PASD)

50%

Closed Examination (L&M)

50%

Closed Examination (PASD)

50%

Closed Examination (L&M)

50%

Year 1 and 2 core of Physics or the equivalent; Solid State Physics I

and II

Aims

This module covers the fundamental concepts relevant for the understanding of the physical

properties of semiconducting materials, their applications in microelectronics, energy

harvesting and opto-electronics as well as the principles of interaction between light and

matter. The skills obtained throughout this course are of great importance in society and

economy, which are both increasingly driven by the application of electronics in all walks of

life.

Physics and Applications of Semiconductor Devices (100 hrs)

Based on the models developed in Quantum Mechanics, Statistical Mechanics as well as in

Solid State Physics (Solid State Physics I and II), this course discusses the links between our

fundamental understanding of electronic states in materials and the application of this

understanding in micro- and optoelectronics as well as detector-physics. It will cover and

revisit vital concepts such as crystal symmetries and defects, band structures, phonon

dispersion, the interaction of charge carriers with external fields and the effect on the

electronic and optical properties. Experimental techniques to synthesize semiconductors

and to study their physical properties will be discussed for some of the most prominent

semiconductor materials such as Si, GaAs, GaN and Ge.

A large part of this course will focus on the application of these concepts and techniques

for well established and novel devices such as transistors, metal oxide semiconductor field

effect transistors (MOSFETs), light emitting diodes/laser diodes and particle detectors.

Light and Matter (100 hrs)

An introduction of the basic features of lasers is first given leading to a more general

discussion on the interaction of light with atoms. The properties of laser cavities are

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investigated, leading to a description of the stable operating range for cavities and the

associated mode structures. The quantum mechanics of the atom-radiation interaction

are considered in the semi-classical limit (treating the radiation field classically) to

determine transition probabilities. Some of the spectroscopic background for the

description of plasma emission processes important in astrophysical and laboratory

plasmas is presented.

Learning outcomes: at the end of this module successful students will be able to:

Physics and Applications of Semiconductor Devices

describe the relevance of the crystal structure and atomic bonds for the fundamental

electronic properties

apply the band structure model and effective mass concept to determine band gap

width and mobility of charge carriers

identify the important transport and scattering processes at work in semiconductors

(drift, diffusion, generation, recombination, thermionic emission, tunnelling and

ionisation)

calculate the temperature dependence of the ionisation of dopant states and charge

carrier concentrations

distinguish the relevant electron-hole recombination processes and the role of

majority and minority charge carrier for these processes

quantitatively describe the experimental determination of the charge carrier

concentrations and transport properties of semiconductors (e.g. Hall resistance and

Haynes-Shockley experiment)

describe the impact of defects on these properties

understand the physics of p-n junctions (charge densities, potential distribution,

charge carrier transport processes) and their relevance for their application in

electronic devices

correlate the theoretical description of p-n junctions with experimental techniques to

determine their physical properties

distinguish the main building blocks for the semiconductor based devices discussed in

this course

describe the underlying principles of microelectronic, optoelectronic and detector

devices.

Light and Matter

The skills obtained in this part of the module are greatly important for students who

plan to work either theoretically or experimentally on microelectronics based

techniques in the future. These skill are to

describe and apply matrix methods to establish stability requirements for laser

cavities.

describe beam propagation in a laser cavity in terms of solutions of Maxwells

equations.

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derive Plancks radiation law from a consideration of radiation modes in a cavity.

determine the relationship between Einsteins A and B coefficients.

determine a general formula for laser gain in a generalised four-level laser.

by applying perturbation theory to the problem of light interacting with an atom in

the semi-classical limit, determine in a general way the selection rules for radiative

transitions.

determine line shape formula for radiative and Doppler line broadening.

describe how collisional-radiative processes control light emission from plasmas.

Syllabus

Physics and Applications of Semiconductor Devices

Physics of Semiconductors

o Lattice properties (elastic properties, phonon dispersion)

o Electronic band structure and densities of states in semiconductors

o Fundamental electronic transport properties of semiconductors

o Interaction of semiconductors with radiation

o Structural defects (point, line, planar and volume defects) and their impact on

the transport properties

Characterization of semiconductors

o Electronic properties: Four probe measurements, I-V characterisation

o Structural and chemical characterisation: X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy,

electron microscopy

Applications

o Microelectronic devices (bipolar transistors and MOSFETs)

o Detectors (CCDs, X-ray detectors)

o Solar cells

o Optoelectronic devices (diodes, lasers)

Light and Matter

Lasers and light in laser cavities

Simple laser cavity parameters gain, threshold gain, longitudinal modes.

Matrix methods for paraxial optics. Stability criterion for laser cavities.

Directionality and spreading of an electromagnetic beam. Beam propagation. The

cylindrically symmetric solution. Transverse modes.

Gaussian beams in a cavity. The ABCD rule. Cavity mode frequencies.

Density of modes in a three-dimensional cavity. Quantisation of the field energy.

Plancks law.

The Einstein A and B coefficients. Lines shapes and laser gain. Rate equations for a

four level laser.

Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atoms or molecules

The effect of electromagnetic radiation on an atom or molecule.

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Transition probabilities and selection rules.

The macroscopic theory of absorption. Radiative broadening. Doppler broadening.

Collisional radiative processes in plasmas. The Saha equation. Coronal equilibrium.

Lecture Notes

Full notes should be taken based on material presented in the lectures of this module.

Reading List

Sze SM: Semiconductor Devices: Physics and Technology, Wiley

Loudon R: The quantum theory of light (Oxford Science)

Verdeyen JT: Laser electronics (Prentice Hall)

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