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Concordanta timpurilor in limba engleza

Este acordul obligatoriu al timpului verbului din subordonata cu timpul verbului din regenta sa. In
limba engleza timpul verbului din subordonata trebuie sa se subordoneze timpului verbului din
regenta. Cu alte cuvinte timpurile verbelor din regente dicteaza folosirea anumitor timpuri in
subordonatele lor.
Exista in acest sens trei reguli de cunoscut si aplicat.
Regula I: Daca in regenta verbul este la Present Tense sau Present Perfect Tense in subordonata
se poate folosi orice timp:
REGENTA
SUBORDONATA
Verbul este la prezent
Verbul poate fi la orice timp (cerut de sens)
(Present Tense Simple, Present Tense
Continuous, Present Perfect Simple,
Present Perfect Continuous )
We all know that = Noi toti stim ca
... he had gone = el mersese
... he went = el a mers
... he will go= el va merge
Regula II: Daca in regenta verbul este la trecut in subordonata el trebuie sa fie la unul din cele trei
timpuri trecute ale limbii engleze: The Past Perfect, The Past Tense, The Future in the Past.
REGENTA
SUBORDONATA
Verbul este la trecut
Orice alt timp past"
(Past Tense Simple, Past Tense
Continuous, Past Perfect Simple,
Past Perfect Continuous)
a) Past Tense actiune simultana Past Tense
He said = El a spus
... he was ill = ca este bolnav
b) Past Tense actiune anterioara Past Perfect
He said = El a spus
... he had returned home a week before
= ca se intorsese acasa cu o saptamna inainte
Atentie: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundara cu actiunea anterioara celei din
principala, se poate folosi Past Perfect in mod repetat.
Ex. She said she had forgotten where she had put her glasses.
(Ea a spus ca uitase unde si-a pus ochelarii.)
c) Past Tenseactiunea posterioar Future-in-the-Past
He said = El a spus
... he would leave the next day = ca va pleca a doua zi
.
Atentie: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundare cu actiune posterioara celei din
principala, dintre care una este temporala sau conditionala. Future-in-the-Pastse poate folosi
numai o singura data, dupa care (in temporala sau conditionala) se intrebuinteaza Past
Tense (pentru simultaneitate) sau Past Perfect (pentru anterioritate).
He said = El a spus
avea bani

... he would buy a car if he had money = ca va cumpara o masina daca va

Regula III: Daca verbul din regenta este la viitor in subordonatele conditionale si temporale, el
trebuie sa fie la Present Tense sau Present Perfect Tense, iar daca subordonata este completiva
directa verbul va fi la viitor.

REGENTA
Verbul este la viitor

SUBORDONATA
Teoretic se poate folosi orice timp cerut
de sens, cu exceptia propozitii temporale
sau conditionale, care nu pot include
un verb la viitor.

Situatiile cel mai des intlnite sunt urmatoarele:


a) Future actiune simultana Present
I will read this book = Voi citi aceasta carte
when I have time =cnd voi avea timp
b)Future actiune anterioara Present Perfect
I will go to England = Voi merge in Anglia
after I have received a visa= dupa ce voi obtine
viza
c) verbul va fi la orice timp in subordonata completiva directa
I shall see what = Eu voi vedea ce
I shall do. = voi face.
Nota: In limba engleza contemporana, se poate observa uneori o oarecare tendinta de a nu se
respecta concordanta timpurilor atunci cnd verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. Se poate
intlni, de exemplu, o formulare de tipul: He said he loves me". Este posibil ca ceea ce apare
acum ca tendinta, cu timpul, sa ajunga regula. Pentru moment insa, sfatuim pe vorbitorii romni de
limba engleza sa respecte regulile de concordanta a timpurilor asa cum sunt prezentate mai sus.
EXCEPTII (deci cazuri cand nu se aplica regulile de concordanta a timpurilor)
1. Cand in subordonata se exprima un adevar stiintific /general.
Everybody knew that gold is a metal. = Toata lumea stia ca aurul este metal.
I told you that silver is gray. = Ti-am spus ca argintul este gri.
2. Cand subordonata este:
a) cauzala
He will not go to school because he didn't learn his lessons. = El nu va merge la scoala pentru ca
nu si-a invatat lectiile.
We shall go on the trip because they gave us the money. = Vom merge in excursie pentru ca ei neau dat banii.
b) atributiva
You will see the man who wrote that book. = Il vei vedea pe omul care a scris cartea aceea.
I saw the girl who will play the piano. = Am vazut fata care va canta la pian.
c) comparativ modala
Tomorrow I shall work more than I worked yesterday. = Maine voi munci mai mult decat am muncit
ieri.

Vorbirea directa si vorbirea indirecta in engleza


Sunt 2 moduri in care putem reda ceea ce o persoana a spus: modul direct (vorbirea directa) si
modul indirect (vorbirea indirecta).

In direct speech, we repeat the original speakers exact words: - vorbirea directa
He said, "I have lost my umbrella." (El spuse: Mi-am pierdut umbrela.)
Here what a person says appears within quotation marks (" ... "). Direct speech is found in
conversations in books, in plays and in quotations.

In indirect speech, we give the exact meaning of a remark or a speech, without necessarily
using the speakers exact words:
He said (that) he had lost his umbrella. (El spuse c i-a pierdut umbrella.) - vorbirea indirecta
There is no comma after say in indirect speech. That can usually be omitted after say and tell +
object. But it should be kept after other verbs: complain, explain, object, point out,
protest etc. Indirect speech is normally used when conversation is reported verbally, although direct
speech is sometimes used for a more dramatic effect.
When we turn direct speech into indirect (reported) speech, some changes are usually necessary.
TENSE CHANGES
1. Indirect Speech can be introduced by a verb in a present tense:
He sais that . (El a spus c.)
- vorbirea indirecta
= reporting a conversation that is still going on
= reading a letter and reporting what it sais
= reading instructions and reporting them
= reporting a statement that someone makes very often: Tom sais that he ll never get married.
Indirect Speech is usually introduced by a verb in the past tense: - vorbirea indirecta
Direct speech - vorbirea directa
Simple Present - Vorbirea directa
"I never eat meat" he explained.
(Eu niciodat nu mnnc carne explic el).
Present Continuous - Vorbirea directa
"I m waiting for Ann" he said.
(O atept pe Ana spuse el).
Present Perfect - Vorbirea directa
"I have found a flat" she said.
(Am gsit un apartament spuse ea).
Present Perfect Continuous - Vorbirea directa
He said "I ve been waiting for ages".
(El spuse: Am ateptat o groaz de timp.)
Simple Past - Vorbirea directa
"I took it home with me" she said.
(L-am luat acas cu mine spuse ea.)
Future - Vorbirea directa
He said, "I shall/will be in Rome on Monday".
(El spuse: Voi fi n Roma luni.)
Future Continuous - Vorbirea directa
"I will/shall be using the car on the 1st " she said.
(Voi folosi maina pe data de 1 spuse ea)
Conditional - Vorbirea directa
I said, "I would/should like to see it" .
(Eu am spus: A vrea s o vd.)
Direct speech - vorbirea directa

Indirect speech - vorbirea indirecta


Simple past - Vorbirea indirecta
= He explained that he never ate meat.
(El explic faptul c nu mnca niciodat carne.)
Past Continuous - Vorbirea indirecta
= He said (that) he was waiting for Ann.
(Spuse c o atepta pe Ann).
Past Perfect - Vorbirea indirecta
= She said (that) she had found a flat.
(Ea spuse c i gsise un apartament).
Past Perfect Continuous - Vorbirea indirecta
= He said (that)he had been waiting for ages.
(El spuse c ateptase o groaz de timp).
Past Perfect - Vorbirea indirecta
= She said she had taken it home with her.
(Ea spuse c l luase acas cu ea.)
Conditional - Vorbirea indirecta
= he said he would be in Rome on Monday.
(El spuse c va fi n Roma luni.)
= Conditional Continuous - Vorbirea indirecta
She said shed be using the car on the 1st.
(Ea spuse c va folosi maina pe data de 1).
Conditional - Vorbirea indirecta
I said I would/should like to see it.
(Eu am spus c a vrea s o vd.)
Indirect speech - vorbirea indirecta

Note on I/we shall/should


I/ we shall normally becomes he/she/they would in indirect speech:
"I shall be 21 tomorrow" said Bill = Bill said he would be 21 the following day.
(Voi mplini 21 ani mine. Spuse Bill. = Bill spuse c va mplini 21 ani n ziua urmtoare.)
But if the sentence is reported by the original speaker, I/we shall can become either I/we
should or I/we would.

PAST TENSES SOMETIMES REMAIN UNCHANGED

1.

In spoken English, past tenses usually remain unchanged.


He said, "Ann arrived on Monday". = He said Ann (had) arrived on Monday.
(El spuse: Ann a ajuns luni. = El spuse c Ann ajunsese (a ajuns) luni.)
He said, "When I saw them they were playing tennis" . = He said that when he saw them they
were playing tennis.
(El spuse: "Cnd i-am vzut eu, jucau tenis. = El spuse c atunci cnd i-a vzut, jucau tenis.)
2.
A past tense used to describe a state of affairs which still exists when the speech is
reported remains unchanged:
She said, "I decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road". = She said that
she had decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road.
(Ea spuse: M-am hotrt s nu cumpr casa pentru c era pe strada principal. = Ea spuse
c s-a hotrt s nu cumpere casa pentru c era pe strada principal).

SUBJUNCTIVES IN INDIRECT SPEECH

- vorbirea indirecta

1.

Unreal past tenses after wish, would rather/sooner and it is time do not change:
"It s time we began planning our holidays" he said. = He said that it was time they began
planning their holidays.
(Este timpul s ncepem s ne planificm concediul. Spuse el. = El spuse c era timpul s
nceap s i planifice concediul.)
2.

I/he/she/we/they had better remains unchanged.


You had better can remain unchanged or be reported by advise + object + infinitive.
"Youd better not drink the water" she said = She advised us not to drink water.
(Mai bine nu ai bea ap. Spuse ea. = Ne suger s nu bem ap.)

3.

Conditional sentences remain unchanged.


"If my children were older, I would emigrate" he said. = He said that if his children were older,
he would emigrate.
(Dac ar fi mai mari copiii mei, a emigra. Spuse el. = el spuse c dac ar fi mai mari copiii
lui, ar emigra.)

MIGHT, OUGHT TO, SHOULD, WOULD, USED TO IN INDIRECT STATEMENTS

1.

Might remains unchanged except when it is used as a request form:


He said, "Ann might ring today." = He said that Ann might ring that day.
(El spuse: S-ar putea s sune Ann astzi. = El spuse c s-ar putea s sune Ann n acea zi.)

2.

Ought to/should for obligation or assumption remains unchanged:


"They ought to widen this road" I said. = I said that they ought to widen this road.

(Ar trebui s lrgeasc strada. Spuse el. = El spuse c ar trebui s lrgeasc strada.)
3.

Would in statements does not change.


"Id be very grateful if youd keep me informed" he said. = He asked me to keep him informed.
(A fi foarte recunosctor dac m-ai ine la curent.Spuse el = El m rug s l in la current.)

4.

Used to does not change.


"I know the place well because I used to live here" he explained. = He explained that he knew
the place well because he used to live there.
(Cunosc bine locul pentru c am stat acolo. Explic el. = El explic faptul c tia locul pentru
c a stat acolo.)

PRONOUN AND ADJECTIVE IN INDIRECT SPEECH

Pronouns and possessive adjectives usually change from first or second to third person, except
when the speaker is reporting his own words:
I said, "I like my new house" = I said that I liked my new house.
(Am spus: mi place casa mea nou. = El a spus c i plcea casa lui nou.)
This used in time expressions usually becomes that. This, these used as pronouns can
become it, they/them.
He said, "We will discuss them tomorrow". = He said that they will discuss it (the matter) the
next day.
(El a spus: Vom discuta (problema) mine. = El a spus c vor discuta (problema) yiua
urmtoare.)

EXPRESSIONS OF TIME AND PLACE IN INDIRECT SPEECH


Direct speech - vorbirea directa
Today
Yesterday
The day before yesterday
Tomorrow
The day after tomorrow
Next week/ year etc.
Last week/ year etc.
A year ago
Direct speech - vorbirea directa

Indirect speech - vorbire indirecta


That day
The day before
Two days before
The next day/ the following day
In two days time
The following week/ year etc.
The previous week/ year etc.
A year before/ the previous year
Indirect speech - vorbire indirecta

SAY AND TELL

1.

Say and tell with direct speech


Say can introduce a statement or follow it, while tell requires the person addressed. Inversion
of say and noun subject is possible, when say follows the statement, but inversion with tell is not
possible.
"Im leaving at once" Tom said. (Plec odat. A spus Tom)
- vorbirea directa
"Im leaving at once" Tom told me. (Plec odat. Mi-a spus Tom) - vorbirea directa
2.

Say and tell with indirect speech


Indirect statements are normally introduced by say, or tell + object.

Say + to + object is also possible, but much less usual than tell + object.
Conjugarea verbelor in limba engleza - Modul indicativ
Trecut/ Past
Forma afirmativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")

Persoana

Past Simple

Past Perfect
Simple

Past Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous

I singular

I came

I was coming

I had come

I had been coming

II singular

You came

You were coming

You had come

You had been coming

III
singular

He/She/It came

He/She/It was
coming

He/She/It had come

He/She/It has been coming

I plural

We came

We were coming

We had come

We had been coming

II plural

You came

You were coming

You had come

You had been coming

III plural

They came

They were coming

They had come

They had been coming

Forma negativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")

Persoana

Past Simple

Past Continuous

Past Perfect
Simple

Past Perfect Continuous

I singular

I did not come

I was not coming

I had not come

I had not been coming

II singular

You did not come

You were not


coming

You had not come

You had not been coming

III singular

He/She/It did not


come

He/She/It was not


coming

He/She/It had not


come

He/She/It has not been


coming

I plural

We did not come

We were not coming

We had not come

We had not been coming

II plural

You did not come

You were not


coming

You had not come

You had not been coming

III plural

They did not come

They were not


coming

They had not


come

They had not been coming

Forma interogativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")


Persoana

Past Simple

Past Continuous

Past Perfect Simple

Past Perfect Continuous

I singular

Did I come?

Was I coming?

Had I come?

Had I been coming?

II singular

Did you come?

Were you coming?

Had you come?

Had you been coming?

III
singular

Did he/she/it
come?

Was he/she/it
coming?

Had he/she/it come?

Has he/she/it been


coming?

I plural

Did we come?

Were we coming?

Had we come?

Had we been coming?

II plural

Did you come?

Were you coming?

Had you come?

Had you been coming?

III plural

Did they come?

Were they coming?

Had they come?

Had they been coming?

Prezent/ Present
Forma afirmativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")
Persoan
a
I singular
II

Present
Simple
I come
You come

Present
Continuous
I am coming
You are coming

Present Perfect
Simple
I have come
You have come

Present Perfect Continuous


I have been coming
You have been coming

singular
III
singular
I plural
II plural
III plural

He/She/It
comes
We come
You come
They come

He/She/It is
coming
We are coming
You are coming
They are coming

He/She/It has come


We have come
You have come
They have come

He/She/It has been coming


We have been coming
You have been coming
They have been coming

Forma negativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")


Persoan
a

Present Simple

Present
Continuous

Present Perfect
Simple

Present Perfect
Continuous

I singular

I don't come

I am not coming

I have not come

I have not been coming

II
singular

You don't come

You are not coming

You have not come

You have not been coming

III
singular

He/She/It doesn't
come

He/She/It is not
coming

He/She/It has not


come

He/She/It has not been


coming

I plural

We don't come

We are not coming

We have not come

We have not been coming

II plural

You don't come

You are not coming

You have not come

You have not been coming

III plural

They don't come

They are not


coming

They have not come

They have not been


coming

Forma interogativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")


Persoan
a

Present Simple

Present Continuous

Present Perfect
Simple

Present Perfect
Continuous

I singular

Do I come?

Am I coming?

Have I come?

Have I been coming?

II singular

Do you come?

Are you coming?

Have you come?

Have you been coming?

III
singular

Does he/she/it
come?

Is he/she/it coming?

Has he/she/it come?

Has he/she/it been


coming?

I plural

Do we come?

Are we coming?

Have we come?

Have we been coming?

II plural

Do you come?

Are you coming?

Have you come?

Have you been coming?

III plural

Do they come?

Are they coming?

Have they come?

Have they been coming?

Viitor/ Future

Forma afirmativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")


Persoana

Be Going To Future

Simple Future

Future Continuous

I singular

I am going to come

I will come

I will be coming

II singular

You are going to come

You will come

You will be coming

III singular

He/She/It is going to come

He/She/It will come

He/She/It will be coming

I plural

We are going to come

We will come

We will be coming

II plural

You are going to come

You will come

You will be coming

III plural

They are going to come

They will come

They will be coming

Persoana

Future Perfect

Future Perfect Continuous

"Be about to" Future

I singular

I will have come

I will have been coming

I am about to come

II singular

You will have come

You will have been coming

You are about to come

III singular

He/She/It will have come

He/She/It will have been


coming

He/She/It is about to come

I plural

We will have come

We will have been coming

We are about to come

II plural

You will have come

You will have been coming

You are about to come

III plural

They will have come

They will have been coming

They are about to come

Forma negativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")


Persoan
a

Be Going To Future

Simple Future

Future Continuous

I singular

I am not going to come

I will not come

I will not be coming

II singular

You are not going to come

You will not come

You will not be coming

III
singular

He/She/It is not going to come

He/She/It will not come

He/She/It will not be coming

I plural

We are not going to come

We will not come

We will not be coming

II plural

You are not going to come

You will not come

You will not be coming

III plural

They are not going to come

They will not come

They will not be coming

Persoan
a

Future Perfect

Future Perfect Continuous

"Be about to" Future

I singular

I will not have come

I will not have been coming

I am not about to come

II singular

You will not have come

You will not have been coming

You are not about to


come

III
singular

He/She/It will not have come

He/She/It will not have been


coming

He/She/It is not about to


come

I plural

We will not have come

We will not have been coming

We are not about to come

II plural

You will not have come

You will not have been coming

You are not about to


come

III plural

They will not have come

They will not have been coming

They are not about to


come

Forma interogativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")


Persoan
a

Be Going To Future

Simple Future

Future Continuous

I singular

Am I going to come?

Will I come?

Will I be coming?

II singular

Are you going to come?

Will you come?

Will you be coming?

III
singular

Is he/she/it going to come?

Will he/she/it come?

Will he/she/it be coming?

I plural

Are we going to come?

Will we come?

Will we be coming?

II plural

Are you going to come?

Will you come?

Will you be coming?

III plural

Are you going to come?

Will they come?

Will they be coming?

Persoan

Future Perfect

Future Perfect Continuous

"Be about to" Future

a
I singular

Will I have come?

Will I have been coming?

Am I about to come?

II singular

Will you have come?

Will you have been coming?

Are you about to come?

III
singular

Will he/she/it have come?

Will he/she/it have been


coming?

Is he/she/it about to come?

I plural

Will we have come?

Will we have been coming?

Are we about to come?

II plural

Will you have come?

Will you have been coming?

Are you about to come?

III plural

Will they have come?

Will they have been coming?

Are they about to come?

Adjectivul in engleza - Forma adjectivului


Adjectivele sunt invariabile. Ele nu si schimba forma n functie de numar sau gen.
Ex.: a good book, some good books.
Pentru acentuarea sensului unui adjectiv se folosesc cuvintele very sau really:
Ex.: a really good book, a very good book

Adjectivul in engleza - Pozitia adjectivului in limba engleza


- De regula, adjectivul sta in fata substantivului pe care il determina:
Exemplu: A good book.
- Dupa substantiv in expresii fixe:
Exemplu: the court martial, the President elect
- Dupa verbe auxiliare:
Exemplu: The book is good.
- Unele adjective in engleza isi schimba sensul in functie de pozitia pe care o ocupa.
Adjectivele involved, present, concerned au sens diferit daca sunt plasate in fata substantivului sau dupa
acesta.
- Unele adjective in engleza pot sta numai dupa un verb auxiliar: asleep, upset, awake, afraid, alike,
alive, alone, annoyed, ill, well, sorry
Adjectivul in engleza - Forme neregulateale adjectivelor in limba engleza
Unele adjective in limba engleza au forme de comparativ si superlativ care nu respecta regula
generala. Printre acestea avem adjectivele: good, bad, little, far, much, many si old.
Pozitiv

Comparativ

Superlativ

good
bad
little
far
much / many
old

better
worse
less
further / farther
more
older / elder

the best
the worst
the least
the furthest / farthest
the most
the oldest / eldest

Adjectivul Calitativ
Cum se identifica
Adjectivele din aceasta categorie sunt adjective care descriu proprietati ale obiectelor ce pot avea
grade, nivele, intensitati ale acelei proprietati.
Exemple

big (mare)
clever (destept)
profound (profund)
small (mic)
dry (uscat)
good (bun)
activ (activ)
blue (albastru)

Adjectivul posesiv
Cum se identifica
Adjectivele posesive sunt cele care arata o posesie; arata al cui e un obiect (al meu, al tau, etc ...);
Exemple
my book (cartea mea)
your book (cartea ta, cartea voastra)
his book (cartea lui)
her book (cartea ei)
its book (cartea lui, ei -> pentru lucruri, animale, abstractiuni)
our book (cartea noastra)
our books (cartile noastre)
your books (cartile voastre)
their book (cartea lor)
their books (cartile lor)
Comentarii
Corespondenta pronumelor posesive cu adjectivele posesive:
Persoana

Pronumele
posesiv

Adjectivul
posesiv

1st singular

mine

my

2nd

yours

your

3rd (female)

hers

her

3rd (male)

his

his

3rd (neuter)

its

its

1st plural

ours

our

3rd plural

theirs

their

Adjectivul demonstrativ in engleza


Cum se identifica
Adjectivul demonstrativ are numai 4 forme:
singular

plural

closer

this
(acesta/ aceasta)

these
(acestia/
acestea)

farther

that
(acela/ aceea)

those
(aceia/
acelea)

Adjectivul demonstrativ arat deprtarea sau apropierea unui obiect.


Exemple
this house (aceasta casa)
that house (acea casa)
these houses (aceste case)
those houses (acele casa)
Adjectivul nehotarat
Cum se identifica
Adjectivul nehotarat este adjectivul care nsoeste substantivul fr s individualizeze obiectul denumit
de acesta.

Exemple

There are some Canadians here.


We need some water. How much do we need ?

There are a few doctors in town.


We need some paper. How much do we need ?

How many cigarettes do you smoke a day ?


I have enough knowledge to do it.
Comentarii
Cele mai intalnite adjective nehotarate sunt :

Some ("ceva, cativa, cateva", in propozitie afirmativa)/ Any ("ceva, cativa, cateva", in propozitie
negativa si interogativa)

Much ("mult, multa", pentru substantive care nu se pot numara)/ Many ("multe, multi", pentru
substantive care se pot numara)

A lot of ("o multime de") /lots of ("multimi de")


Little ("putin, putine", pentru substantive care nu se pot numara) /Few ("putin, putine", pentru
substantive care se pot numara)

Enough ("destul, destule, etc")

Plenty of ("o multime de")

No (pentru negarea existentei)

Comparatia adjectivelor calitative

Raport de inferioritate
Cum se formeaza
Raportul de inferioritare in limba engleza se formeaza folosind constructiile:

NOT SO/AS+ adj. + AS + subst./ pronume

LESS + adj. +THAN + subst./ pronume


( mai putin (de) ... decat .... )

THE LEAST + adj. -> se traduce prin cea/ cel mai putin ...

Exemple

It is less cold than it might look.


E mai putin rece decat pare.
She said it was colder there but less windy than Kansas.
Ea a spus ca vremea a fost mai rece acolo, dar a batut mai putin vantul decat in Kansas.
Chinese is the least easy language.
Chineza e cea mai putin usoara limba.

Residents say this street is the least noisy in the town.


Locuitorii acestei strazi spun ca strada e cea mai putin zgomotoasa in oras.
My homework is not as easy as yours.
Tema mea nu e la fel de usoara ca a ta.

This lesson is less interesting than the previous one.


Acest curs e mai putin interesant decat cursul anterior.
Comparatia adjectivelor calitative
Raport de egalitate & inegaliate

Cum se formeaza

Raportul de egalitate in limba engleza se formeaza folosind constructia:


... as/so ... as ...
(... asa de/ la fel de ... ca/cum ...)

Raportul de inegalitate in limba engleza se formeaza folosind constructia:

... not as/so ... as ...


(... nu asa de/ nu la fel de ... ca/cum ...)

Nota: Aceste moduri de comparatie se numesc si "regulate" deoarece o regula se foloseste in formarea
comparatiei.

Exemple
It is not so cold as it might look.
Nu e chiar asa de rece cum ar parea.

She said it was colder there but not so windy as Kansas.

Ea a spus ca vremea a fost mai rece acolo, dar nu asa de vantoasa ca in Kansas.
Learning Chinese is as difficult as you think.
Invatatul Chinezei e chiar asa de dificil cum crezi.

Residents say this street is as noisy as it was in the war time.


Locuitorii acestei strazi spun ca strada este asa de galagioasa cum a fost in timpul razboiului.

Comparatia adjectivelor calitative


Raport de superioritate
Cum se formeaza
Pentru adjective monosilabice comparatia se face prin adaugarea de sufixe:
big -> bigger -> the biggest (Nota: consoana "g" se dubleaza deoarece are o vocala in fata)
(mare -> mai mare -> cel mai mare)
tall -> taller -> the tallest
(inalt -> mai inalt -> cel mai inalt)
Pentru adjective ce au 3 sau mai multe silabe comparatia se face cu "more" si "the most":
important -> more important -> the most important
(important -> mai important -> cel mai important
Pentru adjective ce au 2 silabe terminate in ED, ING, RE, FUL, OUS comparatia se face cu "more"
si "the most":
famous -> more famous -> the most famous
(faimos -> mai faimos -> cel mai faimos)
Pentru adjective ce au 2 silabe terminate in ER, Y, LE, OW comparatia se face prin adaugarea de
sufixe:
simple -> simpler -> the simplest
(simplu -> mai simplu -> cel mai simplu)

Comentariu:
Adjective ca cheerful, common, cruel, pleasant, quiet formeaza comparativul de superioritate
cu ajutorul lui "more" si "the most"
Comparatia adjectivelor calitative
Comparatia neregulata
Cum se identifica
Trebuie cunoscuta forma de comparativ si superlativ a adjectivelor. Iata mai jos lista celor mai
cunoscute adjectivelor cu comparatia neregulata:

Adjectiv

Comparativ
(mai )

Superlativ
(cel mai )

good (=bun)
well (=sanatos)

better

the best

bad (=rau)
ill (=bolnav)

worse

the worst

far
(=departe; pt. distanta
metaforica, nefizica)

further

the furthest

far
(=departe; pt. distanta
fizica)

farther

the farthest

elder

the eldest

older

the oldest

many
(=multi, numeric)
much
(mult, cantitativ)

more

the most

little
(=putin, cantitativ)

less

the least

old
(=in virsta; in familie)
old
(=vechi, batran; la modul
general )

Exemple
This is the best way to fix that problem.
(Aceasta este cea mai buna modalitate de a rezolva acea problema)
This is a better way to fix this problem.
(Aceasta este o mai buna modalitate de a rezolva acea problema)
This is the worst thing that could happen.
(Acesta este cel mai rau lucru care se poate intampla)
Comentarii
Pentru a vedea greselile cele mai frecvente privind folosirea lui good si a lui well

Pentru a vedea greselile cele mai frecvente privind folosirea lui bad si a lui badly
Pentru a vedea greselile cele mai frecvente privind folosirea lui farther si a lui further
Pentru a vedea greselile cele mai frecvente privind folosirea lui littlest si a lui least

Adverbul in limba engleza

Adverbul se poate defini astfel:


Este partea de vorbire care:
Arata o caracteristica a unei actiuni, a unei stari sau a unei calitati;
Poate avea categoria gramaticala a comparatiei.
Ca si in limba romana, si in limba engleza exista o clasificare a adverbelor:
- adverbe de mod (Adverbs of manner);
- adverbe de loc (Adverbs of place);
- adverbe de timp (Adverbs of time);
- mai putem considera si adverbele de durata, adverbele de frecventa, adverbele de
comparatie si adverbele de probabilitate.

Adverbele de timp in limba engleza indica:


- momentul actiunii: now (acum), nowadays (in zilele nosatre), never (niciodata);
- plasarea in timp a actiunii: afterwards (dupa aceea), before (inainte), soon (curand).
Adverbele de loc in limba engleza indica locul propriu-zis (there, here), altele indica directia (aside,
forward, behind), insa majoritatea adverbelor de loc pot fi folosite pentru a indica atat locul cat si
directia. Iata cateva adverbe de loc in limba engleza: backwards (inapoi), forwards (inainte), westwards
(spre vest), homewards (spre casa), onwards (incepand cu), downwards (in jos), northwards (spre nord),
southwards (spre sud), eastwards (spre est), upwards (in sus), inwards (spre interior), outwards (spre
exterior).
Adverbul de mod in limba engleza indica modalitatea propriu-zisa. Cele mai multe adverbe de
mod in engleza se formeaza prin adaugarea sufixului ly la forma adjectivului:
Exemplu: hard ( adjectiv ) -> hardly ( adverb de mod )
Pe langa adverbele de mod, adverbele de timp si adverbele de loc in engleza, mai putem
considera:
- Adverbe de durata -> arata perioada de timp a unei actiuni
(exemple: shortly, permanently, forever)
- Adverbe de comparatie -> arata intensitatea unei actiuni
(exemple: partially, extremely, greatly, strongly, totally, almost, very, entirely, perfectly)
- Adverbe de frecventa -> arata intervalul de timp la care o actiune se repeta
(exemple: rarely, always, never, constantly, seldom, often, rarely, regularly, sometimes)
- Adverbe de probabilitate -> arata in ce masura o actiune se poate realiza sau nu (parere obiectiva
sau subiectiva)
(exemple: certainly, maybe, perhaps, possibly)

Adverbul de mod
Cum se identifica
Adverbul se poate defini astfel:

Este partea de vorbire care:


Arata o caracteristica a unei actiuni, a unei stari sau a unei calitati;
Poate avea categoria gramaticala a comparatiei
Ca si in limba romana, si in limba engleza exista o clasificare a adverbelor:
- adverbe de mod (Adverbs of manner);
- adverbe de loc (Adverbs of place);
- adverbe de timp (Adverbs of time).
Adverbul de mod indica modalitatea propriu-zisa.

Cele mai multe adverbe de mod se formeaza prin adaugarea sufixului ly la forma adjectivului:
slow (adjectiv) -> slowly (adverb de mod)
Exemple
She touched him sweetly on the hand. (L-a atins usor pe mana.)
He danced so beautifully! (A dansat atat de frumos.)
They behaved foolishly. (S-au comportat proseste.)
After the party he left sadly. (Dupa petrecere, a plecat suparat.)
You should do that carefully! (Ar trebui sa faci acel lucru cu grija !)
Comentarii
Adverbele de mod pot fi:
- de intarire: actually (de fapt), certainly (in mod sigur), obviously (evident), really (intradevar) ;
- de amplificare: absolutely (absolut), completely (complet), barely (cu greu), hardly (cu
greu), scarcely (cu dificultate);
- de afirmatie sau negatie: yes (da), no (nu), of course (desigur), not at all (deloc);
- de probabilitate: maybe (poate), perhaps (posibil), probably (probabil).
Daca adjectivul de mod se termina in e, acesta se pastreaza inaintea sufixului ly:
entire (adjectiv) -> entirely (adverb de mod)
extreme (adjectiv) -> extremely (adverb de mod)
Exceptii: true (adjectiv) -> truly (adverb de mod)
due (adjectiv) -> duly (adverb de mod)
whole (adjectiv) -> wholly (adverb de mod)
Daca adjectivul se termina in l , adverbul va avea ll, prin adaugarea terminatiei -ly:
beautiful (adjectiv)+ ly -> beautifully (adverb de mod)
Adjectivele terminate in le silabic pierd e si adauga y:
simple (adjectiv) -> simply (adverb de mod)
Adjectivele terminate in y il transforma in i inaintea sufixului ly:
happy (adjectiv) -> happily (adverb de mod)
Adjectivele terminate in ll pierd un l:
full (adjectiv) -> fully (adverb de mod)

Adjectivele terminate in ic primesc ally pentru a devein adverbe (exceptie: public -> publicly):
automatic (adjectiv) -> automatically (adverb de mod)
Adjectivul "good" devine adverbul "well":
She is a good pupil. She speaks English well.

Adverbul de loc
Cum se identifica
Adverbul se poate defini astfel:

Este partea de vorbire care:


Arata o caracteristica a unei actiuni, a unei stari sau a unei calitati;
Poate avea categoria gramaticala a comparatiei
Ca si in limba romana, si in limba engleza exista o clasificare a adverbelor:
- adverbe de mod (Adverbs of manner);
- adverbe de loc (Adverbs of place);
- adverbe de timp (Adverbs of time).

Unele adverbe de loc indica locul propriu-zis (here, there), altele indica directia (aside, forward,
behind), insa majoritatea adverbelor de loc pot fi folosite pentru a indica atat locul cat si directia.
Exemple
I bought a house somewhere. (Am cumparat o casa undeva.)
I will wait for you here. (Am sa te astept aici.)
Move aside! (Da-te la oparte!)
Clothes models like this one are anywhere. (Modele de haine ca acesta gasesti oriunde.)
Diana was found crying there. (Diana a fost gasita plangand acolo.)
Read forward, you will find the information. (Citeste mai departe, vei gasi informatia.)
Please wait for her out! (Te rog asteapt-o afara!)
She lived a long period abroad. (A trait o perioada lunga in strainatate.)
They found the terrorists hidden underground. (Au gasit teroristii ascunsi sub pamant.)
Can you go downstairs and smoke there? (Poti sa mergi jos si sa fumezi acolo?)
Please come home for that special party. (Te rog vino acasa pentru acea petrecere speciala.)
You won't find that car nowhere. (Nu vei gasi acea masina nicaieri.)
Sheila went far in the woods to pick up mushrooms. (Sheila s-a dus departe in padure sa
culeaga ciuperci.)

Comentarii
Exista adverbe de loc care au aceeasi forma ca si adjectivul din care provin: outside, next,
right, left
Outside
Ex.. There's only an outside chance of winning this game Sansele de a castiga acest joc sunt mici.
Adjective
The weather outside is horrible Vremea de afara e oribila - Adverb de loc
Next
Ex. Im leaving with the next train. Plec cu trenul urmator. Adjective

What happens next ? - Ce se va intampla in continuare ? Adverb de loc


Right
Ex. He is not the right person for you. Nu e persoana potrivita pentru tine. Adjective
Im right behind you.- Sunt chiar in spate tau. Adverb de loc
Left
Ex. She is wearing a bracelet on her left hand. Ea poarta pe mana stanga o bratara. Adjective
Turn left at the end of the street.- Fa la stanga la capatul strazii. - Adverb de loc
ADVERBUL DE TIMP
Cum se identifica
Adverbul se poate defini astfel: Este partea de vorbire care:

Arata o caracteristica a unei actiuni, a unei stari sau a unei calitati;

Poate avea categoria gramaticala a comparatiei.


Ca si in limba romana, si in limba engleza exista o clasificare a adverbelor:
- adverbe de mod (Adverbs of manner);
- adverbe de loc (Adverbs of place);
- adverbe de timp (Adverbs of time).
Adverbele de timp indica:
- momentul actiunii: now (acum), nowadays (in zilele nosatre), never (niciodata);
- succesiunea in timp: afterwards (dupa aceea), before (inainte), soon (curand).
Exemple
I expect my friends soon. (Ii astept pe prietenii mei curand.)
I never go to that museum. (Nu merg niciodata la acel muzeu.)
They are always asking for money. (Intotdeauna cer bani.)
I called you before. (Te-am sunat inainte.)
She saw him again. (L-a vazut din nou.)
Comentarii
Adverbele de timp pot exprima si o idee temporala nedefinita:
often
(deseori)
seldom (rareori)
usually (de obicei)

Comparatia regulata a adverbului


Gradul comparativ in engleza
Comparativul de superioritate se formeaza cu ajutorul:
- sufixului er in cazul adverbelor monosilabice (si a adverbului early):
fast -> faster (repede -> mai repede)
early -> earlier (devreme -> mai devreme)
- cuvantului more in cazul adverbelor bi- si plurisilabice:
quickly -> more quickly (rapid -> mai rapid)
carefully -> more carefully (cu atentie -> cu mai mare atentie)

Comparativul de egalitate se formeaza cu ajutorul lui as as:


She plays piano as beautifully as her mother. (Canta la pian la fel de frumos ca si mama sa)
Comparativul de Inferioritate se formeaza cu ajutorul lui not so/as..as sau less than:
She doesn't learn as fast as her classmates. (Nu invata la fel de repede ca si colegii ei de clasa.)
He drives less carefully than his wife. (Nu conduce la fel de grijuliu ca si nevasta sa.)
Gradul superlativ in engleza
Superlativul absolut se formeaza cu ajutorul unor adverbe ca very (foarte), quite (destul
de), most (cel mai) Aceste adverbe preced adverbul respectiv:
She sings very beautifully.
She sings most beautifully.
She sings quite beautifully.
Superlativul relativ de superioritate este exprimat prin:
- (the) (adverb)+est in cazul adverbelor monosilabice si a adverbului
early:
He runs (the) fastest (of all). (El fuge cel mai repede (dintre toti)).
- (the) most + adverb in cazul adverbelor bi- si plurisilabice:
He answers (the) most intelligently (of all). (El raspunde cel mai intelligent (dintre toti)).
Superlativul relativ de Inferioritate este exprimat prin (the) least + adverb:
She spells words (the) least correctly (of all). (Ea scrie cuvintele cel mai putin corect
(dintre toti)).
Exemple
I arrived to my uncle more quickly than my cousin. (Am ajuns la unchiul meu mai repede decat
verisorul meu.)
They drive more slowly than her. (Ei conduc mai incet decat ea.)
She speaks English as fluently as her brother. (Vorbeste engleza la fel de fluent ca si fratele ei.)
He dances quite beautifully. (El danseaza destul de frumos.)
We do everything we do more carefully. (Noi tot ceea ce facem, facem cu o mai mare atentie.)
Comentarii
Comparatia adverbelor in engleza apare numai la unele adverbe de mod, loc sit imp.
Ea are aceleasi caracteristici ca si comparatia adjectivului in limba engleza.

Comparatia neregulata a adverbelor


In limba engleza exista adverbe care formeaza gradele de comparative in mod neregulat, adica isi
schimba radacina in momentul in care intra in structura unor grade de comparatie.
Mai jos este prezentat un tabel cu cele mai utilizate astfel de adverbe:
Gradul pozitiv

Gradul comparativ

Gradul superlativ

well (bine)

better (mai bine)

the best (cel mai bine)

badly (rau)

worse (mai rau)

the worst (cel mai rau)

much (mult)

more (mai mult)

the most (cel mai mult)

little (putin)

less (mai putin)

the least (cel mai putin)

far (departe)

farther (mai departe)

the farthest (cel mai departe)

Exemple
Darius sings better than Florina. (Darius canta mai bine decat Florina.)
Marina corrected the exercise the worst of all. (Marina a corectat exercitiul cel mai rau dintre toti.)
He ran farther than the mentioned place. (A fugit mai departe de locul mentionat.)
Sofia worked more than yesterday. (Sofia a lucrat mai mult decat ieri.)
He is the best. (El este cel mai bun.)
Proverbe si zicatori traduse din limba engleza in limba romana
Appetite comes with eating.
= Pofta vine mancand.
Good words cool more than cold water.
= Vorba dulce mult aduce. (Cuvantul poate mangaia mai
mult decat mana.)
Appearances are deceptive.
= Aparentele inseala.
A good deed is never lost.
= Fapta buna nu moare niciodata.
A good friend is a treasure.
= Prieten adevarat, avere nepretuita.
A good name is better than riches.
= Omenia e mai buna ca avutia.
A stitch in time saves nine.
= Spartura cat e mica trebuie carpita.
A thief passes for a gentleman when stealing has made him rich. = Hotul neprins e negustor cinstit.
A wise head makes a close mouth.
= Inteleptul tace si face.
A chip off the old block.
= Aschia nu sare departe de trunchi.
A constant guest is never welcome. = Vizitele cele mai placute sunt cele mai rar facute.
A crow is never the whiter for washing herself often.
= Corbul in zadar se spala, ca negreata nu sio pierde.
A fair face, foul heart.
= La chip frumos si la inima gaunos.
An ass endures his burden, but not more than his burden. = Incarca magarul atat cat poate duce.
A piece of churchyard fits everybody. = Pamantul te naste, pamantul te creste, pamantul te
mistuieste.
A scalded cat fears cold water.
= Cine s-a fript cu ciorba sufla si-n iaurt.
A horse, a wife, and a sword may be shewed, but not lent. = Pusca, calul si femeia nu se
imprumuta.
A husband must be deaf and the wife blind to have quietness. = Barbatul surd si nevasta oarba, cea
mai tihnita casatorie.
A little stone in the way overturns a great wain.
= Buturuga mica rastoarna carul mare.
A great ship asks deep waters.
= Pentru corabie mare trebuie apa multa.
A bad workman quarrels with his tools.
= Vizitiul prost bate calul bun.
A friend in need is a friend indeed.
= Prietenul la nevoie se cunoaste.
Better later than never.
= Mai bine mai tarziu, decat niciodata.
All are of the dust, and all turn to dust again.
= Tarana in tarana se intoarce.
An handful of trade is an handful of gold.
= Meseria e bratara de aur.
A fair wife and a frontier castle breed quarrels. = Nevasta frumoasa e belea in casa.
A fault confessed is half redressed.
A flatterer's throat is an open sepulchre.
A fool may give a wise man counsel.
A barking dog never bites.
A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.
A black hen lays a white egg.
A fool's bolt is soon shot.
A forgetful head makes a weary pair of heels.

= Pacatul marturisit este pe jumatate iertat.


= Ferestete de lingusitori, daca nu vrei sa mori.
= Cel intelept si de la cel nebun multe afla si invata.
= Cainele care latra nu musca.
= Nu da vrabia din mana pe cioara de pe gard.
= Gaina neagra face oul alb.
= Prostul intai vorbeste si apoi se gandeste.
= Unde nu-i cap, vai de picioare.

Abundance, like want, ruins many.


= Bogatia strica omenia.
Actions speak louder than words.
= Faptele graiesc mai bine decat vorbele.
After a storm comes a calm.
= Dupa furtuna, vine si vreme buna.
A man's praise in his own mouth stinks.
= Lauda de sine nu miroase a bine.
A good conscience is a soft pillow
= Cugetul linistit odihna buna aduce.
A bow long bent at last waxes weak. = Nu intinde coarda pre mult, ca se rupe.
All his geese are swans.
= Gaina vecinului e mai grasa.
An apple never falls far from the tree. = Aschia nu sare departe de trunchi.
An arrow shot upright falls on the shooter's head. = Cine sapa groapa altuia, cade singur in ea.
A good bestill is worth a groat.
= Vorba multa, saracia omului.
A fool may throw a stone into a well, which a hundred wise men cannot pull out. = Un nebun arunca o
piatra in balta si zece intelepsi nu o pot scoate.

Folosirea infinitivului si a gerunziului & Exemple


Sunt verbe in limba engleza care cer infinitivul iar altele care cer gerunziul. Iata mai jos modul in care
verbele limbii engleze se folosesc fie cu gerunziul, fie cu infinitivul.
1) Verbs which may take either infinitive or gerund:
(Verbe care folosesc fie infinitivul fie gerunziul )
advise, agree, allow, begin, can/could bear, cease, continue, forget, hate, intend, like, love, mean, need,
permit, prefer, propose, recommend, regret, remember, require, start, stop, try, used to
verbs taking infinitive or gerund without changing meaning:
(verbe care folosesc infinitivul sa gerunziul fara sa-si modifice intelesul)
o
begin, start, continue, cease
I began working./ I began to work. (Am nceput s lucrez.)
He continued living/ to live above the shop. (A continuat s locuiasc deasupra magazinului.)
o
cant bear
I cant bear waiting./ to wait. (Nu suport s atept.)
o
intend
I intend selling it./ to sell it. (Intenionez s l vnd.)
o
advise, allow, permit, recommend
They dont allow us parking here./ to park here. (Nu ni se permite s parcm aici.)
o
it needs/requires/wants
The grass needs cutting./ to be cut. (Iarba trebuie tuns.)
2) Verbs which take only gerund:
(Verbe care folosesc numai gerunziul )
o
regret, remember, forget (when the action expressed by the gerund is the earlier action)
I regret spending so much money. (mi pare ru c am cheltuit atia bani.)
I remember reading about the earthquake in the newspapers. (mi amintesc c am citit de cutremur
n ziare.)
Ill never forget waiting to find out the results. (Nu o s uit niciodat ateptarea rezultatelor.)
o
go on, stop
He went on to tell us about his new plans. (A continuat s ne spun despre planurile lui noi.)
I cant stop him talking to the press. (Nu pot s l opresc s nu vorbeasc cu presa.)
o
admit, adore, appreciate, avoid, celebrate, commence, consider, contemplate, delay, deny, detest,
dislike, dread, endure, enjoy, face, fancy, finish, go, imagine, involve, keep, lie, loathe, mention, mind,
miss, practice, report. resent, resist, risk, postpone, stand, sit, suggest.
!!! when regret, remember, forget themselves express the earlier action, they are followed by an
infinitive:
I regret to say that you have failed your exam. (mi pare ru s te anun c ai picat examenul.)
I often forget to sign my cheques. (Adesea uit s semnez cecurile.)
3) Verbs which take only infinitive:
(Verbe care folosesc numai infinitivul)

agree (to), mean, propose, refuse (to)


Tom agreed to wait a week. (Tom a fost de acord s atepte o sptmn.)
I mean to get to the top by sunrise. (Vreau s ajung pn s rsr soarele.)
I propose to start tomorrow. (Mi-am propus s ncep mine.)
o
try, used to
They tried to put wire netting all round the garden. (Au ncercat s pun gard de srm n jurul
grdinii.)
I used to swim all the year around. (Obinuiam s not tot anul.)
o
afford, aim, appear, arrange, ask, attempt, beg, care, choose, consent, dare, decide, demand,
deserve, expect, fail, fight, guarantee, happen, help, hesitate, hope, intend, learn, manage, neglect, offer,
pause, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, prove, swear, tend, threaten, undertake, volunteer, vow, wait,
want, refuse, seem , wish, yearn.