Sunteți pe pagina 1din 34

# Chapter-7

## Bipolar Junction Transistors

Lecture: 32-35
Dr. Navneet Gupta

Inventors
John Bardeen

Walter Brattain

William Shockley
Dr. Navneet Gupta

Fundamentals of BJT

Control the junction reverse current simply by varying the rate of minority
carrier injection.
Dr. Navneet Gupta

BJT structure
heavily doped
provides the carriers

lightly doped

NPN BJT

lightly doped

## Forward Biased P-N-P transistor

Wb Lp

Doping: E B C
Dr. Navneet Gupta

## Recombination in the base

Electron injection into emitter at
FB emitter junction

## Current Gain and Amplification

Assumptions:
Emitter efficiency = 1
Collector saturation
current = 0

## Minority carrier distributions and

terminal currents
To solve for the excess hole distribution in the
base.
To evaluate the IE and IC from the hole gradient on
each side of the base.
Assumptions:

## Negligible drift in the base

Emitter efficiency =1
Collector saturation current is negligible.
Uniform cross-sectional area A
All currents and voltages are steady state.

## Equation of excess holes in Base region

Lecture - 33

p ( xn ) C1e

xn

Lp

C2 e

xn

Lp

Boundary Conditions
p ( xn 0) C1 C2 pE
Wb

Wb

p ( xn Wb ) C1e
C2 e
pC
Solve for C1 and C 2 and taking pC 0
Wb

p(xn ) pE

Lp

Lp

xn

Wb

Lp

Lp

e
e

Wb

Wb

Lp

xn
Lp

Lp

Lp

Wb

p(xn ) pE

Lp

xn

Wb

Lp

Lp

e
e

Wb
Lp

xn

Lp

Wb
Lp

10

## Dr. Navneet Gupta

11

Example-1
Find the expression for the current I for the
transistor connection shown if = 1
How does the current I divide between the base

E
p+

V
-

12

## For ~ 1, we can neglect pC (if the collector

is RB and pn is small) in calculating terminal
currents.
p
p

pE

pE
-pn
Wb

Q
p
Q

Wb

xn

0
Dr. Navneet Gupta

Wb
13

## Current Transfer Ratio

For actual transistor gamma 1

Wb nn n
1 p
n
Ln p p p
IC
Wb
B
sec h
I Ep
Lp
p

B
Dr. Navneet Gupta

14

Lecture - 34

Generalized Biasing

## This holds for a real transistor.

E and C may differ
Biasing condition may change.

15

## The Coupled-Diode Model

Base hole distribution (PNP) under different bias conditions:
(a) approximate hole distribution in the base with emitter and collector
junctions both forward biased;
(b)hole distribution due to injection and collection in the normal
bias; IEN and ICN are the normal mode emitter current and collector
current.
(c) hole distribution due to the inverted mode; IEI and ICI are the
inverted mode emitter current and collector current.

EEEC381

16

## For the symmetrical transistor, currents components

are:

Linear superposition

where
A apn
B bpn
Dr. Navneet Gupta

17

More general:

## emitter current in normal mode:

where IES is the emitter saturation current in normal
mode with collector junction short ,i.e. VCB=0
similarly the collector current in inverted mode is

## where ICS is the collector saturation current in inverted

mode with emitter junction short ,i.e. VEB=0
The corresponding currents
by defining a new .

18

Ebers-Moll model

19

## Equivalent Circuits of Ebers-Moll model:

pE pn (eqVEB / kT 1)

pC pn (eqVCB / kT 1)
EEEC381

## Dr. Navneet Gupta

20

I C N I E (1 N I ) I CS (e qVCB / kT 1)
I E I I C (1 N I ) I ES (e qVEB / kT 1)
define I CO (1 N I ) I CS collector saturation current with emitter open
I EO (1 N I ) I ES emitter saturation current with collector open
then

I E I I C (1 N I ) I ES (e qVEB / kT 1)
I I C I EO (e qVEB / kT 1)
I C N I E (1 N I ) I CS (e qVCB / kT 1)

Another form
of Ebers-Moll
Equation

N I E I CO (e qVCB / kT 1)
Dr. Navneet Gupta

21

I E I I C I EO (eqVEB / kT 1)
I C N I E I CO (eqVCB / kT 1)

EEEC381

22

Example

23

QN

I CN

QN

tN

I EI

QI

tI

and
and

QI

I EN

QN

tN

I CI

QI

tI

QN

pN

QI

pI
24

## Charge Control Model

Since I E I EN I EI QN (

tN

I C I CN I CI

QN

tN

QI (

pN

tI

)
1

pI

QI

tI
)

## the base current supports recombination:

QN
QI
in normal mode : I BN
in inverted mode : I BI

pN

I B I BN I BI

QN

pN

pI

QI

pI

I CN pN
N

I BN tN

EEEC381

25

iE QN (

tN

iC
iB

QN

tN

QN

pN

pN

QI

tI

dQN

dt

dQI
QI (
)
tI pI
dt
1

QI

pI

dQN dQI

dt
dt

26

Switching

saturation

Cut off

## Dr. Navneet Gupta

27

Cut-Off
VEB VCB

Carrier distribution
Dr. Navneet Gupta

Ebers-Moll model
28

Lecture - 35

Secondary effects

## Non-uniform base doping

built in field due to nonuniform doping is

kT 1 dN ( x)
E ( x) q N ( x) dx

## Dr. Navneet Gupta

29

If N ( x) N (0)e- ax / Wb

kT a
then E ( x)
q Wb
this built-in field will aid the transport of holes across the base
therefore the transit time is reduced
I c QB / t increase increase

30

## Base narrowing effects

Also known as Early
Effects or base width
modulation
Observed for example in
p+np+ transistor
VCB increase will cause
base width to decrease
Reduction in transit time
therefore Ic will increase

2 sVBC 1/ 2
l (
)
qN d

Lb : metallurgical width
Dr. Navneet Gupta

31

Breakdown associated:
Punch through

## Dr. Navneet Gupta

32

I C ( N I E I CO ) M
Avalanche multiplication

1
M
1 (VBC / BVCBO ) n

## BVCBO common base breakdown voltage with emitter open

BVCEO common emitter breakdown voltage with base open
Dr. Navneet Gupta

33

Thermal run away

## Thermal run away:

Larger IC larger heat dissipation